Physics Module Form 4 Teacher’s Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics _________________________________________________________________________________________

CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICS 1.1 Understanding Physics PHYSICS
Mechanical Energy

Study of the natural phenomena and the properties of matter.

Heat Energy Light Energy Wave Energy

Solid Liquid Gas

Matter

Energy

states

forms
Electrical Energy

Nuclear Energy

Chemical Energy

Properties of Matter

Relationship with energy

Relationship with matter

Properties of Energy

in the fields of Mechanics Heat Wave Electronics

Properties of matter

Light

Electricity & Electromagnetism

Atomic Physics & Nuclear Physics

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Physics Module Form 4 Teacher’s Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics _________________________________________________________________________________________

1.2

PHYSICAL QUANTITIES any quantity that can be measured by a scientific instrument. A physical quantity is …………………………………………………………………….. stopwatch, metre rule balance,thermometer,ammeter Examples of scientific instruments :……………………………………………………… etc. A base quantity is a physical quantity which cannot be defined in terms of other physical quantities.

Base quantity 1 2 3

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Study the following picture and list the physical quantities that can be measured. The list of physical quantities : Height, 1. ………………………………………. mass, 2. ………………………………………. size, 3. ………………………………………. age, 4. ………………………………………. temperature, 5. ………………………………………. current 6. ………………………………………. Power, 7. ………………………………………. Thermal energy 8. ……………………………………….

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List of 5 basic physical quantities and their units. Base quantity Length Mass Time Current Temperature Symbol l m t I T S.I. Unit meter kilogram second Ampere Kelvin Symbol for S.I. Unit m kg s A K

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Two quantities that have also identified as basic quantity. There are : Light intensity candela i) …………………………..unit ………….. Amount of substance mol ii) ………………………. unit ……………..

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Physics Module Form 4 Teacher’s Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics _________________________________________________________________________________________

Standard Form 1 2 3 1 ≤ A < 10 and n = integer no. simplify the expression of very large and small numbers Standard form is used to …………………………………………………………………... Standard form = A x 10 , Some physical quantities have extremely small magnitudes. Write the following quantities in standard form : 6.37 x 106 m a. Radius of the earth = 6 370 000 m =…………………………………………………. 1.673 x 10-27 kg b. Mass of an electron = 0.000000000000000000000000000000 911 kg =………... 3.0 x 10-4 m c. Size of a particle = 0.000 03 m = ……………………………………………………… 7.2 x 10-8 m b. Diameter of an atom = 0.000 000 072 m = …………………………………………... 5.5 x 10-7 c. Wavelength of light = 0.000 000 55 m = …………………………………………….. Prefixes represent a large physical quantity or extremely small quantity in S.I 1. Prefixes are usually used to ………………………………………………………………... units. before the unit as a multiplying factor. 2. It will be written …………………………………………………………………………… 3. The list of prefixes :
10
12

n

Eg : 1 x 10 m 1 Tm = ……………………………………. 3.6 x 10-3A 3.6 mA = ……………………………………. How to change the unit ; Eg : 1. Mega to nano 1.33 MA = 1.33 x 106 A = 1.33 x 10 6-(-9) nA = 1.33 x 10 15 nA 2. Tera to micro 1.23 Tm to unit m unit 1.23 Tm = 1.23 x 10 12m = 1.23 x 10 12 – (-6)m = 1.23 x 10 18m 3. piko to Mega 5456 pA to MA unit 5456 pA = 5.456 x 10 3 + (-12) pA = 5.456 x 10 -9pA = 5.456 x 10 -9 –(6) MA = 5.456 x 10 -15 MA
3
12

Tera (T) Giga (G) Mega (M)
10 10

10 10

9

6

2 3 10 101 -1 0 10 10-2

10 10 10 10

-3

kilo (k) Hekto (ha) Deka (da) desi (d) centi (s) mili (m) micro () nano (n) pico (p)

-6

-9

-12

Physics Module Form 4 Teacher’s Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics _________________________________________________________________________________________

