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put on a significant share in future. In addition, there are several drivers of growth prevailing. For example, changes in life style, requirement of specific products, process complexities, quest of better productivity, hazardous incidents, fast movement of vehicles, security situation, advancement in medical science, occurrence of extreme situation, terrorist attacks, protection of soldiers during war, and even threat of nuclear war have increased the demand of technical textile. Conversely, frequently inventions of material that have distinct qualities to withstand under extreme situations are one of the major drivers of growth on supply side. In current scenario, data shows that developed countries have major share in technical textile. This might be due to high tech nature of technical textiles. This study provides an insight of technical textile business, which may be helpful for firms having intention to enter in this market. Introduction Generally, textile industry is considered as an industry fulfilling clothing requirements of human beings for protection, grace, and improves aesthetic sense. This sector is known as traditional textile, general textile. On the other hand, textile is also used for specific purposes; use of textile in industry, for human protection from extreme situation etc. This sector has many names but the most common are technical textile, industrial textile, and functional textile. Keeping in view the usages of textile, we can divide textile into two main sectors; traditional textile and technical textile. Traditional textile deals with the general demands of human being, mainly it covers clothing, made ups, bead wears, etc. whereas, technical textile is a product made to serve a particular and technical requirement; water proof jackets, filters, fire proof seats etc.
Before the invention of synthetic fibres, natural fibres were treated with chemicals to make it useful in some specific situations. In addition, other than normal weaving process, nonwoven techniques were used to manufacture technical textile. "Technical and nonwoven textiles and fibres are widely regarded as the most thriving and fast changing sector of the global textile industry" (TT and NW, 2006 p. 19). It shows that nonwoven technique to make
2 fabric lived along with weaving technology and played a significant role in developing technical textile. TT and NW report further elaborates that "Innovation in new materials, processes and applications is expanding non-traditional end uses for both new and existing textile products. In contrast to popular perception of the broader TCF industries, tec n al h ic textiles and fibres is a highand technology and high value-adding activity. In short , technical nonwoven textiles are about function rather than fashion" (p. 19).
In last three centuries, world has witnessed a rapid growth in fibre production which have a very distinctive characteristics such as high resistance to temperature, stable under stress and strain, strong enough to absorb impact of highly reactive chemicals etc. Textile industry produced a number of products by using such fibres. The outcome of all these efforts has boosted the growth of industrial and technical textiles.
Apparently, there is a strong link between the development of different manmade fibres; particularly synthetic fibres and production of technical/industrial textile. Because newly developed materials have the capability to fulfil the industrial and other specific requirements. this sector. Chang and Kilduff (2002) report that almost technical textiles sectors consume 30% of fiber in North America. It shows the significance of
Based on the above discussion, it can be assessed that production and demand of technical and industrial textile may grow at a higher speed comparing to past. Prevailing situation of hazardous incidents, fast movement of vehicles, security situation, advancement in medical science, occurrence of extreme situation, and terrorist attacks, protection of soldiers during war and even threat of nuclear war have also increased the significance of technical textile.
3 There a number of supporting documents and reports, that underscores the capability and strength of technical textile to fulfil the latent demands of functionality. "Technical textiles have been slowly but steadily gaining ground due to one or more of the reasons such as functional requirement, health and safety, cost effectiveness, durability, high strength, light weight, versatility, customisation, user friendliness, eco-friendliness, logistical convenience, etc." ( Chakrabarty, 2007).
There are many ways to produce technical textile but the nonwoven technology is one of the oldest method to produce technical textile. "N onwoven techn ology is one of the conventional sectors of the “traditional” textile industry and was best known for making felt used in craft products such as stuffed toys, hats and shoe linings, to name a few. Indeed, felted fabrics were around for centuries before weaving and knitting techn ology were invented" ( TT and NW, 2006, p. 21).
Technical Textile Literature provides three different terms to describe textile products other than traditional textiles. These are: 1. Technical textiles 2. Industrial textiles 3. Functional textiles
Apparently, there is a clear line between traditional and technical textile. However, sometimes, it may create confusion. To resolve this issue American Textile Manufacturers Institute (ATMI) defines nonwoven fabric, "A fabric formed of textile fibres that are held together by mechanical interlocking in a random web or mat, by fusing the case of thermoplastic fibres or by bonding with a cementing agent.” Furthermore, it becomes
4 more difficult when we are dealing with apparels, which are treated to serve certain purpose. This problem has been highlighted by TT and NW (2006) in the following words: The line between a traditional textile and a tec n al h ic /industrial
textile may seem unclear to an outsider, as many products could arguably fall into either division depending on their end use or functional qualities. Of course, the broad range of products described as industrial or te n l ch ica textiles adds to the complexity of defining exactly what is, and thus individual firms an industrial or tech ical tex n tile
identify themselves by their products’ end use applications"(p.18).
