# JPN Pahang Teacher’s Guide

Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave

CHAPTER 6: WAVE
6.1 Understanding Waves 1. Motion of Waves A wave front is a line or plane on which the vibration of every points on it are in phase same and are at the………….(same/different) position from the source of the water. circular 2. When we use a fingertip to touch the surface of water repeatedly, ……....(circular/plane) wavefronts are produced. 3. Types of waves There are 2 types of waves :Transverse wave (a) ………………. Longitudinal (b) ……………….wave 4. Transverse wave (i). Transverse wave is a wave in which the vibration of particles in the medium is perpendicular at ……………….. (parallel/perpendicular) to the direction of propagation of the wave.
A A

B

B

crest A = … ……………….(crest / compression) trough B = …………………..(rarefaction /trough) (ii). Example of transverse wave: Water wave i. …………………………………….. Light wave ii……………………………………... Electromagnetic wave iii…………………………………….. 5. Longitudinal waves (i) A longitudinal is a wave in which the vibration of particles in the medium is parallel ……………………….(parallel / proportional) to the direction of propagation of wave. P
P

Q

Q

sound wave (ii) Example of longitudinal wave:………………………….. P = …………………..(crest / compression) compression Q = …………………..(rarefaction / trough) rarefaction
1

JPN Pahang Teacher’s Guide

Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave

Amplitude, Period and Frequency of a Wave

A B

C

A B C

Figure 6.20
1. Equilibrium 2.

the position of the object where is no resultant force acts position is …………………………………………………………….on the object.

One complete oscillation of the pendulum occurs when the pendulum bob moves from A-B-C-B-A …………............

the time taken to complete an oscillation 3. The period, T of a vibrating system is ……………………………………………... the number of complete oscillations in 1 second 4. Frequency, f is …………………………………………………… Hertz (Hz) The S.I. unit is …………….. 1 n f = or f = t T
5.

freeze waves patterns on the screen Stroboscope is use to …………………………………….. Stroboscope frequency = number of slits x rotation frequency of stroboscope or f = np

6. Wave speed If the wavelength of the wave is  , the waves move forward a distance of f x  per second. Therefore, the speed of waves, v v=f 

2

JPN Pahang Teacher’s Guide

Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave

0

0

Exercise 6.1

Figure 6.10 1. (a) The wavelength of the wave in the diagram above is given by letter ……….
D (b) The amplitude of the wave in the diagram above is given by letter ………… A

2. Indicate the interval which represents one full wavelength.

Figure 6.11
AE, CG, BF, Answer: ……………………

3

JPN Pahang Teacher’s Guide

Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave

Exercise 6.11 1. In an experiment , Lim observes that a simple pendulum completes 30 oscillations in 15.0 seconds. What is Amplitude (a) the frequency of oscillation? The maximum displacement of the objects from their equilibrium position (b) the period of oscillation? Answer: (a) f = 30/15 = 2 Hz (b) T = 1/f = 1/2 = 0.5 s 2. Displacement/cm 5 0 -5 Calculate the frequency of the given wave above. Answer : T = 4s 1 f= Hz T = 0.25 Hz Displacement/cm 5 0 -5 3. 2 4 6 Distance/cm 2 4 6 Time/s

Based in the displacement-distance graph of a wave, find (a) the amplitude (b) the wavelength of the wave Answer: (a) amplitude = 5 cm (b) Wavelength = 0.4 cm

4

JPN Pahang Teacher’s Guide

Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave

4.

A transverse wave is found to have a distance of 4 cm from a trough to a crest, a frequency of 12 Hz, and a distance of 5 cm from a crest to the nearest trough. Determine the amplitude, period, wavelength and speed of such a wave. Answer: Amplitude: 4/2 = 2 cm Wavelength: 5 x2 = 10 cm Speed: f x  = 120 cm s-1

5.

A girl moves a long slinky spring at a frequency of 3 Hz to produce a transverse wave with a wavelength of 0.5 m. What is the wave speed of the waves along the slinky spring? Answer: v=fx = 3 x 0.5 = 1.5 m s-1

6.0 cm •

6.

The figure shows a wavefront pattern in a ripple tank produced by a vibrating dipper at frequency of 5 Hz. What is the wave speed? Answer: f = 5 Hz  = 6.0/4 = 1.5 cm V=f = 7.5 cm s-1

5

JPN Pahang Teacher’s Guide

Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave

4.5 cm •

7.

