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ECSS-Q-ST-70-08C

6 March 2009

Space product
assurance
Manual soldering of high-reliability
electrical connections

ECSS Secretariat
ESA-ESTEC
Requirements & Standards Division
Noordwijk, The Netherlands

ECSSQST7008C
6March2009

Foreword
This Standard is one of the series of ECSS Standards intended to be applied together for the
management, engineering and product assurance in space projects and applications. ECSS is a
cooperative effort of the European Space Agency, national space agencies and European industry
associationsforthepurposeofdevelopingandmaintainingcommonstandards.Requirementsinthis
Standardaredefinedintermsofwhatshallbeaccomplished,ratherthanintermsofhowtoorganize
and perform the necessary work. This allows existing organizational structures and methods to be
appliedwheretheyareeffective,andforthestructuresandmethodstoevolveasnecessarywithout
rewritingthestandards.
This Standard has been prepared by the ECSSQST7008 Working Group, reviewed by the ECSS
ExecutiveSecretariatandapprovedbytheECSSTechnicalAuthority.

Disclaimer
ECSSdoesnotprovideanywarrantywhatsoever,whetherexpressed,implied,orstatutory,including,
butnotlimitedto,anywarrantyofmerchantabilityorfitnessforaparticularpurposeoranywarranty
that the contents of the item are errorfree. In no respect shall ECSS incur any liability for any
damages,including,butnotlimitedto,direct,indirect,special,orconsequentialdamagesarisingout
of, resulting from, or in any way connected to the use of this Standard, whether or not based upon
warranty,businessagreement,tort,orotherwise;whetherornotinjurywassustainedbypersonsor
propertyorotherwise;andwhetherornotlosswassustainedfrom,oraroseoutof,theresultsof,the
item,oranyservicesthatmaybeprovidedbyECSS.

Publishedby:

Copyright:

ESARequirementsandStandardsDivision
ESTEC, P.O. Box 299,
2200 AG Noordwijk
The Netherlands
2009 by the European Space Agency for the members of ECSS

ECSSQST7008C
6March2009

Change log

ECSSQ7008

Firstissue

6August1999
ECSSQST7008C

Secondissue

6March2009

ThesignificantchangesbetweentheECSSQ7008Aandthisversionare:

Theenvironmentalconditionsoftheassemblyareahavebeenmodified.

Thefluxdesignationhasbeencompleted.

Theuseofnewsolventsisallowedsubjecttosuccessfultesting.

Theuseofdeviceswithnonbendableleadshasbeenimplemented.

Thewettingacceptancelimitshavebeenmodified.

Thevibrationlevelshavebeenmodified.

Moreguidancehasbeenincludedoncomponentmountingheightsand
staking.

FlatpackdeviceshavemigratedtoECSSQ7038.

ECSSQST7008C
6March2009

Table of contents
Change log .................................................................................................................3
Introduction..............................................................................................................11
1 Scope.....................................................................................................................12
2 Normative references ...........................................................................................13
3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms..........................................................14
3.1

Terms from other standards .....................................................................................14

3.2

Terms specific to the present standard ....................................................................14

3.3

Abbreviated terms .................................................................................................... 22

4 Principles of reliable soldered connections.......................................................23


5 Preparatory conditions ........................................................................................24
5.1

Calibration ................................................................................................................24

5.2

Facility cleanliness ...................................................................................................24

5.3

Environmental conditions .........................................................................................24

5.4

Lighting requirements ...............................................................................................25

5.5

Precautions against static discharges ...................................................................... 25

5.6

5.5.1

General.......................................................................................................25

5.5.2

Precautions against ESD during manufacturing......................................... 25

5.5.3

Protective Packaging and ESD Protection ................................................. 26

5.5.4

Packing and filler materials......................................................................... 27

Equipment and tools.................................................................................................27


5.6.1

General.......................................................................................................27

5.6.2

Brushes ......................................................................................................27

5.6.3

Cutters and pliers ....................................................................................... 27

5.6.4

Bending tools..............................................................................................28

5.6.5

Clinching tools ............................................................................................28

5.6.6

Insulation strippers .....................................................................................29

5.6.7

Soldering irons and resistance soldering equipment.................................. 30

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5.6.8

Soldering tools............................................................................................ 31

6 Materials selection ...............................................................................................32


6.1

General.....................................................................................................................32

6.2

Solder .......................................................................................................................32

6.3

6.2.1

Form ...........................................................................................................32

6.2.2

Composition................................................................................................33

Flux...........................................................................................................................33
6.3.1

Rosin-based fluxes ..................................................................................... 33

6.3.2

INH1 corrosive acid flux.............................................................................. 34

6.3.3

Application of flux .......................................................................................34

6.4

Solvents....................................................................................................................35

6.5

Flexible insulation materials .....................................................................................35

6.6

Terminals..................................................................................................................36
6.6.1

Materials .....................................................................................................36

6.6.2

Tin-, silver- and gold-plated terminals ........................................................ 36

6.6.3

Shape of terminals......................................................................................36

6.7

Wires ........................................................................................................................37

6.8

PCBs ........................................................................................................................37

6.9

6.8.1

Boards ........................................................................................................37

6.8.2

Gold finish on conductors ........................................................................... 37

Component lead finishes.......................................................................................... 37

6.10 Adhesives (staking compounds and heat sinking), encapsulants and


conformal coatings ................................................................................................... 38

7 Preparation for soldering.....................................................................................39


7.1

7.2

7.3

General.....................................................................................................................39
7.1.1

Tools...........................................................................................................39

7.1.2

Components ...............................................................................................39

Preparation of conductors, terminals and solder cups ............................................. 39


7.2.1

Insulation removal ......................................................................................39

7.2.2

Surfaces to be soldered..............................................................................40

7.2.3

De-golding of gold-plated leads and terminals ........................................... 41

7.2.4

Constraints on degolding and pretinning methods ..................................... 42

7.2.5

Pretinning of stranded wires ....................................................................... 43

7.2.6

Pre-tinning of component leads and solid-wire conductors ........................ 44

Preparation of the soldering bit ................................................................................44


7.3.1

Fit................................................................................................................44

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7.3.2

Maintenance ...............................................................................................44

7.3.3

Plated bits...................................................................................................45

7.3.4

Tip in operation...........................................................................................45

7.4

Maintenance of resistance-type soldering electrodes .............................................. 45

7.5

Handling (work station).............................................................................................45

7.6

Storage (work station) ..............................................................................................45

7.7

7.6.1

Components ...............................................................................................45

7.6.2

PCBs ..........................................................................................................46

7.6.3

Materials requiring segregation .................................................................. 46

Preparation of PCBs for soldering............................................................................ 46


7.7.1

Process.......................................................................................................46

7.7.2

Demoisturization methods .......................................................................... 46

7.7.3

Storage of prepared PCBs .........................................................................46

8 Mounting of components.....................................................................................47
8.1

8.2

General requirements...............................................................................................47
8.1.1

Introduction.................................................................................................47

8.1.2

Heavy components..................................................................................... 47

8.1.3

Metal-case components ............................................................................. 47

8.1.4

Glass-encased components ....................................................................... 48

8.1.5

Stress relief of components with bendable leads ....................................... 48

8.1.6

Stress relief of components with non-bendable leads ................................ 49

8.1.7

Reinforced plated-through holes ................................................................ 52

8.1.8

Lead and conductor cutting ........................................................................52

8.1.9

Solid hook-up wire ...................................................................................... 52

8.1.10

Location ......................................................................................................52

8.1.11

Conformal coating, cementing and encapsulation...................................... 52

Lead bending requirements...................................................................................... 53


8.2.1

General.......................................................................................................53

8.2.2

Conductors terminating on both sides of a non-plated-through hole.......... 53

8.3

Mounting of terminals to PCBs .................................................................................54

8.4

Lead attachment to PCBs ........................................................................................55


8.4.1

General.......................................................................................................55

8.4.2

Clinched leads ............................................................................................ 55

8.4.3

Stud leads...................................................................................................57

8.4.4

Lapped round leads....................................................................................58

8.4.5

Lapped ribbon leads ...................................................................................58

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8.5

Mounting of components to terminals ...................................................................... 58

8.6

Mounting of connectors to PCBs .............................................................................. 60

9 Attachment of conductors to terminals, solder cups and cables ....................61


9.1

9.2

9.3

9.4

General.....................................................................................................................61
9.1.1

Conductors .................................................................................................61

9.1.2

Terminals....................................................................................................61

Wire termination .......................................................................................................61


9.2.1

Breakouts from cables................................................................................61

9.2.2

Insulation clearance....................................................................................61

9.2.3

Solid hook-up wire ...................................................................................... 62

9.2.4

Stress relief.................................................................................................62

Turret and straight-pin terminals ..............................................................................62


9.3.1

Side route ...................................................................................................62

9.3.2

Bottom route ............................................................................................... 62

Bifurcated terminals..................................................................................................63
9.4.1

General.......................................................................................................63

9.4.2

Bottom route ............................................................................................... 63

9.4.3

Side route ...................................................................................................64

9.4.4

Top route ....................................................................................................65

9.4.5

Combination of top and bottom routes ....................................................... 66

9.4.6

Combination of side and bottom routes...................................................... 66

9.5

Hook terminals .........................................................................................................66

9.6

Pierced terminals...................................................................................................... 67

9.7

Solder cups (connector type) ...................................................................................68

9.8

Insulation sleeving....................................................................................................68

9.9

Wire and cable interconnections .............................................................................. 69


9.9.1

General.......................................................................................................69

9.9.2

Preparation of wires....................................................................................69

9.9.3

Preparation of shielded wires and cables................................................... 69

9.9.4

Pre-assembly..............................................................................................70

9.9.5

Soldering procedures ................................................................................. 70

9.9.6

Cleaning .....................................................................................................71

9.9.7

Inspection ...................................................................................................71

9.9.8

Workmanship..............................................................................................71

9.9.9

Sleeving of interconnections....................................................................... 72

9.10 Connection of stranded wires to PCBs..................................................................... 72

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10 Soldering to terminals and PCBs ......................................................................74


10.1 General.....................................................................................................................74
10.1.1

Securing conductors...................................................................................74

10.1.2

Thermal shunts...........................................................................................74

10.1.3

High-voltage connections ........................................................................... 74

10.2 Solder application to terminals ................................................................................. 75


10.2.1

Soldering of swaged terminals onto PCBs ................................................. 75

10.2.2

Soldering of conductors onto terminals (except cup terminals).................. 75

10.2.3

Soldering of conductors onto cup terminals ............................................... 76

10.3 Solder application to PCBs.......................................................................................76


10.3.1

Solder coverage .........................................................................................76

10.3.2

Solder fillets ................................................................................................76

10.3.3

Soldering of component leads to plated-through holes .............................. 76

10.3.4

Solder application ....................................................................................... 77

10.4 Wicking.....................................................................................................................78
10.5 Solder rework ...........................................................................................................78
10.6 Repair and modification............................................................................................ 78

11 Cleaning of PCB assemblies .............................................................................79


11.1 General.....................................................................................................................79
11.2 Ultrasonic cleaning ...................................................................................................79
11.3 Monitoring for cleanliness......................................................................................... 79
11.3.1

Cleanliness testing .....................................................................................79

11.3.2

Testing frequency .......................................................................................80

11.3.3

Test limits ...................................................................................................80

11.3.4

Test method................................................................................................80

12 Final inspection ..................................................................................................81


12.1 General.....................................................................................................................81
12.2 Acceptance criteria...................................................................................................81
12.3 Visual rejection criteria .............................................................................................82

13 Verification procedure........................................................................................83
13.1 General.....................................................................................................................83
13.2 Vibration ...................................................................................................................84
13.3 Temperature cycling................................................................................................. 86
13.4 Microsection .............................................................................................................86

14 Quality assurance...............................................................................................87
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14.1 General.....................................................................................................................87
14.2 Data..........................................................................................................................87
14.3 Nonconformance ...................................................................................................... 87
14.4 Calibration ................................................................................................................87
14.5 Traceability ...............................................................................................................88
14.6 Workmanship standards...........................................................................................88
14.7 Inspection .................................................................................................................88
14.8 Operator and inspector training and certification...................................................... 88

15 Workmanship standards....................................................................................90
15.1 Soldered clinched terminals ..................................................................................... 90
15.2 Soldered stud terminals............................................................................................ 91
15.3 Soldered turret terminals ..........................................................................................92
15.4 Solder turret terminals ..............................................................................................93
15.5 Soldered bifurcated terminals...................................................................................94
15.6 Soldered hook terminals........................................................................................... 95
15.7 Soldered cup terminals.............................................................................................96
15.8 Soldered wire to shielded cable interconnections .................................................... 97

Annex A (normative) Report on manual soldering of high-reliability


electrical connections - DRD............................................................................101
Annex B (informative) Solder melting temperatures and choice ......................105
Bibliography...........................................................................................................106
Figures
Figure 5-1: Profiles of correct and incorrect cutters for trimming leads.................................. 28
Figure 5-2 Examples of non-approved types of mechanical strippers .................................. 29
Figure 8-1: Assembly of underfilled TO-39 and TO-59, and adhesively staked CKR06 ............. 49
Figure 8-2: Methods for incorporating stress relief with components having bendable
leads ....................................................................................................................51
Figure 8-3: Methods for attaching wire extensions to non-bendable leads ............................ 52
Figure 8-4: Minimum lead bend.............................................................................................. 53
Figure 8-5: Leads with solder termination on both sides........................................................ 54
Figure 8-6: Types of terminal swaging ................................................................................... 55
Figure 8-7: Clinched-lead terminations - unsupported holes.................................................. 56
Figure 8-8: Clinched lead terminations - plated through-holes............................................... 56
Figure 8-9: Stud terminations .................................................................................................57

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Figure 8-10: Methods of through-hole lapped termination ..................................................... 59
Figure 8-11: Method of stress relieving parts attached to terminals....................................... 59
Figure 9-1: Side- and bottom-route connections to turret terminals ....................................... 63
Figure 9-2: Bottom-route connections to bifurcated terminal ................................................. 64
Figure 9-3: Side-route connection to bifurcated terminal ....................................................... 65
Figure 9-4: Top-route connection to bifurcated terminal ........................................................ 66
Figure 9-5: Connections to hook terminals.............................................................................67
Figure 9-6: Connections to pierced terminals......................................................................... 67
Figure 9-7: Connections to solder cups (connector type)....................................................... 68
Figure 9-8: Methods for securing wires .................................................................................. 71
Figure 9-9: Connection of stranded wires to PCBs ................................................................73
Figure 10-1: High voltage connection.....................................................................................75
Figure 10-2:Minimum acceptable wetting on component side ............................................... 77
Figure 15-1:Soldered clinched terminals................................................................................ 90
Figure 15-2: Soldered stud terminals .....................................................................................91
Figure 15-3: Soldered turret terminals with twin conductors .................................................. 92
Figure 15-4: Soldered turret terminals with single conductors ............................................... 93
Figure 15-5: Soldered bifurcated terminals ............................................................................ 94
Figure 15-6 Soldered hook terminals .................................................................................... 95
Figure 15-7: Soldered cup terminals ......................................................................................96
Figure 15-8: Hand-soldered wire to shielded cable interconnections..................................... 97
Figure 15-9: Hand-soldered wire to shielded wire interconnections....................................... 98
Figure 15-10: Hand-soldered wire interconnections - details of defects .............................. 100

Tables
Table 6-1: Chemical composition of spacecraft solders......................................................... 33
Table 6-2: Fluxes.................................................................................................................... 34
Table 7-1: Clearances for insulation.......................................................................................40
Table 7-2: Solder baths for degolding and pretinning ............................................................ 42
Table 9-1: Dimensions for Figure 9-9..................................................................................... 73
Table 13-1: Sine survey ......................................................................................................... 85
Table 13-2: Minimum severity for sine vibration testing ......................................................... 85
Table 13-3: Minimum severity for random vibration testing for all applications except
launchers .............................................................................................................85
Table 13-4: Minimum severity for random vibration testing for launcher................................ 86
Table B-1 : Guide to choice of solder types .........................................................................105

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Introduction
ThemainpartofthisStandardisbasedonrecommendationsfromtheNational
Aeronautics and Space Administration and European soldering technology
experts. Modifications have been incorporated into the text to provide for the
specificrequirementoflowoutgassingelectricalsystemswhicharerequiredby
scientificandapplicationsatellites.Otheradditionshavebeenmadeinthelight
of recent technological advances and the results of verification test
programmes. The methods and workmanship contained in this document are
consideredtobefullyapprovedfornormalspacecraftrequirements.

