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B00172276

03/03/2014

Dr Zaki El Hassan

The measurements of flow of liquids are a very serious need in majority of the

industrial plants. The industrys profit making or even loss all depends on the

accuracy of the flow measurement. In some cases inaccurate results may cause

a disastrous result. With majority of the liquid flow measurement apparatuses,

the velocity or the change in kinetic energy is measured to determine the flow

rate. The pressure variance of the liquid that is forced through a pipe is what the

velocity depends on. The cross-sectional area of the pipe remains constant and

is known; the flow rate is indicated by the average velocity. In such cases to

determine the liquids flow rate the basic relationship is:

A = cross-sectional pipe area

Q=VxA

The liquid in contact with the pipe causes friction; viscosity and density affect

the liquid flow rate. To directly measure the liquid flow positive displacement

flow meters are used. The liquid is divided in to specific increments and move it

on. The total flow is an increase of the measured increments, which can be

counted by mechanical or electronic techniques

The majority of man-made flows are turbulent for example all natural occurring

flows on earth like lakes, rivers, oceans and even the atmosphere. Experimental

methods such as the Navier-Stokes equation were nearly impossible to solve in

majority of the actual applications.

D ui ij

=

+fi

Dt X j

Early turbulence research methods had a lot of restrictions like not being able to

measure reverse turbulence flow, vortices and high turbulent flows. To solve this

problem in the early sixtys lasers were developed. This made the measurement

of flows practical.

Types of Measurement

The measurement of mass or volume of fluid flow is taken over certain cross

sectional area of pipe given per second. This is the method most industries use.

A wide range of devices exist for these commitments reflecting the wide range of

circumstances which may overcome gas flow, pressure, viscosity, conductivity,

liquid flow, the cleanliness of the fluid, fluid temperature, the presence of flow

disturbance.

v = velocity field of the mass elements flowing,

A = cross-sectional vector area/surface,

Q = volumetric flow rate,

jm = mass flux.

Anemometry

In research lab local flow velocity is of importance rather than the total flow rate.

Laser Doppler velocimetry is an optical technique ideal for non-intrusive 1D, 2D

and 3D point measurement of velocity and turbulence distribution in both free

flows and internal flows. Velocimetry methods fall into two broad categories:

those which measure the flow velocity at a single point and those which offer

velocity data over a 2-D plane or even a 3-D volume. Point measurement

methods may provide very high resolution time histories of the velocity at a

point.

Rota meters

meters for High Viscosity Fluids

Valves

Pumps

Laser Doppler Anemometry is a technique for measuring the direction and speed

of fluids. LDA was the most advanced invention for fluid diagnostics developed

by Yeh and Cummins. For this development no calibrations were required and

the output was accurately linear with low noise and high frequency response. In

this case velocity is measured in an independent way of other flow variables. The

LDA has had a lot of advancements over the years in terms of optical methods

for example fibres, software development and signal processing techniques.

instantaneous particle velocities. The velocity of the flow in the measuring

volume can be sensed without disturbance when Laser anemometers probe the

flow with focused laser beams. The fringe which is the crossing point of two

focused laser beams is the LDA measurement volume. The most commonly used

dimensions are 100 micron for the diameter and 1 millimetre for length. Using

beam expansion, larger beam separation on front lens and shorter focal length

lenses allows the measurements of smaller volumes. The increase on uncertainty

of Doppler frequency estimation can be achieved by using fewer fringes in the

measurement volume.

In the flow of the fluid being measured the LDA crosses two beams of

collimated, monochromatic, and coherent laser light in its simplest form. The

reflected radiation is collected by the Laser Doppler Anemometer sending a

monochromatic laser beam toward the target. The function of the targeted

object's relative velocity is the change in wavelength of the reflected radiation.

Usually, a Helium-Neon or Argon ion laser with a power of 10 mW to 20 W is

used. The particles should be suspended in the fluid for the operation of a Laser

Doppler Anemometry where the medium should be transparent through which

the laser beams pass. The LDA is very difficult to set up but gives a very

accurate reading of point measurement. The beams must intersect at the focal

point of the convex lens after passing through it and should be aligned around

the axis of rotation of the optics set. The cross sectional area at intersection

should be identical for each beam.

Two equal intensity laser beams that intersect across the target area at a known

angle are used on a typical LDA.

ADB . . . BEC . . . CFB

By using properties of similar s, =

= / (2 sin (/2))

fringe, the moving particle needs the following time for crossing a single fringe:

t = / vn

This brings about a signal frequency:

f = (1/t) = (vn.2 sin (/2)) /

The velocity component normal to the fringe pattern, not the actual velocity,

Is the measured velocity of the particle.

Data rates can be dealt by using commercial LDA signal processors at 100s of

kHz range. However in practice measurement volume size, and seeding

concentration requirements, validated data rates are typically in the ten kHz, or

kHz range. This update rate of velocity information is sufficient to recover the

frequency content of many flows.

Advantages and of LDAs

Greater frequency response of order of MHz is conceivable.

Larger accuracy rates.

Effectively measure very low flow velocities

Optical measurement method it is completely nonintrusive; no supports

for force balances, pressure taps or drag rakes are needed.

Flow field can also be measured, not just velocity at a point.

Works for any transparent medium containing particles.

Disadvantages of LDAs

accurate method for it to be precise.

The laser source, the target surface, and the photo detector must be

transparent.

If the number of fringes decreases there will be fewer cycles therefore the

potential error will increase.

Only when there is a particle in the measurement volume does the LDA

sense the velocity.

The accuracy is highly reliant on position of emitted and reflected beams.

Expensive.

Successive particles at different positions in the gradient that are passing

through the measurement volume may have different velocities if the

measurement is being made in a flow with a velocity gradient for example

boundary layer. So in this case even if the flow turns out to be very steady

the LDA will still measure a velocity fluctuation.

REFERENCE

http://imc.pcz.czest.pl/instytut/pl/3/3.8/materialy/ffm/5_lda1.pdf

Instrumentation, Measurement, and Analysis, Nakra and Chaudhry, TMH

Fluid Mechanics Measurement, Richard J.Goldstein

An Introduction to the Theory of Fluid Flows by Franz Durst

Unit Operations Of Chemical Engineering; McCabe, Smith, and Harriott

Biomechanical Systems Technology by Cornelius T. Leondes

Boundary-Layer Meteorology volume 8 by F. Durst, M. Zar and G. Wigley

Particle & Particle Systems Characterization Volume 4 by Dr Bodo Ruck

http://piyushpanchal2007.mynetworksolutions.com/images/3._FLOW.pdf

http://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:371890/FULLTEXT02.pdf

http://www.leb.eei.unierlangen.de/winterakademie/2008/report/content/course01/pdf/0106.pdf

http://www.pc-education.mcmaster.ca/Instrumentation/flow.htm

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