Introduction

Overview
The module presents a thorough overview of quality of service models and mechanisms as implemented in complex service provider and enterprise networks. It includes the following topics:
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Introduction to IP Quality of Service Integrated Services Model Differentiated Services Model Building Blocks of IP QoS Mechanisms Enterprise Network Case Study Service Provider Case Study

Objectives
Upon completion of this module, you will be able to perform the following tasks:
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Describe the need for IP QoS Describe the Integrated Services model Describe the Differentiated Services model Describe the building blocks of IP QoS mechanisms (classification, marking, metering, policing, shaping, dropping, forwarding, queuing) List the IP QoS mechanisms available in the Cisco IOS Describe what QoS features are supported by different IP QoS mechanisms

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Introduction to IP Quality of Service
Objectives
Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to perform the following tasks:
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Describe different types of applications and services that have special resource requirements List the network components that affect the throughput, delay and jitter in IP networks List the benefits of deploying QoS mechanisms in IP networks List QoS mechanisms available in Cisco IOS Describe typical enterprise and service provider networks and their QoS-related requirements

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Why IP QoS?
• Application X is slow! • Video broadcast occasionally stalls! • Phone calls over IP are no better than over satellite! • Phone calls have really bad voice quality! • ATM (the money-dispensing-type) are nonresponsive! • ...

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IP QoS Introduction-5

The purpose of this module is to determine the following:
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What is, or might be, missing in today’s IP networks? What can IP Quality of Service (QoS) do to help solve the problem?

A decade ago when the Internet was still in its early stages there was not much available. Most users were using Gopher to find information and FTP to retrieve it. The Internet was something new and exciting and no one was really bothered by the fact that it was slow. Today, however, the Internet is serving a large population of all walks of life. The Internet has also grown in its service offering. Users are using the Internet to view static or dynamic information, transmit voice and video, shop, play etc. Along with these new applications of the Internet come some demands on the service(s) it provides:
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Some applications are slow Video broadcast or conferencing may have bad picture quality or appear jerky Voice sessions may have bad voice quality or periods of silence Critical transactions may take too long (too many seconds) Bulk transfers take too long (too many hours)

This module focuses on most common quality-related problems people encounter in IP networks.

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IP QoS Introduction

3

Because ...
• Application X is slow! (not enough BANDWIDTH) • Video broadcast occasionally stalls! (DELAY temporarily increases – JITTER) • Phone calls over IP are no better than over satellite! (too much DELAY) • Phone calls have really bad voice quality! (too many phone calls – ADMISSION CONTROL) • ATM (the money-dispensing-type) are non responsive! (too many DROPs) • ...

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IP QoS Introduction-6

Quality of Service is usually identified by the following parameters:
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Amount of bandwidth available to a certain application or user Average delay experienced by IP packets on end-to-end or link basis Jitter that affects applications that transmit packets at a certain fixed rate and expect to receive them at approximately the same rate (for example, voice and video) Drops of packets when a link is congested can severely impact fragile applications Admission control which prevents too many sessions from congesting links and causing degradation in quality of service (for example, voice sessions)

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What Causes ...
• Lack of bandwidth – multiple flows are contesting for a limited amount of bandwidth • Too much delay – packets have to traverse many network devices and links that add up to the overall delay • Variable delay – sometimes there is a lot of other traffic which results in more delay • Drops – packets have to be dropped when a link is congested

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Introduction-7

If the network is empty any application should get enough bandwidth, acceptable low and fixed delay and not experience any drops. The reality, however, is that there are multiple users or applications using the network at the same time.

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IP QoS Introduction

5

Available Bandwidth

IP

IP

IP

IP

256 kbps 10 Mbps

512 kbps 100 Mbps

BW max = min(10M, 256k, 512k, 100M)=256kbps BW avail = BWmax /Flows
• Maximum available bandwidth equals the bandwidth of the weakest link • Multiple flows are contesting for the same bandwidth resulting in much less bandwidth being available to one single application.
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Introduction-8

The example above illustrates an empty network with four hops between a server and a client. Each hop is using different media with a different bandwidth. The maximum available bandwidth is equal to the bandwidth of the slowest link. The calculation of the available bandwidth, however, is much more complex in cases where there are multiple flows traversing the network. The calculation of the available bandwidth in the illustration is a rough approximation.

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End-to-end Delay

IP

IP

IP

IP

Propagation delay (P1) Processing and queuing delay (Q1)

Propagation delay (P2) Processing and queuing delay (Q2)

Propagation delay (P3) Processing and queuing delay (Q3)

Propagation delay (P4)

Delay = P1 + Q1 + P2 + Q2 + P3 + Q3 + P4 = X ms

• End-to-end delay equals a sum of all propagation, processing and queuing delays in the path • Propagation delay is fixed, processing and queuing delays are unpredictable in best-effort networks
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Introduction-9

The figure illustrates the impact a network has on the end-to-end delay of packets going from one end to the other. Each hop in the network adds to the overall delay because of the following two factors: 1. Propagation (serialization) delay of the media that, for the most part, depends solely on the bandwidth. 2. Processing and queuing delays within a router, which can be caused by a wide variety of conditions. Ping (ICMP echoes and replies) can be used to measure the round-trip time of IP packets in a network. There are other tools available to periodically measure responsiveness of a network.

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IP QoS Introduction

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Processing and Queuing Delay

Forwarding

IP

IP

IP

IP

Processing Delay

Queuing Delay Propagation Delay

• Processing Delay is the time it takes for a router to take the packet from an input interface and put it into the output queue of the output interface. • Queuing Delay is the time a packets resides in the output queue of a router. • Propagation or Serialization Delay is the time it takes to transmit a packet.

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IP QoS Introduction-10

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Processing Delay is the time it takes for a router to take the packet from an input interface and put it into the output queue of the output interface. The processing delay depends on various factors, such as:
– – – – –

CPU speed CPU utilization IP switching mode Router architecture Configured features on both input and output interface

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Queuing Delay is the time a packet resides in the output queue of a router. It depends on the number and sizes of packets already in the queue and on the bandwidth of the interface. It also depends on the queuing mechanism. Propagation or Serialization Delay is the time it takes to transmit a packet. It usually only depends on the bandwidth of the interface. CSMA/CD media may add slightly more delay due to the increased probability of collisions when an interface is nearing congestion.

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bandwidth

Packet Loss

Forwarding

IP

IP

IP

IP

IP

Tail-drop

• Tail-drops occur when the output queue is full. These are the most common drops which happen when a link is congested. • There are also many other types of drops that are not as common and may require a hardware upgrade (input drop, ignore, overrun, no buffer, ...). These drops are usually a result of router congestion.
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The usual packet loss occurs when routers run out of buffer space for a particular interface (output queue). The figure illustrates a full output queue of an interface, which causes newly arriving packets to be dropped. The term used for such drops is simply “output drop” or “tail-drop” (packets are dropped at the tail of the queue). Routers might also drop packets for other (less common) reasons, for example:
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Input queue drop - main CPU is congested and cannot process packets (the input queue is full) Ignore - router ran out of buffer space Overrun - CPU is congested and cannot assign a free buffer to the new packet Frame errors (CRC, runt, giant)—hardware-detected error in a frame

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How to Increase Available Bandwidth?
TCP Header Compression RTP Header Compression cTCP data

Compress the Headers IP TCP data Compress the Payload Stacker Predictor Priority Queuing (PQ) Custom Queuing (CQ) Modified Deficit Round Robin (MDRR) Class-based Weighted Fair Queing (CB-WFQ)

Fancyqueuing FIFO queuing

Compressed packet

• Upgrade the link. The best solution but also the most expensive. • Take some bandwidth from less important applications. • Compress the payload of layer-2 frames. • Compress the header of IP packets.
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There are several approaches to solving a problem of insufficient bandwidth:
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The best approach is to increase the link capacity to accommodate all applications and users with some extra bandwidth to spare. This solution sounds simple enough but in the real world it brings a high cost in terms of the money and time it takes to implement. Very often there are also technological limitations to upgrading to a higher bandwidth. Another option is to classify traffic into QoS classes and prioritize it according to importance (business-critical traffic should get enough bandwidth, voice should get enough bandwidth and prioritized forwarding and the least important traffic should get the remaining bandwidth). There are a wide variety of mechanisms available in the Cisco IOS that provide bandwidth guarantees, for example:
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Priority or Custom Queuing Modified Deficit Round Robin (on Cisco 12000 series routers) Distributed ToS-based and QoS-group-based Weighted Fair Queuing (on Cisco 7x00 series routers) Class-based Weighted Fair Queuing

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Optimizing link usage by compressing the payload of frames (virtually) increases the link bandwidth. Compression, on the other hand, also increases delay due to complexity of compression algorithms. Using hardware compression can accelerate the compression of packet payloads. Stacker and Predictor are two compression algorithms available in Cisco IOS. Another link efficiency mechanism is header compression. This mechanism is especially effective in networks where most packets carry small amounts of

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data (payload-to-header ratio is small). Typical examples of header compression are TCP Header Compression and RTP Header Compression.