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1
Scope
This Standard defines the technical requirements and quality assurance
provisions for the manufacture and verification of manuallysoldered, high
reliabilityelectricalconnections.
The Standard defines acceptance and rejection criteria for high reliability
manufactureofmanuallysolderedelectricalconnectionsintendedtowithstand
normal terrestrial conditions and the vibrational gloads and environment
imposedbyspaceflight.
The proper tools, correct materials, design and workmanship are covered by
thisdocument.Workmanshipstandardsareincludedtopermitdiscrimination
betweenproperandimproperwork.
TheassemblyofsurfacemountdevicesiscoveredinECSSQST7038.
RequirementsrelatedtoprintedcircuitboardsarecontainedinECSSQST7010
andECSSQST7011.
Verification of manual soldering assemblies which are not described in this
standard are performed by vibration and thermal cycling testing. The
requirementsforverificationaregiveninthisStandard.
ThisstandarddoesnotcoverthequalificationandacceptanceofEQMandFM
equipmentwithhandsolderedconnections.
The qualification and acceptance tests of equipment manufactured in
accordancewiththisStandardarecoveredbyECSSEST1003.
The mounting and supporting of components, terminals and conductors
prescribed herein applies to assemblies designed to operate within the
temperaturelimitsof55Cto+85C.
For temperatures outside this normal range, special design, verification and
qualification testing is performed to ensure the necessary environmental
survivalcapability.
Special thermal heat sinks are applied to devices having high thermal
dissipation(e.g.junctiontemperaturesof110C,powertransistors)inorderto
ensurethatsolderjointsdonotexceed85C.
Thisstandardmaybetailoredforthespecificcharacteristicandconstrainsofa
spaceprojectinconformancewithECSSSST00.

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2
Normative references
The following normative documents contain provisions which, through
reference in this text, constitute provisions of this ECSS Standard. For dated
references,subsequentamendmentsto,orrevisionofanyofthesepublications
donotapply,However,partiestoagreementsbasedonthisECSSStandardare
encouragedtoinvestigatethepossibilityofapplyingthemorerecenteditionsof
the normative documents indicated below. For undated references, the latest
editionofthepublicationreferredtoapplies.

ECSSSST0001

ECSSsystemGlossaryofterms

ECSSQST1009

Space product assurance Nonconformance control


system

ECSSQST20

SpaceproductassuranceQualityassurance

ECSSQST7002

SpaceproductassuranceThermalvacuumoutgassing
testforthescreeningofspacematerials

ECSSQST7010

Space product assurance Qualification of printed


circuitboards

ECSSQST7011

Space product assurance Procurement of printed


circuitboards

ECSSQST7028

Space product assurance Repair and modification of


printedcircuitboardassembliesforspaceuse

ECSSQST7071

Space product assurance Data for selection of space


materialsandprocesses

ESCC23500

Requirements for lead materials and finishes for


componentsforspaceapplication

EN6134051

Protection of electronic devices from electrostatic


phenomenaGeneralrequirements

EN6134052

Protection of electronic devices from electrostatic


phenomenaUserguide

MILSTD883Rev.G

Testmethodsandproceduresformicroelectronics

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3
Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms
3.1

Terms from other standards


ForthepurposeofthisStandard,thetermsanddefinitionsfromECSSST0001
apply.
For the purpose of this Standard, the following terms from ECSSQST7028
apply:
repair
rework

3.2

Terms specific to the present standard


3.2.1

approval authority

entitythatreviewsandacceptstheverificationprogramme,evaluatingthetest
resultsandgrantsthefinalapproval

3.2.2

base laminate

seesubstrate

3.2.3

bifurcated (split) terminal

terminal containing a slot or split in which wires or leads are placed before
soldering

3.2.4

bit

removableheatstoreofasolderingiron

3.2.5

blister

delaminationinadistinctlocalareaorareas

3.2.6

bridging

buildupofsolderorconformalcoatingbetweenparts,componentleadsorbase
substrateforminganelevatedpath
NOTE

Seefillet.

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3.2.7

clinched-lead termination

conductororcomponentleadwhichpassesthroughaprintedcircuitboardand
isthenbenttomakecontactwiththeprintedcircuitboardpad
NOTE

3.2.8

Theclinchedportionisnotforcedtolieflaton
the pad and some innate spring back is
desirable before this form of termination is
soldered.

cold flow

movementofinsulation,forexampleTeflon(PTFE),causedbypressure

3.2.9

cold solder joint

joint in which the solder has a blocky, wrinkled or piledup appearance and
showssignsofimproperfloworwettingaction
NOTE

3.2.10

It can appear either shiny or dull, but not


granular.Thejointnormallyhasabruptlinesof
demarcation rather than a smooth, continuing
filletbetweenthesolderandthesurfacesbeing
joined. These lines are caused by either
insufficientapplicationofheatorthefailureof
an area of the surfaces being joined to reach
solderingtemperature

component

device which performs an electronic, electrical or electromechanical function


and consists of one or more elements joined together and which cannot
normallybedisassembledwithoutdestruction
NOTE1 The terms component and part can be
interchanged.
NOTE2 Transistors,
capacitors.

3.2.11

integrated

circuits,

hybrids,

component lead

solidwirewhichextendsfromandservesasaconnectiontoacomponent

3.2.12

conductor

leadorwire,solidorstranded,orprintedcircuitpatchservingasanelectrical
interconnectionbetweenterminations

3.2.13

conformal coating

thin protective coating which conforms to the configuration of the covered


assembly

3.2.14

connection

electricaltermination

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3.2.15

contact angle

angle enclosed between halfplanes, tangent to a liquid surface and a solid


liquidinterfaceattheirintersection
NOTE

3.2.16

In particular, the contact angle of liquid solder


in contact with a solid metal surface. An
approximate value for this can be determined
by shadow projection or other means, by
measuring after the solder has solidified. The
contact angle is always the angle inside the
liquid

contamination

particles,liquids,gases,materialsandmicroorganismswhichbytheirpresence
candisturbtheperformanceofanitem

3.2.17

corrosion

deterioration of a metal by chemical or electrochemical reaction with its


environment

3.2.18

cracked solder joint

solderedconnectionwhichhasfracturedorbrokenwithinthesolder

3.2.19

dewetting

condition in a soldered area in which the liquid solder has not adhered
intimately,characterizedbyanabruptboundarybetweensolderandconductor,
orsolderandterminal/terminationarea
NOTE

3.2.20

Thisisoftenseenasadullsurfacewithislands
ofthickershinysolder.

disturbed solder joint

unsatisfactoryconnectionresultingfromrelativemotionbetweentheconductor
andterminationduringsolidificationofthesolder

3.2.21

electrical connection

conductiveconnectioninelectricalorelectroniccircuits

3.2.22

eutectic alloy

alloyoftwoormoremetalsthathasonedistinctmeltingpoint
NOTE

3.2.23

Oneeutecticsolderisatinleadalloycontaining
63%Snand37%Pbwhichmeltsat183C

fillet

smoothconcavebuildupofmaterialbetweentwosurfaces
NOTE

Example: A fillet of solder between a


component lead and a solder pad or terminal,

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orafilletofconformalcoatingmaterialbetween
acomponentandprintedcircuitboard

3.2.24

flux

material which, during soldering, removes the oxide film, protects the surface
fromoxidation,andpermitsthesoldertowetthesurfacestobejoined

3.2.25

flux activity

property of a flux which allows the smallest contact angle between molten
solderandasolidsurface
NOTE

3.2.26

Seealsorosin.

glass meniscus

glassfilletofaleadsealwhichoccurswhereanexternalleadleavesthepackage
body

3.2.27

haloing

conditionexistinginthebaselaminateofaprintedcircuitboardintheformofa
lightareaaroundholesorothermachinedareasonorbelowthesurfaceofthe
laminate

3.2.28

hook terminal

terminalformedinahookshape

3.2.29

icicles

seesoldericicle

3.2.30

interfacial connection

conductor which connects conductive patterns between opposite sides of a


printedcircuitboard
NOTE

3.2.31

Normallyaplatedthroughhole.

lap joint

joiningorfusingoftwooverlappingmetalsurfaceswithsolderwithoutuseof
anyothermechanicalattachmentorsupport

3.2.32

measling/measles

condition existing in the base laminate of printed circuit board in the form of
discrete white spots or crosses below the surface of the base laminate,
reflectingaseparationoffibresintheglassclothattheweaveintersection
NOTE

During soldering this can be caused by


excessiveheat.

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3.2.33

multi-layer circuit board

product consisting of alternate laminates of printed circuit substrates and


insulators, bonded together by simultaneous application of heat and pressure
priortodrillingandplatingholesforinterconnections
NOTE

3.2.34

Seealsoprintedcircuitboard.

pad

termination of a conducting surface on a printed circuit board to which leads


aresolderedtoformelectricalconnections
NOTE

3.2.35

These can be described as either functional,


where an active track is terminated, or non
functional,wherethepadisisolated.

pits

smallholesorsharpdepressionsinthesurfaceofsolder
NOTE

3.2.36

This can be caused by flux blowout due to


entrapmentoroverheating

plated-through hole

holeinwhichmetalisdepositedontheinsidesurface
NOTE1 AdaptedfromIECMultilingualdictionary.
NOTE2 Also known as a supported hole. The
configuration is used to provide additional
mechanicalstrengthtothesolderedtermination
ortoprovideanelectricalinterconnectionona
doublesided or multilayer printed circuit
board.

3.2.37

potting compound

compound, usually electrically nonconductive, used to encapsulate or as a


fillerbetweencomponents,conductorsorassemblies

3.2.38

printed circuit board (PCB)

productresultingfromtheprocessofselectivelyetchingunwantedcopperfrom
one or both surfaces of a copperclad insulating substrate to form a desired
circuitrypatternwhichissubsequentlysolderorgoldplated
NOTE

The term printed circuit board covers the


followingfamilies:
singlesided;
doublesided,rigidorflexible;
multilayer,rigidorflexrigid.

3.2.39

resin

natural substance that is usually transparent or translucent and yellowish to


brown

18

ECSSQST7008C
6March2009
NOTE

3.2.40

Resins are formed in plant secretions and are


solubleinorganicsolvents,butnotwater.This
is a generic term, rosin being the specific term
withregardtosoldering(seerosin).

resistance soldering

methodofsolderingbypassingacurrentbetweentwoelectrodesthroughthe
areatobesoldered

3.2.41

rosin

natural resin obtained as the residue after removal of turpentine from the
oleoresin of the pine tree, consisting mainly of abietic acid and related resin
acids,theremainderbeingresinacidesters
NOTE

3.2.42

It is noncorrosive and electrically non


conducting.Rosinisthebasicconstituentofthe
rosinfluxfamily(seeISOEN29454).

rosin-soldered joint

unsatisfactoryconnectionwhichhasentrappedrosinflux

3.2.43

selective plating

areaofaplatedcircuitboardthatisdesignedtohaveadifferentplatedfinish
thantherestoftheboard
NOTE

3.2.44

Example: A goldfinished RF board that


supportstinleadterminations(landareas).

shield

metallic sheath surrounding one or more wires, cables, cable assemblies, or a


combination of wires and cables that is used to prevent or reduce the
transmissionofelectromagneticenergytoorfromtheenclosedconductors
NOTE

3.2.45

The shield also includes an insulating jacket


thatcancoverthemetallicsheath

solder

nonferrousfusiblemetallicalloyoftwoormoremetals(usuallytinandlead)
used when melted to join or fuse metallic surfaces together and to provide a
lowresistanceelectricalpath

3.2.46

solderability

propertyofasurfacewhichallowsittobewettedbymoltensolder
NOTE

Standardtestsexisttoassessthesolderabilityof
conductors. Surfaces are considered to have a
good solderability if, following the
proceduresofthisstandard,solderwettingcan
be achieved within 3 seconds and dewetting
doesnotoccurbefore8seconds.

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ECSSQST7008C
6March2009
3.2.47

solder coating

surfacecoatedwithathin,uniformlayerofsolder

3.2.48

solder-cup terminal

hollow, cylindrical terminal closed at one end to accommodate one or more


conductors

3.2.49

solder icicle

conicalpeakorsharppointofsolderusuallyformedbytheprematurecooling
andsolidificationofsolderuponremovaloftheheatsources

3.2.50

solder pad

terminationareaonaprintedcircuitconductor

3.2.51

soldering

process of joining metallic surfaces through the use of solder without direct
fusionofthebasemetals

3.2.52

soldering time

timerequiredforasurfacetobewettedbysolderunderspecifiedconditions

3.2.53

stress lines

threeformsofstresslinescanappearonafinishedsolderfillet:
a.

lines or folds running parallel to the mounting surface usually denote


excessive soldering times or temperatures and also rework. They are
probablycausedduringsolderingbydifferentialexpansions,i.e.between
the printed circuit board substrate which expands afar greater distance
thanthemetallicmaterialofthejoint

b.

lines running perpendicular to the mounting surface are commonly


causedwhenthesolderingironbitisremovedtooslowlyfromaliquid
solderjoint

c.

linesrunningcircumferentiallyaroundthemidsectionofthesolderfillet
causedbyshrinkageduringthelaststageofsolidification

3.2.54

stress relief

method or means to minimize stresses to the soldered termination or


component
NOTE

3.2.55

Generallyintheformofabendorserviceloop
in a component lead, solid or stranded wire to
providerelieffromstressbetweenterminations,
as that caused, for instance by movement or
thermalexpansion

stud termination

uprightconductorterminationthroughaprintedcircuitboard

20

ECSSQST7008C
6March2009
3.2.56

substrate

supporting dielectric material upon which the elements of a circuit are


depositedorinstalled

3.2.57

termination/terminal area

conductive surface on a printed circuit board used for making electrical


connections
NOTE

3.2.58

Also referred to as printed circuit pad, solder


pad.

thermal shunt

device with good heatdissipation characteristics used to conduct heat away


fromanarticlebeingsoldered

3.2.59

tinning

coatingofasurfacewithauniformlayerofsolderbeforeitisusedinasoldered
connection

3.2.60

tip

applicationsurfaceattheendofthesolderingironbit

3.2.61

turret terminal

round posttype grooved stud around which conductors are fastened before
soldering

3.2.62

wetting

flowandadhesionofaliquidtoasolidsurface,characterizedbysmooth,even
edgesandlowcontactangle

3.2.63

wicking

flowofmoltensolderorcleaningsolutionbycapillaryaction
NOTE

3.2.64

Occurs when joining stranded wire; solder is


drawn within the strands, but normally not
visibleonoutersurfaceofstrands.Wickingcan
also occur within the stress relief bend of a
componentlead.

wire

singlemetallicconductorofsolid,orstranded,construction,designedtocarry
current in an electric circuit, but which does not have a metallic covering,
sheathorshield
NOTE

For this standard, wire refers to insulated


electricwire.