The figure shows a wavefront pattern in a ripple tank produced by a vibrating dipper at frequency of 5 Hz. What is the wave speed? Answer: f = 5 Hz  = 4.5/3 = 1.5 cm V=f  = 7.5 cm s-1

20 cm (5) 8. A mechanical stroboscope has 12 slits and rotates at a frequency 5 Hz. The stroboscope is used to observe water waves. The observer notes there are 6 successive bright bands at a distance 20 cm. Calculate the speed of the water waves. Answer: f=np = 12 x 5 = 60 Hz  = 20/5 = 4 cm V=f = 60 x 4 = 240 cm s-1

9.

The figure shows a loudspeaker produces a sound with a frequency 300 Hz. Calculate (a) the wavelength. (b) the speed of sound Answer: (a) 0.6 m (b) V = f  = 300 x 0.5 = 150 m s-1

6

JPN Pahang Teacher’s Guide

Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave

10. A given wave travels at a speed of 2 x 105 ms-1. If the frequency of the wave is 1000 Hz, Calculate the wavelength Answer: = v/f 2 x10 5 = = 200 m 1000

11. (a) Base on the figure determine, (i) the amplitude (ii) the wave length -1 (b) What is the frequency of the sound if the speed of sound is 330 ms . Answer: (a) (i) 2 cm (ii) 50 cm (b) f = v /  = 330 / 0.5 = 660 Hz Damping

Figure 6.12

7

JPN Pahang Teacher’s Guide

Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave

1. 2.

process whereby oscillations die down due to a loss of energy to friction forces. Damping is a ………………………………………………………………………….. decrease When a system is damped , the amplitude of the of oscillation ……………. s (decreases/increases) slowly until the system stops oscillating.

3.

Damping is usually caused by :(i) external frictional forces such as air resistance (ii) internal forces , where energy is lost from the system in form of heat. Resonans A resonance is the phenomenon when the oscilating system is driven at its natural frequency …………………………………………………… by a periodic force. …………………………………………………………………………….. Experiment to show a phenomenon of resonance

E A B C Figure 6.12: Barton’s pendulum Pendulum B and D are the same length. When pendulum B oscilates, all the pendulum start to oscilate. But pendulum B and D have the same length, so there have same natural maximum frequency. So pendulum D will oscilates with ……………(maximum/minimum) amplitude. D

6.2 1.

ANALYSING REFRLECTION OF WAVES Reflection of a wave occurs when a wave strikes an obstacle such as barrier, plane reflector, mirror and wall. The reflection of waves obeys the law of reflection : (i) The angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection. ……………………………………………………………… (ii)The incident wave, the reflected wave and the normal lie ……………………………………………………………….. in the same plane. When the reflection of a wave happened , the wavelength ,λ, the frequency, f and the do not change speed, v …………………….but the direction of propagation of the wave changes.

2.

3.

8

JPN Pahang Teacher’s Guide

Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave

Exercise 6.2 Complete the diagram below.

Reflection of water waves 1. Show the pattern of the reflection of the water waves (a) (b)

(b)

2. Show the dark and bright pattern on the screen below.

Water waves Ripple tank

Screen
B D B D B D B

B = Bright D = Dark

9

JPN Pahang Teacher’s Guide

Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave

Reflection of Light Wave 1. 2. When rays of light strike any surface the rays are reflected , unless the surface is black, when they are absorbed. A plane mirror is a flat smooth surface which reflects regularly most of the light falling on it.

1.

Figure 6.20 The characteristics of reflection of light waves: (i) The size of the image = the size of the object ………………………………………………………………… (ii) The distance of the image = the distance of the object

2. The bright and dark bands of the wave pattern formed on the screen because the convex lens surface of water acts as lenses. The crest of water waves similar with ……………. (concave lens /convex lens) and the trough of water waves similar with concave lens …… (concave lens /convex lens). Exercise 6.21 The diagram shows a single ray of light being directed at a plane mirror. What are the angles of incidence and reflection?
(a) (b)

35o

Answer: i =r = 90 – 35 = 55o

i = r = 70 o

10

JPN Pahang Teacher’s Guide

Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave

2.

Reflection of sound waves 1. The sound waves is reflected by walls and ceilings of buildings, unborn baby or sea bed.