4. Some physical quantities have extremely large magnitudes. These extremely large and small values can be written in standard form or using standard prefixes. Write the quantities in standard prefixes: 9.1 x 101 MHz a. Frequency of radio wave = 91 000 000 Hz = …………………………………………. 12.8 Mm = 1.28 x 10 1 Mm b. Diameter of the earth = 12 800 000 m = ……………………………………………… 383 Mm = 3.83 x 10 2 c. Distance between the moon and the earth = 383 000 000 m = ……………………… Mm 6.0 x 10 12 Tm d. Mass of the earth = 6 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 kg = ……………………… Derived quantities 1 a physical quantity which combines several basic quantities A derived quantity is …….………………………………………………………………… through multiplication, division or both ……………………………………………………………………………………………… Determine the derived unit for the following derived quantities. Derived quantity area volume density velocity momentum Formula
area = length x width volume = length x width x height

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Derived unit
m x m = m2 m x m x m = m3
kg m3  kg m 3

Name of derived unit
– – – – –

density  velocity 

mass volume

displaceme nt time

m  m s 1 s

momentum = mass x velocity

kg m s-1

Acceleration

accelerati on 

change in velocity time

m s 1  m s -1 s 1 s  m s 2
kg m s-2

Force pressure weight work power

force = mass x acceleration

Newton (N)

pressure

force area

kg m s-2 / m2 kg ms -2 Nm J s -1 Kg ms-2

kg m-1 s-2 (Nm-2) Newton (N) Joule (J)

weight = mass x gravitational acceleration work = force x displacement

power 

work time

Watt (W)

kinetic energy

1 K.E   mass  velocity 2 2

Joule (J)

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Physics Module Form 4 Teacher’s Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics _________________________________________________________________________________________

Derived quantity
potential energy charge

Formula
P.E = mass x gravitational acceleration x height

Derived unit Kg ms-2
Ampere second (As)

Name of derived unit
Joule (J)

charge = current x time
voltage  work charge

Coulomb (C) Volt (v) Ohm (Ω)

voltage

J C-1 v A-1

resistance

resistance 

voltage current

Note that the physical quantities such as width, thickness, height, distance, displacement, perimeter, radius and diameter are equivalent to length. 1.3 1 SCALAR AND VECTOR QUANTITIES Quantity which has only magnitude or size Scalar quantities are ……………………………………………………………………… Mass, Length, Speed, volume Examples : ………………………………………………………………………………… Quantity which has magnitude or size and direction. Vector quantities are………………………………………………………………………... Velocity, Force, Displacement, Acceleration Examples : ………………………………………………………………………………… Study the following description of events carefully and then decide which events require magnitude, direction or both to specify them. Description of events 1. The temperature in the room is 25 0C 2. The location of Ayer Hitam is 60 km to the north-west of Johor Bahru 3. The power of the electric bulb is 80 W 4. A car is travelling at 80 km h-1 from Johor Bahru to Kuala Lumpur 1.4 MEASUREMENTS Magnitude Ý Ý Ý Ý Ý Ý Direction

2

3

Using Appropriate Instruments to Measure 1 2 measuring instrument with different measuring capabilities. There are various types of…………………………………………………………………. measure a particular quantity. We must know how to choose the appropriate instrument to ……………………………..

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Physics Module Form 4 Teacher’s Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics _________________________________________________________________________________________

3

Examples of instrument and its measuring ability. Measuring instrument Measuring tape Meter rule Vernier caliper Micrometer screw gauge
Range of measurement Smallest scale division

Up to a few meters 1m 10 cm less than 2 cm (20 mm)

0.1 cm 0.1 cm (0.01 m) 0.01 cm 0.001 cm (0.01 mm)

