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Abstract

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Over time, tourism adapted to climatic conditions, responding to change and finding
different solutions. Where tourism is a major source of income for the economy and
for individuals (small and large entrepreneurs) it found multiple solutions for
effective consumer savings (electricity, heat). The purpose of this paper is to
present tourism offer solutions that creates benefits from two perspectives - positive
consequences for society, economy, culture, and also initiatives that support
tourism development compatible with present and future needs.
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Abstract Over time, tourism adapted to climatic conditions, responding to change
and finding different solutions. Where tourism is a major source of income for the
economy and for individuals (small and large entrepreneurs) it found multiple
solutions for effective consumer savings (electricity, heat). The purpose of
this paper is to present tourism offer solutions that creates benefits from two
perspectives - positive consequences for society, economy, culture, and also
initiatives that support tourism development compatible with present and future
needs.
Key words:
Tourism pollution, climate change, seasonality, environment
Introduction
Tourism, over time adapted to climatic conditions, responding to changes and
finding different solutions. Where tourism is a major source of income for the
economy and for individuals (small and large entrepreneurs) were found efficient
multiple solutions to save consumers (electricity, heat).
In 2007, at the "International Conference on Climate Change and Tourism" was
published "Davos Declaration", a study that responded to emergencies issues
regarding climate change.
It is known that climate change represented and represents a current issue.
Temperatures rise, precipitation types are changing, glaciers and snow melt, so
weather conditions lead to risks like floods and droughts, these extreme events may
become more frequent and increase their intensity. It is very likely that global

congestion. 2012).8°C in the past 150 years and is projected to grow further. as well as experience" (Scott & Lemieux. Many development policies include tourism on their agenda. according to WTO being defined as "the activities of the person traveling outside his or her usual environment for less than a specified period of time and whose main purpose of travel is other than the exercise of an activity remunerated from the place visited". and erosion. local people may also be disadvantaged by seasonal . Tourism is one of the most dynamic sectors. These environmental influences on life and the individual are reflected in tourism. with implications forwater supply. tourism and infrastructure in general. among others. can negatively affect profits. Influence of the individual on the environment considering the tourism. leading to movements towards north and higher altitude areas for many species of animals and plants. the peak season concentration of visitors can place a considerable strain on the local environment. quality and abundance of natural resources is of vital importance in achieving national and global interest. recorded in the last decades. et. 2010. Thomas T. They negatively affect agriculture.. destination choice and timing of travel. 1975. excess seasonality and the fluctuations between under. The link between tourism and the natural environment is very tight. (Miller. Estimates of the economic effects of climate change showed a reduction of GDP. the attraction of investment capital. and the employment situation. forestry. Environmentally. Conceptual issues Tourism is the red thread of this work and an important element in the global economy.warming occurred since the mid-20th century may be due in large part to higher greenhouse gas concentrations. Similarly. citat de Gössling S. From an economic perspective. For a temperature rise of 5-6 ° C a reduction in GDP would be between 5-10% and even higher for poor countries. significant increases being able to support the economic development of a country and an example of this would be Malta. trash disposal. electricity production. Climate change is also an additional pressure on ecosystems. citat de Ityavyar E. most often led to adaptive changes of environment to achieve a higher number of requirements and needs and to a qualitatively higher level.M. including motivations. There is considerable evidence demonstrating the intrinsic importance of weather and climate for tourist decision-making. al. specifically the life of man and other living organisms on the earth's surface " . The global temperature increased by about 0.and overcapacity it generates. T) talks about the environment as " the aggregate of external conditions that influence the life of an individual or population.