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ECSSQST7008C
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3.3

Abbreviated terms
ForthepurposeofthisStandard,theabbreviatedtermsfromECSSSST0001
andthefollowingapply:

Abbreviation

Meaning

AWG

Americanwiregauge

ETFE

ethylenetetrafluoroethylene

ESD

electrostaticdischarge

FEP

fluorinatedethylenepropylene

INH1

IEC6119013(2002)fluxdesignation:inorganic,high
activation(>2%halide)

PCB

printedcircuitboard

PSD

powerspectraldensity

PTFE

polytetrafluoroethylene

RF

radiofrequency

Rg

resistancetoground

R s

surfaceresistance

ROH1

IEC6119013(2002)fluxdesignation:rosin,highactivation
(2%halide)

ROL0

IEC6119013(2002)fluxdesignation:rosin,verylow
activation(<0,01%halide)

ROL1

IEC6119013(2002)fluxdesignation:rosin,lowactivation
(<0,15%halide)

r.m.s.

rootmeansquare

SMT

surfacemounttechnology

22

ECSSQST7008C
6March2009

4
Principles of reliable soldered connections
The following are the general principles to ensure reliable manuallysoldered
connections:

Reliable soldered connections are achieved by using proper design,


having control of tools,selecting the right materials, applying processes
with precaution in a controlled work environment and taking into
accountinspectionrequirements.

The basic design concepts to ensure reliable connections and to avoid


solderjointfailureareasfollows:

Stress relief is an inherent part of the design, which reduces


detrimental thermal and mechanical stresses on the solder
connections.

Where adequate stress relief is not possible, a method of solder


jointreinforcementisincorporated.

Materialsareselectedsuchthatthemismatchofthermalexpansion
coefficients is a minimum at the constraint points in the
componentmountingconfiguration.

Materials and processes which result in the formation of brittle


intermetallics, such as soldering to gold using tinlead alloy, are
avoided.

Theassembledsubstratesaredesignedtoallowinspection.

23

ECSSQST7008C
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5
Preparatory conditions
5.1

5.2

Calibration
a.

Calibration status of tools and inspection equipments shall be verified


accordingtoclause14.4.

b.

Records of the calibration and verification of the tools and inspection


equipmentsshallbemaintained.

Facility cleanliness
a.

Personnelfacilitiesshallbeseparatedfromthesolderingareas.
NOTE

b.

Furnitureshallbearrangedtoallowthoroughcleaningofthefloor.

c.

Areasusedforsolderingshallbekeptfreefromcontaminants.
NOTE

5.3

Example: Washrooms, eating areas, smoking


facilities.

Loose material such as dirt, dust, solder


particles, oil or clipped wires can contaminate
solderedconnections.

d.

Working areas shall be kept free from any tools or equipment not used
forthecurrenttask.

e.

Working surfaces shall be covered with an easilycleaned hard top or


haveareplaceablesurfaceofclean,noncorrosive,siliconefreepaper.

f.

Tools used during soldering operations shall be free of visible


contaminant.

g.

Excesslubricantsshallberemovedfromtoolsbeforesolderingstarts.

Environmental conditions
a.

Thesolderingareashallhaveacontrolledenvironmenttolimittheentry
ofcontaminants.
NOTE

Itisgoodpracticetosolderinacleanroom(see
ISO146441).

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ECSSQST7008C
6March2009

5.4

5.5

b.

Areas used for assembly or cleaning of parts and areas where toxic or
volatile vapours are generated or released shall include a local air
extractionsystem.

c.

Theroomtemperatureofthefacilityshallbemaintainedat22C3C.

d.

The relative humidity at room temperature of the facility shall be


maintainedat55%15%.

e.

Thesolderingareashallnotbeexposedtodraughts.

f.

Airshallbesuppliedtotheroomthroughafilteringsystemthatprovides
apositivepressuredifferencewithrespecttoadjacentrooms.

Lighting requirements
a.

Lightingintensityshallbeaminimumof1080luxontheworksurface.

b.

At least 90 % of the work area shall be without shadows or severe


reflections.

Precautions against static discharges


5.5.1

General

a.

An ESD Control Program in accordance with EN 6134051 and EN


6134052shallbedevelopedandimplementedbythesupplier.

b.

Electrostaticsensitivecomponentsshallbeprepared,mounted,soldered
andcleanedinanESDprotectedarea.

c.

Electrostatic sensitive components shall be kept as shipped (e.g.in anti


statictubesorfoam)untilassemblypreparation.

d.

ContainersforESDsensitivecomponentsshallbesolabelled.

5.5.2

Precautions against ESD during


manufacturing

a.

The working bench shall have a static dissipative top with surface
resistance(Rs)intherange1104to11010.

b.

The working bench shall have a static dissipative top resistance to ESD
protectedareaground(Rg)intherange7,5105to1109.

c.

AwriststraphavingaresistancetoESDprotectedareaground(Rg)inthe
range7,5105to3,5107shallbewornbytheoperator.

d.

Seating shall have static dissipative surfaces with resistance to ESD


protectedareaground(Rg)lessthan11010.
NOTE

These measures prevent the buildup of static


charges and avoid potential differences by
keepingpersonnel,equipmentanddeviceleads
atthesameelectricalpotential,i.e.ground.

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ECSSQST7008C
6March2009
e.

Poweredequipmentattheworkstationshallbegrounded.
NOTE

Thenormalvalueoftheresistancebetweenthe
tip of the soldering system and the ground of
the ESD protected area does not exceed 5 .
The measurement is generally performed at
solderingtemperature.

f.

Agroundfaultcircuitinterruptershallbeinstalled.

g.

Protectiveclothingshallbemadefromstaticdissipativematerial.

h.

Glovesandfingercotsshallbemadefromstaticdissipativematerial.
NOTE

i.

Tools, such as mounting aids, and


consumables, masking tape,are expected to be
conductiveorstaticdissipative.

Paperwork accompanying ESD sensitive components shall be contained


instaticdissipativebagsorenvelopes.
NOTE

Example of accompanying paperwork are


travellerlogs,drawingsandinstructions.

j.

PaperworkshallnotcomeintocontactwithESDsensitivecomponents.

k.

IonisedairinpresenceofhighvoltageorRFshallnotbeused.
NOTE

5.5.3

Static charges on isolated parts or tooling can


bedissipatedusingionisedair.

Protective Packaging and ESD Protection

a.

All ESDsensitive items shall be contained within ESDprotective


containersformovementbetweenandwithinESDprotectedareas.

b.

ESDprotectivepackagingshalldisplayESDwarningsigns.

c.

IfthepackagingisnotESDsafe,itshallbelabelledaccordingly.
NOTE

The objective of ESD protection is to prevent


ESD to the item contained within, to allow for
dissipation of charge, and to prevent charging
of the ESDS item by an external electrostatic
field.

d.

A container shall provide for mechanical and ESD protection whenever


the ESDsensitive electronic assembly is transported within a
manufacturingplantorduringshipmenttoexternaldestinations.

e.

Thecontainershallprovide:
1.

anoutershellthatprovidesadequatemechanicalprotectionforthe
contents;

2.

foam or bubble wrap shock absorbing liners that have static


shieldingcovers;

3.

ashieldingpackagefortheESDsensitivecontents.

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ECSSQST7008C
6March2009
f.

PinkPolyethylene(pinkpoly)bags,film,bubblewraporfoamnearany
ESDsensitiveitemorwithinanESDprotectedareashallnotbeused.
NOTE

5.5.4
a.

5.6

Pinkpolyethylene provides little protection


against ESD events and voltage fields and is a
contaminationsource.Thepreferredalternative
isthemetallizedstaticshieldingbag.

Packing and filler materials

Shipping popcorn, foam liners and polystyrene foam shall not be used
nearESDsensitiveitemsunlessshieldingoverwrapprotectsthem.

Equipment and tools


5.6.1
a.

General

Newequipmentsandtoolsshallbeinspectedtoensurethattheyarenot
defectivepriortouse.

5.6.2

Brushes

a.

Mediumstiffnaturalorsyntheticbristle,ESDsafe,brushesshallbeused
forcleaningprovidedthattheydonotdamageanysurfacetobecleaned
oradjacentmaterials.

b.

Brushesshallbecleanedinasolventinaccordancewithclause6.4.

c.

BrushesshallnotbedamagedbythesolventsusedforPCBcleaning.

d.

Wirebrushesshallnotbeused.

5.6.3

Cutters and pliers

a.

CuttingedgeprofilesandcutterusageshallbeinaccordancewithFigure51.

b.

Thecutterusedfortrimmingconductorwireandcomponentleadsshall
shearsharply,producingaclean,flat,smoothcutsurfacealongtheentire
cuttingedge.
NOTE1 These measures minimize the transmission of
mechanicalandshockloadstodelicateparts.
NOTE2 Smooth, longnose pliers or tweezers can be
usedforattachingorremovingconductorwires
andcomponentleads.

c.

Notwistingactionshalloccurduringthecuttingoperation.

d.

Cutting edges shall be checked for damage and maintained in a sharp


condition.

27

ECSSQST7008C
6March2009

Cutter

Lead cut correctly

Lead cut incorrectly

Using correctly profiled cutters

Incorrect lead cutting using incorrectly profiled cutters

Figure51:Profilesofcorrectandincorrectcuttersfortrimmingleads

5.6.4

Bending tools

a.

Bare component leads shall be bent or shaped using tools, including


automaticbendingtools,whichdonotcut,nickordamagetheleadsor
insulation.

b.

Components shall not be damaged by the bending process (see also


clause8.2).
NOTE

c.

Bending tools shall haveno sharp edges in contactwith the component


leads.

5.6.5
a.

It is good practice to use bending tools with


polishedfinish.Thepreferredsurfacefinishfor
shapingtoolsishardchromiumplating.

Clinching tools

Clinching tools shall not damage the surfaces of printedcircuit


conductors,componentsorcomponentleads.

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ECSSQST7008C
6March2009

5.6.6

Insulation strippers

5.6.6.1

Thermal strippers

a.

Thetemperatureofthestrippershallnotburn,blisterorcauseexcessive
meltingoftheinsulation.
NOTE1 Thermal insulation strippers can be used for
wireinsulationtypessusceptibletodamageby
mechanicalstrippers.
NOTE2 Itisgoodpracticetoapplythermalstrippersfor
usewithAWG22andsmallerwiresizeswhere
there is a possibility of the wire stretching if a
mechanicalstripperisused.
NOTE3 Local air extraction units can be used during
thermalstripping.

5.6.6.2
a.

Precision mechanical cutting-type strippers

Mechanicalstrippersshallbeofthefollowingtypes:
1.

Automatic powerdriven strippers with precision, factoryset,


cuttingandstrippingdiesandwireguards,or

2.

Precisiontype hand strippers with accurately machined and


factorypresetcuttingheads.
NOTE

b.

of

Strippingtoolsormachinesshallfitthesizeofthewireconductor.
NOTE

c.

Figure 52 shows some examples


unacceptablemechanicalstrippers.

Itisgoodpracticetomaskoffthedieopenings
forwiresizesnotinuse.

The conductor shall not be twisted, ringed, nicked, cut orscoredby the
process.

Figure52Examplesofnonapprovedtypesofmechanicalstrippers

29

ECSSQST7008C
6March2009

5.6.6.3
a.

Enamel stripping

Theenamelshallberemovedbychemicalorthermalmeans.
NOTE

b.

Theenamelmayberemovedbymechanicalmeansprovidedthatvisual
inspectionusingaminimummagnificationofx40iscarriedouttoensure
thattheconductorisundamaged.

5.6.6.4
a.

Seealso6.7d.

Verification of stripping tools

Thermalandmechanicalstrippingtoolsshallbeverifiedbysamplingat
thestartofeachproductionrun.

5.6.7

Soldering irons and resistance soldering


equipment

a.

The size and shape of the soldering iron and bit shall not damage
adjacentareasorconnectionsduringsolderingoperations.

b.

Temperaturecontrolledsolderingironsshallbeused.
NOTE

It is good practice to verify periodically the


soldertiptemperature.

c.

Filesshallnotbeusedfordressingplatedcoppersolderingirontips.

d.

A selection of bit sizes and shapes appropriate to each soldering


operationenvisagedshallbeavailable.

e.

Thesolderingironorresistanceheatingelectrodeshallheatthejointarea
to the solder liquidus temperature in a time between 1 second and 2
seconds.

f.

The soldering iron or resistanceheating electrode shall maintain the


solderingtemperatureatthejointthroughoutthesolderingoperation.

g.

Thermal shunts (see 5.6.8.3) shall be used to protect thermallysensitive


components.

h.

For soldering of electronic components, the solderingbit temperature


shallbebetween280Cand350C.

i.

Asolderingbittemperaturelowerthan280Cmaybeused.

j.

A solderingbit temperature up to 380 C may be used for polyimide


PCBswithheatsinks,widetracksorgroundplanes.

k.

A soldering bit temperature up to 360 C may be used for PCBs other


thanpolyimidewithheatsinks,widetracksorgroundplanes.

l.

Asolderingironholdershallbeused.
NOTE

Itisgoodpracticetouseacagetypeholderthat
leavesthesolderingirontipunsupportedwhen
atemperaturecontrolledsolderingironisused.

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ECSSQST7008C
6March2009

5.6.8

Soldering tools

5.6.8.1

General

a.

Theleadsshallnotbedamagedduringpreparationandassembly.

5.6.8.2
a.

Holding tools used as soldering aids shall not be wetted by the solder
duringtheassembly.

5.6.8.3
a.

Holding tools

Thermal shunts

Thermal shunts shall be used for the degolding, pretinning and


solderingoftemperaturesensitivecomponents.
NOTE

An effective clamptype thermal shunt can be


constructedbysweatingsmallcopperbarsinto
thejawsofanalligatorclip.

b.

The heat sink shall be used when the nonthermal sensitivity of the
devicecannotbedemonstrated.

c.

The thermal shunt shall not disturb the solder joint by mechanical
interference.

d.

Shunts shall be applied and removed without mechanically damaging


thecomponentortheassembly.
NOTE

5.6.8.4
a.

Shunts can be held in place by friction, spring


tension, or any other means that does not
damagethefinishorinsulation.

Anti-wicking tools

The conductor gauge sizes of the antiwicking tools shall be marked on


thetool.
NOTE

Antiwicking tools can be used for pretinning


thestrandedwires.

31

ECSSQST7008C
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6
Materials selection
6.1

General
a.

MaterialselectionshallbeperformedinaccordancewithECSSQST7071.

b.

Components, subassemblies, assemblies and hardware for space flight


applicationsshallnothavetinfinishescontainingmorethan97%tin.

c.

Electrical/electroniccomponentsidentifiedashavingplatedormetallized
externalsurfaceswithatinfinishcontainingmorethan97%tinmaybe
pretinnedwithatinleadsolderinaccordancewith6.2.2b.
NOTE

d.

Pretinningshallnotdegradeordamagethecomponent.
NOTE

6.2

Tin whisker mitigation (barrier methods such


as coating or sleeving) is addressed in the
frameworkofanNRBorApprovalAuthority.

Seealso6.1c.

e.

Subassemblies, assemblies and mounting hardware identified as having


leadfreesurfaces(platedormetallised)shallbeprotectedbyprocessor
design to prevent metallic whisker formation in the expected enduse
application/environment.

f.

Operations carried out during degolding or pretinning shall not


contravenetheindividualdetailedspecificationforthecomponent,PCB
andterminations.

Solder
6.2.1

Form

a.

Forsoldering,ribbon,wireandpreformsshallbeusedprovidedthatthe
alloyandfluxmeettherequirementsofthisstandard.

b.

For degolding and pretinning, solder alloys shall be supplied as ingots


(withoutflux).

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ECSSQST7008C
6March2009

6.2.2
a.

Composition

ThesolderalloyshallhaveacompositionspecifiedinTable61.
NOTE1 SeeISO9453forfurtherdetails.
NOTE2 The solder alloy used depends on the
application.SeeAnnexTableB1forguidelines
forthechoiceofsoldertype.

b.

Thesolderalloyusedfordegoldingandpretinningshallbe60tinsolder,
62tinsilverloadedor63tinsolder.

Table61:Chemicalcompositionofspacecraftsolders
Ag

Sn

Pb

In

Sb

Bi

Cu

Fe

Zn

Al

As

Cd

Other

minmax

max

minmax

max

min
max

max

max

max

max

max

max

max

max

63tinsolder

62,563,5

Rem.