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Sample of measuring instruments : is use to measure electric current 4.1 Ammeter : …………………………………………………………………………….. incorret reading correct 1 2 3 1 2 3 0 4 reading
0 4

pointer mirror

pointer

mirror

Pointer’s image is behind the pointer Pointer’s image can be seen is use to determine the volume of liquid. 4.2 Measuring cylinder : …………………………………………………….................... wrong position of eye Right position of eye (eye are in a line perpendicular to the plane of the scale) wrong position of eye
water

4.3 Ruler : ………………………………………………………………………………………
wrong right wrong Reading = ……………… cm

is use to determine the length

10

11

12

13

14

15

2.5 cm

4.4 Vernier calliper A venier calliper is used to measure :

small object depth of a hole a. ………………………………………………b. ………………………………………….
c. ………………………………………………d. …………………………………………. A vernier calliper gives readings to an accuracy of …………………………………...…. cm.

external diameter of a cylinder or pipe

internal diameter of a pipe or tube 0.01cm

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Physics Module Form 4 Teacher’s Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics _________________________________________________________________________________________

inside jaws Vernier scale cm 0 1

2

3

4 Main SKALAscale UTAMA

5

outside jaws

0

10

Main scale in cm

1.0 Length of vernier scale = ……… cm
Vernier scale is divided into 10 divisions Length of the divisions = ………. cm

0 5 10

1

0.01

0

Vernier scale

The differenct between the main scale and vernier 0.01 cm scale is = ……………………………. cm
1

0 cm

Main scale

0.2 cm = …………………. 0.26 cm

0

1 2 3 4 5

6 7 8 9 10

0.06 cm Vernier scale = …………………..
Final reading = …………………..

Find the division of vernier scale which is coincides with any part of the main scale

The diagram below shows a vernier calliper with reading.
0 1

0

5

10

0.15 Vernier calliper reading = ……………. cm

4.5 Micrometer screw gauge. A micrometer screw gauge is used to measure : objects that are small in size a. ……………………………………………… diameter of a wire b. …………………………………………. diameter of small spheres such as ball bearings c. ……………………………………………… One complete turn of the thimble (50 division) moves the spindle by 0.50 mm. Division of thimble 0.5 ÷ 50 = ………………….. 0.01 spindle 4.5 mm = ………………….. Anvil mm sleeve (main scale) Sleeve scale : …………… A accuracy of micrometer thimble (circular: …………. scale) 0.01 mm 0.22 mm screw gauge = …………….. Thimble scale 4.62 mm Total reading : …………..

ratchet frame
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Physics Module Form 4 Teacher’s Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics _________________________________________________________________________________________

Example : 2.0 mm Sleeve scale : …………… 0.22 mm Thimble scale : …………. 2.22 mm Total reading : …………... 4.6 Some others measuring instruments :

Analogue stopwatch digital stopwatch ……………………… ……………………

thermometer miliammeter ……………………… ………..

Measuring tape ………………………. appropriate instruments.

measuring cylinder ……………………..

beaker ………………

Hands-on activity 1.1 on page 1 of the practical book to learn more about choosing Exercise: Vernier Callipers And Micrometer Screw Gauge 1. Write down the readings shown by the following (a) 7 8
Answer: …7.89 cm…………..

0

5

10

(b)

4

A

B

5

P 0

5

Q 10

Answer: …4.27 cm…………..

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Physics Module Form 4 Teacher’s Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics _________________________________________________________________________________________

(c)
6 7

Answer: ……6.28 cm………..
0 5 1 0 1

(d)

0

Answer: …0.02 cm…………..

0

5

10

2. (a) The following diagram shows the scale of a vernier calliper when the jaws are closed.
0 1

0

5

10

Zero error = …0.02……… cm (b). The following diagram shows the scale of the same vernier calliper when there are 40 pieces of cardboard between the jaws.
5 6

0

5

10

Reading shown

= …5.64…….cm

Corrected reading = …5.62……..cm
3. Write down

(a)
0

the readings shown by the following micrometer screw gauges. (b)
5 40
0 5 10 35

35

30

Answer: ………6.87 cm………

Answer:……12.32 cm…………..