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How to Reduce Delay?
TCP Header Compression RTP Header Compression cRTP data

Compress the Headers IP UDP RTP data

Fancyqueuing FIFO queuing
Priority Queuing (PQ) Custom Queuing (CQ) Strict Priority MDRR IP RTP prioritization Class-based Low-latency Queuing (CB-LLQ)

Compress the Payload Stacker Predictor

Compressed packet

• Upgrade the link. The best solution but also the most expensive. • Forward the important packets first. • Compress the payload of layer-2 frames (it takes time). • Compress the header of IP packets.
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Introduction-13

Assuming that a router is powerful enough to make a forwarding decision in a negligible time it can be said that most of the processing, queuing delay and propagation delay is influenced by the following factors:
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Average length of the queue Average length of packets in the queue Link bandwidth

There are several approaches to accelerate packet dispatching of delay-sensitive flows:
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Increase link capacity. Enough bandwidth causes queues to shrink, making sure packets do not have to wait long before they can be transmitted. Additionally, more bandwidth reduces serialization time. On the other hand, this might be an unrealistic approach due to the costs associated with the upgrade. A more cost-effective approach is to enable a queuing mechanism that can give priority to delay-sensitive packets by forwarding them ahead of other packets. There are a wide variety of queuing mechanisms available in Cisco IOS that have pre-emptive queuing capabilities, for example:
– – –

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Priority Queuing Custom Queuing Strict-priority or Alternate Priority queuing within the Modified Deficit Round Robin (on Cisco 12000 series routers) IP RTP prioritization Class-based Low-latency Queuing

– –

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n

Payload compression reduces the size of packets and, therefore, virtually increases link bandwidth. Additionally, compressed packets are smaller and need less time to be transmitted. On the other hand, compression uses complex algorithms that take time and add to the delay. This approach is, therefore, not used to provide low-delay propagation of packets. Header compression on the other hand is not as CPU-intensive and can be used in combination with other mechanisms to reduce delay. It is especially useful for voice packets that have a bad payload-to-header ratio, which is improved by reducing the header of the packet (RTP header compression).

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By minimizing delay, jitter is also reduced (delay is more predictable).

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How to Prevent Packet Loss?

Weighted Random Early Detection (WRED)

IP

data

Dropper

Fancyqueuing FIFO queuing

Custom Queuing (CQ) Modified Deficit Round Robin (MDRR) Class -based Weighted Fair Queuing (CB-WFQ)

• Upgrade the link. The best solution but also the most expensive. • Guarantee enough bandwidth to sensitive packets. • Prevent congestion by randomly dropping less important packets before congestion occurs
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Introduction-14

Packet loss is usually a result of congestion on an interface. Most applications that use TCP experience slow down due to TCP adjusting to the network’s resources (dropped TCP segments cause TCP sessions to reduce their window sizes). There are some other applications that do not use TCP and cannot handle drops (fragile flows). The following approaches can be taken to prevent drops of sensitive applications:
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Increased link capacity to ease or prevent congestion. Guarantee enough bandwidth and increase buffer space to accommodate bursts of fragile applications. There are several mechanisms available in Cisco IOS that can guarantee bandwidth and/or provide prioritized forwarding to dropsensitive applications, for example:
– – – – – –

Priority Queuing Custom Queuing Modified Deficit Round Robin (on Cisco 12000 series routers) IP RTP prioritization Class-based Weighted Fair Queuing Class-based Low-latency Queuing

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Prevent congestion by dropping other packets before congestion occurs. Weighted Random Early Detection can be used to start dropping other packets before congestion occurs.

There are some other mechanisms that can also be used to prevent congestion:
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Traffic Shaping delays packets instead of dropping them (Generic Traffic Shaping, Frame Relay Traffic Shaping and Class-based Shaping).
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IP QoS Introduction

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Traffic Policing can limit the rate of less important packets to provide better service to drop-sensitive packets (Committed Access Rate and Class-based Policing).

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Which Applications Have Which QoS Requirements?
Throughput Interactive (e.g. Telnet) Batch (e.g. FTP) Fragile (e.g. SNA) Voice Video Low High High Low Low High High Delay Low Not Important Low Low and Predictable Low and Predictable Loss Loss Low Low None Low Low Jitter Not Important Not Important Not Important Low Low

• Enterprise networks are typically focused on providing QoS to applications
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Introduction-15

When QoS is considered in a network implementation, important applications and their QoS requirements have to be identified. The figure illustrates a table of different types of applications with the corresponding QoS requirements (throughput or bandwidth, delay, loss and jitter). Once the applications are identified and prioritized it must be decided which QoS mechanisms are to be put in place. The approach to provide QoS to applications is usually used in Enterprise Networks where important (business-critical) applications are easy to identify. Most applications can be classified based on TCP or UDP port numbers. Some applications use dynamic port numbers that, somewhat, makes classification more difficult. Cisco IOS supports Network-based Application Recognition (NBAR), which can be used for such application.

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Which Services can be Implemented in a Network?
Throughput Gold Silver Silver Bronze Best Effort ... Guaranteed Guaranteed Guaranteed Limitted No Guarantee . . .. Delay Low No Guarantee No Guarantee No Guarantee . . .. Loss Loss Low No Guarantee No Guarantee No Guarantee . . .. Jitter Low No Guarantee No Guarantee No Guarantee . . ..

• Service provider networks typically offer services based on source and destination addresses
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Introduction-16

Service providers, on the other hand, are there to provide connectivity to customers. They typically are not concerned with the applications that customers are using. They are, however, interested in providing different levels of services to customers. Some customers are willing to pay more for their connectivity to the Internet, providing they obtain some guarantees. The figure illustrates one of the many different approaches to defining services. In reality, each service provider creates its own list of services according to market research and competitive needs. Cisco IOS is simply the tool used to implement those services.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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17

How can QoS be Applied?
• Best effort – no QoS is applied to packets (default behavior) • Integrated Services model – applications signal to the network that they require special QoS • Differentiated Services model – the network recognizes classes that requires special QoS

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Introduction-17

By investigating the history of the Internet it can be divided into three QoS-related periods:
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Best-effort. The Internet was designed for best-effort, no-guarantee delivery of packets. This behavior is still predominant in today’s Internet. Integrated Services model. Introduced to supplement the best-effort delivery by setting aside some bandwidth for applications that require bandwidth and delay guarantees. The Integrated Services model expects applications to signal their requirements to the network. Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP) is used to signal QoS requirements to the network. Differentiated Services model. Added to provide more scalability in providing QoS to IP packets. The main difference is that the network recognizes packets (no signaling is needed) and provides the appropriate services to them.

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Today’s IP networks can use all three models at the same time.

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Summary
IP Quality of Service is used to improve performance of IP networks. Quality of Service can be measured based on available bandwidth, end-to-end delay, packet loss and jitter. Different QoS mechanisms can be used to provide a predictable service. There are many different types of QoS mechanisms available in the Cisco IOS:
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Queuing mechanisms: Priority Queuing (PQ), Custom Queuing (CQ), Weighted Fair Queuing (WFQ) with its distributed versions, IP RTP Prioritization, Modified Deficit Round Robin (MDRR), Class-based Weighted Fair Queuing (CB-WFQ) and Class-based Low-latency Queuing (CB-LLQ) Traffic Shaping mechanisms: Generic Traffic Shaping (GTS), Frame Relay Traffic Shaping (FRTS) and Class-based Shaping Traffic Policing mechanisms: Committed Access Rate (CAR) and Classbased Policing Dropping mechanisms: Weighted Random Early Detection (WRED) Link Efficiency mechanisms: Stacker, Predictor, TCP Header Compression and RTP Header Compression Signaling mechanism: Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP)

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Review Questions
Answer the following questions:
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What are the relevant parameters that define the quality of service? What can be done to give more bandwidth to an application? What can be done to reduce delay? What can be done to prevent packet loss? Name the three QoS models?

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19

Integrated Services Model
Objectives
Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to perform the following tasks:
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Describe the IntServ model List the key benefits and drawbacks of the IntServ model List some implementations that are based on the IntServ model Describe the need for Common Open Policy Service (COPS)

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Integrated Services
• The Internet was initially based on a besteffort packet delivery service • Today's Internet carries many more different applications than 20 years ago • Some applications have special bandwidth and/or delay requirements • The Integrated Services model (RFC1633) was introduced to guarantee a predictable behavior of the network for these applications

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Introduction-22

The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) is responsible for standardization of the Internet and most of the protocols used in the Internet. When faced with a challenge, vendors introduce their own solutions. However, the IETF is there to create standards that allow different vendor’s equipment to interoperate. One of the challenges in the past was to introduce Quality of Service into the best-effort driven Internet. The Integrated Services (IntServ) model was proposed as standard with Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP) as the mechanism used to signal QoS requirements to the network. The IntServ model is described in the RFC 1633 (http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc1633.txt). The use of RSVP for Integrated Services is described in RFC 2210 (http://www.ie tf.org/rfc/rfc2210.txt).

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21

IntServ Building Blocks
Local Admission Control request Remote Admission Control Policy Enforcement Point (PEP) request Local Admission Control request

request

reserve

reserve

reserve reply Policy Decision Point (PDP)

reserve

• Resource Reservation is used to identify an application (flow) and signal if there are enough available resources for it • Admission Control is used to determine if the application (flow) can get the requested resources
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Introduction-23

The IntServ model itself describes the application of QoS in IP networks. Additional standards were developed to cover the exact protocols used to implement Quality of Service:
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Resource Reservation is implemented using the Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP) Admission Control is either implemented locally on the routers or offloaded to central servers

request

n

Common Open Policy Service (COPS) is another IETF standard that defines a protocol that can be used for policy exchange between network devices (Policy Enforcement Point or PEP) and policy servers (Policy Decision Point or PDP). An additional standard was added to integrate RSVP with COPS. The COPS (Common Open Policy Service) Protocol is defined in RFC 2748 (http://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc2748.txt). COPS usage for RSVP is defined in RFC 2749 (http://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc2749.txt).