Figure 6.21 2. The sound wave from the stopwatch experience a reflection after striking the smooth wall. The angle of incidence, i is equal to ………….(equal to /more than/less than) the angle of reflection, r. Exercise 6.22

1.

The diagram shows a student shouting in front of a school building. Calculate the time taken by the student to hear the echo of his voice. [The speed of sound in air is 340 m s-1 ] Answer: 2s = v x t , t=
2(50) 340

= 0.29 s

11

JPN Pahang Teacher’s Guide

Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave

2.

If an echo is heard one second after the holler and reflects off canyon walls which are a distance of 170 meters away, then what is the speed of the wave? Answer: 2s = v x t = 2 (170) 1 = 340 m s-1

6.3 ANALYSING REFRACTION OF WAVES change of direction of the propagation 1. The refraction of water waves occur when there is a ……………………………………… of waves traveling from a medium to another medium due to a change of speed.

Figure 6.30 2. frequency After refraction, the wave has the same …………………………. but a different speed, wavelength and direction. ………………………….

12

JPN Pahang Teacher’s Guide

Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave

Refraction of Water Waves

Deep

shallow Figure 6.31

towards 1. When the water wave travel from a deep area, the direction of the waves is refracted ……… (towards/away from) the normal. greater 2. The angle of incidence, i of the water is ………. (greater / smaller) than the angle of refraction, r 3. When the refraction of a wave happened , the frequency, f does not change but the wavelength ,λ, the speed and the direction of propagation ……………… ................................................................................of the wave change. Exercise 6.3 On each of the following diagram, draw the refracted wave by the perspex. (a) (b)

(c)

(d)

13

JPN Pahang Teacher’s Guide

Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave

(e)

(f)

Refraction of water wave of the sea water

Figure 6.32 1. Why are the speed and wavelength of waves in the middle of the sea almost uniform? The depth of water in the middle of the sea is almost uniform. ……………………………………………………………………………………… 2. What do you think would happen to the wave speed if the depth of water is increased? The speed ………………………….. decreased . 3. Why do the distances between the wavefronts decrease as the waves approach the beach? On approaching the beach, the depth of water decreases. The speed of waves …………………………………………………………………………………………… decrese and the wavelength is decreased. 4. Why is the water in the bay stationary compared to the water at the cape? The depth of water varies across the area of the bay …………………………………………………………………………………………… The energy of the water wave spreads to a wider area as compared to the region near the cape The amplitude of the water wave near the bay is low and hence the water at the bay is comparatively still

14

JPN Pahang Teacher’s Guide

Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave

Refraction of Light Waves normal air glass block

Figure 6.33 1. When a ray propagates from one medium to an optically denser medium, the ray refracts towards …………………(towards / away from) the normal. decreases 2. The speed of light …………….(decreases/increases) as it propagates in the glass block, causing it to alter the direction of propagation. Refraction of Sound Waves

Figure 6.34 (a)

Figure 6.34 (b)

cold 1. Sound waves travel faster in warm air than in …….. (cold/hot) air. 2. On a hot day, the hot surface of the Earth causes the layer of air near the surface to be warmer ………… (warmer/cooler) refracted 3. This causes sound waves to be …………. (reflected/refracted) away from the Earth. slower 4. On a cool night, the sound waves travel ………….(slower/faster)in the cooler layer of air near the surface of the Earth than in the upper, warmer air. The waves are refracted towards the Earth. night Hence, sound can be heard over a longer distance on a cold ……….(night/day) compared with a hot day.

15

JPN Pahang Teacher’s Guide

Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave

6.4 ANALYSING DIFFRACTION OF WAVES the spreading out of waves when 1. Diffraction of waves is …….......................................................................... they move through a gap or around an obstacle. 2. The effect of diffraction is obvious only if small (a) the size of the aperture or obstacle is …………..small / large enough. large (b) the wavelength is ……………… small /large enough. 3. 4. speed Frequency, wavelength and …………………of waves do not change direction of propagation and the pattern The …………………………………………. of the waves are change

Exercise 6.4 Complete the diagrams below by drawing the wavefronts to show the diffraction of water waves. (a)Wider obstacle (b) Narrow obstacle

(c) Narrow gap ≤ λ

(d) Wider gap > λ

From the diagram above, narrower 1. The ………….(narrower/wider) the gap, the more the waves spread out. little 2. When the gap is much wider than the wavelength of the waves, there is …………. (little/more) diffraction.

