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Over time, tourism adapted to climatic conditions, responding to change and finding
different solutions. Where tourism is a major source of income for the economy and
for individuals (small and large entrepreneurs) it found multiple solutions for
effective consumer savings (electricity, heat). The purpose of this paper is to
present tourism offer solutions that creates benefits from two perspectives - positive
consequences for society, economy, culture, and also initiatives that support
tourism development compatible with present and future needs.
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Abstract Over time, tourism adapted to climatic conditions, responding to change
and finding different solutions. Where tourism is a major source of income for the
economy and for individuals (small and large entrepreneurs) it found multiple
solutions for effective consumer savings (electricity, heat). The purpose of
this paper is to present tourism offer solutions that creates benefits from two
perspectives - positive consequences for society, economy, culture, and also
initiatives that support tourism development compatible with present and future
Key words:
Tourism pollution, climate change, seasonality, environment
Tourism, over time adapted to climatic conditions, responding to changes and
finding different solutions. Where tourism is a major source of income for the
economy and for individuals (small and large entrepreneurs) were found efficient
multiple solutions to save consumers (electricity, heat).
In 2007, at the "International Conference on Climate Change and Tourism" was
published "Davos Declaration", a study that responded to emergencies issues
regarding climate change.
It is known that climate change represented and represents a current issue.
Temperatures rise, precipitation types are changing, glaciers and snow melt, so
weather conditions lead to risks like floods and droughts, these extreme events may
become more frequent and increase their intensity. It is very likely that global

warming occurred since the mid-20th century may be due in large part to higher
greenhouse gas concentrations. The global temperature increased by about 0.8C in
the past 150 years and is projected to grow further.
Climate change is also an additional pressure on ecosystems, leading to movements
towards north and higher altitude areas for many species of animals and plants.
They negatively affect agriculture, forestry, electricity production, tourism and
infrastructure in general.
Estimates of the economic effects of climate change showed a reduction of GDP. For
a temperature rise of 5-6 C a reduction in GDP would be between 5-10% and even
higher for poor countries.
Tourism is one of the most dynamic sectors, recorded in the last decades, significant
increases being able to support the economic development of a country and an
example of this would be Malta.
Many development policies include tourism on their agenda.
Conceptual issues
Tourism is the red thread of this work and an important element in the global
economy, according to WTO being defined as "the activities of the person traveling
outside his or her usual environment for less than a specified period of time and
whose main purpose of travel is other than the exercise of an activity remunerated
from the place visited". The link between tourism and the natural environment is
very tight, quality and abundance of natural resources is of vital importance in
achieving national and global interest. (Miller, 1975, citat de Ityavyar E.M., Thomas
T. T) talks about the environment as " the aggregate of external conditions that
influence the life of an individual or population, specifically the life of man and other
living organisms on the earth's surface " .
These environmental influences on life and the individual are reflected in tourism,
There is considerable evidence demonstrating the intrinsic importance of weather
and climate for tourist decision-making, including motivations, destination choice
and timing of travel, as well as experience" (Scott & Lemieux, 2010, citat de
Gssling S. et. al. 2012). Influence of the individual on the environment considering
the tourism, most often led to adaptive changes of environment to achieve a higher
number of requirements and needs and to a qualitatively higher level. From an
economic perspective, excess seasonality and the fluctuations between under- and
overcapacity it generates, can negatively affect profits, the attraction of investment
capital, and the employment situation. Environmentally, the peak season
concentration of visitors can place a considerable strain on the local environment,
with implications forwater supply, trash disposal, congestion, and erosion, among
others. Similarly, local people may also be disadvantaged by seasonal