being needed specific measures to adapt to climate change on long term. drinking water.5 times compared to 1990. becoming a conventional source of energy (energy of waves. Tunisia in 2003. rivers through dams.. Sahli M.. Sgro P. Weather events affecting tourist destinations. geothermal. irrigation. Actions and solutions to reduce pollution in tourism From the economic point of view. This event marked a turning in terms of awareness of the implications of climate change on tourism. According to the European Environment Agency (2005) and UNWTO UNEP . thermal. Heat . 2007). On closer examination it is easy to understand that development in any field and hence in tourism is accompanied by negative aspects. M. tidal and marine currents. Untited Nation World Tourism Organisation estimates (UNTWO) shows that by 2020. international tourist flows will reach 1. Climate change brings changes in nature and hence ontourism. food supply. tourism is considered a source of recovery of national economies of those countries. UNTWO and other organizations including the United Nations Enviroment Programme (UNEP) convened the first International Conference on Climate Change and Tourism in Djerba. thus.. Hydropower is being used since 1972 when took place the Energy Crisis. are other forms used today..strains on community services and infrastructure" (Amelung B.561 million. To save used fuel that is estimated to deplete. Viner D. Dependence of certain areas of tourism can generate an increased vulnerability to economic.. Nicholls S.. winter sports for example (an important source of season tourists) have a considerable influence in competitiveness and smooth operation of tourist destinations and if managed well with an important profit. J. wind. which have important tourism resources properly exploited. . To create this profit was taken into account the contribution of expenditure.WMO (2008) the areas most affected by climate change are mountain regions and coastal areas. 2004). which energy consumption brings.cold. social and environmental problems. solar and biomass energy. representing an increase of 2. making them more attractive or less attractive. Tourism companies concern about climate change has grown in recent years. costs of tourism have often been neglected such as the adverse impacts of a tourism boom on other sectors resulting from general equilibrium effects (Nowak J. were found different solutions such as hydro.

China. A successful application of wind energy was also made possible for yachts. built in the hillside. sugar beet. corn. applied even in mountain refuges thus ensuring lighting. Yet there is a difficulty. Wind energy is widely used (windmills) in countries such as Chile. Regent Singapore used a diesel boiler for hot water preparation at a cost of $ 29. Morocco and Tunisia. season or year that makes the energy generated by wind an intermittent one. Mexico. soy and palm oil. Egypt. photovoltaic panels found applications both in transport (applied to boats or caravans) and in tourism. countries with developed tourism. Solar energy is quite common (solar panels) being obtained by geo-thermal power plants.5 years. yet this energy is in its infancy. Biomass energy is derived from biological conversion of sunlight through photosynthesis. outlets for charging phones and communication equipment. Argentina. In 2006 they have implemented a new system for producing hot water that consumed less fuel and the investment analysis showed that depreciation is done in just 1. Switzerland. offers the possibility of energy saving (being . However.location for people that love environment protection and natural beauty. wind speed varies during the day. Canada. It can successfully replace other forms of energy in interiors of any kind. Austria. between water surface and 100 m depth. Buildings design. These alternatives to traditional energy are a beneficial and cheaper variant used today also for the tourism sector with good results. poplar and biodiesel from rapeseed.000 per month. At the conference in Singapore in 2007. Ethanol is made from sugar cane. India. barley. India. Countries using successfully this energy are countries in Western Europe. Fuels used are ethanol and biodiesel. Hydrogen energy is produced only from water (a major source). Peru. Italy. which shows its savings through proper architecture of buildings. Colombia and Mexico.Thermal energy of the seas and oceans is a form of energy used in the US and Japan and consists in the use of temperature difference in tropical areas. There has been an 18% saving in electricity in hotels whose buildings were built on those plans. wheat. a study on "energy of smart buildings" conducted by the Ministry of Environment and Water Resources of Singapore highlighted the energy efficiency. Russian Federation. Valea Doftanei . there are areas around the world with strong wind action where wind turbines operate 60% during the year. Pension Atra. Wind energy is a promising source of electricity in the future because of its ecologic nature and infinity.