16

JPN Pahang Teacher’s Guide

Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave

Diffraction of light waves

Figure 6.40 Difraction of light through a single slit Bright at the centre

Figure 6.41 (a) Narrow slit

Figure 6.1(b) Wide slit

1. The diffraction of light waves occur when the light waves pass through a small slit or small pin hole. 2. The wider middle bright fringe shows that the light waves diffracted after pass through a narrow slit. less 3. If the slit becomes wider, diffraction pattern becomes ………….. (less/more) distint. Diffraction of sound waves

Figure 6.42 1. A listener is requested to stand on the other side of the corner of the wall so that the radio is beyond his vision. 2. The listener is able to hear the sound of the radio although it is behind the wall. 3. It is because the sound of the radio spreads around the corner of the wall due to diffraction of sound.

17

JPN Pahang Teacher’s Guide

Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave

6.5 ANALYSING INTERFERENCE WAVE 1. Interference is the superposition of two waves from two coherent sources meet amplitude frequency 2. Two waves are in coherent if they are of the same ………………….and ………………, 3. There are two types of interference : (a) Constructive interference (b) Desctructive interference Principle of superposition When two waves overlap, the resultant displacement 1. The principle of superposition states that……………………………………………………… is equal to the sum of the displacements of the individual wave ………………………………………………………………………………………………… the crests or troughs of both waves coincide 2. Constructive interference occurs when………………………………………………… to produce a wave with maximum amplitude. 3. the crests of one wave coincide with the trough Destructive interference occurs when……………………………………………………… of the other waves to produce a wave with zero amplitude

4. (a)

Constructive Interference

+

=

Before superposition Figure 6.50 (a)

During superposition

+

=

Before superposition Figure 6.50 (b)

During superposition

18

JPN Pahang Teacher’s Guide

Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave

When the vertical displacemet of two waves are in the same direction as in Figure 6.50 constructive (a) and (b), …………………………(constructive/destructive) interference occurs. (b) Destructive Interference

+

=

Before superposition Figure 6.51

During superposition

If a wave with a positive displacement meets another with a negative displacement of the same magnitude, they cancel each other and the combined amplitude becomes zero. ………. Inteference of Water Waves

Figure 6.52: Inteference of water waves 1. At the points of constructive interference, the water moves up and down with a large …………(large/ small) amplitude antinodes The points of constructive interferences, is known as …………..( nodes/antinodes) nodes The points of destructive interferences is known as ………………(nodes/antinodes).

2.

19

JPN Pahang Teacher’s Guide

Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave

Exercise 6.5
B C A

Figure 6.53 1. Figure 6.53 shows the interference pattern of water by two coherent sources of water waves. constructive (i) At point A, two crest meet resulting in ……………………….. interference. constructive (ii) At point B, two through meet resulting in ……………………..interference. destructive (iii) At point C, a crest meet a trough resulting in …………………interference. 2.. Complete the table below. Before superposition During superposition After superposition

2a

3a

20

JPN Pahang Teacher’s Guide

Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave

3.

Categorize each labeled position as being a position where either constructive or destructive interference occurs.

(a) Constructive interference:……………………. (b) Destructive interference:…………………….. C,D, E, F

A,B

4.

. The diagram shows a full-scale interference pattern of a ripple tank experiment 2 seconds after vibration started. The crests of the water ripples are repsented by the dark lines. (a) What is represented at P at this instant? P is between two crest. Therefore, P represent a trough …………………………………………………………. (b) What is the frequency of the vibrator? The diagram shows crests from each source. In 2 seconds, 4 crests are produced. ………………………………………………………… 4 Thus the frequency is = 2 Hz 2

5.

Two dot vibrators which has a separation of 5.0 cm are placed on a water surface in a ripple tank. The distance between two adjacent antinodes on a screen is 3.0 cm. If the perpendicular distance between the dot vibrators and the screen is 10.0 cm, what is the wavelength of the water waves? Answer: 5.0 x3.0 = 10.0

= 1.5 cm

21

JPN Pahang Teacher’s Guide

Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave

Inteference of Light Waves

1. Interference occur when at least two coherent light waves overlap or superpose 2. The superposition of 2 rays produces: constructive interference (i) ……………………………………… destructive interference. (ii)……………………………………… 3. bright When constructive occurs there will be a ………… (bright/dark) fringe dark When destructive occurs there will be a …………(bright/dark) fringe The wavelength of monochromatic light can be found by the formula:

4.

is the distance between the slits a = ………………………………………………….. is the distance between consecutive bright or dark x = …………………………………………………. fringes is the distance between the double-slit and the screen D = ………………………………………………….