0,05

0,10

0,05

0,02

0,001

0,001

0,03

0,002

0,08

62tinsilverloaded

61,562,5

Rem.

0,05

1,82,2

0,10

0,05

0,02

0,001

0,001

0,03

0,002

0,08

60tinsolder

59,561,5

Rem.

0,05

0,10

0,05

0,02

0,001

0,001

0,03

0,002

0,08

96tinsolder

Rem.

0,10

0,05

3,54,0

0,10

0,05

0,02

0,001

0,001

0,03

0,002

0,08

9,010,5

Rem.

0,05

0,10

0,05

0,02

0,001

0,001

0,03

0,002

0,08

ESAdesignation

10tinlead

6.3

Flux
6.3.1
a.

Rosin-based fluxes

FluxesshallbeselectedinaccordancewithTable62.
NOTE

The preferred flux standard is IEC 6119013


(2002).

b.

For the pretinning of component leads, metallised terminations and


terminal posts mildlyactivated, rosinbased fluxes (e.g. ROL1) shall be
used.

c.

When pretinning with mildly activated rosinbased flux does not give
acceptablewetting,fullyactivatedrosinbasedfluxes(e.g.ROH1)maybe
used.
NOTE

d.

When pretinning with fully activated rosinbased flux does not give
acceptablewetting,INH1corrosive,watersoluble,acidfluxmaybeused
inaccordancewithclause6.3.2.
NOTE

e.

ROH1 flux is extremely aggressive and can


cause corrosion and damage to electronic
materials.

Difficulties in pretinning can arise from poor


solderability.

Forassemblythefollowingfluxesshallbeselected:
1.

Fornormalassembly,usepurerosinflux.

33

ECSSQST7008C
6March2009
NOTE
2.

Whenmildlyactivatedrosinfluxisused,monitortheeffectiveness
ofsubsequentcleaningoperationsinaccordancewithclause11.3.
NOTE

f.

Example:PurerosinfluxROL0.

Example:MildlyactivatedrosinfluxROL1.

Fully activated rosinbased fluxes shall be stored separately from pure


rosinfluxesandmildlyactivatedrosinfluxes.
NOTE

Example:FullyactivatedrosinfluxROH1.

Table62:Fluxes

IEC6119013
(2002)
designation

Equivalent
designationfrom
ISO29454(1994)

Nature

Nominal
composition
(Weight%)

Pretinning
Normalwetting

ROL1

1.1.2.WorX

Rosin

<0,15%halide

Difficult
wetting

ROH1

1.1.2.Z

Rosin

2,0%halide

InorganicWater
soluble

>2,0%halide

Verydifficult
wetting

INH1

Assembly
Preferred

ROL0

1.1.1

Rosin

<0,01%halide

Requiring
cleanliness
testing

ROL1

1.1.2.WorX

Rosin

<0,15%halide

6.3.2

INH1 corrosive acid flux

a.

INH1fluxresiduesshallberemovedimmediatelyafteruseinaccordance
withclause11,beforeanyfurthersolderingoperations.

b.

This flux shall not be used where vapours or residues of spattered flux
cancomeintocontactwithelectricalinsulationmaterial.

c.

INH1fluxshallbestoredseparatelyfrompurerosinfluxesandmildly
activatedrosinfluxes.
NOTE

6.3.3
a.

INH1 flux leaves residues that promote stress


corrosion cracking and general surface
corrosion.

Application of flux

The quantity of flux used shall be such that the solder joint is in
accordancewithclause12.

34

ECSSQST7008C
6March2009

6.4

b.

When fluxcored solder isused, it shallbe positioned such that the flux
flowsandcoversthecomponentstobejoinedasthesoldermelts.

c.

When an external liquid flux is used in conjunction with fluxcored


solders,thefluxesshallbecompatible.

d.

Whenexternalfluxisused,liquidfluxshallbeappliedtothesurfacesto
bejoinedpriortotheapplicationofheat.

Solvents
a.

Solventsfortheremovalofgrease,oil,dirt,fluxandfluxresiduesshallbe
electricallynonconductiveandnoncorrosive.

b.

Solventsshallnotdissolveordegradethequalityofpartsormaterials.

c.

Solventsshallnotremovecomponentidentificationmarkings.

d.

Solventsshallbelabelled.

e.

Solventsshallbemaintainedinanuncontaminatedcondition.

f.

Solvents showing visual evidence of contamination or decomposition


shallnotbeused.

g.

Solventsshallnotbeusedsuchthatdissolvedfluxresiduecontaminates
electricalcontactsurfaces.
NOTE

h.

6.5

Examplesofelectricalcontactsurfacesarethose
inswitches,potentiometersorconnectors.

Thefollowingsolventsshallbeusedforcleaninginsolderingoperations:
1.

ethylalcohol,99,5%pureor95%purebyvolume,

2.

isopropylalcohol,99%pure,

3.

deionized water at a maximum temperature of 40 C is used for


removingcertainfluxesprovidedthattheassemblyisthoroughly
drieddirectlyaftercleaning,

4.

anymixtureof6.4h.1to3.

i.

Other solvents that pass a compatibility test programme agreed by the


Approvalauthoritymaybeused.

j.

Waterbasedsolventscontainingsaponifiersshallnotbeused.

k.

Solventsshallbeselectedsuchthattheydrycompletely.

Flexible insulation materials


a.

MaterialsshallhavelowoutgassingpropertiesinaccordancewithECSS
QST7002.

b.

The following flexible insulation materials may be used in a space


environment:
1.

ETFE,FEPandPTFE.

35

ECSSQST7008C
6March2009

c.

2.

Polyolefin and Kynar sleeving for heatshrinkable wire


terminations.

3.

Irradiatedpolyethylene,fluorinatedresinandpolyimide.

PTFEmaterialsshallnotbeheatedabove250C.
NOTE

6.6

Poisonous gases can be liberated above this


temperature.

Terminals
6.6.1
a.

Materials

Terminalsshallbemadefromoneofthefollowingmaterials:
1.

Bronze(copper/tin)alloys.
NOTE

2.
b.

Itisgoodpracticetousebronzeterminals.

Brass(copper/zinc)alloys.

When a brass terminal is used it shall be plated with a barrier layer of


copperornickelof3mto10m.
NOTE1 A barrier layer is necessary on brass items to
prevent the diffusion, and subsequent surface
oxidation,ofzinc.
NOTE2 Itisgoodpracticetouseacopperbarrierlayer
on brass terminals because nickel is magnetic
andcanhaveapoorsolderability.

c.

Terminalsshallbetin/leadcoatedwithanalloycontainingamaximumof
97%tin.
NOTE

d.

Example: Hotdipped or reflowed electro


depositedcoatings.

Terminalswithcoatingsonthemountingsurfaceshallberejectedifthe
coatingslooseninsubsequentsolderingoperations.

6.6.2

Tin-, silver- and gold-plated terminals

a.

TerminalsonPCBsshallnotbetin,silverorgoldplated.

b.

Tin, silver or goldplated finishes shall be replaced using one of the


methodsdescribedinclause7.2.

6.6.3
a.

Shape of terminals

Bifurcatedandturretterminalsshallhaveledgesorgroovestoallowboth
theaccuratelocationofconnectingwiresandtheflowofsolder.

36

ECSSQST7008C
6March2009

6.7

6.8

Wires
a.

Wireshallbemadefromhighpuritycopperorcopperalloy.

b.

Thewireshallhaveoneofthefollowingfinishes:

Silvercoating.

Wiredrawn,fusedpuretin.

Enamelled.

c.

Wiresshallbestrippedoftheirinsulationinaccordancewithclause7.2.1.

d.

When stripping the ends of enamel wires the complete removal of the
enamelshallbeverifiedbyvisualinspection.

e.

Chemical stripping materials shall be completely neutralised and be


cleanedsuchthattherearenoresiduesfromthestripping,neutralizing,
orcleaningsteps.

f.

Theenamelshallnotbevisuallycontaminatedbythestrippingprocess.

PCBs
6.8.1

Boards

a.

Boards shall be made of materials, and manufactured, according to the


requirementsofECSSQST7010andprocuredaccordingtoECSSQST
7011.

b.

For nonplatedthrough holes, interfacial connections shall be made


accordingtoclause8.2.2.

6.8.2

Gold finish on conductors

a.

Goldplatedconductorsshallnotbesoldered.

b.

Degoldingofconductorsshallbeinaccordancewithclause7.2.3.
NOTE

6.9

RF circuits with gold finishes can have their


terminalpadsselectivelyplatedwithatinlead
finish,seeECSSQST7011.

Component lead finishes


a.

Component lead finishes shall conform to the requirements of ESCC


23500.
NOTE

ESCC 23500 is only applicable for procured


components and the preassembly operations
as degolding and pretinning are out of its
scope.

37

ECSSQST7008C
6March2009

6.10 Adhesives (staking compounds and heat sinking),


encapsulants and conformal coatings
a.

Limitedshelflifeitemsshallbestoredandcontrolledinaccordancewith
thematerialmanufacturersrecommendationsorinaccordancewiththe
manufacturers documented procedures for controlling shelf life and
shelflifeextensionswherepermitted.

b.

Adhesives shall be dispensable, nonstringing, and have a reproducible


dotprofileafterapplication.

c.

Theuncured(tack)strengthshallbecapableofholdingdevicesinplace
duringhandlingpriortocure.

d.

Adhesives, encapsulants and conformal coatings shall be noncorrosive


todevicesandsubstrates.

e.

No materials that emit acetic acid, ammonia, amines, hydrochloric acid


andotheracidsshallbeused.
NOTE

f.

Such compounds can cause stresscorrosion


crackingofpartleads.

The adhesives, encapsulants and conformal coatings used shall not


damagesubstratematerialsorattacheddevices.
NOTE1 The effects of some conformal coatings on the
reliability of solder joints are described in ESA
SP1173.
NOTE2 Adhesiontofusedtinleadfinishesispoor,see
alsoECSSQST7028.

g.

Adhesives, encapsulants and conformal coatings shall conform with the


outgassingrequirementsofECSSQST7002,clause7.

h.

Shrinkage of resin during cure and repair shall not degrade the coated
articles.

i.

Materials covered by this clause shall be individually assessed in


accordance with ECSSQST7071, clause 5.2.7 when flammability
requirementsareapplicable.

j.

Adhesives,encapsulantsandconformalcoatingsshallbeselectedonthe
basisoftheirthermalconductivityanddielectricproperties.
NOTE

k.

Some thermally conductive adhesives used to


dissipateJouleheatingarelistedinESASTM265.

Stress relief of device leads shall not be reduced by the encapsulant or


conformalcoating.
NOTE1

This is particularly important at low service


temperatures.

NOTE2

The coefficient of thermal expansion, glass


transitiontemperatureandmodulusofadhesives
used under devices for thermal reasons, for
achieving standoff heights or for mechanical
support during vibration, can be considered to
ensurethattheadditionalstressputonthesolder
jointsdoesnotdegradethesolderjointreliability.

38

ECSSQST7008C
6March2009

7
Preparation for soldering
7.1

General
7.1.1
a.

Operators shall use tools that are fit for the purpose and undamaged
priortouse.

7.1.2
a.

7.2

Tools

Components

The supplier shall ensure that degolding, pretinning and soldering


conditionsdonotexceedthevaluesgivenbytheindividualcomponent
datasheets.

Preparation of conductors, terminals and solder cups


7.2.1

Insulation removal

7.2.1.1

Stripping tools

a.

Strippingtoolsormachinesshallbeinaccordancewithclause5.6.6.

7.2.1.2

Damage to insulation

a.

The remaining conductor insulation shall not be damaged by the


insulationremovalprocess.

b.

Conductorswithdamagedinsulationshallnotbeused.
NOTE1 Example: Insulation damage includes nicks,
cuts,crushingandcharring.
NOTE2 Theoperationofmechanicalstrippingtoolscan
leaveslightpressuremarkingsintheremaining
conductor insulation. This effect is considered
tobenormal.

c.

Theinsulationmaterialshallnotbecharredbythermalstripping.
NOTE

Discoloration of the insulation material after


thermalstrippingisnormal.

39

ECSSQST7008C
6March2009

7.2.1.3
a.

Damage to conductors

Theconductorshallnotbedamagedbytheinsulationremovalprocess.
NOTE

Example:Conductordamageincludestwisting,
ringing,nicks,cutsorscores.

b.

Part leads and other conductors that are reduced in crosssectional area
bytheinsulationremovalprocessshallnotbeused.

c.

Coatedwireswherethebasematerialisexposedshallnotbeused.

7.2.1.4

Insulation clearance

7.2.1.4.1

Maximum clearance

a.

Themaximuminsulationclearance,measuredfromthesolderjoint,shall
beasstatedinTable71.

b.

In the case of the assembly of coil winding wires, maximum insulation


clearances may be exceeded provided that electrical clearances are
maintained.

7.2.1.4.2
a.

Minimum clearance

For PTFEinsulated wire, the minimum distance between the insulation


andthesolderfilletshallbe1mm.
NOTE

The minimum clearance distance for PTFE


insulationaccommodatescoldflow.

b.

The minimum insulation clearance shall not result in insulation


imbeddedinthesolderjoint.

c.

The minimum insulation clearance shall not obscure the contour of the
conductorattheterminationendoftheinsulation.

Table71:Clearancesforinsulation
Wirediameter
(AmericanWireGauge)

Conductordiameter,d
(mm)

Insulationclearance
(maximum)

32to24

0,200to0,510

4d

22to12

0,636to2,030

3d

10

2,565

2d

7.2.2

Surfaces to be soldered

7.2.2.1

Cleaning

a.

Beforeassembly,devices,wire,terminalandconnectorcontactsshallbe
visuallyexaminedforcleanliness,absenceofoilfilmsandfreedomfrom
tarnishorcorrosion.

40

ECSSQST7008C
6March2009
b.

Conducting surfaces to be soldered shall be cleaned using solvents


specifiedinclause6.4.

c.

Abrasivesshallnotbeusedforsurfacepreparationexceptinthecaseof
goldplating on substrates and devices in accordance with clause
7.2.3.2.1.
NOTE

7.2.2.2

Abrasives can include pumice, pumice


impregnatederasersandemerypaper.

Wire lay

a.

Disturbed lay in strandedwire conductors shall be restored before


soldering.

b.

Restorationofthelayshallbedonewithoutcontaminatingtheconductor.

7.2.2.3

Terminals and solder cups

a.

Terminals and solder cup sizes shall be selected to match the size of
conductorsinaccordancewiththemanufacturersdatasheet.

b.

Thesizeofterminalsorsoldercupsshallnotbemodified.

7.2.3

De-golding of gold-plated leads and


terminals

7.2.3.1

General

a.

Tinleadalloysoldersshallnotbeusedtosoldertogold.

7.2.3.2

Methods for degolding

7.2.3.2.1

Removal of gold from PCB conductors by mechanical


abrasion

a.

RemovalofgoldfromPCBconductorsbymechanicalabrasionshallnot
beusedforremovinggoldplatinggreaterthan1mthick.

b.

Thegoldplatingshallberemovedusingapumiceimpregnatederaser.

c.

RemovalofgoldfromPCBconductorsbymechanicalabrasionshallnot
damagethesubstratematerials.

d.

RemovalofgoldfromPCBconductorsbymechanicalabrasionshallnot
impairthesolderabilityoftheconductor.

e.

RemovalofgoldfromPCBconductorsbymechanicalabrasionshallnot
reducethethicknessofthecopperconductor.
NOTE

ItisgoodpracticetodesignPCBswithselective
plating to avoid the necessity to remove gold
plating,seeclause6.8.2.

41

ECSSQST7008C
6March2009
7.2.3.2.2

Solder baths

a.

Solder baths used for degolding and pretinning shall be in accordance


withTable72.

b.

Surfaceimpuritiesshallberemovedfromthebathsurfacebeforeuse.

c.

A controlled method shall be established and implemented for the


replacementofsolderbaths,basedoneither:
1.