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Reservation and Admission Protocols
• The resource ReSerVation Protocol (RSVP) was developed to communicate resource needs between hosts and network devices (RFC 2205-2215) • Common Open Policy Service (COPS) was developed to offload admission control to a central policy server (RFC 2748-2753)

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IP QoS Introduction-24

Following is a list of some of the IETF standards (RFCs) that describe RSVP, COPS, the IntServ model and applications:
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Resource ReSerVation Protocol (RSVP), Version 1, Functional Specification (http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2205.txt) RSVP Management Information Base using SMIv2 (http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2206.txt) RSVP Extensions for IPSEC Data Flows (http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2207.txt) Resource ReSerVation Protocol (RSVP), Version 1, Applicability Statement, Some Guidelines on Deployment (http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2208.txt) Resource ReSerVation Protocol (RSVP), Version 1, Message Processing Rules (http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2209.txt) The Use of RSVP with IETF Integrated Services (http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2210.txt) Specification of the Controlled-Load Network Element Service (http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2211.txt) Specification of Guaranteed Quality of Service (http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2212.txt) Integrated Services Management Information Base using SMIv2 (http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2213.txt) Integrated Services Management Information Base, Guaranteed Service Extensions using SMIv2 (http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2214.txt) General Characterization Parameters for Integrated Service Network Elements (http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2215.txt)
IP QoS Introduction 23

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The COPS (Common Open Policy Service) Protocol (http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2748.txt) COPS usage for RSVP (http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2749.txt) RSVP Extensions for Policy Control (http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2750.txt) Signaled Preemption Priority Policy Element (http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2751.txt) Identity Representation for RSVP (http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2752.txt) A Framework for Policy-based Admission Control (http://www.ie tf.org/rfc/rfc2753.txt) SBM (Subnet Bandwidth Manager): A Protocol for RSVP-based Admission Control over IEEE 802-style networks (http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2814.txt) Definitions of Managed Objects for Common Open Policy Service (COPS) Protocol Clients (http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2940.txt) COPS Usage for Policy Provisioning (COPS-PR) (http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3084.txt)

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RSVP-enabled Applications
• RSVP is typically used by applications carrying voice or video over IP networks (initiated by a host) • RSVP with extensions is also used by MPLS Traffic Engineering to establish MPLS/TE tunnels (initiated by a router)

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RSVP, as a resource reservation protocol, was designed for use by end devices in networks (for example, personal computers and servers). It is a protocol that has to be supported by an application that requires network resources and needs guarantees.
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Typical examples of applications that would benefit from RSVP are voice sessions that require a small amount of bandwidth with low-delay propagation. Cisco routers that act as voice gateways can use RSVP to request resources (controlled-load and guaranteed-delay). Cisco routers that use Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) Traffic Engineering (MPLS/TE) use RSVP with extensions to reserve bandwidth and set up MPLS/TE tunnels through MPLS and RSVP enabled networks. Cisco Soft Phone or Microsoft NetMeeting are Windows applications that use RSVP to get resources for their VoIP sessions.

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There are an increasing number of applications that use RSVP to request QoS guarantees from a network.

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IntServ Implementation Options
1) Explicit RSVP on each network node

RSVP

Class of Service or Best Effort 2) RSVP ‘pass -through’ and CoS transport - map RSVP to CoS at network edge - pass -through RSVP request to egress 3) RSVP at network edges and ‘pass -through’ with - best-effort forwarding in the core (if there is enough bandwidth in the core)

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Introduction-26

The figure illustrates three options available when implementing QoS mechanisms via RSVP in a network. 1. The first option is to simply enable RSVP on all interfaces of all the routers in the network. This approach is mainly used in enterprise networks that have more predictable RSVP flows (in terms of quantity and direction because they typically use hub-and-spoke topology). Large service provider networks are less inclined to use RSVP throughout their networks either because RSVP would require too many concurrent reservations on a single interface or because the routers are not capable of providing guarantees to individual flows on high-bandwidth interfaces. 2. An alternative option is to use RSVP on network edges where there is typically less bandwidth per interface and congestion is more likely. The edgeto-core routers (for example, access or distribution layer routers) mark RSVP flows with IP markers, which can then be used in a DiffServ enabled core— the Differentiated Services model is covered in the next lesson). 3. Another option is to use RSVP on network edges and rely on best-effort delivery in a non-congested core.

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Explicit RSVP Transport IntServ End-to-End
RSVP

All Routers
• WFQ applied per flow based on RSVP requests

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Introduction-27

In the first scenario, each router in the network processes RSVP messages and keeps track of the special resource needs for each individual RSVP flow. Weighted Fair Queuing (WFQ) can be used in the backbone to provide resource allocation on a flow-by-flow basis. One concern with this approach is that RSVP is resource intensive on backbone routers - in terms of the amount of signaling and the amount of special information that they need to keep on each RSVP flow. A second issue is that WFQ is a very CPU-intensive algorithm and does not run at high speed on today’s routers. In the backbone, high speed is a mandatory requirement.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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RSVP Pass-Through IntServ - DiffServ Integration
RSVP RSVP

Precedence Classifier

Premium Standard

WRED

Egress Router
• RSVP protocol sent on to destination • WFQ applied to manage egress flow

Ingress Router
• RSVP protocol
Mapped to classes Passed through to egress

Backbone
• WRED applied based on class

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Introduction-28

An alternative to enabling RSVP end-to-end is to use RSVP as a means to signal special requirements between the customer and the ISP edge, but not to use it in the backbone. In this model, packets are mapped on RSVP flows into special service classes which give each class preferential treatment in the core of the network when congestion occurs. This avoids the scalability problem of end-to-end RSVP, since these flows are processed between the end station and the network edge and not in the middle of the backbone. By using WRED on routers, instead of WFQ, much higher speeds can be supported. Alternatively, Class-based WFQ can be used on moderate-speed links to provide better control of bandwidth allocation. The third option is not to use RSVP in the core and rely on best-effort delivery if the core is not congested. Lastly, mapping classes of service to ATM is more straightforward than mapping RSVP directly to ATM. This concept may accelerate the ability of ISPs to offer an RSVP service and enable new application areas.

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IntServ Support in IOS
• RSVP and Weighted Fair Queuing supported since ’95 • RSVP signaling for VoIP calls supported on all VoIP platforms • IOS supports hop-by-hop and pass-through RSVP • RSVP-to-DSCP (DiffServ Code Point) mapping (RSVP proxy) in 12.1T

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Introduction-29

Both RSVP and WFQ have been available for some time and can be used on all low-end platforms and on high-end platforms that are typically used to concentrate customer networks. Newer RSVP mechanisms include:
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Mapping of RSVP to DSCP (the Differentiated Services model with the details of the DiffServ Code point is covered in the next lesson). Mapping of RSVP to ATM SVCs (this technology is covered in the “IP QoS IP over ATM” module).

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29

Benefits and Drawbacks of the IntServ Model
+ RSVP benefits:
• Explicit resource admission control (end to end) • Per-request policy admission control (authorization object, policy object) • Signaling of dynamic port numbers (for example, H.323)

–RSVP drawbacks:
• Continuous signaling due to stateless architecture • Not scalable

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The main benefits of RSVP are:
n

It signals QoS requests per individual flow. The network can then provide guarantees to these individual flows. The problem of this is that it does not scale to large networks because of the large numbers of concurrent RSVP flows. It informs network devices of flow parameters (IP addresses and port numbers). Some applications use dynamic port numbers, which can be difficult for network devices to recognize. NBAR is a mechanism that has been introduced to supplement RSVP for applications that use dynamic port numbers but do not use RSVP.

n

It supports admission control that allows a network to reject (or down-grade) new RSVP sessions if one of the interfaces in the path has reached the limit (all reservable bandwidth is booked). The main drawbacks of RSVP are:
n n

Continuous signaling due to stateless operation of RSVP. RSVP is not scalable to large networks where per-flow guarantees would have to be made to thousands of flows.

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Common Open Policy Service
• Common Open Policy Service (COPS) provides the following benefits when used with RSVP:
– Centralized management of services – Centralized admission control and authorization of RSVP flows

• RSVP-based QoS solutions become more scalable

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The Common Open Policy Service (COPS) is an add-on to RSVP. It can be used to offload certain tasks from network devices to a central server. The result is that the configuration of individual devices is more standardized (template-based) and all individual parameters are managed from a centralized location. In addition, COPS supports admission control of individual flows (the network device determines the available resources and the central server authorizes the flow).

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31

Summary
The Integrated Services (IntServ) model was introduced to allow vendors of routers to add interoperable QoS mechanisms to their best-effort packet forwarding. Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP) is used by end-devices to signal QoS requirements to the network. Common Open Policy Service (COPS) is used to offload policy management to central servers.

Review Questions
Answer the following questions:
n n

What are the two building blocks of the Integrated Services model? Which protocol is used to signal QoS requirements to the network?

