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2/11/2016

Renewable Energy
Lecture-1

What is energy
Energy The ability to do work
Energy is the power to change things.
It is the ability to do work.
Energy is used for lighting, powers vehicles and
runs machinery in factories.
Energy warms and cools homes, cooks our food,
plays music, and gives pictures on television.
Joule - A unit of energy. One joule equals 0.2388
calories

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Energy is that "certain something" inside matter that


brings about some change.
Movement
Falling
Exploding
Storing

Nature of energy
What is energy that it can be involved in so
many different activities?

If an object or organism does work (exerts a


force over a distance to move an object) the
object or organism uses energy.

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Energy and Work


Because of the direct connection
between energy and work, energy is
measured in the same unit as work:
joules (J).
In addition to using energy to do work,
objects gain energy because work is
being done on them.

Energy forms
The five main forms of energy are:

Heat ?

Chemical
Electromagnetic
Nuclear
Mechanical

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Energy Conversion
Energy can be changed from one form to
another.
Changes in the form of energy are called
energy conversions.

Conversion
All forms of energy can be converted into other forms.
The suns energy through solar cells can be converted directly into
electricity.
Green plants convert the suns energy (electromagnetic) into starches
and sugars (chemical energy).
In an automobile engine, fuel is burned to convert chemical energy into
heat energy. The heat energy is then changed into mechanical energy.
Chemical Heat Mechanical
In an electric motor, electromagnetic energy is converted to mechanical
energy.
In a battery, chemical energy is converted into electromagnetic energy.
The mechanical energy of a waterfall is converted to electrical energy in
a generator.

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States of Energy
The most common energy conversion is the
conversion between potential and kinetic
energy.
All forms of energy can be in either of two
states:
Potential - stored energy
Kinetic - the energy of motion.

STATES OF ENERGY
1. Kinetic - The energy of motion,
when energy is being
transferred.
The faster the motion, the more kinetic
energy it has. The bigger the mass, the more
Kinetic energy it has.
Depends on mass and velocity

Increase Mass Increase K.E.


Increase Velocity Increase K.E.

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Why would a high speed collision


cause more damage than a low
speed collision?

Kinetic Energy
The faster an object moves, the more kinetic
energy it has.
The greater the mass of a moving object, the
more kinetic energy it has.
Kinetic energy depends on both mass and
velocity.
K .E

1 2
mv
2

What has a greater affect of kinetic energy,


mass or velocity?

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STATES OF ENERGY
Stored Energy or energy
2. Potential that is waiting to be
transferred.
-Object is not moving or doing work.
BUT the shape or position of the object
can change the amount of potential energy.
-When work is done on an object,
potential energy is stored.
-Has the ability to turn into kinetic energy.

Potential Energy
Potential Energy is stored energy.
Stored chemically in fuel, the nucleus of atom,
and in foods.
stored because of the work done on it:
Stretching a rubber band.
Winding a watch.
Pulling back on a bows arrow.
Lifting a brick high in the air.
Potential energy that is dependent on height is
called gravitational potential energy.

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What type of energy does each


Picture demonstrate?

Kinetic When you Swing hammer

Potential

Potential

Kinetic

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The Roller Coaster

http://www.ohiomathworks.org/themeparks/coastequation.gif

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7 Forms of Energy

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Forms of Energy

Mechanical Energy
Electrical Energy
Thermal Energy
Radiation Energy
Chemical Energy
Nuclear Energy
Magnetic Energy

FORMS OF ENERGY
1. Mechanical Energy associated with
motion, anything moving.
POTENTIAL OR KINETIC
Examples of mechanical energy

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FORMS OF ENERGY
2. Thermal Heat Energy
Is Kinetic
Results from friction, causes temperature
and phase changes, ALL OTHER TYPES of energy
TURN INTO THIS.