Textile Institute Manchester defines technical textiles in the following words: "Materials and products intended for end-uses other than non-protective clothing, household furnishing, and floor covering, where the fabric or fibrous component is selected principally but not exclusively for its performance and properties as opposed to its aesthetic or decorative characteristics" (Textile Terms and Definitions, TI, Manchester, 10the Ed.).
Another definition of technical textiles is by Encyclopedia Universalis as cited by Nemoz (2001) " Technical textiles are materials meeting high technical and quality requirements (mechanical, thermal, electrical, durability...) giving them the ability to offer technical functions" (p. 3). There is a no big difference in the above mentioned two definitions of technical textile. A third definition is by Memon and Zaman (2007), "Technical textiles as defined as textile materials and products manufactured primary for their technical performance and functional properties, rather than for their aesthetic and decorative it characteristics"(p. 120).
5 Furthermore, Nomez extends the classification of textile to functional textiles. Nomez says that a textile is divided into two main categories; textile apparel and upholstery and technical textile. Nomez makes a link between technical textile and apparel and upholstery through third type of textile and that is functional textiles. Functional textile develops special properties in apparel and made ups by applying special chemicals and finishes. For example, by applying anti microbial chemicals we can develop a characteristic in the apparel and made ups to resist against the attack of any microorganism. Making of fireproof apparel for fire fighting is another example of functional textiles.
Apparently, it looks that technical textiles are products, which are used for specific purpose by people, e.g. water and fire proof uniform for firefighting people etc. Whereas, industrial textiles are used by different industries to help any process e.g. filters in chemical plants etc.
All above discussion provides a little confusion between traditional or general textile and technical/industrial/functional textile. It more likely will prevail due to nature of the products. To avoid any confusion we divide textile into two main categories: 1. General Textile 2. Technical Textile We take that general textile is area which deals with the clothing and made ups made to serve the human needs under normal conditions, whereas, technical textiles deals with the demands of people, process or industry to perform specific functions, mostly under extreme conditions. In this paper, we will use term "Technical textiles" to represent this sector. This is primarily to make discussion simple for better understanding of readers.
Production of Technical textile
6 History of technical textiles is as old as general textiles. It is supported from the use of ropes, which are in use since centuries and it is one simple form of technical textiles. These ropes were used for some functions; it may be for sailing or to give a strong grip to tents. We can find a number of other usages of technical textiles in history. However, it looks that majority of technical textiles were developed with the nonwoven techniques. Nevertheless in current era, other methods like, knitting, weaving, braiding, tufting are also ways and methods to produce technical textiles. Still nonwoven techniques dominate the whole lot of technical textiles manufacturing techniques. This technology is as old as weaving and has been used to produce products, which were used to produce certain products. "Nonwoven technology is one of the conventional sectors of the “traditional” textile industry and was best known for making felt used in craft products such as stuffed toys, hats and shoe linings, to name a few. Indeed, felted fabrics were around for centuries before weaving and knitting technology were invented" (TT and NW 2006, p. 20).
Textile history tells us that before the invention of synthetic fiber; only natural fibers were main raw material for technical textiles. It may be vegetable, protein or mineral fibers. One way to make technical textiles was treatment with certain chemicals to improve their functionality, like, application of wax to make it water proof etc. and second way was application of different fabric formation techniques e.g. tufting, stuffing, knitting, braiding are a few examples.
However, the invention of synthetic fiber provided an edge to technical textiles and today majority of technical textiles are made of synthetic fibers. First synthetic fiber, acetate was invented in 1799 known as artificial silk. Later in 1894, it was known as Viscose and in 1924, it was called Rayon. Rayon, viscose, and acetate are not truly synthetic; their raw material is mainly wood pulp. Nevertheless, Nylon is the first synthetic fiber made in USA in 1939 and posses many characteristics which are highly useful in technical textile. Another landmark in the production of synthetic fiber is invention of polyester, which was invented in 1953. There is a long list of synthetic fibers, which are available today, and frequently under use and every new product is coming out. Discussion on the development of synthetic fibers is out of the scope of this article.
