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You are on page 1of 8

Problems

Chapter 3

Solution 3.1

Figure 3.4 in the main text shows the sketch of the constant head

permeameter.

a) The coefficient of permeability is given by:

(3.9): k =

qL

83.30

=

= 0.039 cm/s

Aht 150 19.2 22

h 19.2

=

= 0.64

L 30

= 2.5 104 m/s

c) (3.7): Seepage velocity: s =

ki 2.5 104

=

= 6.4 m/s

n

0.39

Gs 1

1+e

n

0.39

(1.13) : e =

=

= 0.64

1 n 1 0.39

(3.38) : i c =

ic =

2.66 1

= 1.01

1 + 0.64

Introduction to Soil Mechanics, First Edition. Bla Bod and Colin Jones.

2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Published 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

0001993323.INDD 1

6/22/2013 4:25:56 PM

e) (3.2): i c =

hc

Therefore, the critical pressure

L head is: h = Li = 30 1.01 = 30.3 cm

c

c

f) (3.37): i c =

Results:

w

weight is: = wi c = 9.81 1.01 = 9.9 kN/m3

b) i = 0.64

c) = 2.5 104 m/s

d) s = 6.4 m/s

e) i c = 1.01

f) = 9.9 kN/m3

Solution 3.2

From figure: r1 = 5 m

z1 = 4 m

r2 = 1000 m z 2 = 0

y 1 = 9 (1.5 + 4) = 3.5 m

y 2 = 9 1.5 = 7.5 m

Using these data, relating to the two observation wells, the flow rate (or yield)

from the aquifer is given by formula (3.23).

k=

expressed as:

Q=

0001993323.INDD 2

2 h0 (y 2 y 1 )

r

ln 2

r1

2 kh0 (y 2 y 1 )

r

ln 2

r1

1000

ln

5

1.88

= 0.355 m3 /s (cumecs)

5.298

6/22/2013 4:26:02 PM

Solution 3.3

Draw the flow net on Graph 3.7 and observe the quantities:

Total head loss

: H = 18 m

Number of flow channels

: Nf = 4

Number of potential drops

(No. of squares in flow channels) : Ne = 14

At Corner D:

Total head at D

: HT = 22 + 2 = 24 m

No of squares between D and tail end : Nx = ND = 6

The head loss up to corner D is given by:

N

6

(3.27): HD = H x = 18 = 7.71 m

14

Ne

(3.28): hD = HTHD = 247.71 = 16.29 m, which is the pressure head at corner D.

(3.29): See page pressure at D : uD = WhD = 9.81 16.29

= 160 kN/m2

At Corner E

Total head at E

: HT = 24 m

No of squares up to E : Nx = NE = 12.5

12.5

(3.27): HE = 18

= 16.1 m

14

(3.28): hE = 24 16.07 = 7.93 m

(3.29): uE = 9.81 7.93 = 77.8 kN/m2

Results

0001993323.INDD 3

Uplift pressure at E = 77.8 kN/m2

6/22/2013 4:26:10 PM

0001993323.INDD 4

6/22/2013 4:26:15 PM

Graph 3.7

2

3

4

5

D

11m

6

4

50 m

10

11

12

13

14

Solution 3.4

It is assumed that the ground water and the ground surface level coincide, hence

the artesian pressure head (hA) is measured from this.

Artesian pressure: sA = hAgw = 3 9.81 = 29.43 kN/m2

The thickness (z) may be estimated in several ways.

z

Procedure 1: From formula (3.34) Fs =

w (h1 h2 )

At failure,

where,

(h1 h2 ) = hA = 3 m

And

Fs = 1 =

z

9.81

z = w hA =

3 = 3.24 m

hA w

9.09

= z sat = 18.9z

u = z w + A = 9.81z + 29.43

= u = 18.9z 9.81z 29.43

= 9.09z 29.43

At failure,

Therefore,

s = 0 = 9.09z 29.43

z=

29.43

= 3.24 m

9.09

From (3.37): i c =

9.09

=

= 0.93 1 therefore,

w 9.81

0001993323.INDD 5

6/22/2013 4:26:15 PM

Solution 3.5

G 1

(1.43) = s w

1+e

(1.13)

e =

(3.37) i c =

(G 1)(1 n) w

Gs 1

= s

n w

1n +n

1 +

1n

n

1n

= (Gs 1) (1 n) w

(3.51)

i c = (Gs 1) (1 n)

(3.52)

G 1

G

Also, = s w = s w w

1+e

1+e

1+e

=d

1+e

Expressing voids ratio

G

(1.41) d = s w

1+e

e=

w

1

d

(3.53)

Solution 3.6

(1.41)

(3.53) Equating: e =

Gs w

d

e=

Gs w

1

d

G

G

w

1

1= s w 1

= s

d

d

d d

Gs = (Gs 1) d

But, i c =

Gsi c w = (Gs 1) d

w

d =

Gs i c w

Gs 1

=

(3.54) e =

= 16 kN/m3

2.65 1

Gs w

2.65 9.81

1=

1 = 0.62

d

16

From (1.36): m =

0001993323.INDD 6

e 0.62

=

= 0.23 (23%)

Gs 2.65

6/22/2013 4:26:26 PM

Solution 3.7

S = area of the uplift pressure diagrams/m.

221 + 184 184 + 159 159 + 135 135 + 110 110 + 78

+

+

+

+

2

2

2

2

2

S = 10

Solution 3.8

General equation:

h = ex2 + fx + g

Its derivative:

dh

= 2ex + f

dx

Determine constants e, f and g:

At x = 0

hb = 0 + 0 + g g = hb

h = hb

dh

=0

dx

x =a

h = ha

h = ex 2 + hb

0 = (2e ) 0 + f f = 0

ha = ea 2 + hb e =

ha h b

a2

ha hb 2

x + hb

a 2

h=

h1 =

1 ha hb 2

x + hb dx

2

a

h dx =

a

a

0

h1 =

=

=

ha hb x 3 hb

a

+ x 0

3

a 3 0 a

ha hb a 3

+h

a 3 3 b

ha hb

3

h1 =

0001993323.INDD 7

+ hb =

ha hb + 3hb

ha + 2hb

3

3

which is

(3.36)

6/22/2013 4:26:34 PM

Substitute h1 into the equation of the curve and express its location x1:

For

or

h h1

h h

h1 = a 2 b x 12 + hb

x = x1

a

ha + 2hb

3

h h

= a 2 b x 12 + hb

a

Expressing x1:

ha + 2 hb

a2

hb

ha hb

3

x 12 =

h 2hb 3hb 2

= a

a

3 (ha hb )

(h hb )a 2 = a 2

= a

3 (ha hb )

3

Therefore, x 1 =

0001993323.INDD 8

a

3

6/22/2013 4:26:44 PM

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