Contamination: Replace the solder bath alloy when the


contaminationlimitsgiveninTable72areexceeded,or

2.

Time: Establish a schedule of solderbath replacement with


justificationofthereplacementfrequency.

d.

Goldplated component leads and terminals shall be dipped into solder


bath1forbetween2secondsand3seconds.

e.

Theleadsshallbepretinnedinbath2inaccordancewithclause7.2.6.

f.

Thecomponentleadsshallbeallowedtocoolbeforecleaning.

7.2.3.2.3
a.

Solder cup method: to dissolve the gold plating

Soldershallbemeltedwithinthegoldplatedsoldercup.
NOTE

b.

Theliquidsolderdissolvesthegoldplating.

Theliquidsoldershallbewickedoutusingstrandedwire.

7.2.3.2.4

Solder iron method

a.

Soldershallbemeltedontotheconductorusingaheatedsolderingiron.

b.

Soldershallbewickedoutusingstrandedwire.

Table72:Solderbathsfordegoldingandpretinning

Use
Temperaturerange
(C)
Contaminationlimits
(weight%)

7.2.4

Solderbath1

Solderbath2

Golddissolution

Pretinning

250to280

210to280

Au<1

Cu<0,25;Au<0,2;(Cu+Au)<0,3;
Zn,AlandFe:Trace.

Constraints on degolding and pretinning


methods

a.

The maximum soldering rating of the component, stated by the


manufacturer,shallnotbeexceeded.

b.

Thermalshunts,inaccordancewithclause5.6.8.3,maybeused.

c.

Components having glasstometal lead seals shall be preformed


accordingtoclause5.6.4beforepretinning.

42

ECSSQST7008C
6March2009
d.

Liquidsoldershallnotcomeintocontactwiththecomponentbodyorits
glassmeniscus.

e.

The limit of the pretinned coating shall not be less than 0,75 mm from
anyleadtoglasssealofthecomponentpackage.

7.2.5

Pretinning of stranded wires

7.2.5.1

Solder baths

a.

Solderbathsforpretinningshallbeinaccordancewithclause7.2.3.

b.

Stranded wires may also be pretinned by applying solder to the wire


usingaheatedsolderingirontip.

7.2.5.2

Solder bath method

a.

Theinsulationshallberemovedinaccordancewithclause7.2.1.

b.

Purerosinfluxshallbeappliedtotheendofthestrands.

c.

Thefluxedendofthewireshallbedippedintosolderbath2foratime
between2secondsand3seconds.
NOTE

7.2.5.3

Pretinningpromotessolderabilityandprevents
untwistingorseparationstrandedwires.

Constraints on pretinning of stranded wires

a.

Soldershallpenetratetotheinnerstrandsofstrandedwire.

b.

Solder shall not obscure the wire contour at the termination end of the
insulation.

c.

Antiwickingtoolsinaccordancewithclause5.6.8.4maybeused.

d.

Pretinningshallnotdegradethecharacteristicsofthewire.
NOTE

Flowofsolder(wicking)beyondtheinsulation
canreducetheflexibilityofthewire.

e.

Theinsulationshallnotbedamagedbythepretinning.

f.

Fluxshallberemovedbymeansofacleaningsolvent,seeclause6.4.

g.

Cleaningsolventshallnotflowundertheconductorinsulation.
NOTE

Applicationusingalintfreeclothcanlimitthe
flowofsolvent.

43

ECSSQST7008C
6March2009

7.2.6

Pre-tinning of component leads and solidwire conductors

7.2.6.1

Solder bath method:

a.

Solderbathsforpretinningshallbeinaccordancewithclause7.2.3.

b.

1. Componentleadswithunacceptablesolderabilityinaccordancewith
the component procurement specification and solid wires shall be pre
tinnedbydippingintosolderbath2(seeTable72)foraperiodbetween
2secondsand8seconds.
NOTE1 It is good practice to observe an immersion
periodofbetween3secondsand4seconds.
NOTE2 Aslow,verticalandsmoothwithdrawalofthe
component lead from the bath promotes an
evencoating.

c.

The crosssectional area of conductors shall not reduce by dissolution


intothesolderbath.

d.

Thecomponentshallcoolbeforecleaning.
NOTE

7.2.6.2
a.

7.3

Rapidcoolingbycontactwithcleaningsolvents
cancrackpackagesorglasstometalseals.

Soldering-iron method:

Soldershallbemeltedontotheconductorusingaheatedsolderingiron.

Preparation of the soldering bit


7.3.1
a.

Thebitshallbefittedinaccordancewiththeequipmentmanufacturers
specification.

7.3.2
a.

Fit

Maintenance

Oxidationproductsshallberemovedfromthebit.
NOTE

b.

Build up of oxidation products can reduce the


abilityofthetiptotransferheat.

Platedtipsshallbeexaminedforcracking.
NOTE

Cracked platings allow the liquid solder to


alloy with and erode the underlying copper,
forming intermetallics which reduce heat
transferandleadtounacceptablejoints.

c.

Prior to examination, solder obscuring the surface shall be removed


when the iron is hot by wiping the bit with moist, lintfree, sponge
material.

d.

Bitswithcrackedplatingsshallberemovedfromthesolderingarea.

44

ECSSQST7008C
6March2009

7.3.3

Plated bits

a.

Depositsshallberemovedusingamoistsponge.

b.

Adherentdepositsmayberemovedusingfineabrasivepaper(grainsize
600).
NOTE

7.3.4
a.

Tip in operation

The working surface of the tip shall be pretinned in accordance with


clause7.2.6.
NOTE

7.4

7.6

Pretinningpreventsoxidationofthebit.

Maintenance of resistance-type soldering electrodes


a.

7.5

The use of a file to remove the deposits is


forbidden.

The surfaces of electrodes shall be kept free of contamination or


corrosion.

Handling (work station)


a.

ESDsensitive components shall be handled in accordance with clause


5.5.

b.

Metal surfaces to be soldered that show visible evidence of


contaminationshallbecleanedwithasolventspecifiedinclause6.4.

c.

During assembly, component leads, terminals, wire ends and PCB


terminationareasshallnotbetouchedwithbarehands.

d.

After final cleaning, personnel working with PCBs shall wear lintfree
glovesorfingercots.

Storage (work station)


7.6.1

Components

a.

Storage facilities shall protect components from contamination and


damage.

b.

Storageboxesandbagsshallbemadeofmaterialswhichdonotdegrade
thesolderabilityofthecomponents.

c.

Storagematerialsshallnotcontainamines,amides,silicones,sulphuror
polysulphides.

d.

Packaging and containers for ESDsensitive devices shall be in


accordancewithclause5.5.

45

ECSSQST7008C
6March2009

7.6.2
a.

PCBs

PCBsshallbestoredinaccordancewithECSSQST7011,clause7.1.

7.6.3

Materials requiring segregation

a.

Soldersnotinaccordancewithclause6.2shallberemovedfromthework
area.

b.

Activatedfluxesshallbestoredinaccordancewithclause6.3.1f.
NOTE

c.

Corrosiveacidfluxesshallbestoredinaccordancewithclause6.3.2c.
NOTE

d.

Example:INH1flux.

Solvents that do not conform to clause 6.4 shall be removed from the
workarea.
NOTE

7.7

Example:ROH1flux.

Example:
Solvents
contaminated
impuritiessuchasinorganicacids.

with

Preparation of PCBs for soldering


7.7.1

Process

a.

PCBsshallbeCleanedusingsolventconformingtoclause6.4.

b.

PCBsshallbedemoisturizedinaccordancewithclause7.7.2.

c.

PreparedPCBsshallbestoredinaccordancewithclause7.7.3.

7.7.2
a.

Demoisturization methods

Theoventemperatureshallbebetween90Cand120C.
NOTE

b.

It is good practice to follow the PCB


manufacturersrecommendations.

Theprocesstimeshallbeaminimumof4hours.
NOTE1 Long baking periods at higher temperatures
can reduce the solderability of PCB
terminations.
NOTE2 A vacuum bake method can be selected for
temperatureslessthan90C.

7.7.3

Storage of prepared PCBs

a.

The demoisturization process shall be carried out again according to


clause 7.7.2 when prepared PCBs are stored in ambient conditions for
morethan8hourspriortosoldering.

b.

Dry nitrogen, dry air, vacuum or desiccants may be used to extend the
storageperiod.

46

ECSSQST7008C
6March2009

8
Mounting of components
8.1

General requirements
8.1.1

Introduction

a.

Componentsshallbemountedparalleltothemountingsurface.

b.

Componentsshallbemountedincontactwiththemountingsurface.

c.

Components may be mounted not more than 3,5 mm above the


mountingsurface,seeFigure81.

d.

Materials used to support components shall meet the requirements of


ECSSQST7071,clause5.

8.1.2
a.

Heavy components

Componentsweighingmorethan5gshallbesupportedbyeitherofthe
followingmethods:
1.

adhesivecompoundsinaccordancewithclause6.10,or

2.

mechanicalmethods.
NOTE

Forexample:Lacing.

b.

The support method shall not impose stresses that result in functional
degradationordamagetothepartorassembly.

c.

Thesupportmethodshallnotimpairstressreliefdesigns.

8.1.3
a.

Metal-case components

Metalcase components shall be electrically insulated using space


approvedmaterialsinaccordancewithECSSQST7071,AnnexCwhere
theymeetoneofthefollowingconditions:
1.

mountedoverprintedconductors;

2.

incontactwithanothermetalcasecomponent;

3.

incontactwithaconductivematerial.

47

ECSSQST7008C
6March2009
b.

Metalcased components shall not be mounted over soldered


connections.

c.

Componentidentificationmarksshallnotbeobscuredbytheinsulation.
NOTE

8.1.4
a.

Glass-encased components

Glassencasedpartsshallbeenclosedwithsleevingwhenepoxymaterial
isusedforstaking,conformalcoatingorencapsulating.
NOTE

b.

Epoxy material cannot be applied directly to


theglass.

Glassencased components may be enclosed in resilient transparent


sleevingorinheatshrinkablesleeving.
NOTE

8.1.5
a.

Forexampletheserialnumbers.

Heatingandshrinkageofsleevingcandamage
glassencasedcomponents.

Stress relief of components with bendable


leads

Stressreliefshallbeincorporatedinto:
1.

solderedleadsandconductors,

2.

interfacialconnections.
NOTE1 Stressreliefprovidesfreedomofmovementfor
componentleadsorconductorsbetweenpoints
ofconstraint.
NOTE2 Stresses can arise between points of constraint
due to mechanical loading or temperature
variations.

b.

Stress relief methods, shown in Figure 82, Figure 85, Figure 810 and
Figure811,shallapply.

c.

TheassemblyofTO39,TO59andCKR06packagesshallbeperformed
inaccordancewithFigure81whenassembledwithoutstressrelief.

d.

Stressreliefdesignsshallnotdamagetheassembly.
NOTE

e.

Long lead lengths or large loops between


constraint points can vibrate and damage the
assembly.

Leads shall not be temporarily constrained against springback force


duringsoldering.
NOTE

Residual stresses are produced in the lead


materialorsolderjoint.

f.

Solderfilletsshallnotimpairstressreliefbends.

g.

CKR06 and similar packages shall be adhesively staked in accordance


withFigure81.

48

ECSSQST7008C
6March2009
NOTE
h.

The use a filler (silica powder) can prevent


excessiveflowofadhesive.

TO39andTO59packagesmayhaveanunderfillasshowninFigure81.

Figure81:AssemblyofunderfilledTO39andTO59,andadhesivelystakedCKR06

8.1.6
a.

Stress relief of components with nonbendable leads

Stressreliefforcomponentswithnonbendableleadsmountedincontact
withthePCBoradhesivelybondedtothePCBshallusewireextensions,
seeFigure83.

49

ECSSQST7008C
6March2009
NOTE

b.

Bending can damage components when lead


diameters are large or components have
delicate seals or where leadmaterial
compositionmakesbendingimpracticable.

DIP devices up to DIP 24 may be assembled without additional stress


relief, provided that the tapered portions of the leads are clear of the
componentsidelandsoftheplatedthroughholes.
NOTE

Inordertoachieveacceptablestandoff,ashim
canbeused.

50

ECSSQST7008C
6March2009

SR

SR

C
(a) Clinched lead

(b) Stud-mounted lead

C
Pad

SR
C
(c) Offset lap joint

Transistor mounting pad

SR
C

Plated-through hole

(d) Stud-mounted leads


SR
C

SR

C
C

SR
C

SR
C

(e) Alternative methods

Figure82:Methodsforincorporatingstressreliefwithcomponentshaving
bendableleads

51

ECSSQST7008C
6March2009

Figure83:Methodsforattachingwireextensionstononbendableleads

8.1.7
a.

Clause6.8.1shallapplyforreinforcedplatedthroughholes.

8.1.8
a.

Reinforced plated-through holes

Lead and conductor cutting

Solderterminationsshallnotbecutafterthesolderingoperation.
NOTE

8.1.9

Componentleadsandwiresarecutandshaped
beforesoldering.

Solid hook-up wire

a.

Solidhookupwireshallbesupportedatintervalsnotexceeding30mm.

b.

Thesupportshallbeprovidedbystaking.

8.1.10
a.

Location

Component bodies shall not be located in contact with soldered or


weldedterminations.

8.1.11

Conformal coating, cementing and


encapsulation

a.

Coatingsandcementingcompoundsshallnotbridgestressreliefloopsor
bendsatterminationsincomponentleadsorconnectingwires.

b.

Stress relief of device leads shall not be impaired by encapsulants or


conformalcoatings.

52

ECSSQST7008C
6March2009

8.2

Lead bending requirements


8.2.1

General

a.

Duringbending,componentleadsshallbesupportedtoavoidaxialstress
anddamagetosealsorinternalbonds.

b.

The inside radius of a bend shall not be less than the lead diameter or
ribbonthickness.

c.

The distances between the bends and the end seals at either end of an
axialcomponentshallbesimilar.

d.

The minimum distance from the bend to the end seal shall be two lead
diametersforroundleadsand0,50mmforribbonleads.

e.

Wherethecomponentleadisweldedtheminimumdistancetothebend
shallbemeasuredfromtheweldinaccordancewithFigure84.
NOTE

f.

Example:Tantalumcapacitors.

Bendingtoolsshallnotimpingeontheweld.

Figure84:Minimumleadbend

8.2.2

Conductors terminating on both sides of a


non-plated-through hole

a.

Stressreliefshallbeprovidedinthecomponentleadonbothsidesofthe
PCBinaccordancewithFigure85(a).

b.

Whenasolidhookupwireisusedtointerconnectsolderterminationson
opposite sides of a PCB, stress relief shall be provided in the wire
betweenthetwoterminationsinaccordancewithFigure85(b).

53

ECSSQST7008C
6March2009

C
SR
C

SR

SR

(a)

(b)

Figure85:Leadswithsolderterminationonbothsides

8.3

Mounting of terminals to PCBs


a.

Swagetype terminals, designed to have the terminal shoulder soldered


to printed conductors, shall be secured to singlesided PCBs by a roll
swageinaccordancewithFigure86(a).

b.

Swagetypeterminalsthataremountedinaplatedthroughholeshallbe
secured to the PCB by an elliptical funnel swage in accordance with
Figure86(b).
NOTE

An elliptical funnel swage enables complete


fillingoftheplatedthroughholewithsolder.

c.

ThePCBshallnotbedamagedbytheswagingprocess.

d.

After swaging, the terminal shall be inspected for circumferential splits


orcracks.

e.

After swaging, the terminal shall be free from circumferential splits or


cracks.

f.

Afterswaging,theterminalmayhaveamaximumofthreeradialsplitsor
cracks, provided that the splits or cracks do not extend beyond the
swagedareaoftheterminalandareaminimumof90apart.

54

ECSSQST7008C
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Solder
Conductor

Board

Roll swage
(a) Single sided

Slight reflowed
solder fillet

Conductor

Board

Plated-through
hole

Solder
Elliptical swage
(b) Double sided

Figure86:Typesofterminalswaging

8.4

Lead attachment to PCBs


8.4.1

General

a.