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Physics Module Form 4 Teacher’s Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics _________________________________________________________________________________________

(c)
0

(d)
25 20 0 5 20

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Answer:………4.71 cm…………………

Answer:……9.17 cm………

4. (a) Determine the readings of the following micrometer screw gauges.

0

0 45

0

5

0

Zero error = …- 0.02…….. mm

Zero error = …+0.03…….. mm

(b) Determine the readings of the following micrometer screw gauges.
20

0

5 0

0

5

15

Zero error = +0.03………mm

Reading shown

= 6.67………..mm

Corrected reading = 6.64………..mm 5. Write down the readings shown by the following micrometer screw gauges. (a) (b)
0 5 40
0 5 10 35

35

30

Answer: …6.88 mm………… (c)
0

Answer: …..12.32 mm…… (d)
0 5 20

25 20

15

Answer:………4.71 mm…………

Answer:

9.17 mm…………

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Physics Module Form 4 Teacher’s Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics _________________________________________________________________________________________

Accuracy and consistency in measurements. The ability of an instrument to measure nearest to the actual value 1. Accuracy : ………………………………………………………………………………… The ability of an instrument to measure consistently with little or no relative 2. Consistency : ……………………………………………………………………………… deviation among readings. The ability of an instrument to detect a small change in the quantity measured. 3. Sensitivity : …………………………………………………………………………………

target

consistent but inaccurate consistent and accurate inaccurate and not consistent ………………………… ……………………… ……………………………..

target

Accurate but not consistent inaccurate but consistent inaccurate but not consistent …………………….. …………………………….. ……………………………… Hands-on activity 1.2 on page 2 of the practical book to determine the sensitivity of some measuring instruments.
Errors in measurements

of approximation only. 1. All measurements are values ……………………………………………………………… how close the measurement is to the actual value. 2. In other word, it is a matter of …………………………………………………………… error exist in all measurements. 3. This is because …………………………………………………………………………… 4. Two main types of errors: Systematic errors 4.1 …………………………………………… Occurs due to : a weakness of the instrument a) ……………………………………………………………………………………… the difference between reaction time of the brain and the action. b) ……………………………………………………………………………………… zero error is when the pointer is not at zero when not in use. c) ……………………………………………………………………………………… Examples : Range of the measuring instrument – absolute error . a) ……………………………………………………………………………………… Reaction time of the brain. b) ……………………………………………………………………………………… Initial reading is not at the zero scale – zero error c) ………………………………………………………………………………………

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Physics Module Form 4 Teacher’s Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics _________________________________________________________________________________________

Absolute error : ……………………………………………………………………………………….………… Refer to the smallest reading that can be measured by an instrument. If, the smallest reading = 0.1 cm …………………………………………………………………………………………………. Then, Absolute error = 0.1 / 2 = 0.05 cm where the pointer is not at zero when not in used Zero error : …………………………………………………………………………………...
0 1 cm 0 1 cm

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

+0.03 cm Zero error = Positive zero error Correct reading = observed reading – zero

Zero error =

- 0.04 cm Negative zero error error

Horizontal reference

2 divisions below horizontal reference

Horizontal reference

3 divisions above horizontal reference

Zero error of screw meter gauge Positive zero error Zero error = - 0.02 mm 4.2Random error …………………………………………….. Occurs due to a) carelessness in making the measurement. ……………………………………………………………………………………… b) parallex error , incorrect positioning of the eye when taking the readings. ……………………………………………………………………………………… c) sudden change of ambient factors such as temperature or air circulation. ……………………………………………………………………………………… Example : a) Readings are close to the actual value but they are not consistent. Can be minimized by consistently repeating the measurement at different places in an identical manner. Parallax error : It occurs because the position of the eye is not perpendicular to the scale of the instrument wrong Example : right position of the eye (no error) wrong Positive zero error Zero error = +0.03

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Physics Module Form 4 Teacher’s Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics _________________________________________________________________________________________

1.5

SCIENCETIFIC INVESTIGATION Steps Making observation Drawing inferences

Explanation

1

Gather all available information about the object or phenomenon to be studied. Using the five senses, sight, hearing, touch, taste and smell. A conclusion from an observation or phenomena using information that already exist. Variables are factors or physical quantities which change in the course of a scientific investigation. There are three variables : i. Manipulated variables - physical quantity which change according to the aim of the experiment. ii. Responding variables - physical quantity which is the result by manipulated variable.