Solid to Liquid

Liquid to Gas

FORMS OF ENERGY
3. Chemical Energy that is released as a result
of molecular bonds being broken.
A Form of Potential Energy
Wood Burning; chemical energy
stored in the wood is used)

Photosynthesis, batteries.

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FORMS OF ENERGY
4. Electrical Energy

Energy of moving
electrons. Is
always kinetic.
The electrical outlets
in your home allow
you to use electrical
energy

FORMS OF ENERGY
5. Sound Caused by an objects vibrations.
Can also be considered
mechanical.
Is potential and kinetic
Example: Guitar Strings
Vibrating
Is potential and kinetic

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6. Light Produced by the vibrations of


electrically charged particle that are
visible. Is kinetic.
LIGHT IS
ELECTROMAGNETIC
ENERGY

Electromagnetic Spectrum

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Electromagnetic Energy

Microwave

Radio Waves

Infrared

X-Rays

FORMS OF ENERGY
7. Nuclear energy associated with changes
in the nucleus of an atom.
Is potential.
Examples:

Suns Energy

Nuclear Power Plant

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Energy Measurement
Units
BTUs
Calories
kWh
Joules

One can be converted to another if the


conversion factor is known

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Power

Energy(or work)
Power
Time
Energy is the capacity to do work
Power is the rate at which work is done
Unit

1 watt= 1 J/s = 3.412 Btu/h


EGEE 102- Pisupati

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Unit of Power is watt (W)


defined as

1 Watt = 1 J
s

1 hp (horse power unit) = 550

ft lb
S

I x I x R = I2 R
EGEE 102- Pisupati

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Problem
A 40W tube light is left accidentally on
overnight (8 hours).
1. How much energy does it consume ?
2. how much money does this cost, if
electricity cost Rs: 500 per Kilowatt hour?

EGEE 102- Pisupati

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Energy Use = Power x Time of Power Use

40W 8h 320Wh

0.32kWh
Cost of the Energy = Energy Used x Cost of Unit of Energy

Rs.500
0.32kWh
Rs.160
1kWh
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Calculation of Your Energy


Consumption
Find Power consumption and calculate approximate
energy consumption for a month for the following
loads ( 1KW = Rs: 500)

6 Electric bulbs (40 W, used for 6 hours each)


1 Refrigerator (300W, 24 hours daily)
1 Washing machine ( 120 W, 2 hours weekly)
1 Dryer(500W, 2 hours weekly)
1 Dishwasher ( 500W, 1 hour daily).
1 TV (120 W, 4 hours daily)
4 Fans (80W, 8 hours daily)
1 Iron (1000W, 30 minutes daily)
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ENERGY CONVERSIONS
A change from one form of energy to
another is called an energy conversion.
Any form of energy can be converted
Into any other form of energy.

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ENERGY CONVERTING FROM


POTENTIAL TO KINETIC

MAX
PE.

MAX
PE.
MAX
KE.

CHEMICAL ENERGY CONVERSIONS


1. Chemical energy in food is converted to
2. Mechanical energy when you are moving,
3. Heat as a result of the movement to maintain
body temperature

Chemical mechanical thermal (heat)

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Examples of Other
Chemical Energy Conversions
1. Batteries(chemical) light heatsound
2. Gas(chemical) mechanicalheatsound

Lighting: electricallightheat

Most of the energy is converted


to heat. Only a small
percentage of the original
energy is converted into light
energy. Heat causes the air to
move very rapidly which in turn
causes sound.

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MECHANICAL ENERGY CONVERSIONS


Movement causes friction which causes
heat. Mechanical can turn into
mechanical again.
Bike: mechanical mechanical
thermal sound

Sources of Energy

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The different sources of energy


The different sources are:1. Fossil fuels
2. Hydro power plant
3. Biomass
4. Wind energy
5. Solar energy
6. Geo thermal energy
7. Ocean thermal energy
8. Tidal energy
9. Wave energy
10.Nuclear energy

Energy Sources

Non-Renewable
CAN NOT BE REPLACED IN A SHORT
AMOUNT OF TIME; LIMITED

Renewable
CAN BE REGENERATED IN A RELATIVELY
SHORT PERIOD OF TIME; UNLIMITED

Non Renewable:

A nonrenewable resource is a natural resource that cannot be re-made or re-grown at


a scale comparable to its consumption
Coal
Oil
Natural Gas
Nuclear

Once they are used, they are gone!