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Differentiated Services Model
Objectives
Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to perform the following tasks:
n n n n

Describe the DiffServ model List the key benefits of the DiffServ model compared to the IntServ model Describe the purpose of the DS field in IP headers Describe the interoperability between DSCP-based and IP-precedence-based devices in a network Describe the Expedited Forwarding service Describe the Assured Forwarding service

n n

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Differentiated Services Model
• Differentiated Services model describes services associated with traffic classes • Complex traffic classification and conditioning is performed at network edge resulting in a per-packet Differentiated Services Code Point (DSCP). • No per-flow/per-application state in the core • Core only performs simple ‘per-hop behavior's’ on traffic aggregates • Goal is Scalability
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Introduction-36

The Differentiated Services (DiffServ) model describes services associated with traffic classes. Traffic classes are identified by the value of the DiffServ Code Point (DSCP replaces IP precedence in the ToS field of the IP header). The main goals of the DiffServ model are to provide scalability and a similar level of QoS to the IntServ model, without having to do it on a per-flow basis. The network simply identifies a class (not application) and applies the appropriate perhop behavior (QoS mechanism). The DiffServ model and associated standards are described in the following IETF standardization documents (RFCs):
n

An Architecture for Differentiated Services (http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2475.txt) Definition of the Differentiated Services Field (DS Field) in the IPv4 and IPv6 Headers (http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2474.txt) Assured Forwarding per-hop behavior (PHB) Group (http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2597.txt) An Expedited Forwarding per-hop behavior (PHB) (http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2598.txt)

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Additional Requirements
• Wide variety of services and provisioning policies • Decouple service and application in use • No application modification • No hop-by-hop signaling • Interoperability with non-DS-compliant nodes • Incremental deployment

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The DiffServ model describes services and allows for more user-defined services to be used in a DiffServ-enabled network. Services are provided to classes. A class can be identified as a single application or, as in most cases, it can be identified based on source or destination IP address. The idea is for the network to recognize a class without having to receive any request from applications. This allows the QoS mechanisms to be applied to other applications that do not have the RSVP functionality, which is the case for 99% of applications that use IP. The introduction of the DiffServ Code Point (DSCP) replaces the IP precedence but maintains interoperability with non-DS compliant devices (those that still use IP precedence). Because of this backward-compatibility DiffServ can be gradually deployed in large networks.

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DiffServ Elements
• The service defines QoS requirements and guarantees provided to a traffic aggregate; • The conditioning functions and per-hop behaviors are used to realize services; • The DS field value (DS code point) is used to mark packets to select a per-hop behavior • Per-hop Behavior (PHB) is realized using a particular QoS mechanism • Provisioning is used to allocate resources to traffic classes

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A traffic aggregate is a collection of all flows that require the same service. A service is implemented using different QoS mechanisms (a QoS mechanism implements a per-hop behavior). The DiffServ field (DS fie ld) is the former 8-bit Type of Service field. The main difference is that the DSCP supports more classes (64) than IP precedence (8). The most important part of designing QoS is to provision services as explained on the next page.

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Why is Provisioning Important?
• QoS does not create bandwidth! • QoS manages bandwidth usage among multiple classes • QoS gives better service to a wellprovisioned class with respect to another class

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Provisioning requires a thorough network analysis to determine parameters for services that are being deployed in the network. The result of provisioning is the allocation of bandwidth among all classes in times of congestion. Services are implemented by defining per-hop behavior (PHB) properties. PHBs are implemented by using the available QoS mechanisms in networks devices.

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Topological Terminology
DS interior node

DS Ingress Boundary node

DS Egress Boundary node Boundary link

Upstream DS domain

Downstream DS domain DS region

Traffic Stream = set of flows Behaviour Aggregate (flows with the same DSCP)

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A DS domain consists of DS boundary nodes and DS interior nodes. DS boundary nodes interconnect the DS domain to other DS or non-DS-capable domains. While DS interior nodes only connect to other DS interior or boundary nodes within the same DS domain. Both DS boundary nodes and interior nodes must be able to apply the appropriate PHB to packets based on the DS code point; otherwise unpredictable behaviour may result. DS boundary nodes act both as a DS ingress node and as a DS egress node for traffic traversing the network in different directions. Traffic enters a DS domain at a DS ingress node and leaves a DS domain at a DS egress node. A DS ingress node is responsible for ensuring that the traffic entering the DS domain conforms to any Traffic Conditioning Agreement (TCA) between it and the other domain to which the ingress node is connected. A DS egress node may perform traffic conditioning functions on traffic forwarded to a directly connected peering domain, depending on the details of the TCA between the two domains. A differentiated services region (DS Region) is a set of one or more contiguous DS domains. DS regions are capable of supporting differentiated services along paths that span the domains within the region. The DS domains in a DS region may support different PHB groups internally and different code point-PHB mappings. However, to permit services that span across the domains, the peering DS domains must each establish a peering Service Level Agreement (SLA) that defines (either explicitly or implicitly) a TCA. The TCA specifies how transit traffic from one DS domain to another is conditioned at the boundary between the two DS domains. It is possible that several DS domains within a DS region may adopt a common service provisioning policy and may support a common set of PHB groups and

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code point mappings. This eliminates the need for traffic conditioning between those DS domains.

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Traffic Terminology
• Flow: a single instance of an application-toapplication flow of packets which is identified by source address, source port, destination address, destination port and protocol id. • Traffic stream: an administratively significant set of one or more flows which traverse a path segment. A traffic stream may consist of a set of active flows which are selected by a particular classifier. • Traffic profile: a description of the temporal properties of a traffic stream such as average and peak rate and burst size.

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The terminology used throughout the course includes the following:
n

Flow (or microflow) is a sequence of packets identified by source and destination IP addresses, protocol identifier (for example, TCP and UDP) and source and destination port numbers. Traffic stream is a collection of flows with a common set of parameters (for example, the same port number and the same source and destination network). Traffic profile specifies typical properties of a traffic stream (average rate and burstiness). Provisioning should be performed based on traffic profiles and the importance of traffic streams.

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n

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Traffic Terminology
• Behavior Aggregate (BA) is a collection of packets with the same DS code point crossing a link in a particular direction. • Per-Hop Behavior (queuing in a node) externally observable forwarding behavior applied at a DS-compliant node to a DS behavior aggregate. • PHB Mechanism: a specific algorithm or operation (e.g., queuing discipline) that is implemented in a node to realize a set of one or more per-hop behaviors.
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Introduction-42

Other important terms used throughout the course are:
n n n

Behavior Aggregate (BA) identifies packets marked with the same DSCP Per-hop Behavior (PHB) is applied to each BA according to the QoS policy PHB mechanism is the actual QoS mechanism that satisfies PHB specification

Other terms can be found in RFC 2475, which defines the Differentiated Services model (http://www.ie tf.org/rfc/rfc2475.txt).

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Packet Header Terminology

DSCP field: 6bits Former ToS byte = new DS field

Unused: 2bits

• DS code point: a specific value of the DSCP portion of the DS field, used to select a PHB (Per-Hop Behavior; forwarding and queuing method) • DS field: the IPv4 header ToS octet or the IPv6 Traffic Class octet when interpreted in conformance with the definition given in RFC2474. The bits of the DSCP field encode the DS code point, while the remaining bits are currently unused.
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Introduction-43

The DiffServ model uses the DS field in the IP header to mark packets according to their classification into Behavior Aggregates (BAs). The DS field occupies the same eight bits of the IP header that were previously used for the Type of Service (ToS) field. There are three IETF standards describing the purpose of those eight bits:
n

RFC 791 includes specification of the ToS field where the high-order three bits are used for IP precedence. The other bits are used for delay, throughput, reliability and cost. RFC 1812 modifies the meaning of the ToS field by removing any meaning from the five low-order bits (those bits should all be zero). RFC 2474 replaces the ToS field with the DS field where the six high-order bits are used for the DiffServ Code Point (DSCP). The remaining two bits are currently not used.

n

n

Each DSCP value identifies a Behavior Aggregate (BA). Each BA is assigned a per-hop behavior (PHB). Each PHB is implemented using the appropriate QoS mechanism or a set of QoS mechanisms.

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DSCP Encoding
• Three pools: – “xxxxx0” – “xxxx11” – “xxxx01” Standard Action Experimental/Local Use EXP/LU (possible std action)

• Default DSCP: “000000” • Default PHB: FIFO, tail-drop

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Unlike IP precedence, which lacked any standard definitions of values and corresponding PHBs, the DSCP has half of its value range reserved for standard defined PHBs. The low-order bit of the DSCP identifies whether the DSCP value identifies a standard action (PHB) or a user-defined action. The second bit could, potentially, (in the future) also be used to identify additional standard actions. The default value of DSCP is 0. The associated PHB is FIFO service with a tail-drop. FIFO queuing is discussed in the “IP QoS – Queuing mechanisms module”. The default DSCP value seamlessly maps to the default IP precedence value, which is also 0 according to RFC 1812.