2

3

Identifying and controlling variables

of the changed

iii. Fixed variables physical quantities which are kept constant during the experiment. 4 Formulating a hypothesis Statement of relationship between the manipulated variable and the responding variable those we would expect. Hypothesis can either be true or false.

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Conducting experiments

i. Conduct an experiment includes the compilation and interpretation of data. ii. Making a conclusion regarding the validity of the hypothesis.

Plan and report an experiment Situation : A few children are playing on a different length of swing in a playground. It is found that the time of oscillation for each swing is different. Steps
1 2 3

Example : refer to the situation above The period of the oscillation depends on the length of the pendulum. When the length of the pendulum increases, the period of the oscillation increases. Investigate the relationship between length and period of a simple pendulum.

Inference Hypothesis Aim

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Physics Module Form 4 Teacher’s Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics _________________________________________________________________________________________ 4 Variables Manipulated variable : the length of the pendulum.

Responding variable : Period Fixed variable : the mass of the pendulum and the displacement.
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List of apparatus and materials
Arrangement of the apparatus

Retort stand with clamp, 100 cm of thread, bob, meter rule, 2 blocks of clamp wood, protractor and stop watch.

6

Retort stand

protractor

ll

bob

7

Procedures

1. Set up the apparatus as shown in the figure above. 2. Measure the length of the pendulum,l = 60.0 cm by using a meter rule. 3. Give the pendulum bob a small displacement 300.Time of 10 oscillations is measured by using a stop watch. 4. Repeat the timing for another 10 oscillations. Calculate the average time. Period = t10 oscillations 10 5. Repeat steps 2, 3 and 4 using l = 50.0 cm, 40.0 cm, 30.0 cm and 20.0 cm Length,l / cm 60.0 50.0 40.0 30.0 20.0 Time for 10 oscillations / s 2 1 Average 15.8 15.0 13.1 11.9 9.9 15.7 15.0 13.1 11.9 9.9 15.8 15.0 13.1 11.9 9.9 Period/ s (T = t10/10) 1.58 1.50 1.31 1.19 0.99

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Tabulate the data

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Physics Module Form 4 Teacher’s Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics _________________________________________________________________________________________

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Analyse the data

T/s 1.4 1.2

Graf of period, T vs pendulum’s length, l

1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

10

20

30

40

50

60 l / cm

10 Discussion

11 Conclusion

Precautions : 1. Oscillation time is measured when the pendulum attained a steady state. 2. Time for 10 oscillations is repeated twice to increase accuracy. 3. Discussion (refer to given questions)

The period increases when the length of the pendulum increases. Hypothesis accepted.

Reinforcement Chapter 1 Part A :Objective Question 1. Which of the following is a base SI quantity? A Weight B Energy C Velocity D Mass 2. Which of the following is a derived quantity? A Length B Mass C Temperature D Voltage 3. Which of the following is not a basic unit? A Newton C ampere B kilogram D second

4. Which of the following quantities cannot be derived? A Electric current B Power C Momentum D Force 5. Which of the following quantities is not derived from the basic physical quantity of length? A Electric charge B Density C Velocity D Volume

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Physics Module Form 4 Teacher’s Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics _________________________________________________________________________________________