strains on community services and infrastructure" (Amelung B., Nicholls S., Viner D.,
On closer examination it is easy to understand that development in any field and
hence in tourism is accompanied by negative aspects, thus, costs of tourism have
often been neglected such as the adverse impacts of a tourism boom on other
sectors resulting from general equilibrium effects (Nowak J. J., Sahli M., Sgro P. M.,
Actions and solutions to reduce pollution in tourism
From the economic point of view, tourism is considered a source of recovery of
national economies of those countries, which have important tourism resources
properly exploited. Untited Nation World Tourism Organisation estimates (UNTWO)
shows that by 2020, international tourist flows will reach 1.561 million, representing
an increase of 2.5 times compared to 1990.
Tourism companies concern about climate change has grown in recent years,
UNTWO and other organizations including the United Nations Enviroment
Programme (UNEP) convened the first International Conference on Climate Change
and Tourism in Djerba, Tunisia in 2003. This event marked a turning in terms of
awareness of the implications of climate change on tourism.
Weather events affecting tourist destinations, making them more attractive or less
attractive. According to the European Environment Agency (2005) and UNWTO UNEP - WMO (2008) the areas most affected by climate change are mountain
regions and coastal areas.
Dependence of certain areas of tourism can generate an increased vulnerability to
economic, social and environmental problems, being needed specific measures to
adapt to climate change on long term. Climate change brings changes in nature and
hence ontourism.
Heat - cold, drinking water, irrigation, food supply, winter sports for example (an
important source of season tourists) have a considerable influence in
competitiveness and smooth operation of tourist destinations and if managed well
with an important profit. To create this profit was taken into account the contribution
of expenditure, which energy consumption brings.
To save used fuel that is estimated to deplete, were found different solutions such
as hydro, thermal, geothermal, wind, solar and biomass energy.
Hydropower is being used since 1972 when took place the Energy Crisis, becoming
a conventional source of energy (energy of waves, rivers through dams, tidal and
marine currents, are other forms used today.

Thermal energy of the seas and oceans is a form of energy used in the US and Japan
and consists in the use of temperature difference in tropical areas, between water
surface and 100 m depth.
Hydrogen energy is produced only from water (a major source), yet this energy is in
its infancy.
Solar energy is quite common (solar panels) being obtained by geo-thermal power
plants. It can successfully replace other forms of energy in interiors of any kind.
photovoltaic panels found applications both in transport (applied to boats or
caravans) and in tourism, applied even in mountain refuges thus ensuring lighting,
outlets for charging phones and communication equipment.
Wind energy is a promising source of electricity in the future because of its ecologic
nature and infinity. Yet there is a difficulty, wind speed varies during the day, season
or year that makes the energy generated by wind an intermittent one. However,
there are areas around the world with strong wind action where wind turbines
operate 60% during the year.
Wind energy is widely used (windmills) in countries such as Chile, Mexico, Russian
Federation, Austria, Egypt, Italy, Switzerland, Peru, Argentina, India, Morocco and
Tunisia, countries with developed tourism. A successful application of wind energy
was also made possible for yachts.
Biomass energy is derived from biological conversion of sunlight through
photosynthesis. Fuels used are ethanol and biodiesel. Ethanol is made from sugar
cane, corn, wheat, barley, sugar beet, poplar and biodiesel from rapeseed, soy and
palm oil. Countries using successfully this energy are countries in Western Europe,
Canada, India, China, Colombia and Mexico.
These alternatives to traditional energy are a beneficial and cheaper variant used
today also for the tourism sector with good results.
Buildings design. At the conference in Singapore in 2007, a study on "energy of
smart buildings" conducted by the Ministry of Environment and Water Resources of
Singapore highlighted the energy efficiency, which shows its savings through proper
architecture of buildings. There has been an 18% saving in electricity in hotels
whose buildings were built on those plans.
Regent Singapore used a diesel boiler for hot water preparation at a cost of $
29,000 per month. In 2006 they have implemented a new system for producing hot
water that consumed less fuel and the investment analysis showed that
depreciation is done in just 1.5 years.
Pension Atra, Valea Doftanei - location for people that love environment protection
and natural beauty, built in the hillside, offers the possibility of energy saving (being