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DSCP Usage
DS Code point selects per-hop behavior (PHB) throughout the network
• Default PHB • Class Selector (IP precedence) PHB • Expedited Forwarding (EF) PHB • Assured Forwarding (AF) PHB

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The following per-hop behaviors are defined by IETF standards:
n n

Default PHB – used for best-effort service Class Selector PHB – used for backward compatibility with non-DS compliant devices (RFC 1812 compliant devices and, optionally, RFC 791 compliant devices) Expedited Forwarding PHB – used for low-delay service Assured Forwarding PHB – used for guaranteed bandwidth service

n n

The Default PHB and the Class Selector PHB are described in RFC 2474 (http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2474.txt), Expedited Forwarding PHB is described in RFC 2598 (http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2598.txt) and Assured Forwarding in RFC 2597 (http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2597.txt).

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Backward Compatibility Using the Class Selector
• Non-DS compliant node: node that does not interpret the DSCP correctly or that does not support all the standardized PHB’s • Legacy node: a non-DS compliant node that interprets IPv4 ToS such as defined by RFC791 and RFC1812. • DSCP is backward compatible with IP Precedence (Class Selector Code point, RFC 1812) but not with the ToS byte definition from RFC 791 (“DTR” bits)

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The history of the eight bits in question (ToS field alias DS field) can be divided into three periods according to the RFCs describing the purpose of those bits: RFC 791 RFC 791 defines the Type of Service field with the following components:
n n n

Bits seven, six and five are used for IP precedence Bit four is used for delay (0 = Normal Delay, 1 = Low Delay) Bit three is used for throughput (0 = Normal Throughput, 1 = High Throughput) Bit two is used for reliability (0 = Normal Reliability, 1 = High Reliability) Bits one and zero are not used and should be zero (bit one was later applied a meaning of monetary-cost by RFC 1349; this RFC also replaces individual bits with a four-bit ToS value to allow more types of services)

n n

RFC 1812 RFC 1812 loosens the strict representation of the ToS field (obsole tes RFC 795). RFC 2474 RFC 2474 replaces the ToS field with the DS field where a range of eight values (Class Selector) is used for backward compatibility with IP precedence. There is no compatibility with the delay, throughput, reliability and monetary-cost bits.

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Class Selector Code Point
• Compatibility with current IP precedence usage (RFC 1812) • “xxx000” DS code points • Differentiates probability of timely forwarding (PTF) – PTF (xyz000) >= PTF(abc000) if xyz > abc

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RFC 1812 simply prioritizes packets according to the precedence value. The PHB is defined as the probability of timely forwarding. Packets with higher IP precedence should (on the average) be forwarded in less time than packets with lower IP precedence. RFC 2474 adopts this set of PHBs and values by creating the Class Selector PHB group. Class Selector can be identified by the low-order three bits of the DSCP or low-order five bits of the DS field: all bits are zero.

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Expedited Forwarding
• Expedited Forwarding (EF) PHB: – Ensures a minimum departure rate – Guarantees bandwidth – the class is guaranteed an amount of bandwidth with prioritized forwarding – Polices bandwidth – the class is not allowed to exceed the guaranteed amount (excess traffic is dropped) • DSCP value: “101110”; looks like IP precedence 5 to non-DS compliant devices

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The Expedited Forwarding PHB is identified based on the following parameters:
n

Ensures a minimum departure rate to provide the lowest possible delay to delay-sensitive applications Guarantees bandwidth to prevent starvation of the application if there are multiple applications using Expedited Forwarding PHB Polices bandwidth to prevent starvation of other applications or classes that are not using this PHB Packets requiring Expedited Forwarding should be marked with DSCP binary value “101110” (46 or 0x2E)

n

n

n

Non-DS compliant devices will regard EF DSCP value as IP precedence 5 (101), which is the highest user-definable IP precedence and is typically used for delay-sensitive traffic such as Voice over IP.

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IOS EF PHB Implementations
• Priority Queuing • IP RTP Prioritization • Class-based Low-latency Queuing (CB-LLQ) • Strict Priority queuing within Modified Deficit Round Robin (MDRR) on GSR

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Expedited Forwarding PHB can be implemented on Cisco routers using several different QoS mechanisms:
n

Routers running older Cisco IOS versions can use Priority Queuing (PQ) and put delay-sensitive traffic into a “high” priority queue. Priority Queuing, however, does not fully comply with the specification of the EF PHB – it does not have the capability to police the bandwidth used by the EF class. IP RTP Prioritization can be used in combination with Weighted Fair Queuing (WFQ) or Class-based Weighted Fair Queuing (CB-WFQ). IP RTP Prioritization provides expedited forwarding with bandwidth guarantee and bandwidth policing. Class-based Low-latency Queuing (CB-LLQ) is a mechanism similar to IP RTP Prioritization. It is the preferred mechanism for implementing EF PHB. Strict Priority within Modified Deficit Round Robin (MDRR) on the Cisco 12000 series routers provides low-latency queuing but does not police bandwidth. Alternate Priority MDRR prevents starvation of other classes but it does not police bandwidth of the EF class.

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Assured Forwarding
• Assured Forwarding (AF) PHB: –Guarantees bandwidth –Allows access to extra bandwidth if available • Four standard classes (af1, af2, af3 and af4) • DSCP value range: “aaadd0” where “aaa” is a binary value of the class and “dd” is drop probability

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The Assured Forwarding PHB is identified based on the following parameters:
n n n

Guarantees a certain amount of bandwidth to an AF class Allows access to extra bandwidth, if available Packets requiring AF PHB should be marked with DSCP value “aaadd0” where “aaa” is the number of the class and “dd” is the drop probability

There are four standard-defined AF classes. Each class should be treated independently and have bandwidth allocated based on the QoS policy.

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AF Encoding
Class AF1 AF2 AF3 AF4 Value 001dd0 010dd0 011dd0 100dd0

Drop Probability (dd) Low Medium High

Value

01 10 11

• Each AF class uses three DSCP values • Each AF class is independently forwarded with its guaranteed bandwidth • Differentiated RED is used within each class to prevent congestion within the class
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Introduction-51

As the figure illustrates there are three DSCP values assigned to each of the four AF classes. Assured Forwarding class AF class 1 Drop Probability Low Medium High Low Medium High Low Medium High Low Medium High DSCP value 001 01 0 001 10 0 001 11 0 010 01 0 010 10 0 010 11 0 011 01 0 011 10 0 011 11 0 100 01 0 100 10 0 100 11 0

AF class 2

AF class 3

AF class 4

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AF PHB Definition
• A DS node MUST allocate a configurable, minimum amount of forwarding resources (buffer space and bandwidth) per AF class • Excess resources may be allocated between non-idle classes. The manner must be specified. • Reordering of IP packets of the same flow is not allowed if they belong to the same AF class

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An AF implementation must attempt to minimize long-term congestion within each class, while allowing short-term congestion resulting from bursts. This requires an active queue management algorithm. An example of such an algorithm is Weighted Random Early Detection (WRED). The AF specification does not define the use of a particular algorithm, but does require that several properties hold. An AF implementation must detect and respond to long-term congestion within each cla ss by dropping packets, while handling short-term congestion (packet bursts) by queuing packets. This implies the presence of a smoothing or filtering function that monitors the instantaneous congestion level and computes a smoothed congestion level. The dropping algorithm uses this smoothed congestion level to determine when packets should be discarded. The dropping algorithm must treat all packets within a single class and precedence level identically. This implies that, for any given smoothed congestion level, the discard rate of a particular microflow's packets within a single precedence level will be proportional to that flow's percentage of the total amount of traffic passing through that precedence level. The congestion indication feedback to the end nodes, and thus the level of packet discard at each drop precedence in relation to congestion, must be gradual rather than abrupt. This allows the overall system to reach a stable operating point. WRED uses two (configurable) smoothed congestion level thresholds. When the smoothed congestion level is below the first threshold, no packets of the relevant drop precedence are discarded. When the smoothed congestion level is between the first and the second threshold, packets are discarded with linearly increasing probability, ranging from zero to a configurable value reached just prior to the second threshold. When the smoothed congestion level is above the second

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threshold, packets of the relevant drop precedence are discarded with 100% probability. To allow the AF PHB to be used in many different operating environments, the dropping algorithm control parameters must be independently configurable for each packet drop precedence and for each AF class. Within the limits above, this specification allows for a range of packet discard behaviours.

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AF PHB Implementation
• CBWFQ (4 classes) with WRED within each class • (M)DRR with WRED within each class • Optionally Custom Queuing (does not support differentiated dropping)

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As with Expedited Forwarding there are multiple QoS mechanisms in the Cisco IOS that can accommodate some or all of the requirements of Assured Forwarding PHB:
n

The preferred implementation is to use the Class-based Weighted Fair Queuing (CB-WFQ) with four classes (four independent queues) and Weighted Random Early Detection (WRED) within each queue. A similar solution can be provided on the Cisco 12000 series routers by using the Modified Deficit Round Robin (MDRR) queuing with WRED in each queue. The AF PHB can also be implemented using the old-fashioned IP precedence. The only restriction is the number of available IP precedence values. Example 1:
n n n n n

n

n

Four classes but no differentiated dropping: AF1—IP precedence 1 AF2—IP precedence 2 AF3—IP precedence 3 AF4—IP precedence 4

n

Example 2:
n n n

Two classes with differentiated dropping (two drop precedence values): AF1—IP precedence 1 for high-drop, IP precedence 2 for low-drop AF1—IP precedence 3 for high-drop, IP precedence 4 for low-drop

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n

In both examples IP precedence 0 can be used for a best-effort class and IP precedence 5 for an EF class. A similar solution as shown in Example 1 is also possible with Custom Queuing, except it has no support for differentiated dropping and DSCP. A workaround is possible if access-lists are used to match the DSCP value (direct matching of DSCP available only in IOS 12.1 and above) with a combination of IP precedence and ToS value.

n

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Summary
After completing this lesson, you should be able to perform the following tasks:
n n n n

Describe the DiffServ model List the key benefits of the DiffServ model compared to the IntServ model Describe the purpose of the DS field in IP headers Describe the interoperability between DSCP-based and IP-precedence-based devices in a network Describe the Expedited Forwarding service Describe the Assured Forwarding service

n n

Review Questions
Answer the following questions:
n n n n n n

What are the benefits of the DiffServ model compared to the IntServ model? What is a DiffServ Code Point? Name the standard PHBs? How was backward compatibility with IP precedence achieved? Describe the PHB of Assured Forwarding. Describe the PHB of Expedited Forwarding.