22

JPN Pahang Teacher’s Guide

Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave

Exercise 6.51 1. In a Young’s double slit experiment, a light of wavelength 633 nm passes through two slit which are 0.5 mm apart. Vertical fringes are observed on a screen placed 4 m from the slits. (i) Calculate the distance between two adjacent bright fringes. (ii) What will happen to the distance between two adjacent bright fringes if a light of shorter wavelength is used? Answer: (a)  = 633 nm = 633 x 10-9 a = 0.5 mm = 0.5 x 10-3 m D =4m

633x10 9 x 4 x= 0.5 x10 3
x = 5.064 x 10-3 mm (b)

If  is smaller, x will also be smaller. Therefore , the distance between two adjacent bright fringes of light will smaller.

14 mm 2. The wavelength of light can be determined with a double-slit plate. The diagram above shows the pattern of interference fringes obtained in a Young’s double-slit experiment. The separation distance of the two slit is 0.20 mm and the distance between the screen and the double-slit plate is 4.0 m. Calculate the wavelength of the light used in the experiment. Answer: 7x = 14 mm x = 2 mm = 2 x 10-3 m D = 3.0 m a = 0.2 mm = 2 x 10-4 m

2 x10 4 x 2 x10 3  = 4
= 1 x 10-7 m
23

JPN Pahang Teacher’s Guide

Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave

Inteference of Sound Waves

The wavelength of sound wave can be found by the formula:

distance between two loudspeakers a = ………………………………………………….. distance between two consecutive loud places x = …………………………………………………. perpendicular distance between the speakers D = …………………………………………………. and the loud Exercise 6.52 1. Two loud speakers placed 2 m apart are connected to an audio signal generator that is adjusted to produce sound waves of frequency 550 Hz. The detection of loud and soft sounds as a person moves along a line is at 4.0 m from the loudspeakers. Calculate the (a) wavelength (b) speed of the sound waves. Answer: (a) a = 2 m D = 4.0 m 2x1.2 X= = 0.6 m 4.0 (b) f = 550 Hz V=f = 550 x 0.6 = 330 m s-1

24

JPN Pahang Teacher’s Guide

Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave

6.6 Analysing Sound Waves 1. Sound waves are longitudinal waves which require a medium for its propagation.

amplitude 2. The loudness of the sound is depend to the …………………

frequency 3. The pitch of the sound is depend to the ……………………... 4. a phenomenon when a sound wave has been reflected off a Echo is …………………………………………………………………… surface , and is heard after the original sound.

Application of Sound Waves 1. Ultrasonic waves with frequencies above 20 kHz cannot be heard by human ear. 2. The ultrasonic ruler is used to measure the distance between itself and a target. 3. The depth of sea water can be calculated using the formula : 2d = v x t Exercise 6.60 1. In an expedition to determine the depth of a freshwater lake using an ultrasonic ruler, a pulse of ultrasonic sound is generated and travels to the bottom of the lake and reflected by it. The time taken by the pulse to travel to the bottom of the lake and return to the ruler is 0.35 s. If the speed of sound in freshwater is 1482 m s-1, calculate the depth of the lake. Answer: v = 1482 m s-1, t = 0.35 s 2d=vxt 1482x0.35 d= = 259.35 m 2

25

JPN Pahang Teacher’s Guide

Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave

2. Fill in the blank. Field Medicine Application Sound waves of high energy are directed to the kidney stones to destroy them in the cavity of the kidney.

