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J DEY1, and A VASUDEVA MURTHY2

1 Department

Bangalore 560012, India

2 Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Chikkabommasandra, GKVK Post,

Bangalore 560065, India

e-mail: jd@aero.iisc.ernet.in

MS received 29 October 2010; accepted 19 August 2011

Abstract. Considering the linearized boundary layer equations for threedimensional disturbances, a Mangler type transformation is used to reduce this case

to an equivalent two-dimensional one.

Keywords.

1. Introduction

The Mangler transformation reduces an axisymmetric laminar boundary layer on a body of revolution to an equivalent planar boundary layer flow (Schlichting 1968). This transformation is also

useful in turbulent boundary layer flow over a body of revolution (Cebeci & Bradshaw 1968).

Another application of this transformation is in the reduction of a laterally strained boundary

layer to the Blasius flow (Ramesh et al 1997). In this case the span-wise velocity is zero along

a streamline but its non-zero span-wise gradient appears as a source/sink term in the contunuity

equation (Schlichting 1968). In this paper, we show that a Mangler type transformation can

reduce a specific three-dimensional flow considered here to an equivalent two-dimensional case.

2. Analysis

Let u , v and w denote the non-dimensional velocity components in the non-dimensional

x, y and z directions, respectively. u 0 and v0 will denote the Blasius velocity components. The

governing equations considered here are the linearized boundary layer equations for two- and

three-diemnsional disturbances of Libby & Fox (1964) and Luchini (1996). These authors perturbed the Blasius boundary layer as: u = u 0 (x, y) + u 1 (x, y)ex p(iz), v = v0 (x, y) +

v1 (x, y)ex p(iz), w = w1 (x, y)ex p(iz); for 2-D flow (z = 0, w = 0), u 1 = u, v1 = v. We

first consider the two-dimensional case.

For correspondence

971

972

In this case, the governing boundary layer equations are (Libby & Fox 1964),

u

v

+

= 0,

x

y

uo

u

u

u o

u o

2u

+ v0

+u

+v

= 2.

x

y

x

y

y

(1)

(2)

The boundary conditions are: u(x, 0) = v(x, 0) = u(x, ) = (x, ) = 0. The Blasius

boundary layer equations are,

u o

vo

+

= 0,

(3)

x

y

uo

u o

u o

2uo

,

+ vo

=

x

y

y2

(4)

Adding and subtracting the quantity u/x in the continuity eq. (1), we have

u

v

u

u

+

+ = 0.

x

y

x

x

(5)

x3

, Y = yx, u(x, y) U (X, Y ),

3

1 yu o

1 yu

+ v , u o (x, y) Uo (X, Y ), Vo =

+ vo .

V (X, Y ) =

x x

x x

X=

(6)

The usual Mangler variables are X, Y, U and V . The variables Uo and Vo are additional here.

The boundary layer equations for an axi-symmetric body of radius r differ from those for two)

(vr )

dimensional flows by the term (u/r )(dr/d x) in the continuity equation, (ur

= 0;

x + y

for r = x, the term (u/r )(dr/d x) becomes u/x, which acts as a source term in the continuity

equation.

In terms of the variables in (6), the governing equations (1)(4) become,

U

V

U

+

= 0,

X

Y

3X

Uo

U

U

Uo

Uo

2U

,

+ Vo

+U

+V

=

X

Y

X

Y

Y 2

Uo

Vo

Uo

+

= 0,

X

Y

3X

Uo

respectively.

Uo

Uo

2 Uo

,

+ Vo

=

X

Y

Y 2

(7)

(8)

(9)

(10)

973

eq. (9) now has an artificial sink term Uo /3X . However, the simi

larity variables = Y/ 3X , Uo = f () reduce the mean flow to the Blasius one; here, a prime

denotes the derivative with respect to . (This may be an interesting application of the Mangler

transformation to the Blasius flow.)

In terms of the variables,

U = 3XU1 (X, Y ), V = 3X V1 (X, Y ),

(11)

U1

V1

2U1

+

+

= 0,

X

Y

3X

2 U1

U1

U1 Uo U1

Uo

Uo

=

,

+ Vo

+

+ U1

+ V1

Uo

X

Y

X

X

Y

Y 2

(12)

(13)

respectively.

2.2 3-D Case

The governing boundary layer equations in this case are the linearized disturbance equations of

Luchini (1996; his equations 7ac),

u

v

+

+ w = 0,

x

y

uo

(14)

u

u

u o

u o

2u

+ v0

+u

+v

= 2,

x

y

x

y

y

(15)

w

w

2w

.

+ vo

=

x

y

y2

(16)

uo

conditions are: u(x, 0) = v(x, 0) = w(x, 0) = u(x, ) = w(x, ) = 0. The third equation is

the span-wise disturbance equation.