6. Initial velocity u, final velocity v, time t and another physical quantity k is related by the equation v - u = kt. The unit for k is A m s-1 B m-1 s -2 C ms D m2 s-2 7. Which of the following has the smallest magnitude? A megametre B centimetre C kilometre D mikrometre 8. 4 328 000 000 mm in standard form is A 4.328 x 10-9 m B 4.328 x 10-6 m C 4.328 x 106 m D 4.328 x 109 m 9. Which of the following measurements is the longest? A 1.2 x 10-5 cm B 120 x 10-4 dm C 0.12 mm D 1.2 x 10-11 km 10. The diameter of a particle is 250 m. What is its diameter in cm? A 2.5 x 10-2 B 2.5 x 10-4 C 2.5 x 10-6 D 2.5 x 10-8 11. Which of the following prefixes is arranged in ascending order? A mili, senti, mikro, desi B mikro, mili, senti, desi C mili, mikro, desi, senti D desi, mikro, mili, senti 12. Velocity, density, force and energy are A basic quantities B scalar quantities C derived quantities D vector quantities 13. Which of the following shows the correct conversion of units? A 24 mm3 =2.4 x 10-6 m3 B 300 mm3=3.0 x 10-7 m3 C 800 mm3=8.0 x 10-2 m3 D 1 000 mm3=1.0 x 10-4 m3 14. Which of the following measurements is the shortest ? A 3.45 x 103 m B 3.45 x 104 cm

C 3.45 x 107 mm D 3.45 x 1012 m 15. The Hitz FM channel broadcasts radio waves at a frequency of 92.8 MHz in the north region. What is the frequency of the radio wave in Hz? A 9.28 x 104 B 9.28 x 105 C 9.28 x 107 D 9.28 x 1010 16. An object moves along a straight line for time, t. The length of the line, s is 1 given by the equation s  gt 2 . The 2 SI unit of g is A m2 s2 B m s-2 C s-1 D s-2 m

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Physics Module Form 4 Teacher’s Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics _________________________________________________________________________________________

Part B : Structure Question 1. A car moves with an average speed of 75 km h-1 from town P to town Q in 2 hours as shown in Figure 1. By using this information, you may calculate the distance between the two towns. P Q

Figure 1 (a) (i) Based on the statements given, state two basic quantities and their respective SI units. Distance : m and time : s ……………………………………………………………………………………… (ii) State a derived quantity and its SI unit. Speed – m s-1 ……………………………………………………………………………………… (b) Convert the value
= 0.2 x 10 m 2 = 2.0 x 10 m
3

1 . m to standard form. 5 x 10-3

(c) Complete Table 1 by writing the value of each given prefix.

10 10 10 10

-9 -6 6 9

Table 1 (d) Power is defined as the rate of change of work done. Derive the unit for power in terms of its basic units. kgms2  m work Force  displaceme nt 2 -3 Power = = Unit = = kg m s s time time (e) Calculate the volume of a wooden block with dimension of 7 cm, 5 cm breadth and 12 cm height in m3 and convert its value in standard form.
Volume = (7 x 10 ) (5 x 10 ) (12 x 10 ) -6 = 420 x 10 -4 3 = 4.20 x 10 m
-2 -2 -2

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Physics Module Form 4 Teacher’s Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics _________________________________________________________________________________________

2. Figure 2 shows an ammeter of 0—3 A range.

Figure 2 Mirror (a) (i) Name component X. ………………………………………………………………... To avoid parallax error (ii) What is the function of X? …………………………………………………………. (b) Table 2 shows three current readings obtained by three students.

Table 2 No (i) Did all the students use the ammeter in Figure2? ..…………………………………. (ii) Explain your answer in (b)(i). 3rd readings obtained by student 2 and 3 are out of the meter range. ……………………………………………………………………………………… 3. Figure 3 shows the meniscus of water in a measuring cylinder K, L, and M are three eye positions while measuring the volume of the water. (a) (i) Which of the eye positions is correct while taking the reading of the volume of water? L …….……………………………………

Figure 3 (b) The water in the measuring cylinder is replaced with 30 cm3 of mercury. (i) In Figure 4, draw the meniscus of the mercury in the measuring cylinder. Figure 4 (ii) Explain why the shape of the meniscus of mercury is as drawn in (b)(i). The cohesive force is larger than the adhesive force ……………………………………………

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