Industry

6.7 Analysing Electromagnetic Waves perpendicular 1. The electric and magnetic field vibrate ………………..(perpendicular/parallel) to each other and to the direction of propagation. 2. Properties of electromagnetic waves (i) Transverse waves (ii) Do not require a medium to propagate and can travel in a vacuum (iii) The waves travel at the speed of light, c = 3 x 108 ms-1 (iv) Undergo the same waves phenomenon : reflection, refraction, diffraction and interference. 2. Sources and applications of electromagnetic waves in daily life Type of em wave Radio waves  = 10-1 - 105 m Microwave  = 10-3 – 10-1 m Infrared  = 10-6 – 10-3 m Visible light  = 10-7 m Ultraviolet radiation  = 10-9 – 10-7 m X-ray  = 10-11 – 10-9 m Gamma rays  = 10-14 – 10-10 m Source Electrical oscillating circuit Oscillating electrical charge in a microwave transmitter Application telecommunications broadcasting : tv and radio transmission satellite transmissions radar cooking night vision thermal imaging and physiotherapy remote controls sight photosynthesis in plants photography identification of counterfeit notes production of vit-D Sentrilisation to destroy germs Radiotherapy Detection of cracks in building structures Cancer treatment Sterilisation of equipment Pest control in agriculture

(a) (b)

(a) (b) (c) (a) Hot bodies, the sun and (b) fires (c) (a) The sun, hot objects, light (b) bulbs, fluorescent tubes (c) (a) Very hot objects, the sun, (b) mercury vapor lamps (c) (a) x-ray tubes (b) (a) (b) (c)

Radioactive subtances

26

JPN Pahang Teacher’s Guide

Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave

Exercise 6.70 1. The diagram below shows the pattern of spectrum electromagnetic. In the boxes provided, write the names of the parts given . Radiowave microwave gamma ray x-ray visible ray infra-red ray ultraviolet ray
wavelength

Gamma ray

X-ray

Ultra Violet

Visible light

infrared

microwave

radiowave

frequency

2.

Table 6.70 shows electromagnetic waves P, Q, R and S and their uses Electromagnetic waves P Q R S Table 6.70 Identify P, Q, R and S Answer: P = Infra-red rays Q = Microwaves R = Visible light S = Gamma rays Uses Remote control Radar system Photograph Kill cancerous cells

27

JPN Pahang Teacher’s Guide

Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave

Reinforcement Chapter 6 Part A : Objective Questions

1. Calculate the frequency of the given wave above A. B. C. D. E. 8 Hz. 1/8 Hz 4 Hz. ¼ Hz 12 Hz

2. Which of the following is NOT a electromagnetic wave? A. B. C. D. x-ray. Gamma ray water wave microwave.

3. Which of the following cannot travel through vacuum? A. B. C. D. x-ray gamma ray sound wave light wave.

4.

Based on the given diagram above calculate the wavelength. A. B. C. D. E. 4 cm 8 cm 10 cm 15 cm 20 cm

28

JPN Pahang Teacher’s Guide

Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave

5. Wave length of given wave does NOT depend on. A. B. C. D. velocity. Frequency Amplitude Period.

6.

What is the phenomenon shown above? A. reflection. B. Refraction. C. Interference. 7. A given wave travels at a speed of 4 x 105 ms-1. If the frequency of the wave is 1000 Hz, calculate the wavelength A. B. C. D. E. 100 m 200 m 300 m 400 m 500 m

8. Which of the following is a common characteristic of visible light, ultraviolet rays, infrared rays, gamma rays and X-rays? A. B. C. D. Influenced by magnetic field. Possess the same frequency. Possess the same wavelength. Possess the same velocity in vacuum.

9. Which of the following electromagnetic waves are arranged in the order of increasing wavelength. A. B. C. Visible light, X-rays. Radio waves. Infrared waves. X-rays. Visible light. Infrared waves .Radio waves. Radio waves, X-rays. Visible light. Infrared waves.

10. Which of the following waves cannot travel through vacuum? A. Sound waves B. X-rays C. Radio waves

29

JPN Pahang Teacher’s Guide

Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave

Part B: Structured Questions

Figure 1 1. Figure 1 shows the use of sonar equipment to measure the depth of the sea. (a) State the phenomenon of sound wave applied in sonar equipment. Reflection ………………. [1 mark] (b) Sound waves with frequency of 6.0 x 105 Hz are used to determine the depth of the sea. [speed of sound in sea water = 1500 m s-1] (i) What is the wavelength of the sound wave in sea water? 1500 v = = = 2.5 x 10-3 m 5 f 6.0 x10 [2 marks] If the time interval between the instant the sound wave is sent to the instant the echo is received is 1.5 s, what is the depth of the sea d= 2.