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Building Blocks of IP QoS Mechanisms
Objectives
Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to perform the following tasks:
n n n n

Describe different classification options in IP networks Describe different marking options in IP networks List the mechanisms that are capable of measuring the rate of traffic List the mechanisms that are used for traffic conditioning, shaping and avoiding congestion List the forwarding mechanisms available in Cisco IOS List the queuing mechanisms available in Cisco IOS

n n

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Router Functions
Defragmentation Decompression (payload, header) Source -based qos-label/precedence setting Destination-based qos-label/precedence setting Rate -limiting Class -based marking Policy-based-routing ... Rate -limiting Random dropping Shaping Compression (payload, header) Fragmentation Queuing and scheduling ...

Input I/O

Input Processing

Forwarding

Output Processing

Output I/O

Process switching Fast/optimum switching Netflow switching CEF switching

• Depending on the configuration, a router may perform a number of actions prior to forwarding a packet (input processing) • Depending on the configuration, a router may perform a number of actions prior to enqueuing a packet in the hardware queue (output processing)
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Introduction-58

Basic router function takes packets received on the input interface, makes a forwarding decision and transmits the packet out through the output interface. Today’s routers, however, can do much more than that. The figure lists a small subset of features that affect packet processing on input or output interfaces. Following is a list of some of the features available with Cisco routers:
n n n

Payload compression (Stacker, Predictor) Header compression (TCP and RTP header compression) BGP-policy marking (CEF-based marking or QoS Policy propagation through BGP) Traffic Policing (CAR, CB Policing) Traffic Shaping (GTS, FRTS, CB-Shaping) Class-based marking Encryption (CET or IPsec) WRED Policy-based Routing Accounting (IP accounting, NetFlow accounting) Filtering (access lists) Reverse-path checking Address and port translation (NAT, PAT) Stateful filtering (firewalling) Web-cache redirection
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n n n n n n n n n n n n

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IP QoS Actions
• Classification – Each class-oriented QoS mechanism has to support some type of classification (access lists, route maps, class maps, etc.) • Metering – Some mechanisms measure the rate of traffic to enforce a certain policy (e.g. rate limiting, shaping, scheduling, etc.) • Dropping – Some mechanisms are used to drop packets (e.g. random early detection) • Policing – Some mechanisms are used to enforce a rate limit based on the metering (excess traffic is dropped) • Shaping – Some mechanisms are used to enforce a rate limit based on the metering (excess traffic is delayed)
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Introduction-59

IP QoS mechanisms can perform different types of actions. All QoS mechanisms can be divided into the following QoS actions:
n

Classification – most QoS mechanisms support multiple classes. There are different classification tools available with different QoS mechanisms (for example, access lists, route maps, class maps and rate-limit access lists). Some QoS mechanisms have the capability to match directly on certain parameters. For example:
– – – – – –

CAR (QoS group and DSCP) WRED (IP precedence) ToS-based dWFQ (IP precedence) QoS-group-based dWFQ (QoS group) WFQ (flow parameters) PQ and CQ (interface, packet size and protocol)

n

Some mechanisms require the information about traffic rate of classes (for example, CAR, GTS, FRTS, CB-Shaping, CB-Policing, CB-WFQ, CB-LLQ, MDRR and IP RTP Prioritization). Some mechanisms are used for dropping purposes. They utilize a dropping scheme different from the usual tail-drop. WRED is an example of such mechanism. Some mechanisms are used to limit traffic rate by dropping excess traffic (CAR and CB-Policing). Some mechanisms are used to limit traffic rate by delaying excess traffic (GTS, FRTS and CB-Shaping).
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IP QoS Actions
• Marking – Some mechanisms have the capability to mark packets based on classification and/or metering (e.g. CAR, class-based marking, etc.) • Queuing – Each interface has to have a queuing mechanism • Forwarding – There are several supported forwarding mechanisms (process switching, fast switching, CEF switching, etc.)

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n

Some mechanisms have the capability to mark packets with different types of markers (IP precedence, DSCP, QoS group, MPLS experimental bits, ATM CLP bit, Frame Relay DE bit and 802.1q or ISL priority/cos bits) Some mechanisms are used for queuing on output interfaces (for example, FIFO, PQ, CQ, WFQ, dWFQ, ToS-based dWFQ, QoS-group-based dWFQ, CB-WFQ, IP RTP Prioritization and MDRR) Cisco IOS also has different types of forwarding mechanisms (Process Switching, Fast Switching, Optimum Switching, Silicon Switching, Autonomous Switching, NetFlow Switching, Cisco Express Forwarding and Policy-based routing)

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DiffServ Mechanisms in IOS
Meter

Inbound traffic stream

Classifier

Marker

Conditioner Shaping Dropping

Queuing Scheduling Dropping

• Most traditional QoS mechanisms include extensive built-in classifiers
– – – – – Committed Access Rate (CAR) QoS Policy Propagation via BGP (QPPB) Route-maps Queuing mechanisms ...

• Modular QoS CLI (first implemented in 12.0(5)T) separates classifier from other actions
– Includes all traditional classifiers + Network Based Application Recognition (NBAR)
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Introduction-61

Most QoS mechanisms include several different classification options. The following table lists some QoS mechanisms with the corresponding classification options. QoS Mechanism Committed Access Rate (CAR) Classification options Access list Rate limit access list QoS-group DSCP Route map Route map Access list Access list Packet size Input interface Protocol

QoS Policy Propagation through BGP (QPPB) Policy-based routing Generic Traffic Shaping Priority Queuing and Custom Queuing

All mechanisms available using the Class map which can use: another class modular QoS CLI (CB-WFQ, CB-LLQ, map, access list, protocol (including CB-Shaping, CB-Policing, CB-Marking) NBAR), input interface, source or destination MAC address, IP precedence, DSCP, QoS group, MPLS experimental bits, etc.)

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DiffServ Mechanisms in IOS
Meter

Inbound traffic stream

Classifier

Marker

Conditioner Shaping Dropping

Queuing Scheduling Dropping

• Token Bucket model is used for metering
– – – – – – – – Committed Access Rate (CAR) Generic Traffic Shaping (GTS) Frame Relay Traffic Shaping (FRTS) Class-based Weighted Fair Queuing (CB-WFQ) Class-based Low Latency Queuing (CB-LLQ) Class-based Policing Class-based Shaping IP RTP Prioritization
IP QoS Introduction-62

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

The figure lists QoS mechanisms in the Cisco IOS that have the capability to measure the rate of traffic by using the Token Bucket model.

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DiffServ Mechanisms in IOS
Meter

Inbound traffic stream

Classifier

Marker

Conditioner Shaping Dropping

Queuing Scheduling Dropping

• Marker is used to set:
– – – – – – – IP precedence DSCP QoS group MPLS experimental bits Frame Relay DE bit ATM CLP bit IEEE 802.1Q or ISL CoS

• Marking mechanisms:
– Comitted Access Rate (CAR) – QoS Policy Propagation through BGP (QPPB) – Policy-based Routing (PBR) – Class-based Marking

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Introduction-63

The figure lists markers that can be set using Cisco routers and the queuing mechanisms that have marking capabilities. The following table lists all the mechanisms that have marking capabilities and the markers that are supported by those mechanisms. QoS Mechanism Committed Access Rate (CAR) Available markers IP precedence DSCP QoS group MPLS experimental bits IP precedence QoS group IP precedence QoS group IP precedence DSCP QoS group MPLS experimental bits ATM CLP bit Frame Relay DE bit 802.1Q/ISL cos/priority

QoS Policy Propagation through BGP (QPPB) Policy-based Routing (PBR) Class-based Marking

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Comparison of Markers
Marker Marker
IP precedence DSCP QoS group group MPLS experimental bits experimental bits Frame Relay DE bit ATM CLP bit IEEE 802.1Q or ISL CoS or ISL CoS

Preservation
Throught a network Throught a network Local to a router
Throughout an MPLS network (optionally throughout an throughout entire IP network)

Value range
8 values, 2 reserved (0 to 7) 64 values, 32 are standard (0 to 63) 100 values (0 to 99) 8 values 2 values (0 or 1) 2 values (0 or 1) 8 values (0 to 7)
IP QoS Introduction-64

Throughout a Frame Relay network Throughout an ATM network Throughout a LAN switched network

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

The figure describes the differences between markers in terms of preservation of the marker and a value range. Markers can:
n

Be local to the router (the QoS group is not part of a packet or frame; it is a piece of information attached to a packet while it is stored in the router’s memory) Have a limited range due to layer-2 technology that they use (ATM CLP, FR DE, 802.1q/ISL cos/priority, MPLS exp bits) Have an unlimited range (IP precedence, DSCP)

n

n

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IP QoS Introduction

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DiffServ Mechanisms in IOS
Meter

Inbound traffic stream

Classifier

Marker

Conditioner Shaping Dropping

Queuing Scheduling Dropping

• Shaping mechanisms:
– Generic Traffic Shaping (GTS) – Frame Relay Traffic Shaping (FRTS) – Class-based Shaping – Hardware shaping on ATM VC

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Introduction-65

The figure lists four mechanisms that are used for traffic shaping purposes. All of these mechanisms are implemented in software (Cisco IOS) except for ATM shaping which is implemented in hardware. Traffic shaping is used to limit the departure rate of packets, frames or cells by delaying them if they exceed the contractual rate. A token bucket model is used to measure the arrival rate and determine when packets can be forwarded.