These are called fossil fuels.

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Non Renewable energy Sources

Non Renewable energy sources

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Fossil Fuels
Carbon-based fuels formed over millions of
years
Made from the remains of ancient plants and
animals
Coal, Oil and Natural gas

Types of Fossil Fuels


Coal
Oil
Gas

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Energy from Fossil Fuels


Most of our electricity comes from
the burning of the fossil fuels coal and gas.
Once they have been burned
we cannot replace them.

Electricity Generation from


Fossil Fuels

The first stage in generating electricity from coal or oil is to burn it.
Energy is transferred and used to heat water and produce steam.
The steam drives steam turbines
Steam turbine drives generators
generators produce electricity.

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Electricity Generation from


fossil fuels

Click to
continue

Energy Flow Inside a power station

Chemical energy in
coal

Electrical
Energy

Thermal
energy

Kinetic energy in
turbine

Kinetic energy in
generator

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Energy generation from Nuclear Power

How long can non-renewable energy last?


Non-renewable energy resources will eventually run out.
Type of fuel
natural gas

Time until reserves


run out
25-30 years

oil

about 75 years

coal

about 300 years

nuclear power thousands of years

Scientists think that


natural gas reserves
will only last another
25-30 years.
It is difficult to be
exact as new gas
fields are still being
discovered.

Even though nuclear fuel will last thousands of years, there


is still a limited supply and so it will eventually run out.

This is why nuclear power is classed as a non-renewable


energy resource.

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Problems with fossil fuels

They are non-renewable and one day we may run out of them.
They produce CO2 when burnt.
CO2 is a greenhouse gas.
It contributes to global warming.
Natural gas produces much less carbon dioxide.
Nuclear power produces NO carbon dioxide.
They often contain sulphur.
Sulphur is released as sulphur dioxide, SO2 , when the fuel is burnt.
This is very acidic and causes acid rain-acid rain Rainwater that is more
acidic than normal due to the release of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides
into the atmosphere by burning fossil fuels.
Acid rain can be avoided in two ways.
Removing the sulphur from the fuel
Removing SO2 from the power stations waste gases.
Both these options are expensive and add considerably to the cost of
producing electricity.

Fossil fuels: what are the pros and


cons?
What are the advantages and disadvantages of burning
fossil fuels in power stations to generate electricity?
Advantages
readily available
of fossil fuels
easily transported

Disadvantages
non-renewable
of fossil fuels
acid rain

low fuel cost

greenhouse effect

low building costs

inefficient

short start-up times

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Problems with nuclear waste


Nuclear power stations produce radioactive waste.
The used nuclear fuel contains some
uranium, which can be separated
from the waste and reused.
It also contains plutonium, which
is a highly-radioactive product of
the fission reactions that occur in
uranium nuclear fuel.
However, plutonium is also used in the construction of
nuclear bombs and poses a very serious threat if it gets
into the wrong hands.

Nuclear power: what are the pros and cons?


What are the advantages and disadvantages of using
nuclear power to generate electricity?
Advantages
of nuclear power
cheaper to run once built

Disadvantages
of nuclear power
expensive to build

conserves fossil fuels

non-renewable

no sulfur dioxide emissions

produces radioactive waste

no carbon dioxide emissions expensive to decommission


safe under normal conditions links with cancer
small amount of fuel used
risk of disaster
so less transport needed

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Other Harmful Effects


acid rain Rainwater that is more acidic than
normal due to the release of sulfur dioxide and
nitrogen oxides into the atmosphere by burning
fossil fuels.
global warming The increase in the
temperature of the Earth, which some scientists
think is causing climate change.
greenhouse effect The trapping of heat from
the Sun by certain gases in the Earths
atmosphere.
greenhouse gas A gas, such as carbon dioxide,
that can trap heat from the Sun in the Earths
atmosphere.