(ii)

vt 1500x1.5 = = 1125 m 2 2

[2 marks]

Figure 2 A ping pong ball is held with a string and placed near a loudspeaker as shown in Figure 2 The loudspeaker emits a low frequency sound and the ping-pong ball seems to vibrate to it.

30

JPN Pahang Teacher’s Guide

Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave

(a) Explain how the sound from the loudspeaker produces vibration on the ping pong ball. The vibration of the loudspeaker moves the air molecules around it. The sound wave produced by the loudspeaker transfers energy to the ping pong ball and causes it to move (b) What will happen to the vibration of the ping pong ball if the loudness emits (i) a louder sound? The ping pong ball vibrates with greater amplitude (ii) a sound with a higher pitch? The ping pong ball vibrates with higher frequency. (c) If the frequency of the sound is 50 Hz, calculate the wavelength of the sound produced. [Assume the speed of the sound in air in 350 ms-1]

2.

(a)

350 v = = 7m 50 f Figure 3 shows two sets of ripple tanks used to study diffraction of waves.
=

(i)

Figure 3.1 Figure 3.2 What is meant by the diffraction of waves. Diffraction is the spreading out of waves when they move through a gap or around an obstacle Which of the two sets will show a bigger effect of diffraction. Explain your answer. The set shown in Figure 4.1 will show a bigger effect of diffraction. This is because the narrower the gap, the more the waves spread out. Redraw and complete Figure 3.1 and Figure 3.2 to show the between the two diffraction patterns. State the characteristic to the diffracted waves in terms of waves in terms of wavelength, frequency, speed and amplitude compared to the incident waves. (a) Wavelength remains unchanged (b) Frequency remains unchanged (c) Speed remains unchanged (d) Amplitude becomes smaller compared to the incident waves

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

31

JPN Pahang Teacher’s Guide

Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave

Part C: Essay 1. Figure 3.0 shows the arrangement of the apparatus for an experiment to study a wave phenomenon.

Figure 3.0 Figure 3.1 shows the bright and dark bands of the waves pattern formed on the white paper when plane waves passes through the narrow and wide gaps.

Narrow gap Figure 3.1(a) (a) Name the wave phenomenon shown in figure 1.2. Diffraction

Wide gap Figure 3.1(b)

[1 mark]

(b) (i) Explain how the dark and light bands are formed on the white paper. [4 marks] √ Figure / Troughs act as a concave lens √ Figure / Crests act as a convex lens √ Figure / Every crests will converge the light, bright fringes are formed

√ Figure / Every troughs will diverge the light, dark fringes are formed

B

D

B

D

B

D

B

32

JPN Pahang Teacher’s Guide

Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave

(ii) Observe Figure 3.2(a) and (b). Compare the waves patterns and the wavelength of the waves before and after they pass through the gaps. Relate the size of the gaps, the waves patterns and the wavelengths to deduce a relevant physics concept. [5 marks] a. In figure 3.1(a), size of the wavelength is the same as size of the gap // In figure 3.1(b), size of the gap is wider than size of the wavelength b. In figure 3.1(a) and figure 3.1(b), size of the wavelengths are the same before and after they pass through the gaps. c. The waves emerging from the narrow gap in figure 3.1(a) is circular wavefronts d. The waves emerging from the wider gap is plane wavefronts e. When a wave passes through a gap, the wave spreads. The narrower the gap the greater the spreading of the wave (c) Figure 1.3 shows the seashore of a fishing village. During the rainy season, waves are big. One year the waves eroded the seashore, caused the jetty to collapse and damaged the fishermen’s boats.

Figure 3.3 To prevent similar damage in the future, the fishermen suggest building retaining walls and relocating the jetty. Make further suggestion of ways to help the fishermen solve their problems. You should use your knowledge of reflection, refraction and diffraction of waves to explain these suggestions, to include the following aspects. (i) the design and structure of the retaining wall, (ii) the location of the new jetty (iii) the size or energy of the waves [10 marks] Answer: 1. Build slanting barrier to reduce speed of wave 2. Build the rough barrier to reduce reflection of the waves 3. Build the new jetty at the bay because the water is calm at the bay 4. Build the small opening surround the bay because diffraction happens at the opening 5. Build the barrier at the bay because the wave is spread according to the shape of the bay
33

JPN Pahang Teacher’s Guide

Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 6:Wave

34

Sign up to vote on this title