Solderterminationsshallbevisibleforinspectionaftersoldering.

b.

ComponentleadsshallbeterminatedtoPCBsbyclinch,studorlapped
terminations.

8.4.2

Clinched leads

a.

Nonbendableleadsshallnotbeclinched,seealsoclause8.1.6.

b.

Clinched leads terminating at a PCB pad shall be bent to make contact


withtheprintedcircuitconductors.

c.

The clinched lead shall not extend beyond the edge of the conductor
pattern,seeFigure87andFigure88.

d.

Theleadshallnotbeforcedtolieflatatthebendradius,seeFigure87
andFigure88.
NOTE

Component leads can springback when


clinched.

55

ECSSQST7008C
6March2009
e.

Thesolderedlengthshallcomplywithclauses8.4.4and8.4.5.

f.

Roundedterminationareasshallbesuchthat:
1.

theleadextendsthroughandoverlapthesolderpad,

2.

the lead is bent in the direction of the longest dimension of the


solderpad,and

3.

theareaofthesolderpadpermitsasolderfillettobeformed.

Figure87:Clinchedleadterminationsunsupportedholes

Figure88:Clinchedleadterminationsplatedthroughholes

56

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8.4.3

Stud leads

a.

Forunsupportedholes,thecutstudleadsshallprotrudebeyondthePCB
surfaceby1,5mm0,8mm,seeFigure89(a).

b.

For platedthrough hole less than 2,2 mm in length, the cut stud leads
shall protrude beyond the PCB surface by 1,5 mm 0,8 mm, see Figure
89(b).

c.

Forcomponentswithshortleadsandplatedthroughholes,greaterthan
orequalto2,2mminlength,theprotrusionmaybezero,providedthat
the outline of the lead is visible, there is wetting between the lead and
padaroundtheentirecircumferenceandthereiscompletepenetrationof
soldertothecomponentside,seeFigure89(c).
d

Unsupported
hole

Functional pad,
0,4 mm min.
Plated-through
hole

Solder pad
0,4 mm min.

(1,5 0,8) mm

(a)

(b)

(1,5 0,8) mm

Zero protrusion

Acceptable
Outline of stud visible
Good wetting

Unacceptable
Outline of stud not visible

(c)

Figure89:Studterminations

57

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8.4.4
a.

Roundleadsshalloverlapthesolderpad:
1.

Minimum overlap: Either 3,5 times the lead diameter or 1,3 mm,
whicheveristhegreater.

2.

Maximumoverlap:5,5timestheleaddiameter.

b.

The distance from the cut end of the lead to the edge of the solder pad
shallbemorethan0,5timestheleaddiameter.

c.

No portion of the soldered lead termination shall project beyond the


edgesofthepad.

8.4.5
a.

8.5

Lapped round leads

Lapped ribbon leads

Ribbonleadsshalloverlapthesolderpad,seeFigure810(b):
1.

Minimum overlap: Either 3 times the lead width or 1,3 mm,


whicheveristhegreater.

2.

Maximumoverlap:5timestheleadwidth.

b.

No portion of the soldered lead termination shall project beyond the


edgesofthepad.

c.

The distance from the cut end of the lead to the edge of the solder pad
shallbeatleast0,25mm.

d.

Onesideoftheleadmaybeflushwiththeedgeofthesolderpad.

Mounting of components to terminals


a.

Componentsshallbemountedinaccordancewithclause8.1.

b.

Degree of wrap, routing and connection to terminals shall be in


accordancewithclause9andclause10.

c.

The lead length between the component and the terminals shall be
similar at both ends, except where component package shapes dictate
staggering.
NOTE

d.

Example:Tophatdiodeswithflanges.

StressreliefshallbeprovidedinaccordancewithFigure811.

58

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3,5d to3,5d
5,5d
to 5,5d

0,5d
min.
0,5d min.

dd
3d min.

1,5d toto3,0d
1,5d
3,0d
(1,3 mm
(1,3
mmmin.)
min.)

3d min.
(a)(a)
Round
lead
Round

lead
3w to
min.)
3w
to 5w
5w(1,3
(1,3mm
mm
min.)

0,25
mmmin.
min.)
0,25 mm

w ++0,4
min.
W
0,4mm
mm
min.
w
w

2,5 mm
3w
2,5 mm
3w min.
min. min.
min.)

(b) Ribbon
(b) Ribbon
lead

lead

Figure810:Methodsofthroughholelappedtermination
CC

2d min.
min.
SR
SR

CC

2d
min.
2d min.

CC

(a) Offset
(a)
Offsetmounting
mounting

SR
SR
d

In-line mounting
(b)(b)In-line
mounting

SR =SR
Stress
reliefrelief
bendbend
= Stress
C =C
Constraint
point
= Constraint
point

Figure811:Methodofstressrelievingpartsattachedtoterminals
59

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8.6

Mounting of connectors to PCBs


a.

Connectorsshallbemountedinaccordancewithclause8.1.

b.

PCBconnectorsshallbesuppliedwitheither:
1.

preformedleadssupportingstressreliefbends,or

2.

straight,epoxybondedleads.

c.

Degoldingandpretinningofleads,inaccordancewithclause7.2.3and
clause7.2.6,shallbeperformedbeforemechanicalfixingofconnectorsto
thePCB.

d.

Before soldering, the operator shall ensure that there is no contact


betweenthesolderfillettobeformedandthegoldplating.

e.

Connector leads shall protrude through the board in accordance with


clause8.4.3.

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9
Attachment of conductors to terminals,
solder cups and cables
9.1

General
9.1.1
a.

Aconductorshallbewrappedontoaterminalinthesamesenseasthe
finalcurvatureofthewire.

9.1.2

9.2

Conductors

Terminals

a.

Goldplated terminals and solder cups shall have the gold removed in
the conductor attachment area and be pretinned in accordance with
clause7.2.3.

b.

Terminalsshallbeselectedtofittheconductors.

Wire termination
9.2.1
a.

Breakouts from cables

The length of individualwires routed from a common cable to equally


spaced terminals shall beuniform (including wire endsandstressrelief
bends).
NOTE

9.2.2

Uniformlengthspreventstressconcentrationin
anyonewire.

Insulation clearance

a.

Wherecharacteristicimpedanceorcircuitparametersarenotaffected,the
insulationclearancevaluesstatedinclause7.2.1.4shallapply.

b.

Where characteristic impedance or circuit parameters are affected the


insulationclearancerequirementsmaybemodifiedandthemodification
shallbedocumentedintheprocessprocedures.
NOTE

Example: Highvoltage circuits or RF coaxial


lineterminations.

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9.2.3

Solid hook-up wire

a.

Solidhookupwireshallbesupportedatintervalsnotexceeding30mm.

b.

Supportshallbeprovidedbystakingorconformalcoating.

9.2.4

Stress relief

a.

Conductors terminating at solder connections shall incorporate stress


relief.

b.

Wickingshallbecontrolled.
NOTE

9.3

Antiwicking tools can be used for pretinning


thestrandedwires.

Turret and straight-pin terminals


9.3.1

Side route

a.

SiderouteconnectionsshallbemadeasshowninFigure91(a).

b.

Conductorsshallbewrappedaroundthepost(seeFigure91(c)):
1.

aminimumof1/2turn.

2.

amaximumof3/4turn.

c.

Forturretterminals,allconductorsshallbeconfinedtotheguideslots.

d.

Conductorsshallnotprojectbeyondthebaseoftheterminal.

e.

Wiresshallnotbewrappedoverotherwires.

f.

More than one wire may be installed in a single slot of a terminal post
provided that the combined diameters of the wires are less than the
widthoftheslot.

g.

Wiresterminatingatterminalsthatdonothaveamechanicalshoulderor
turretshallnotbeattachedcloserthanoneconductordiametertothetop
oftheterminal.

9.3.2
a.

Bottom route

Theconductorshallentertheterminalfromthebottom,passthroughthe
sideslotatthetop,andbewrappedasforthesideroute,seeFigure91(b).

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Insulation
clearance

Upper guide slot

Lower guide slot

Insulation
clearance
Base
(a)

(b)

turn maximum

turn minimum
(c)

Figure91:Sideandbottomrouteconnectionstoturretterminals

9.4

Bifurcated terminals
9.4.1

General

a.

Top,sideorbottomroutes,orcombinationsthereof,shallbeused.

b.

Toprouteandsiderouteshallnotbeusedtogetheronthesameterminal.

9.4.2

Bottom route

a.

BottomrouteconnectionsshallbeasshowninFigure92.

b.

Conductorsmayprojectbeyondthediameterofthebase,seeFigure92
(c),providedthatclearances,environmentalandelectricalcharacteristics
arenotcompromised.

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Post

Bend

Bend
Shoulder

(b)

(a)

(c) See subclause 9.4.2

Minimum insulation
clearance

Figure92:Bottomrouteconnectionstobifurcatedterminal

9.4.3

Side route

a.

SiderouteconnectionsshallbeasshowninFigure93.

b.

Theconductorshallenterthemountingslotperpendiculartotheposts.

c.

Whenmorethanoneconductorisconnectedtoaterminal,thedirection
of bend of each additional conductor shall alternate, see Figure 93 (b)
and(d).

d.

Siderouteconnectionsshallnotprojectabovethetopoftheterminal.

e.

Conductorsmayprojectbeyondthediameterofthebase,seeFigure93
(c),providedthatclearances,environmentalandelectricalcharacteristics
arenotcompromised.

f.

Conductorsshallbewrappedaminimumofturn(Figure93(a))toa
maximumofturn(Figure93(c))aroundthepost.

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Insulation
clearance

Insulation
clearance
Point of
entry

Point of entry is
same for upper
conductor

(b)

(a)

Insulation
clearance

Solder to post
and shoulder

(c)

(d)

Figure93:Siderouteconnectiontobifurcatedterminal

9.4.4

Top route

a.

Thetoprouteshallnotbeusedwheresideentryispossible.

b.

ToprouteconnectionsshallbeasshowninFigure94.

c.

Conductors shall be inserted between the vertical posts to the depth of


the shoulder, except for combined top and bottom routes (see clause
9.4.5).

d.

Conductorswhichdonotfillthegap,seeFigure94,shallbeeither:

e.

1.

accompanied by a tinned filler wire (solid or stranded), such that


thecombineddiametersfillthegap,or

2.

bentdouble,providedthatthecombineddiametersfillthegap.

Thetoprouteandsiderouteshallnotbeusedonthesameterminal.

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Insulation
Insulation
clearance
clearance

filler wire
TinnedTinned
filler wire
(stranded
or solid)
(stranded
or solid)

Figure94:Toprouteconnectiontobifurcatedterminal

9.4.5
a.

The bottom route conductor shall be installed before the top route
conductor.

b.

The toproute conductor shall be inserted to contact the bottomroute


conductor.

9.4.6
a.

9.5

Combination of top and bottom routes

Combination of side and bottom routes

The bottom route conductor shall be installed before the side route
conductor.

Hook terminals
a.

ConnectionstohookterminalsshallbeasshowninFigure95.

b.

Thebendtoattachconductorstohookterminalsshallbe:
1.

aminimumof1/2turn,

2.

amaximumof3/4turn.

c.

Protrusionofconductorendsshallnotdamageinsulationsleeving.

d.

Wheremorethanoneconductorisattachedtoaterminal,thedirectionof
bendofeachconductorshallalternate(seeFigure95(b)).

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Figure95:Connectionstohookterminals

9.6

Pierced terminals
a.

ConnectionstopiercedterminalsshallbeasshowninFigure96.

b.

Thebendtoattachconductorstopiercedterminalsshallbe:

c.

1.

aminimumof1/4turn,

2.

amaximumof3/4turn.

Protrusionofconductorendsshallnotdamageinsulationsleeving.

Insulation
Insulation
clearance
clearance
D

Insulation
Insulation
clearance
clearance

Insulation
Insulation
clearance
clearance

One conductor
One conduc
dia. max

tor dia. max.

entry
SideSide
entry

1/4
turn
turn

(a)(a)

1/2
turn
turn

(b)
(b)

(c) (c)

Figure96:Connectionstopiercedterminals
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9.7

Solder cups (connector type)


a.

ConductorsshallenterthesoldercupasshowninFigure97.

b.

Conductorsshallbebottomedinthecup.

c.

Conductorsshallbeincontactwiththeinnerwallofthecup.

d.

Multiple conductors may be inserted provided that each is in contact


withthefullheightoftheinnerwallofthecup.

e.

Fluxshallnotbetrappedwithinthesoldercup.

f.

Conductorsshallnotmisalignfloatingcontacts.
NOTE

Example: Solid, rigid conductor wire into


connectors.

Insulation
Insulation
clearance
clearance

Insulation
Insulation
clearance
clearance

Point
of entry
Point
of entry

Conductors
Conductors
shall bottomin
bottomed
cup
in cup

shall
WireWire
bottomed
bottom in cup
in cup

(b)
(b)

(a)
(a)

Figure97:Connectionstosoldercups(connectortype)

9.8

Insulation sleeving
a.

Connections that are not protected by insulation grommets, potting, or


conformalcoatingshallbeprotectedbyinsulatingsleeving.
NOTE

Example: Hook terminals, solder cupsand bus


wires.

b.

Insulationsleevingshallbetransparentandheatshrinkable.

c.

A component shall not move within the sleeving when the sleeving is
mechanicallysupported.

d.

Heatshrinkingofthesleeveshallnotdamagetheassembly.

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9.9

Wire and cable interconnections


9.9.1

General

a.

Interconnection methods shall not use fluxed solder preforms within


heatshrinkablesleeves.

b.

Soldered wire interconnection methods shall enable the removal of flux


andfluxresidue.

c.

Soldered wire interconnection methods shall enablevisual inspection of


theinterconnectionandsurroundingmaterials.

d.

After soldering, conductors shall be covered with heatshrinkable


sleeving.

e.

Fluorocarbonsleevesshallnotbeused.
NOTE

9.9.2

Fluorocarbon sleeves have high shrinkage


temperatures that can damage or reflow
solderedconnections.

Preparation of wires

a.

Wireinsulationshallberemovedusinginsulationstrippersinaccordance
withclause5.6.6.

b.

Wireinsulationclearancesshallbeinaccordancewithclause7.2.1.4.

c.

Pretinningshallbeinaccordancewithclauses7.2.5and7.2.6.

9.9.3
a.

b.

c.

Preparation of shielded wires and cables

Theareaofexposedshieldshallbeeither:
1.

attheendofthewireorcable(endtermination),or

2.

atanypositionalongthelengthofawireorcable(centresplice).

Theinsulationjacketshallberemovedfor:
1.

aminimumlengthof5mm,

2.

amaximumlengthof12mm.

Theinsulationjacketshallbescoredandremovedusingasharpcutting
tool.
NOTE

Example:Ascalpel.

d.

Thepreparationprocessshallnotdamagetheexposedshieldmaterialin
accordancewithclauses7.2.1.2and7.2.1.3.

e.

Theshieldmaterialshallbeofgoodsolderability.

f.

Theshieldmaterialshallnotbepretinned.

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ECSSQST7008C
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g.

The shield material shall be cleaned using a solvent in accordance with


clause6.4.

9.9.4

Pre-assembly

9.9.4.1

Heat-shrinkable sleeving

a.

Heatshrinkable sleeving shall provide electrical insulation and


mechanicalsupporttothefinishedinterconnection.

b.

The sleeving shall be cut to a length that covers the finished soldered
joint and extends over the remaining insulation of each conductor for a
distanceof5mm2mm.

c.

Thecutsleevingshallbethreadedoveroneofthewirestobejoined.

9.9.4.2
a.

Conductors

Conductorsshallbesecuredtopreventdisturbanceduringsolderingand
solidificationusingone,oracombinationof,thefollowingmethods:
1.

A holding fixture that clamps the wires ensuring correct


alignment.