Renewable Energy

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Renewable Energy Sources


Renewable resources are natural resources that
can be replenished in a short period of time.
Solar
Geothermal
Wind
Biomass
Waves(water)

Solar Energy

Sun is abundant
Sun is everywhere ( specially in Pakistan)
Sun is free
Sun is a clean and renewable energy source
Sun shines more energy in one hour than the
total annual requirement of the world rich
and poor both included
Solar cells cause no pollution
Solar cells make absolutely no noise at all

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Concentrated Solar Power

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Solar Street lights

Solar cooker

Solar Water Heater

Solar Battery charger

Solar Garden Light


Solar Torch

http://www.kingsunsolarproducts.com/solar-cookers.html

Solar Mobile Phone Charger

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Types of Solar cells

Mono-crystalline solar cell


Polycrystalline solar cell
Buried contact solar cell
Cadmium telluride solar cell
Copper indium gallium selenide solar
cells
Dye-sensitized solar cell
Gallium arsenide germanium solar cell
Hybrid solar cell
Multi-junction solar cell
Nano-crystal solar cell
Organic solar cell
Plasmonic solar cell
Plastic solar cell
Polymer solar cell
Quantum dot solar cell
Solid-state solar cell
Thin film solar cell
Wafer solar cell

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Solar Fiber

http://www.solarfiber.nl/en/page/4/
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Solar Energy Generation

Wind Energy

Abundant
Free of Cost
Un exhaustible
doesnt require fuel
doesnt create greenhouse gasses, toxic or radioactive waste
does not present any significant hazard to wildlife
small land area is required
Landowners often receive payment for the use of their land,
which enhances their income and increases the value of the
land
Each megawatt-hour of electricity generated by wind energy
helpshttp://www.pmd.gov.pk/wind/Wind_Project_files/Page767.html
to reduce 0.8 to 0.9 tones of greenhouse gas emissions that
are produced by coal or diesel fuel generation each year.

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Pakistan is a wind corridor for


India and they are using it more
efficiently for the generation of
Electricity

http://www.pmd.gov.pk/wind/Wind_Project_files/Page694.html
December 2, 2013

smuniza@neduet.edu.pk

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December 2, 2013

smuniza@neduet.edu.pk

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Energy generation by wind turbines

December 2, 2013

smuniza@neduet.edu.pk

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Hydroelectric Power generation

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Geothermal power generation


Energy from Earths heat.
In some volcanic areas hot
water and steam rise to the
surface.
The steam can be tapped and
used to drive turbines.

Power Generation from Biomass


The biomass resource can be considered as organic matter, in
which the energy of sunlight is stored in chemical bonds.
When the bonds between adjacent carbon, hydrogen and
oxygen molecules are broken by digestion, combustion, or
decomposition, these substances release their stored chemical
energy.
woody plants,
herbaceous plants/grasses,
aquatic plants,
Manures(fertilizers, feeds)

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Pros & Cons

COAL
cheap
Abundant
source of greenhouse
gases
HYDRO
Clean
Seasonal
no new sources

NATURAL GAS
cleaner than coal
limited supply
SOLAR & WIND
renewable
expensive,
low energy density
Intermittent (Irregular supply)

Non- Renewable vs. Renewable

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Energy Source-Fuels
Classification
Non renewable (limited in quantity
or depleting)

Coal
Natural Gas
Petroleum
Oil
Tar Sands
Nuclear Fission

Renewable (unlimited by rate of use or


non-depleting)

Solar
Hydro
Wind
Tidal
Biomass
Nuclear Fusion

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