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Solutions to Supplementary

Problems

Chapter 3

Solution 3.1
Figure 3.4 in the main text shows the sketch of the constant head
permeameter.
a) The coefficient of permeability is given by:
(3.9): k =

qL
83.30
=
= 0.039 cm/s
Aht 150 19.2 22

= 3.9 104 m/s

b) (3.2): Hydraulic gradient: i =

h 19.2
=
= 0.64
L 30

(3.1): Discharge velocity: = ki = 0.64 3.9 104


= 2.5 104 m/s
c) (3.7): Seepage velocity: s =

ki 2.5 104
=
= 6.4 m/s
n
0.39

d) The critical hydraulic gradient is given by:

Gs 1
1+e
n
0.39
(1.13) : e =
=
= 0.64
1 n 1 0.39

(3.38) : i c =

ic =

2.66 1
= 1.01
1 + 0.64

Introduction to Soil Mechanics, First Edition. Bla Bod and Colin Jones.
2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Published 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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Introduction to Soil Mechanics

e) (3.2): i c =

hc
Therefore, the critical pressure
L head is: h = Li = 30 1.01 = 30.3 cm
c
c

f) (3.37): i c =

Results:

Therefore, the submerged unit


w
weight is: = wi c = 9.81 1.01 = 9.9 kN/m3

a) k = 3.9 104 m/s


b) i = 0.64
c) = 2.5 104 m/s
d) s = 6.4 m/s
e) i c = 1.01
f) = 9.9 kN/m3

Solution 3.2
From figure: r1 = 5 m
z1 = 4 m
r2 = 1000 m z 2 = 0

y 1 = 9 (1.5 + 4) = 3.5 m
y 2 = 9 1.5 = 7.5 m

Using these data, relating to the two observation wells, the flow rate (or yield)
from the aquifer is given by formula (3.23).

k=

expressed as:

Q=

0001993323.INDD 2

2 h0 (y 2 y 1 )

r
ln 2
r1

from which the yield is

2 kh0 (y 2 y 1 )
r
ln 2
r1

2 2.5 102 3 ( 7.5 3.5)


1000
ln
5

1.88
= 0.355 m3 /s (cumecs)
5.298

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Solutions to Supplementary Problems: Chapter 3

Solution 3.3
Draw the flow net on Graph 3.7 and observe the quantities:
Total head loss
: H = 18 m
Number of flow channels
: Nf = 4
Number of potential drops
(No. of squares in flow channels) : Ne = 14
At Corner D:
Total head at D
: HT = 22 + 2 = 24 m
No of squares between D and tail end : Nx = ND = 6
The head loss up to corner D is given by:
N
6
(3.27): HD = H x = 18 = 7.71 m
14
Ne
(3.28): hD = HTHD = 247.71 = 16.29 m, which is the pressure head at corner D.
(3.29): See page pressure at D : uD = WhD = 9.81 16.29
= 160 kN/m2
At Corner E
Total head at E
: HT = 24 m
No of squares up to E : Nx = NE = 12.5
12.5
(3.27): HE = 18
= 16.1 m
14
(3.28): hE = 24 16.07 = 7.93 m
(3.29): uE = 9.81 7.93 = 77.8 kN/m2
Results

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Uplift pressure at D = 160 kN/m2


Uplift pressure at E = 77.8 kN/m2

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Graph 3.7

2
3
4
5

D
11m

6
4

Uplift pressure of E = 77.8 kN/m2

Uplift pressure of D = 160 kN/m2

50 m

10

11

12

13

14

Solutions to Supplementary Problems: Chapter 3

Solution 3.4
It is assumed that the ground water and the ground surface level coincide, hence
the artesian pressure head (hA) is measured from this.
Artesian pressure: sA = hAgw = 3 9.81 = 29.43 kN/m2
The thickness (z) may be estimated in several ways.
z
Procedure 1: From formula (3.34) Fs =
w (h1 h2 )

At failure,

where,

(h1 h2 ) = hA = 3 m

And

= 18.9 9.81 = 9.09 kN/m3

Fs = 1 =


z
9.81
z = w hA =
3 = 3.24 m
hA w
9.09

Procedure 2: At the base of sand:

= z sat = 18.9z
u = z w + A = 9.81z + 29.43
= u = 18.9z 9.81z 29.43
= 9.09z 29.43
At failure,
Therefore,

s = 0 = 9.09z 29.43

z=

29.43
= 3.24 m
9.09

Check: The critical hydraulic gradient is unity at failure.


From (3.37): i c =

9.09
=
= 0.93 1 therefore,
w 9.81

z = 3.24 m is the critical thickness.

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Introduction to Soil Mechanics

Solution 3.5
G 1
(1.43) = s w
1+e
(1.13)

e =

(3.37) i c =

(G 1)(1 n) w
Gs 1
= s
n w
1n +n
1 +

1n

n
1n

= (Gs 1) (1 n) w

(3.51)

i c = (Gs 1) (1 n)

(3.52)

G 1
G
Also, = s w = s w w
1+e
1+e
1+e

=d

1+e
Expressing voids ratio

G
(1.41) d = s w
1+e

e=

w
1
d

(3.53)

Solution 3.6
(1.41)

Expressing voids ratio: 1 + e =

(3.53) Equating: e =

Gs w
d

e=

Gs w
1
d

G
G
w
1
1= s w 1
= s
d
d
d d

Expressing: gd = Gsgd Gsg = Gsgd Gsg

Gs = (Gs 1) d

But, i c =
Gsi c w = (Gs 1) d
w

d =

Gs i c w
Gs 1

=
(3.54) e =

2.65 1.02 9.81


= 16 kN/m3
2.65 1

Gs w
2.65 9.81
1=
1 = 0.62
d
16

The sand is fully saturated, hence Sr = 1


From (1.36): m =

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e 0.62
=
= 0.23 (23%)
Gs 2.65

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Solutions to Supplementary Problems: Chapter 3

Solution 3.7
S = area of the uplift pressure diagrams/m.
221 + 184 184 + 159 159 + 135 135 + 110 110 + 78
+
+
+
+

2
2
2
2
2

S = 10

= 5 (405 + 343 + 294 + 245 + 188)

= 5 1475 = 7375 kN/m length of dam.

Solution 3.8
General equation:
h = ex2 + fx + g
Its derivative:
dh
= 2ex + f
dx
Determine constants e, f and g:
At x = 0
hb = 0 + 0 + g g = hb
h = hb
dh
=0
dx

x =a
h = ha

h = ex 2 + hb

0 = (2e ) 0 + f f = 0

ha = ea 2 + hb e =

ha h b
a2

Hence the equation of the parabola is:


ha hb 2
x + hb
a 2

h=

Integrate for the average value of h

h1 =

1 ha hb 2
x + hb dx
2
a

h dx =
a
a
0

h1 =
=
=

ha hb x 3 hb
a
+ x 0
3
a 3 0 a
ha hb a 3
+h
a 3 3 b
ha hb
3

h1 =

0001993323.INDD 7

+ hb =

ha hb + 3hb

ha + 2hb
3

3
which is

(3.36)

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Introduction to Soil Mechanics

Substitute h1 into the equation of the curve and express its location x1:
For

or

h h1
h h
h1 = a 2 b x 12 + hb
x = x1
a
ha + 2hb
3

h h
= a 2 b x 12 + hb
a

Expressing x1:
ha + 2 hb
a2
hb

ha hb
3

x 12 =

h 2hb 3hb 2
= a
a
3 (ha hb )
(h hb )a 2 = a 2
= a
3 (ha hb )
3
Therefore, x 1 =

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a
3

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