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# Electricity

## Electric potential: The Electric potential of a point in an electric field is

defined as the work to be done to move a unit positive charge from infinity to
that point.

## Potential difference: The potential difference between two separate

points is defined as the work done to move a unit positive charge from
one point to another.

## The distribution of charge in a body is measured in coulombs. The

quantization of charge requires that a charge on a body always remain the
integral multiple of charges in an electron.
Following is the relation between charge on the body (Q), number of electrons
(n) and charge on an electron (e)
Q = ne
The SI unit of electric charge is coulomb, denoted by the letter C.
The magnitude of an electric current is defined as the amount of electrons
passing through a cross-sectional area of the wire within a given interval of
time.
The SI unit of current (I) is taken as ampere .
electric current flows from the positive terminal to the negative terminal.

The bulb will glow or the magnetic needle will show deflection if the liquid in
the beaker is a good conductor of electricity.
Greater the deflection of needle or brighter the light, better is the conductivity
of the liquid.

Good conductor
Lemon Juice
Vinegar
Acid solutions
Basic solutions
Salty water ( Tap water,
sea water

Poor conductor
Coal tar
Distilled water
Honey
Vegetable oil
Kerosene

## Conducting liquids are also called electrolytes.

The electric current passing through a conducting liquid
chemical reactions
.

causes

## , the current flowing through

a conductor is directly proportional to the potential difference across
the conductor.
V = IR (R = resistance)
Unit

Potential difference

## is the cause of current

.
In conductors, flow of electrons constitute current. In a circuit current flow
from positive terminal of the battery to the negative terminal, but electrons
travels from negative terminal to the positive terminal. The negative terminal
of a battery is said to be at lower potential and the positive terminal is said to
be at higher potential.

When a battery is not connected to any circuit, the potential difference across
the terminals of the battery is equal to the EMF of the battery.
.
Factors on which resistance depends
R l, where l = length
R 1/A, where A = perpendicular cross-section

## Resistivity: Resistivity of a substance is equal to the resistance of a unit cube

of that substance.
Unit () -m.
It only depends on the nature of the material and not its dimensions.
Both the resistivity and the resistance of a material vary with temperature.

The bulb will glow or the magnetic needle will show deflection if the liquid in
the beaker is a good conductor of electricity.
Greater the deflection of needle or brighter the light, better is the conductivity
of the liquid.
Good conductor
Lemon Juice
Vinegar
Acid solutions
Basic solutions
Salty water ( Tap water,
sea water

Poor conductor
Coal tar
Distilled water
Honey
Vegetable oil
Kerosene

## Conducting liquids are also called electrolytes.

The electric current passing through a conducting liquid
chemical reactions
.

causes

## Resistance in a series connection

R s = R1 + R2 + R3 + ...... +R n
Resistance in parallel connection

## Joules heating law suggests that heat produced in a resistor is directly

proportional to the
1. square of the current flowing through the resistor i.e., H
2. resistance of the resistor i.e., H

I2

3. time for which the current flows through the resistor i.e., H

## Electric energy = VIt

Application:
Electric iron, toaster, fused wire,bulb
Fused wire: a low-melting point wire connected in series with electric
devices for safety.
Electroplating is the process of coating a metal using electric current and
electrolyte.

The above picture explains how copper can be deposited on a different metal
using electroplating.
Electroplating can be used to give shiny and scratch proof finish
to objects made from cheaper metals. Also, a coating
of zinc is deposited on iron to protect it from formation of rust.
Electric power: Electric power is defined as the rate of consumption of
energy or simply the rate of doing work.

## SI unit of power is watts

1 kWh is the commercial unit of electric energy.
1 Unit 1 kWh = 3.6 106 J
1 W = 1V 1A