Those who practice the sports tourism are passionate. big spenders and consumers. To reduce the emission of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. which successfully offered travels to Italy from Sweden in 2007. continuous improvement of the energy efficiency of a wide range of equipment and appliances. industry and households. transport. creating legal . Expenses are covered by the gains from this form of tourism. The current trend is to travel as often as possible. increasing therefore the greenhouse effect and warming the climate. sports tourism is the fastest growing segment in a global industry with revenue of $ 5 billion. For example. increasing their atmospheric concentration. A number of initiatives have been taken to reduce GHG emissions: ratification of Kyoto Treaty (1997) which requires Member States to reduce their collective GHG emissions by 40% until 2020 and by 80% until 2050. to cover a greater distance and stay as long as possible in chosen destination. hotel and trip. the largest part of it being summer water sports. which imply transport that increases the greenhouse gas pollution. by train on a 1000km distance. agriculture and changes in land use such as deforestation. winter sports. train is used increasingly often as a mean of transport. In this case. Greenhouse gases are emitted as a result of both natural processes and human activities. plane is used as a mean of transport. Sports tourism is a form of leisure. "Anriese Mit der Bahn" (journey to destination by train) a German tour or Swedish Fritidsrese Gruppen. Events such as the Olympics. Since the 70's sports tourism packages have become increasingly popular. The most common GHG present in the atmosphere is the water vapor. The major sources of GHG produced by humans are: combustion in energy production. Football or Rugby World Cup have enabled travel agencies to obtain the right to sell a certain number of tickets they have sold in packages including flight. being significantly fast it reduces travel time to the destination and covers a large distance allowing a longer time to stay in chosen place. As a result of human activities are emitted into the atmosphere significant quantities of GHGs. fishing. According to a study made by Research and Markets.warm in winter and cool in summer) a living example that it is possible to reduce pollution in tourism Transport is by far the tourism department that has the highest contribution to the increase in gas emissions in the atmosphere. In many vacation packages are included various trips. but the problem remains the greenhouse gas pollution emissions. waste storage and use of industrial gases.

Agencies and organizations involved in tourism policy for adapting to climate change are many and varied. & Scott.. D. biomass.obligations regarding the use of renewable energy (wind. Conclusions Research on pollution reduction initiatives. On a more positive note. Summary on influences that touch tourism on one hand. solar. as their subject and as object on the other hand. Viner D. References References Amelung B. a theme opened to specialist research. the EU has put climate change at forefront in terms of its policies. Available at: http://jtr. being part of everyone's tourism management.sagepub. Barbados .. Tour companies have a major role in adapting to climate by procurement of innovative systems..com/content/45/3/285. Implication of global climate change for tourism flows and seasonality. (2007).short Becken S. (2008) Report on the International Policy and Market Response to Global Warming and the Challenges and Opportunities that Climate Change Issues Present for the Caribbean Tourism Sector. M. Nicholls S. have confirmed and demonstrated again the serious impact of tourist activity and has become increasingly vital the need to maintain and restore the environment to a level that ensures present needs of the society leaving the perspective of the future in real terms to materialize. S.biofuels.. hydro. Tourism and Climate Change: Risk and Opportunities. Journal of TravelResearch. developing a new technology that is innovative and salutary. In addition. a comprehensive strategy for adapting to climate change until 2013. The geographical distribution of the regions in which climate change affects major tourist destinations (Figure 1). thermal) and the renewable fuels . Hay J. Clevedon: Channel View Publications Simpson.C.. Caribbean Regional Sustainable Tourism Development Programme: European Commission and the Caribbean Tourism Organization. in tourism. provides an overview and complements the presentation theme (Table 1). 2007. requiring a close collaboration to successfully implement best strategies and programs for quality tourism. Gössling. tourism can contribute to preserving the environment if there is sufficient involvement in studying and applying solutions that it can offer. is a part of adaptability capacity and response to climate change.

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com 2Bucharest University of Economic Studies.ro/Energia-Solara-Eoliana-in-Turism http://www.world-tourism. AuthorAffiliation Gabriela Cecilia STÃNCIULESCU1.solarzone. E-mail: cecilia. Institute for Doctoral Studies.stanciulescu@gmail.com Word count: 2417 Copyright Dimitrie Cantemir Christian University 2015 .bing.org/resourceefficiency/Business/SectoralActivities/Tourism/Factsand FiguresaboutTourism/ImpactsofTourism/EnvironmentalImpacts/tabid/78775/Default. Bucharest University of Economic Studies. Institute for Doctoral Studies.com/search?q=UNWTO-UNEP-WMO&src=IETopResult&conversationid=&first=37&FORM=PORE www.a spx www.http://www.org [Website of the world's leading tourism organization provides access to regular updates on international tourism statistics and major issues confronting the tourism industry. Bucharest University of Economic Studies.unep. E-mail: gabriela132@rocketmail. Gabriela Nicoleta DIACONESCU2 1Bucharest University of Economic Studies.