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DiffServ Mechanisms in IOS
Meter

Inbound traffic stream

Classifier

Marker

Conditioner Shaping Dropping

Queuing Scheduling Dropping

• Dropping mechanisms
– Committed Access Rate (CAR) and Class-based Policing can drop packets that exceed the contractual rate – Weighted Random Early Detection (WRED) can randomly drop packets when an interface is nearing congestion
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Introduction-66

Another way of enforcing rate limits is to drop excess traffic. Committed Access Rate (CAR) and Class-based Policing can be used for this purpose. Weighted Random Early Detection (WRED) is a congestion-avoidance mechanism that randomly drops packets when interfaces are nearing congestion.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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DiffServ Mechanisms in IOS
Meter

Inbound traffic stream

Classifier

Marker

Conditioner Shaping Dropping

Forwarding

Queuing Scheduling Dropping

• Cisco Express Forwarding (CEF) is recommended from IOS 12.0 • Some QoS features work only in combination with CEF

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Introduction-67

The Cisco IOS supports a large number of different forwarding mechanisms (depending on the platform and the IOS version). From the QoS perspective it can be said that:
n n

Most newer mechanisms require Cisco Express Forwarding (CEF) Some older mechanisms do not work with CEF (Process or Fast switching is required)

Some other forwarding mechanisms available in the Cisco IOS include:
n

Process switching, which is the oldest forwarding mechanisms available since the first releases of Cisco IOS. Fast switching, which is the first optimization of forwarding. It uses a cache to store most used destinations and it is performed in the interrupt code to improve performance. Optimum switching, which is a further optimized version of fast switching on high-end routers. NetFlow switching, which forwards packets by recognizing and caching flow information.

n

n

n

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DiffServ Mechanisms in IOS
Meter

Inbound traffic stream

Classifier

Marker

Conditioner Shaping Dropping

Forwarding

Queuing Scheduling Dropping

• Traditional queuing mechanisms
– FIFO, Priority Queuing (PQ), Custom Queuing (CQ)

• Weighted Fair Queuing (WFQ) family
– WFQ, dWFQ, CoS-based dWFQ, QoS-group dWFQ

• Advanced queuing mechanisms
– Class-based WFQ, Class-based LLQ
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Introduction-68

The last mechanism that handles packets in the IOS is the queuing mechanism. The figure lists most of the queuing mechanisms.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Introduction

69

DiffServ Mechanisms in IOS
Meter

Inbound traffic stream

Classifier

Marker

Conditioner Shaping Dropping

Forwarding

Queuing Scheduling Dropping

• Tail drop on queue congestion • WFQ has an improved tail-drop scheme • WRED randomly drops packets when nearing congestion

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Introduction-69

All queuing mechanisms include a drop policy. Most mechanisms use a simple taildrop scheme (the last packet to arrive is dropped if there is no room in the queue). Weighted Fair Queuing (WFQ) uses a more intelligent dropping scheme, which is discussed in the “IP QoS – Queuing mechanisms” module. Some queuing mechanisms also include the Weighted Random Early Detection (WRED) to prevent congestion in their queues.

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Summary
After completing this lesson, you should be able to perform the following tasks:
n n n n

Describe different classification options in IP networks Describe different marking options in IP networks List the mechanisms that are capable of measuring the rate of traffic List the mechanisms that are used for traffic conditioning, shaping and avoiding congestion List the forwarding mechanisms available in the Cisco IOS List the queuing mechanisms available in the Cisco IOS

n n

Review Questions
Answer the following questions:
n n n n n n n n n

Name the QoS building blocks. What is the purpose of classification? What is the purpose of marking? Which markers do you know? Which mechanisms can classify and mark packets? Which mechanisms have the ability to measure the rate of traffic? Which forwarding mechanisms do you know? Which queuing mechanisms do you know? How, when and where do routers drop packets?

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Introduction

71

Enterprise Network Case Study
Objectives
Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to perform the following tasks:
n n n n

Describe a typical structure of an enterprise network Describe the need for QoS in enterprise networks List typical QoS requirements in enterprise networks List the QoS mechanisms that are typically used in enterprise networks

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Traditional Enterprise Networks
Core
(central sites and data centres)

X.25 (ancient), Frame Relay (old), ATM (newer)

Distribution
(regional centres)

X.25 (ancient), Frame Relay (old), ATM (newer)

Access
(branch offices)

• Traditional enterprise network use a hub-and-spoke topology • Redundant connections are used to improve resilience • Partial mesh can be used between the core sites and the distribution sites
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Introduction-74

This lesson describes typical Enterprise Networks to show the topology and technologies involved in such networks. Designing IP QoS networks largely depends on the topology and QoS requirements. The figure illustrates a three-layered network: 1. The core interconnects the data center(s) with the distribution-layer routers. 2. The distribution layer routers concentrate links towards a number of accesslayer routers. 3. The access-layer routers connect branch offices to the network. Most traffic in enterprise networks goes between branches and the data center.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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Modern Enterprise Networks
Core
(central sites and data centres)

MPLS/VPN (new)

Access
(branch offices)

• Modern enterprise network use a full mesh topology provided by an MPLS/VPN backbone • Redundant connections to the backbone can be used to improve resilience • The MPLS/VPN backbone uses redundant connections and a partial mesh to improve resilience
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Introduction-75

Modern enterprise networks can use MPLS/VPN backbones to get a virtual full mesh even though most traffic still goes between the data center and the branches. Implementing QoS in such environments requires QoS guarantees from the service provider and provisioning in the enterprise part of the network.

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QoS in Enterprise Networks
• Typical enterprise networks have a large number of different applications • Some applications are business-critical and require some guarantees (bandwidth, delay) • The network should provide enough resources to these business-critical applications • Applications are usually identified based on TCP or UDP port numbers

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Introduction-76

Enterprise networks are typically concerned with providing differentiated QoS to applications. Applications can be classified based on TCP or UDP port numbers and marked with IP precedence or DSCP at network edges. The network should guarantee resources to all business-critical applications (classes).

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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Case Study
• Typical line speeds
– Core - Distribution – Distribution - Branch < 2 Mbps 64 kbps - 256 kbps

• Typical protocols
– SNA, NetBIOS, Desktop protocols (IPX), Some TCP/IP, Voice, Multimedia

• Typical QoS requirements
– SNA and voice are high priority – Guaranteed bandwidth for some application – Rest of the traffic is best-effort
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Introduction-77

The figure shows a case study where relatively low bandwidths are used which calls for QoS to manage bandwidth according to the needs of the enterprise.

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Case Study Implementation #1
• Core - Distribution
– Custom queuing

• Distribution - Branch
– Priority queuing or – Custom Queuing with a priority queue

• Options
– Traffic shaping – Adaptation to Frame Relay congestion notification

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Introduction-78

The figure lists mechanisms that could be used to accommodate the need of the enterprise. This solution would normally be used in networks where an old IOS version is being used and an upgrade is not an option (due to the cost of getting newer IOS versions, memory upgrade, flash upgrade, etc.). The listed mechanisms (Priority Queuing and Custom Queuing) have been available since Cisco IOS version 10.0.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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Case Study Implementation #2
• Core - Distribution
– Class-based Weighted Fair Queuing (CB-WFQ) – Class-based Low Latency Queuing (CB-LLQ)

• Distribution - Branch
– Class-based Weighted Fair Queuing (CB-WFQ) – Class-based Low Latency Queuing (CB-LLQ)

• Options
– Class-based Shaping – Adaptation to Frame Relay congestion notification – Class-based Policing – Weighted Random Early Detection (WRED)
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Introduction-79

This figure shows a solution using advanced mechanisms to provide better control of bandwidth usage. This solution requires newer Cisco IOS software versions (12.1 or 12.2, depending on the details of the implementation).

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Summary
After completing this lesson, you should be able to perform the following tasks:
n n n n

Describe a typical structure of an enterprise network Describe the need for QoS in enterprise networks List typical QoS requirements in enterprise networks List the QoS mechanisms that are typically used in enterprise networks

Review Questions
Answer the following questions:
n n n

What is the typical enterprise network topology? How is resilience achieved? Based on which information do typical enterprise networks apply QoS?