As in eq. (5), adding and subtracting the quantity u/x in the continuity equation (14), we have

u

v

u

u

+

+ + w = 0.

x

y

x

x

(17)

We consider the Mangler type transformation (6), along with an additional variable W , below

x3

, Y = yx, u(x, y) U (X, Y ), V (X, Y ) =

3

u

1

, u o (x, y) Uo (X, Y ), Vo =

W (X, Y ) = 2 w

x

x

X=

1 yu

+v

x x

1 yu o

+ vo .

x x

(18)

This additional variable W is to relate the span-wise velocity component, w, to the stream-wise

velocity component, u, as discussed below. In terms of these variables, the disturbance equations

(14), (15) and (16) are,

U

V

+

+ W = 0,

(19)

X

Y

974

Uo

U

U

Uo

Uo

2U

,

+ Vo

+U

+V

=

X

Y

X

Y

Y 2

W

W

U

U

2U

UUo

2W

+ Uo

+

,

+ Vo

+ Vo

= 3X

2Uo W + 3X Uo

X

Y

X

3X

Y

Y 2

Y 2

(20)

(21)

respectively.

Following Squire (1933), we add (20) and (21) to obtain

W

W

U

U

+ 2 Uo

2Uo W + 3X Uo

+ Vo

+ Vo

X

Y

X

Y

UUo

2U

Uo

Uo

2W

+

2

.

(22)

+U

+V

= 3X

3X

X

Y

Y 2

Y 2

In terms of the variables in (11), the continuity equation (19) and the momentum equation

(22) become,

V1 U1

W

U1

+

+

+

= 0,

X

Y

X

3X

W

W

U1 Uo U1

U1

U1 Uo

2Uo W

+ Vo

+

+ 2 Uo

+

+ Vo

Uo

X

Y

3X

3X

X

X

Y

+ U1

Uo

Uo

2 U1

2W

+2

,

+ V1

=

2

X

Y

Y

Y 2

(23)

(24)

respectively.

By letting W = aU1 the disturbance equations (23) and (24) become,

U1

V1

(3 + a)U1

+

+

= 0,

X

Y

3X

2 U1

U1

U1

Uo

Uo

(2a + 5) Uo U1

1

U1

=

,

+ Vo

+

+

+ V1

Uo

X

Y

3(2 + a) X

(2 + a)

X

Y

Y 2

(25)

(26)

respectively. Comparing these with the two-dimensional equations (12) and (13), we find them

similar. We may note that the span-wise velocity component, w, is w=(1+a)u/x. For a = 1,

w=0, equations (25) and (26) are exactly the same as (12) and (13), as it should be. Also, u/x

( w) acts as a source term in the continuity eq. (14). Thus enabling the use of the Mangler type

transformation.

By letting U1 = X N g (), and satisfying the continuity equation (25), the similarity form of

(26) is readily obtained as,

(5 + 2a)

f g

g f

3N

(7 + a)

f g 3N +

= 0.

(27)

g +

+

+ gf

+

2

2

2(2 + a) (2 + a)

(2 + a)

In terms of the similarity variables, the perturbed velocity components are: u

3N x 3(N +1) g , w = (1 + a)u/x.

975

For both (i) a = 1, N = 4/3 and (ii) a = 8/3, N = 1/2, eq. (27) reduces to the

two-dimensional equation of Libby & Fox (1964)

g +

f g

g f

+

+ f g g f = 0.

2

2

(28)

The solution (Libby & Fox 1964) of this equation is g = f f . The first case of w = 0

(a = 1) is obvious. In the second case, the perturbed velocities are: u = 31/2 x 3/2 g , and

w = (5/3)(x/3)1/2 g . That is, the proposed Mangler type transformation (18) could reduce

the three-dimensional problem considered here to a two-dimensional equivalent one.

3. Conclusion

A three-dimensional boundary layer flow is considered here. A Mangler type of transformation

is proposed to reduce this flow to an equivalent two-dimensional one. This reduction has been

possible by relating the span-wise velocity component to the stream-wise velocity component

leading to an equivalent source term in the continuity equation.

References

Cebeci T, Bradshaw P 1968 Momentum transfer in boundary layers. Hemisphere, p 112

Libby P A, Fox H 1964 Some perturbation solutions in laminar boundary-layer theory, J. Fluid Mech.

17: 433

Luchini P 1996 Reynolds-number-independent instability of the boundary layer over a flat pate, J. Fluid

Mech. 327: 101

Ramesh O N, Dey J, Prabhu A 1997 Transformation of a laterally diverging boundary layer flow to a

two-dimensional boundary layer flow, Zeit. Angew. Math. Phys 48: 694

Schlichting H 1968 Boundary layer theory. McGraw Hill, p 605

Squire H B 1933 On the stability of three-dimensional disturbances of viscous fluid flow between parallel

walls, Proc. Royal Soc. London A 142: 621629

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