2.

A strand of binding wire, wrapped a minimum of 3 turns, as


showninFigure98(a).
NOTE

Example:Bare,tinnedcopperwire.

3.

Rings of heatshrinkable sleeving positioned over the ends of the


wireinsulations,seeFigure98(b)and(c).

4.

Atwistsplicearoundthebraid,seeFigure98(c).

b.

Theconductorstobejoinedshalllieparallelandincontact.

c.

Conductors may be preformed when the cable insulation prevents a


parallellay.

d.

Bending tools for the preforming of conductors shall be in accordance


withclause5.6.4.

e.

Wiresshallbesplicedusinglapjoints.

f.

For shield terminations, the conductor of the grounding wire shall be


positionedontheexposedshield.

g.

Insulation overlap shall not be greater than the diameter of the largest
conductoroftheinterconnection.

9.9.5

Soldering procedures

a.

Thesolderingironshallbeselectedinaccordancewithclause5.6.7.

b.

Thesolderalloyshallbeinaccordancewithclause6.2.

c.

Thefluxshallbeinaccordancewithclause6.3.

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d.

Solderingaidsshallbeusedtorestrictwickingoffluxorsolderunderthe
insulationinaccordancewithclause5.6.8.

e.

After solder solidification, the contour of each wire conductor shall be


visible.

f.

After solder solidification, adjacent conductors shall be connected by


concavesolderfillets.

5 mm - 12 mm
5 mm - 12 mm

(a) Use of fine (34 AWG) strand for binding

(b) Securing with shrink sleeving

(c) Twisted wire around braid

Figure98:Methodsforsecuringwires

9.9.6
a.

Theremovaloffluxandresiduesshallbeinaccordancewithclause11.

9.9.7
a.

Cleaning

Inspection

Interconnectionsshallbeinspectedinaccordancewithclause12.

9.9.8

Workmanship

a.

Jointsshallhaveasmooth,brightappearance.

b.

Theworkmanshipofsolderjointsshallbeinaccordancewithclause15.

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NOTE

9.9.9

The configurations in clause 15 can be applied


tosimilarinterconnections.

Sleeving of interconnections

a.

The heatshrinkable insulation sleeving (see clause 9.9.4.1) shall be


centredoverthecleanedandinspectedinterconnection.

b.

Thesleevingshallbeshrunkusingheatedgasorradiantenergy.

c.

Heatshallnotbeappliedformorethan8seconds.

d.

Theheatshrinkingtemperatureshallnotbeexceed140C.

9.10 Connection of stranded wires to PCBs


a.

StrandedwiresshallbesolderedtoPCBterminationsusinglapjointsor
platedthroughholesinaccordancewithFigure99(a),(b)and(c).

b.

The dimensions shown in Figure 99 shall be in accordance with Table


91.

c.

Stressreliefshallbeprovided.

d.

For PTFEinsulated wire, the minimum distance between the insulation


andthesolderfilletshallbe1mm.

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Figure99:ConnectionofstrandedwirestoPCBs
Table91:DimensionsforFigure99
r2d

=conductordiameter

r12D

=outerwirediameter

1mmH2mm

=insulationclearance

1,5mm0,8mm

LP

=leadprotrusionthroughboard

73

ECSSQST7008C
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10
Soldering to terminals and PCBs
10.1 General
10.1.1

Securing conductors

a.

There shall be no relative motion between conductors and terminals


duringsolderingorsoldersolidification.

b.

Conductors shall not be temporarily constrained against springback


forceduringsoldersolidification.
NOTE

10.1.2
a.

Thermal shunts

Thermalshuntsshallbeusedtoprotectthermallysensitivecomponents.
NOTE

10.1.3
a.

Residual stresses are produced in the lead


materialorsolderjoint.

Example: Conductors, insulation, components


andpreviouslysolderedconnections.

High-voltage connections

Solderedjointsforcoronasuppressionshallbeperformedintwostages
withanintermediateinspection:
1.

Thefirstsolderingstageproducesastandardsolderedconnection
inaccordancewithclause12;

2.

This connection is inspected for compliance with clause 12.2 and


12.3;

3.

Thejointthenhasadditionalsolderalloyadded;

4.

Thesecondsolderingstageproducesafinaljoint,seeFigure101,
having:
(a)

smoothconvexfillets,

(b)

nodiscontinuities,

(c)

noseverechangesincontour,

(d)

nosharpedgesorpoints.

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Figure101:Highvoltageconnection

10.2 Solder application to terminals


10.2.1
a.

Soldering of swaged terminals onto PCBs

Terminals swaged to a solid flat conductor shall be soldered to one


surfaceoftheconductor.

10.2.2

Soldering of conductors onto terminals


(except cup terminals)

a.

A concave fillet of soldershall be present between the terminaland the


sidesoftheconductor.

b.

Thecontouroftheconductorshallbevisibleaftersoldering.

c.

Terminalswithmorethanonewireshallhaveeachwireincontactwith,
andsolderedto,theterminal.

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10.2.3

Soldering of conductors onto cup terminals

a.

Theworkmanshipshallbeinaccordancewithclause15.7.

b.

The solder shall form a fillet between the conductor and the cup entry
slot.

c.

Thefilletshallfollowthecontourofthecupopening.

d.

Solder spillage may be present on the outside surface of the solder cup
provided that it does not interfere with the function or the assembly of
theconnector.

10.3 Solder application to PCBs


10.3.1

Solder coverage

a.

The molten solder shall flow around the conductor and over the
terminationarea.

b.

Except for highvoltage connections, the quantity of solder shall be in


accordancewithclause15.

c.

The solder for highvoltage connections shall be in accordance with


clause10.1.3.

d.

Solder shall not obscure the contour of the conductor at the end of the
insulation.

10.3.2

Solder fillets

a.

Solderfilletsshallbeinaccordancewithclause15.1and15.2.

b.

Aconductormountedasalapterminationshallhaveaheelfilletwhereit
bendsawayfromthepad.

c.

Onlapterminationswhereonesideofaconductorisflushwiththeedge
of the termination pad, a fillet of solder shall be present along at least
threeofthefoursidesofthelead.

d.

Thefilletofsolderalongtheleadshallextendupthesideoftheleadtoa
minimumdistanceofhalftheleadthicknessordiameter.

10.3.3

Soldering of component leads to platedthrough holes

10.3.3.1

Heat and solder side

a.

Thesolderfilletsshallbeinaccordancewithclause15.1and15.2.

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10.3.3.2

Component side

a.

Onthecomponentside,theterminalpadshallshowsolderflowthrough
andasolderfilletbetweentheleadandthepadforaminimumof25%of
thecircumference,seeFigure102(a).

b.

Absenceofcomponentsidepadwettingmaybeacceptablewhensolder
wettingisvisibleintheplatedthroughhole,seeFigure102(b).

(b)

(a)

Figure102:Minimumacceptablewettingoncomponentside

10.3.4

Solder application

a.

Soldershallbeappliedonlytothesoldersideofaplatedthroughhole.

b.

Thesolderingironbitshallbepretinned.

c.

Theheatedsolderingironbitshallbeappliedtothejoint.

d.

Soldershallbeintroduced:
1.

initiallyatthejunctionofthesolderingironbitandthejoint.
NOTE

2.
e.

Liquid solder between the tip and the


connectionpromotesheattransfer.

onceheattransferhasbeenachieved,onlytothejoint.

Where the rate of heat loss from the joint is too high to allow an
acceptablesolderjointonthecomponentside,additionalheatingshallbe
used.
NOTE1 Example:Highthermalmassesoradjacentheat
sinks.
NOTE2 Heatcanbeappliedtobothsidesoftheplated
throughholesimultaneously.

f.

Additionalheatingshallnotdamagecomponentsormaterials.

g.

Theprocessofadditionalheatingshallbedocumented.

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10.4 Wicking
a.

Solderingaidsshallbeusedtorestrictthewickingoffluxorsolderunder
insulationinaccordancewithclause5.6.8.4.

10.5 Solder rework


a.

ReworkofsolderedPCBassembliesshallbedonewhenthesolderjoint
doesnotmeettheacceptancecriteriaofclause12.

b.

Ajointshallnotbereworkedmorethanthreetimes.
NOTE

c.

For reworking, the solder can be completely


removedfromthetermination.

ToolsandaidsshallbeinaccordancewithECSSQST7028.

10.6 Repair and modification


a.

AnyrepairsormodificationsshallbeinaccordancewithECSSQST7028.

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11
Cleaning of PCB assemblies
11.1 General
a.

When the solder has solidified and cooled, flux and residue shall be
removed from soldered connections using a solvent in accordance with
clause6.4.

b.

Solvent shall be applied in such a manner that avoids its penetration


underwireinsulationandpreventsitsentryintotheinteriorofparts.

c.

Fluxandresidueshallberemovedwithinamaximumperiodof8hours
aftersolderingoperations.
NOTE

d.

It is good practice to remove flux as soon as


possible because even rosin fluxes are difficult
toremoveafterlongerageing.

PCBassembliesshallnotbeimmersedincleaningsolventsformorethan
30minutesforeachcleaningoperation.
NOTE

Long immersion times can promote galvanic


corrosionbetweenadjacentmetallicsurfaces.

11.2 Ultrasonic cleaning


a.

Ultrasonic cleaning shall not be used for PCBs populated with


components.

11.3 Monitoring for cleanliness


11.3.1

Cleanliness testing

a.

The effectiveness of the cleaning process employed for PCB assemblies


(postsoldering) shall be tested using a sodium chloride (NaCl)
equivalentioniccontaminationtestinaccordancewithclause11.3.4.

b.

Cleanlinesstestingmaybeomittedforsolderassembliesusingonlypure
rosin(ROL0)fluxes,seeclause6.3.1.

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11.3.2
a.

Testing frequency

Forfluxes,otherthanpurerosin,cleanlinesstestingshallbedone:
1.

atmaximumintervalsofsixmonths;

2.

followingachangeinfluxmaterials;

3.

followingachangeinprocessparameters;

4.

followingactionsaffectingcleanability.
NOTE

b.

Thesuppliershallimplementandmaintainrecordsoftestresults.
NOTE

c.

Test limits

Thesodiumchloride(NaCl)ioniccontaminationequivalencevalueshall
belessthan1,56g/cm2ofPCBsurfacearea.

11.3.4
a.

The records can aid early detection of a trend


towardsnonconformance.

Whenatestresultisunacceptable,allPCBassembliescleanedsincethe
lastsuccessfultestshallbesubjecttoreviewbytheApprovalauthorityin
accordancewithECSSQST20.

11.3.3
a.

Statistical control methods can be used to


controlcontinuoussolventcleaningprocesses.

Test method

Sodium chloride (NaCl) equivalent ionic contamination shall be


measuredasfollows:
1.

Useasolutionof75%isopropylalcoholand25%deionizedwater
forthesodiumchloride(NaCl)equivalentioniccontaminationtest.

2.

Calibrate the equipment using a sodium chloride solution of


knownquantityandcomposition.

b.

Testing shall be performed according to the equipment manufacturers


specification.

c.

Thecleanlinesstestvaluesshallbeasfollows:
1.

Startingresistivity:greaterthan20106cm.

2.

Endingvalue:lessthan1,56g/cm2.
NOTE

ESA STM 275 contains an evaluation of PCB


cleanlinesstesting.

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12
Final inspection
12.1 General
a.

Each component mounting and soldered connection shall be visually


inspectedforcompliancewithclause12.2and12.3andtheworkmanship
standardsofclause15.

b.

Inspectionshallbeaidedbymagnificationappropriatetothesizeofthe
connectionsbetween4timesand10times.

c.

Additionalmagnificationshallbeusedtoresolvesuspectedanomaliesor
defects.

d.

Partsandconductorsshallnotbephysicallymovedtoaidinspection.

e.

The substrate, component and component position, as well as fasteners


and mounting hardware, shall be inspected in accordance with the
requirementsofclause8,clause9andclause10.

12.2 Acceptance criteria


a.

Acceptablesolderconnectionsshallbecharacterisedby:
1.

aclean,smoothsatintobrightundisturbedsurface,

2.

solder fillets between conductor and termination areas as


describedandillustratedinclause15,

3.

forsolderfilletsofplatedthroughholeconnections,thecriteriain
clause10.3.3apply,

4.

visible contour of wires and leads such that their presence,


directionofbendandterminationendcanbedetermined,

5.

completewettingasevidencedbyalowcontactanglebetweenthe
solderandthejoinedsurfaces,

6.

acceptable amount and distribution of solder in accordance with


clause15,

7.

absenceofanyofthedefectsmentionedinclauses12.3,

8.

highvoltageconnectionsinaccordancewithclause10.1.3,

9.

stressrelief.

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12.3 Visual rejection criteria


a.

The following are some characteristics of unsatisfactory conditions, any


ofwhichshallbecauseforrejection:
1.

charred,burnedormeltedinsulationofparts,

2.

conductorpatternseparationfromcircuitboard,

3.

burnsonbasematerials,

4.

continuousdiscolourationbetweentwoconductorpatterns.
NOTE

For example measling, delamination, halo


effect.

5.

excessivesolder(includingpeaks,iciclesandbridging),seeclause
15,

6.

contaminated solder joints (including flux, lint and extraneous


material),

7.

fluxresidue,soldersplatter,solderballs,orotherforeignmatteron
circuitry,beneathcomponentsoronadjacentareas,

8.

dewetting,

9.

insufficientsolder,seeclause15,

10.

pits,holesorvoids,orexposedbasemetal(excludingtheendsof
cutleads)inthesolderedconnection,

11.

granularordisturbedsolderjoints,

12.

fracturedorcrackedsolderconnection,

13.

cut,nicked,gougedorscrapedconductorsorconductorpattern,

14.

incorrectconductorlength,

15.

incorrectdirectionofclinchorlapterminationonaPCB,

16.

damagedconductorpattern,

17.

barecopperorbasemetal,excludingtheendsofcutwireorleads
orsidesoftracksandsolderingpadsonsubstrate,

18.

soldered joints made directly to goldplated terminals or gold


platedconductorsusingtinleadsolders,

19.

coldsolderjoints,

20.

componentbodyembeddedwithinsolderfillet,

21.

opensolderjoints,
NOTE

Forexampletombstoning.

22.

probemarkspresentonthemetallizationofchipdevicescausedby
electricaltestingafterassembly,

23.

glasssealdoesnotconformtoMILSTD883Method2009.8,

24.

impairedstressrelief.

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13
Verification procedure
13.1 General
a.

Any soldering configuration not covered by this standard shall be


verificationtestedinaccordancewiththisclause.

b.

Thesuppliershallestablishaverificationprogrammetobeapprovedby
theApprovalauthority.

c.

The supplier shall demonstrate verification for each combination of


substrateclass,stakingcompound,encapsulantandconformalcoatingas
usedonflightmodels.

d.

The devices and associated materials shall be documented in the


verificationprogramme,including:
1.

packagedesignation,

2.

solder alloy composition, adhesive, encapsulant, conformal


coating,andprintedcircuitboards.

e.

The verification test board shall support at least three devices for each
assemblyconfiguration.

f.

The repairability of each configuration, shall be demonstrated not to


damagetheprintedcircuitboard.

g.

Verificationtestingshallcomprisethefollowing:
1.

Vibrationtestinginaccordancewithclause13.2.
NOTE

Vibration testing can be performed before or


afterthermaltesting.

2.

200thermalcyclesinaccordancewithclause13.3.

3.

Visualinspectioninaccordancewithclause12.

4.

Microsectioninginaccordancewithclause13.4.

5.

Nocrackedsolderjointsordamagedparts.

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13.2 Vibration
a.

Thetestspecimenshallbevibrationtested.

b.

The PCB design and mounting (including fittings such as stiffeners,


framesorspacers)shallberepresentativeoftheflightmodel.

c.