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Introduction

79

Service Provider Case Study
Objectives
Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to perform the following tasks:
n n n n

Describe a typical structure of a service provider network Describe the need for QoS in service provider networks List typical QoS requirements in service provider networks List the QoS mechanisms that can be used in service provider networks

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Typical Service Provider Networks

ATM, SONET/SDH, DPT, GE, ...

Partial mesh Rings

Core

ATM, SONET/SDH, DPT, GE, ...

Redundant connections Rings

Distribution
(regional POPs)

Frame Relay, ATM, Leased line (analog, TDM), dial-up (PSTN, ISDN, GSM), xDSL, (fast)ethernet, ...

Single connections Optional redundant connections Dial backup

Access
(customers)

• • • •

Typical service provider networks use a high -speed partially-meshed core (backbone) Regional POPs use two or more connections to the core There may be another layer of smaller POPs connected to distribution-layer POPs Customers are usually connected to the service provide via a single point-to-point link (a secondary link or a dial line can be used to improve resilience)
IP QoS Introduction-84

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

As the figure illustrates, Service Provider networks significantly differ from typical enterprise networks. Enterprise Networks are used as a tool to support the enterprise whereas with Service Providers the network is the business itself. Enterprise networks are concerned with providing quality to business-critical applications and Service Providers tend to broaden their service offering by introducing QoS.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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QoS in Service Provider Networks Networks
• Service providers extend their service offerings by introducing quality • Customers can get bandwidth guarantees (like CIR in Frame Relay) • Customers can get delay guarantees (like CBR in ATM) • Customers can get preferential treatment in case of congestion (Olympic service) • QoS mechanisms have to be deployed where congestion is likely (usually at network edge) • Customer’s traffic is identified based on source or destination IP addresses
© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Introduction-85

Service Providers want to offer customers more than plain connectivity. Service Providers want to establish differentiated levels of service for customers with incremental pricing and SLA agreements. The customer should not only shop around among a number of service providers that offer connectivity to the Internet or provide MPLS/VPNs, but also have a menu of services they can choose from. Some customers are satisfied with the best-effort service; some want certain service guarantees.

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Case Study
A service provider wants to offer gold, silver, bronze and premium services
• Premium gets 40% of available bandwidth with a low-delay guarantee • Gold gets 30% of available bandwidth • Silver gets 20% of available bandwidth • Bronze gets 10% of available bandwidth

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Introduction-86

The case study shows an example of a Service Provider which offers differentiated service levels where customers can choose the type of service they want and are willing to pay for. The service provider offers four services. Each of the services is basically a virtual service-provider network using a common infrastructure. The Premium service is guaranteed the most bandwidth and low-delay propagation of packets. Each of the following services is guaranteed less bandwidth. Premium customers will benefit most in times of congestion, whereas Bronze customers will only receive 10 percent of any link’s bandwidth.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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Case Study Implementation
• Class-based Weighted Fair Queuing (CBWFQ) on slow to moderate-speed links • Class-based Low Latency Queuing (CB-LLQ) on slow to moderate-speed links • Weighted Random Early Detection (WRED) on fast links

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Introduction-87

Service Provider networks would generally use newer Cisco IOS software and can therefore deploy the latest available mechanisms. The case study is implemented using CB-WFQ in combination with WRED and CB-LLQ at networks edges (between access and distribution layer). WRED can be used on high-speed links (on core links).

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Summary
After completing this lesson, you should be able to perform the following tasks:
n n n n

Describe a typical structure of a service provider network Describe the need for QoS in service provider networks List typical QoS requirements in service provider networks List the QoS mechanisms that can be used in service provider networks

Review Questions
Answer the following questions:
n n n

What is the typical topology of service provider networks? How is resilience achieved? Based on which information do typical service provider networks apply QoS?

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP QoS Introduction

85

Summary
After completing this module, you should be able to perform the following tasks:
n n n n

Describe the need for IP QoS Describe the Integrated Services model Describe the Differentiated Services model Describe the building blocks of IP QoS mechanisms (classification, marking, metering, policing, shaping, dropping, forwarding and queuing) List the IP QoS mechanisms available in the Cisco IOS Describe what QoS features are supported by different IP QoS mechanisms

n n

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Review Questions and Answers
Introduction to IP Quality of Service
Question: What are the relevant parameters that define the quality of service? Answer: Throughput (bandwidth), delay and jitter. Question: What can be done to give more bandwidth to an application? Answer: An application can get more throughput by increasing the bandwidth of the links in the path and/or using a QoS mechanism to guarantee bandwidth when the application has to contend with other flows. Payload and header compression also virtually increase the available bandwidth by reducing the overhead. Question: What can be done to reduce delay? Answer: Delay can be reduced by increasing the bandwidth of the links in the path and/or using a queuing mechanism that ensures minimum queuing delay for delaysensitive applications. Header compression will also help by reducing the serialization delay of small packets on low-speed links. Payload compression would have a similar result but it increases the delay because of the complexity of the compression algorithm. Question: What can be done to prevent packet loss? Answer: Packet loss can also be prevented by providing enough bandwidth. Alternatively a differentiated dropping mechanism can be used to drop packets of less important flows to prevent drops of high-priority flows. Another option is to use a queuing mechanism to guarantee enough bandwidth to high-priority flows. Question: Name the three QoS models? Answer: Best effort, Integrated services and Differentiated services.

Integrated Services Model Question: What are the two building blocks of the Integrated Services model? Answer: Resource reservation and admission control. Question: Which protocol is used to signal QoS requirements to the network? Answer: Resource reservation protocol (RSVP) is used to reserve network resources for applications.

Differentiated Services Model Question: What are the benefits of the DiffServ model compared to the IntServ model? Answer: DiffServ provides more scalable QoS solutions by applying QoS mechanisms (per-hop behavior) to traffic classes instead of individual applications. The DiffServ model does not require any signaling mechanism thus allowing QoS provisioning to non-RSVP applications.
Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. IP QoS Introduction 87

Questions: What is a DiffServ Code Point? Answer: The DSCP is used to mark IP packets. It occupies the high-order 6 bits of the DiffServ field (former ToS field). Questions: Name the standard PHBs? Answer: Expedited Forwarding (EF), Assured Forwarding (AF) and Class Selector (CS). Questions: How was backward compatibility with IP precedence achieved? Answer: Backward compatibility is provided by using the DSCP values that map into IP precedence values that are typically used to achieve a similar goal: EF maps into IP precedence 5, AF1 maps into IP precedence 1, AF2 maps into IP precedence 2, AF3 maps into IP precedence 3, AF4 maps into IP precedence 4, the default DSCP maps into the default IP precedence 0. Questions: Describe the PHB of Assured Forwarding. Answer: AF PHB provides a bandwidth guarantee to a traffic class with the possibility to use more bandwidth if it is available. Questions: Describe the PHB of Expedited Forwarding. Answer: EF PHB provides a bandwidth guarantee to a traffic class and it ensures a minimum queuing delay. The traffic class is also limited to the provisioned bandwidth.

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Building Blocks of IP QoS Mechanisms
Review Questions
Answer the following questions:
n

Name the QoS building blocks. Classification, marking, metering, dropping, policing, shaping and queuing.

n

What is the purpose of classification? Classification is used to assign packets to traffic classes with different QoS requirements (behavior aggregates).

n

What is the purpose of marking? Marking is used to allow simplified classification on other devices in the network.

n

Which markers do you know? IP precedence, DSCP, MPLS experimental bits, QoS group, Frame Relay DE bit, ATM CLP bit, 802.1q CoS bits, ISL priority bits.

n

Which mechanisms can classify and mark packets? Policy-based Routing (PBR) Committed Access Rate (CAR) QoS Policy Propagation through BGP (QPPB) Class-based Policing Class-based Marking

n

Which mechanisms have the ability to measure the rate of traffic? Committed Access Rate (CAR) Generic Traffic Shaping (GTS) Frame Relay Traffic Shaping (FRTS) Class-based Weighted Fair Queuing (CB-WFQ) Class-based Low Latency Queuing (CB-LLQ) Class-based Policing Class-based Shaping IP RTP Prioritization

n

Which forwarding mechanisms do you know? Process Switching, Fast Switching, Optimum Switching, NetFlow Switching, CEF switching …

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n

Which queuing mechanisms do you know? FIFO, Priority Queuing (PQ), Custom Queuing (CQ), WFQ, dWFQ, CoS-based dWFQ, QoS-group dWFQ, Class-based WFQ, Class-based LLQ

n

How, when and where do routers drop packets? Routers typically drop packets when an output interface is congested. The output queue fills up and the newly arriving packets have to be dropped (tail drop).

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Enterprise Network Case Study
Review Questions
Answer the following questions:
n

What is the typical enterprise network topology? Enterprise networks typically use the hub-and-spoke topology.

n

How is resilience achieved? Resilience is achieved by using redundant links.

n

Based on which information do typical enterprise networks apply QoS? Enterprise networks typically provide QoS to applications. Applications are typically identified based on the TCP or UDP port numbers.

Copyright © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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Service Provider Case Study
Review Questions
Answer the following questions:
n

What is the typical topology of service provider networks? Typical service provider networks use a partially meshed core with a redundant hub-and-spoke topology for the POPs.

n

How is resilience achieved? Resilience is achieved by using partial mesh (core) and redundant links (distribution, access).

n

Based on which information do typical service provider networks apply QoS? Service providers typically apply QoS to customer traffic. Customer traffic is identified based on source or destination IP addresses.

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