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MUST/ HAVE TO/ SHOULD (obligation


MUST: es un verbo modal que expresa la obligación de hacer algo. Como todos los modales
va seguido de otro infinitivo sin “to”.
I must work
You must work
He/she/it must work
We must work
You must work
They must work

respuesta breve +

respuesta breve -

Must I work?

Yes, I must

No, I mustn´t

Must you work?

Yes, you must

No, you mustn´t

Must he / she / it work?

Yes, he / she / it must

No, he / she / it mustn´t

Must we work?

Yes, we must

No, we mustn´t

Must you work?

Yes, you must

No, you mustn´t

Must they work?

Yes, they must

No, they mustn´t

- Must sólo tiene forma de presente. Por ello, para cualquier otro tiempo se utiliza have to:
- I´ll have to work next Sunday.
- She had to clean all the house.

I´ll do it tomorrow.They don´t have to wash by hand because they´ve got a washing machine .We have to work till 6 on Mondays.You mustn´t tell anyone. al igual que must.She has to get up at 7 every morning. más que las circunstancias: .He must work more to have enough money. . . expresa una necesidad impuesta por las circunstancias externas: . Have to. Afirmativa I have to work we have to work You have to work you have to work He/she/it has to work they have to work Interrogación respuesta breve + respuesta breve - Do I have to work? Yes.I mustn´t be late for dinner. . he / she / it does No. Musn´t and don´t have to Mustn´t se utiliza para expresar prohibición.I must study for the exam. Al igual que must. you don´t Does he / she / it have to work? Yes. he / she / it doesn´t Existe una pequeña diferencia de significado entre must y have to: Must indica una obligación que se impone uno mismo. . I don´t Do you have to work? Yes. I do No. you do No.He mustn´t go out without telling his parents. · Don´t have to expresa que no es necesario u obligatorio hacer algo.We musn´t talk during the exam.He doesn´t have to go to school at weekends. .· HAVE TO: Indica obligación. va seguido de un infinitivo sin to: . en cambio.You don´t have to do the shopping. . Ejemplos: . .

(No deberíamos llegar tarde). Se usa: 1.s). . (creo que deberías trabajar más) 3. (Deberías haberme dicho que ibas a llegar tarde). Para hablar del pasado se usa should have + participio pasado EJEMPLO You should have told me you were going to arrive late. Para expresar tu opinión sobre lo que alguien debería hacer en una situación EJEMPLO I think you should work harder. Negativa Se usa shouldn't con todas las personas sin cambiar su forma I you he/she/it + shouldn't + infinitivo sin to we they EJEMPLO: We shouldn't arrive late. No you shouldn't. Preguntas Should + sujeto + verbo infinitivo sin to EJEMPLO: Should I study this chapter for the exam? (¿Debería estudiar este capítulo para el examen?) Repuestas cortas Should I go to the party? Yes you should. (Debería trabajar má. Para dar consejos EJEMPLO You should do your homework.SHOULD: Se usa should + el infinitivo sin to Afirmativa I you he/she/it + should + infinitivo sin to we they EJEMPLO: He should work harder. (Deberías hacer tus deberes) 2.

Be on time. you ______ hit your opponent below the belt. . He's a millionaire. You ______ speak to the driver when the bus is moving. 20. You ______ be mad to work here but it helps. 'Mustn't' is used to express that something is prohibited. It's 'dressing down day". You ______ be late or we will leave without you. 15. must not. you ______ look at other people's cards. 2. You ______ do that. Pay me back when you can. I'll tell you a secret. 17. doesn't have to into the right spaces 'Don't have to' is used to express that something is not required. You ______ change trains.Fill don't have to. 1. We ______ to go if you don't want to. I ______ wear a suit at work on Fridays. 11. 13. 5. You can do what you want. This is very important. You ______ do it immediately. Whatever you do. 19. He ______ work but he does because he enjoys it. You ______ forget what I said. you ______ click with the right mouse button or the program will crash. It's optional. There is a double yellow line. Help yourself to anything you want. The train is direct. 3. 6. In bridge. You ______ park here. It's very informal here. 10. You ______ tell anybody else. 18. 16. 12. It's dangerous. In athletics. 8. You ______ ask. Promise? 9. It is forbidden. I like Saturdays because I ______ go to work. 14. you ______ start before the gun is fired. You ______ ask my permission. 4. In boxing. 7. You ______ wear a tie unless you want to.

(Perhaps he knows her number. (He is usually at work at this time of the day.) Can may express general possibility: Winters in Minnesota can be really cold. He couldn't be at home.) May and might are usually not used to introduce a question. CAN.) I may/might see you later. The negative form couldn't is often used with comparative adjectives: The food is delicious. COULD Present and future May and might + infinitive are used to express present or future possibility. Instead. couldn't expresses negative deduction. May expresses a greater degree of certainty: You should ask him.) You should introduce yourself.Modals to express possibility: MAY. He may/might know Susan's telephone number. he may/might not remember you. . (Perhaps she doesn't/won't remember you. MIGHT. not possibility: It's only 10 o'clock. (Perhaps I will see you later. we can use Do you think? or be likely to/that: Do you think he may/might know Susan's telephone number? Are you likely to get here before 8? Is it likely that you will get here before 8? Could can be used instead of may and might with the verb be: You could be right. (they are very polite) Except for this use. They could still be waiting for us. and the staff couldn't be more polite.

but could not + perfect infinitive (except for the case above) expresses deduction: I had better call Anne. (deduction) . and I couldn't have been happier. (I was very happy) May/might not + perfect infinitive is used for uncertainty. but we don't know. (He didn't die. (I didn't hurry.Past May. She may/might not have read my e-mail. He may/might/could have died. He is away on holiday. we use might or could: He was very careless when crossing the road. (uncertainty) It couldn't have been John you saw this morning.) I could have caught the bus if I had hurried. He might/could have died. (Perhaps he has died.) But when we want to say that something was possible but did not happen. so I didn't catch the bus.) Couldn't + perfect infinitive is often used with comparative adjectives: It was a great year. might and could + perfect infinitive express uncertainty with reference to past actions: We haven't heard from him for ten years.