The test levels and durations shall be derived from the system
requirements.
NOTE1 Thevibrationtestlevelsforlauncherhardwareare
moreseverethanthoseforotherflighthardware.
NOTE2 Vibration testing methodology From the input
levels required by the projects in progress, the
maximumdeformationoftheprintedcircuitboard
at the part level is established for each
configuration (part type, location on the printed
circuit board). The test specimen is representative
of these configurations and covers at least the
maximum deformations previously established,
with a margin either minimum for a specific
project or higher for generic applications.
Nevertheless, in order to take into account test
specimen imperfections, notching can be used to
reduce
nonrepresentative
mechanical
overstresses. The part assembly (mounting
condition) is defined in order to withstand the
vibration levels estimated at the part level. The
successofverificationofthetestspecimenandthe
successfulcompletionofQMqualificationvalidate
the assembly configuration and the implemented
methodology.

d.

A sine survey, as defined in Table 131, shall be performed before and


afterthehighlevelvibrationtestingdefinedinTable132,Table133,and
Table134.

e.

The severity of the vibration test shall not be less than that shown in
Table132,Table133,andTable134.

f.

Input vibration levels shall be measured at the interface between the


vibrationplateandthePCB.

g.

TheresponseaccelerationoftheassembledPCBshallbemonitoredand
recordedduringtesting.

h.

Vibration testing shall be performed in the three orthogonal axes: one


outofplaneandtwoinplane.

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Table131:Sinesurvey
Levelandfrequency
Amplitude

0,5g0topeak

Frequencyrange

10Hzto2000Hz

Sweeprate

2octaves/minute

Direction

X,Y&Zaxes

Table132:Minimumseverityforsinevibrationtesting
Range(Hz)

PSDLevel

Sweeprate

(0topeak)

(Oct/min)

Spacecraft
25to100

20g

100to200

15g

Duration:1cycleupfrom25Hzto200Hz

Launchers
10to16

10mm

1/3

16to60

10g

1/3

60to70

22,5g

1/3

70to200

22,5g

200to2000

10g

Duration:1cycleupfrom10Hzto2000Hz

Table133:Minimumseverityforrandomvibrationtestingforall
applicationsexceptlaunchers
PerpendiculartoPCB

ParalleltoPCB

Range(Hz)

PSDLevel

Range(Hz)

PSDLevel

20to100

+6dB/oct.

20to100

+6dB/oct.

100to500

1,0g/Hz

100to800

0,5g/Hz

500to2000

6dB/oct.

800to2000

3dB/oct.

Global:28,5gr.m.s.

Global:27,1gr.m.s.

Duration:5minutesperaxis

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Table134:Minimumseverityforrandomvibrationtestingforlauncher
Frequency

PSD

20to60

+3dB/oct.

60to1000

0,27g/Hz

1000to2000

6dB/oct.
Global:20gR.M.S.
Duration:5minutesperaxis

13.3 Temperature cycling


a.

The test specimen shall be temperature cycled in an air circulating or


inertgaspurgedoven.

b.

Before the start of the temperature cycling, the test specimen shall be
bakedouttoremovetheinternalhumidity.

c.

Thebakeouttemperatureshallbebetween60Cand80C

d.

Thetemperaturecycleshallbebetween55Cand+100C

e.

The rate of temperature change during the temperature cycle shall not
exceed10Cperminute.

f.

The soak time at each temperature extreme shall be a minimum of 15


minutes.

g.

The monitoring thermocouple shall be attached to the surface of the


printedcircuitboard.

13.4 Microsection
a.

At least one microsection shall be made on each configuration after


vibrationtestingandtemperaturecycling.

b.

The microsection shall be done on the device having the worst solder
jointappearanceidentifiedduringthevisualinspection.

c.

TheApprovalauthorityshallhaveaccesstothemicrosection.

d.

Themicrosectionshallbestoredforaperiodofatleasttenyears.
NOTE

Stored samples can assist the analysis of in


servicefailures.

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14
Quality assurance
14.1 General
a.

QualityassuranceshallbeinaccordancewithECSSQST20.

b.

Clause 15 shall be integrated into the quality assurance plan and


documentation.

a.

Quality records shall be retained for at least ten years, or in accordance


withtheprojectcontract.

14.2 Data

NOTE
b.

Example of quality records are travellers log,


workorders.

Quality records shall be gathered in a report in conformance with the


DRDinAnnexA.

14.3 Nonconformance
a.

Nonconformance in the soldering process shall be dispositioned in


accordancewithECSSQST1009.

14.4 Calibration
a.

Insulationstrippers,solderingirons,measuringequipmentandreference
standardsshallbecalibrated.

b.

Asuspectedorconfirmedtoolorequipmentfailureshallberecordedasa
projectnonconformance.
NOTE

The records can aid early detection of a trend


towardsnonconformance.

c.

Defective or out of calibration equipment or tools shall be labelled or


removedfromworkareas.

d.

TheApprovalauthorityshallbenotifiedofthenonconformance.

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14.5 Traceability
a.

ECSSQST20,clause5.4shallapply.

14.6 Workmanship standards


a.

Visualstandardsshallbeprepared.

b.

Thevisualstandardsshallbeavailabletoeachoperatorandinspector.
NOTE

c.

Examples are: Satisfactory work samples or


visual aids which illustrate the quality
characteristics of all types of soldered
connectioninvolvedinthetask.

Theworkmanshipstandardsinclause15shallbeincluded.

14.7 Inspection
a.

During all stages of the process, the inspection points shall be


implemented.

b.

Inspectionshallbeinaccordancewithclause12.

14.8 Operator and inspector training and certification


a.

Trained and certified personnel shall be employed for soldering


operationsandinspections.

b.

Atrainingprogrammeshallbedeveloped,maintainedandimplemented
bythesuppliertoprovideexcellenceofworkmanshipandpersonnelskill
inmanualsoldering.

c.

The training programme shall include procedures for the training,


certification, maintenance of certified status, recertification and
revocationofcertifiedstatusforsolderingandinspectionpersonnel.

d.

Trainedpersonnelperformingsolderingoperationsandinspectionsshall
becertified.
NOTE

e.

Certification is based on objective evidence of


soldering quality, resulting from test and
inspectionofsolderedjoints.

Personnel shall be retrained or reassessed in the following


circumstances:
1.

Repeatedqualitynonconformance.

2.

Changeinsolderingtechniques.

3.

Changeinsolderingparameters.

4.

Additionalprocessskills

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f.

Records of the training, testing and certification status of soldering


operators and inspection personnel shall be implemented and
maintained.
NOTE

g.

Therecordsaregenerallykeptforaperiodofat
leasttenyears.

Operatorsperforminghandsolderingandinspectorsshallbetrainedand
certifiedataschoolauthorizedbytheApprovalauthority.

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15
Workmanship standards
15.1 Soldered clinched terminals

Preferred solder

Unacceptable
Insufficient solder

Acceptable
Minimum solder

Acceptable
Maximum solder

Preferred solder

Unacceptable
Excessive solder

Figure151:Solderedclinchedterminals

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15.2 Soldered stud terminals

Preferred solder

SeeFigure89andFigure102forotheracceptableconditions.
Figure152:Solderedstudterminals
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15.3 Soldered turret terminals

Preferred solder

Unacceptable
Insufficient solder

Acceptable
Minimum solder

Acceptable
Maximum solder

Unacceptable
Excessive solder

Figure153:Solderedturretterminalswithtwinconductors

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15.4 Solder turret terminals

Preferred solder

Unacceptable
Insufficient solder

Acceptable
Minimum solder

Acceptable
Maximum solder

Unacceptable
Excessive solder

Figure154:Solderedturretterminalswithsingleconductors

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15.5 Soldered bifurcated terminals

Unacceptable
Insufficient solder

Acceptable
Minimum solder

Preferred solder

Acceptable
Maximum solder

Unacceptable
Excessive solder

Unacceptable
Insufficient solder

Acceptable
Minimum solder

Preferred solder

Acceptable
Maximum solder

Unacceptable
Excessive solder

Figure155:Solderedbifurcatedterminals

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15.6 Soldered hook terminals

Unacceptable
Excessive
solder

Acceptable
Maximum
solder

Preferred
solder

Acceptable
Minimum
solder

Unacceptable
Insufficient
solder

Figure156Solderedhookterminals
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15.7 Soldered cup terminals

Preferred solder

Unacceptable
Insufficient solder

Acceptable
Minimum solder

Acceptable
Maximum solder

Unacceptable
Excessive solder

Figure157:Solderedcupterminals

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15.8 Soldered wire to shielded cable interconnections

Unacceptable
Insufficient solder

Acceptable
Minimum solder

Preferred solder

Acceptable
Maximum solder

Unacceptable
Excessive solder

Figure158:Handsolderedwiretoshieldedcableinterconnections

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Unacceptable
Insufficient solder
Insulation overlap too great

Acceptable
Minimum solder
Maximum overlap

Preferred solder

Preferred solder

Acceptable
Maximum solder

Unacceptable
Excessive solder

Figure159:Handsolderedwiretoshieldedwireinterconnections

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99

ECSSQST7008C
6March2009

c)

b
)
a
)

a)Acceptablemaximuminsulationoverlap
b)Acceptablepitinsolderfilletcausedbyweaveofshieldmaterial
c)Unacceptablelackofsolderbetweenconductors

Unacceptable
Unacceptablemoltendielectricinsulation
Uncleanconnection(flux)

Figure1510:Handsolderedwireinterconnectionsdetailsofdefects

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Annex A (normative)
Report on manual soldering of highreliability electrical connections - DRD
A.1

DRD identification
A.1.1

Requirement identification and source document

ThisDRDiscalledfromECSSQST7008,requirement14.2b.

A.1.2

Purpose and objective

The purpose of this DRD is to provide in a single document all information on


materials, parts, processes, testing and inspections used before and during the
manual soldering of highreliability electrical connections. This document is
applicabletoensurethattheassemblyismadecomplianttotheECSSQST7008.

A.2

Expected response
A.2.1
<1>
a.

<2>
a.

<3>
b.

Scope and content


Originator

The report shall contain the name, organization and address of the
originator.

System/Subsystem
The report shall identify the system/subsystem in which the assembly
under inspection for compliance to manual soldering of highreliability
electricalconnectionsisembedded.

Manufacturer
The report shall identify the manufacturer of the assembly in which
manual soldering techniques for highreliability electrical connections
wereused.

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<4>
a.

Assemblyconfigurationitemlist
The report shall identify or refer to the assembly list detailing all the
elementsconstitutingthisassembly.
NOTE

Elementscanbematerials,processesandparts.

b.

ThereportshallidentifyorrefertotheDMPLoftheassemblyinwhich
manual soldering techniques for highreliability electrical connections
wereused.

c.

The report shall identify or refer to the DML of the assembly in which
manual soldering techniques for highreliability electrical connections
wereused.

d.

The report shall identify or refer to the DPL of the assembly in which
manual soldering techniques for highreliability electrical connections
wereused.

<5>
a.

Engineeringdrawings
The report shall contain or refer to the engineering drawings of the
assembly on which manual soldering of highreliability electrical
connectionshasbeenperformed

<6>
a.

Applicabledocuments
The report shall contain the applicable document list and the reference
documentlistincluding:
1.

Theproblemreportandhandlingofnonconformanceprocedures
tobeapplied.

2.

Thelistofprocedurestobeapplied.
NOTE

3.

Thelistofstandardtocomplywith.
NOTE

<7>
a.

Procedures can be internal procedures not


described in ECSSQST7008 describing
varioussolderingoperations.

Standards can be workmanship standards


related to the acceptance and rejection criteria
of soldering, international standards for ESD
protection (EN 146441) or clean area (ISO or
ECSS Standards for the qualification and
procurementofPCBs.

Evidencesofcompliancetomanualsolderingprocesses
The report shall demonstrate evidences that the operations and
associated controls, when performing manual soldering of high
reliabilityelectricalconnectionsaredoneincompliancewithECSSQST
7008 or other customer approved internal standards and procedures,
includingasaminimum:

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6March2009
1.

2.

3.

4.

<8>
a.

Recordsofcalibrationforalltools,equipmentandfacilities:

Solderingirons,

Ifsolderbittemperaturecontrolled,solderbitiscalibratedat
incominginspection,

Temperaturesofdegoldingandpretinningbaths.

Statementofcompliancefor

The controlled area with respect to cleanliness and


contaminationrequirements,

Theinternalassemblyprocedures,

Thedesignrulesappliedforthecorrectnessofthesoldering,

Operatorsandinspectorstrainingandcertifications,

CleanlinessofPCBassemblies,

Useofapprovedmethodsfor:
o

Thepreparationofsoldering,

Themountingofcomponents,

Theattachmentsofconductorstoterminals,solder
cupsandcables,

SolderingtoterminalsandPCBs.

ProtectionsagainstESDfor:

storage,assemblyline,inspectionlineandtestingareas,

Gloves,solderingaidsandotherusedtools.

Materialsselection:

Formandcompositionofthesolder,

Characterizationoffluxes,

Solvents,

Flexibleinsulationmaterials,

Chemicalscompositionofterminalsandshapes,

Wires,

PCBs,

Componentsleadfinishes,

Adhesives.

Verificationandtesting
Thereportshallcontainalltheinformationrelatedtotheoperationsand
associated controls performed when verifying or testing manual
soldering of highreliability electrical connections, including as a
minimumthefollowing:

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1.

Photographicevidencesofthemanualsolderingtobeinspected

2.

Visualinspectionfindings

3.

Listoftheacceptancecriterianotmet,

Listofrejectioncriteriasupportingthevisualinspection
findings.

Discrepancies with regards to applicable standards and test


specificationsandprocedures
o

CleanlinessofPCBassemblies(testreport),

thermalcycling(testreport),

mechanicaltesting(vibrationstestreport),

electricaltestingreport.

4.

Listofnonconformancereports.

5.

Preventivesandcorrectivesactionstobemanaged.

A.2.2

Special remarks

None.

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Annex B (informative)
Solder melting temperatures and choice
TableB1:Guidetochoiceofsoldertypes
Soldertype

Meltingrange(C)
Solidus

63tinsolder
(eutectic)

183

Liquidus

Uses

183

Solderingprintedcircuitboardswhere
temperaturelimitationsarecriticalandin
applicationswithanextremelyshortmelting
range.Preferredsolderforsurfacemountdevices.

62tinsilver
loaded

179

190

Solderingofterminationshavingsilverandor
silverpalladiummetallization.Thissolder
compositiondecreasesthescavengingofsilver
surfaces.

60tinsolder

183

188

Solderingelectricalwire/cableharnessesor
terminalconnectionsandforcoatingor
pretinningmetals.

96tinsilver
(eutectic)

221

221

Canbeusedforspecialapplications,suchas
solderingterminalposts.

75indiumlead

145

162

Specialsolderusedforlowtemperaturesoldering
processwhensolderinggoldandgoldplated
finishes.Canbeusedforcryogenicapplications.

70indiumlead

165

175

Forusewhensolderinggoldandgoldplated
finisheswhenimpracticaltodegold.

10tinlead

268

290

Foruseinstepsolderingoperations,toavoid
reflowofinitialsolderonmakingthesecondjoint
(limitedtoconnectionsinternaltodevices).

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Bibliography

ECSSSST00

ECSSsystemDescription,implementationandgeneral
requirements

ECSSEST1003

SpaceengineeringTesting

ESASP1173

Evaluationofconformalcoatingforfuturespacecraft
applications

ESASTM265

Evaluationofthermallyconductiveadhesivesasstaking
compoundsduringtheassemblyofspacecraftelectronics

ESASTM275

EvaluationofcleanlinesstestmethodsforspacecraftPCB
assemblies

ISO9453

SoftsolderalloysChemicalcompositionsandforms

ISO146441

Cleanroomsandcontrolledenvironments

ISO29454

Softsolderingfluxes;classificationandrequirements

IEC6119013(2002)

AttachmentmaterialsforelectronicassemblyPart13:
Requirementsforelectronicgradesolderalloysandfluxedand
nonfluxedsolidsoldersforelectronicsolderingapplications

106