warm in winter and cool in summer) a living example that it is possible to

reduce pollution in tourism
Transport is by far the tourism department that has the highest contribution to the
increase in gas emissions in the atmosphere.
In many vacation packages are included various trips, which imply transport that
increases the greenhouse gas pollution. To reduce the emission of carbon dioxide in
the atmosphere, train is used increasingly often as a mean of transport. For
example, "Anriese Mit der Bahn" (journey to destination by train) a German tour or
Swedish Fritidsrese Gruppen, which successfully offered travels to Italy from Sweden
in 2007, by train on a 1000km distance.
The current trend is to travel as often as possible, to cover a greater distance and
stay as long as possible in chosen destination. In this case, plane is used as a mean
of transport, being significantly fast it reduces travel time to the destination and
covers a large distance allowing a longer time to stay in chosen place.
Sports tourism is a form of leisure, the largest part of it being summer water sports,
winter sports, fishing. Since the 70's sports tourism packages have become
increasingly popular.
Events such as the Olympics, Football or Rugby World Cup have enabled travel
agencies to obtain the right to sell a certain number of tickets they have sold in
packages including flight, hotel and trip. According to a study made
by Research and Markets, sports tourism is the fastest growing segment in a global
industry with revenue of $ 5 billion.
Those who practice the sports tourism are passionate, big spenders and consumers.
Expenses are covered by the gains from this form of tourism, but the problem
remains the greenhouse gas pollution emissions.
Greenhouse gases are emitted as a result of both natural processes and human
activities. The most common GHG present in the atmosphere is the water vapor. As
a result of human activities are emitted into the atmosphere significant quantities of
GHGs, increasing their atmospheric concentration, increasing therefore the
greenhouse effect and warming the climate.
The major sources of GHG produced by humans are: combustion in energy
production, transport, industry and households, agriculture and changes in land use
such as deforestation, waste storage and use of industrial gases.
A number of initiatives have been taken to reduce GHG emissions: ratification of
Kyoto Treaty (1997) which requires Member States to reduce their collective GHG
emissions by 40% until 2020 and by 80% until 2050; continuous improvement of
the energy efficiency of a wide range of equipment and appliances, creating legal

obligations regarding the use of renewable energy (wind, solar, hydro, biomass,
thermal) and the renewable fuels - biofuels.
In addition, the EU has put climate change at forefront in terms of its policies, a
comprehensive strategy for adapting to climate change until 2013.
Tour companies have a major role in adapting to climate by procurement of
innovative systems, being part of everyone's tourism management, is a part of
adaptability capacity and response to climate change, developing a new technology
that is innovative and salutary.
Agencies and organizations involved in tourism policy for adapting to climate
change are many and varied, requiring a close collaboration to successfully
implement best strategies and programs for quality tourism.
The geographical distribution of the regions in which climate change affects major
tourist destinations (Figure 1).
Research on pollution reduction initiatives, in tourism, have confirmed and
demonstrated again the serious impact of tourist activity and has become
increasingly vital the need to maintain and restore the environment to a level that
ensures present needs of the society leaving the perspective of the future in real
terms to materialize. Summary on influences that touch tourism on one hand, as
their subject and as object on the other hand, provides an overview and
complements the presentation theme (Table 1).
On a more positive note, tourism can contribute to preserving the environment if
there is sufficient involvement in studying and applying solutions that it can offer; a
theme opened to specialist research.
Amelung B., Nicholls S., Viner D., 2007, Implication of global climate change for
tourism flows and seasonality, Journal of TravelResearch, Available at:
Becken S., Hay J. (2007). Tourism and Climate Change: Risk and Opportunities.
Clevedon: Channel View Publications
Simpson, M.C., Gssling, S. & Scott, D. (2008) Report on the International Policy and
Market Response to Global Warming and the Challenges and Opportunities that
Climate Change Issues Present for the Caribbean Tourism Sector. Caribbean
Regional Sustainable Tourism Development Programme: European Commission and
the Caribbean Tourism Organization, Barbados

Gssling, S. & Hall, C.M. (eds) 2006, Tourism and Global Environmental Change,
Routledge, London, ISBN 0-415-36131-1 (Hbk) 0-415-36132-x (Pbk) 0-203-01191-0
Gssling S. , Scott D. , Hall C. M. , Ceron J. P., Dubois G., 2012, Consumer behaviour
and demand response of tourists to climate change, Annals of Tourism Research,
Hall, C.M. & Higham, J.E.S. (Eds). 2005. Tourism, Recreation and Climate Change:
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Internet Sources
http://www.unwto,org/pdf/pr071046.pdf Davos Declaration Convention of Biological Diversity European Commision- Tourism
http:/ Untited Nations World Tourism Organisation Wold Meteorogical Organization World Resources Institute








Sustainable International Conservation Union

http:// International Panel of Climate Change United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)

spx [Website of the world's leading tourism organization
provides access to regular updates on international tourism statistics and major
issues confronting the tourism industry.
Gabriela Cecilia STNCIULESCU1, Gabriela Nicoleta DIACONESCU2
1Bucharest University of Economic Studies, Institute for Doctoral Studies, Bucharest
University of Economic Studies,
2Bucharest University of Economic Studies, Institute for Doctoral Studies, Bucharest
University of Economic Studies,
Word count: 2417
Copyright Dimitrie Cantemir Christian University 2015