There are many ways and techniques to produce technical textile. Tex.in (2009) has provided the following methods to manufacture technical textile: 1. Thermo-forming 2. Three Dimensional Weaving 3. Three Dimensional Knitting 4. Fabrics Produced Using Nanotechnology 5. Heat-set Synthetics 6. Finishing Treatments such as Water-resistant Coatings & Holographic Laminates 7. Hand-made elements such as Stitch or Appliqué Above list covers probably maximum methods to produce technical textile. Nevertheless, there might be other ways to produce technical textile. Broadly, we can divide production of technical textiles into two main categories; by applying chemicals on general textiles (fire proofing of fabric made of cotton) and second by using synthetic or natural fiber in fabric formation. Types of Technical textiles Nomez divides Technical textiles into main four classes based on their functions: 1. Mechanical functions (Mechanical resistance, Reinforcement of materials, Elasticity) 2. Exchange functions (Filtration, Insulation and conductivity, Drainage Impermeability, Absorption) 3. Functionalities for living beings (Antibacterial, Antirust, mites, Biocompatibility, Biodegradability/bioresorption) 4. Protective functions (Thermal, Fire, Mechanical, Chemicals, Impermeable, Breathable, Antistatic Particles, antireleaseVicenza, Electrical insulation, IR and UV rays, NBC High visibility Electromagnetic fields .....) Chakrabarty (2007) divides technical textiles into following twelve categories: 1. Mobitech 2. Meditech
8 3. Sportech 4. Protech 5. Indutech 6. Geotextiles 7. Packtech 8. Oekotech 9. Agrotech 10. Clothtech 11. Buildtech 12. Hometech There might be many more classifications of technical textiles. All above discussion is an effort to provide an overview of technical textiles. This short discussion is enough to understand different types of technical textiles.
Usages of Technical textile Tex.in provides the following list of areas where technical textile or high-performance textiles are used: 1. Aerospace applications 2. Aquaculture 3. Architecture 4. Abrasion-resistant materials 5. Absorbent materials 6. Adhesive materials 7. Agriculture 8. Anti ballistic materials 9. Anti magnetic materials 10. Anti static materials 11. Auxetic materials 12. Bedding materials 13. Biodegradable materials
9 14. Biomaterials 15. Building materials 16. Cleansing materials 17. Composites 18. High performance clothing 19. Computing industry high performance materials 20. Cut-resistant materials 21. Deodorizing materials 22. Elastic materials 23. Electrical and electronic industries 24. Environment 25. Filtration materials 26. Fire-resistant materials 27. Flooring textiles 28. Furnishings 29. Geosynthetics and geotextiles 30. Hygiene materials 31. Insulating materials 32. Leisure 33. Lines and ropes 34. Luggage 35. Luminescent and reflective materials 36. Marine industry materials 37. Medicine 38. Medical clothing 39. Therapeutic clothing 40. Surgical clothing 41. Anti allergy materials 42. Anti bacterial materials 43. Anti microbial materials, Anti radiation materials 44. Wound dressings & bandages 45. Prostheses 46. Orthopaedics materials 47. Dental industry
10 48. Military applications 49. Nanotechnology 50. Packaging 51. Phase change materials 52. Safety 53. Protective and safety clothing 54. Sails and tenting 55. Shape memory materials 56. Smart textiles 57. Soluble materials 58. Sports 59. Sports goods 60. Substrates 61. Therapeutic materials 62. Thermal materials 63. Transportation 64. Automotive 65. Waterproof materials 66. Windproof materials It is presumed that above list is not exhaustive in nature. There might be many more application of technical textile. After looking the above list it can said safely that there is no filed left untouched by technical textile. We see everywhere technical textile and it is predicted that role of technical textile will increase in coming years in every field. Market of Technical textiles Technical textile is a niche market and its characteristics are quite different from the traditional textile market. In most of the cases, it is consisting of small runs. To full assorted demands, there is a need of flexibility in its production system. For better flexibility, there is a need of diverse nature of machinery. It looks impossible that technical textile market will come up with the norms of mass market of general textile. It will remain a niche market and will have its own indentify (Memon and Zaman, 2007; Zhang, 2008; Mital (2008).
11 Policies of India and China provided insights of the market of technical textile. "By realising its importance, China has launched a comprehensive programme called ‘Double Incentive Scheme for Technical textiles’, whereas India has also announced a bundle of relief package for the promotion of technical textiles in the country". (Memon and Zaman, 2007, p. 121). This statement favors the assumption that in future technical textile will be one of the major products and will be able to contribute in economies of countries.
Zhang (2008) foresees that need of technical textile is increasing every day. This is mainly because there is a drastic change in the life style and every day new demands are emerging from different corners and with the advancement of nonwoven techniques, technical textile will grow with higher speed as compared to past. Nonwoven technology will help produce different products required for some specific purpose.
Mital (2008) has reported the steps being taken by government of India. As per Mital Indian, government established an Expert Committee on Technical textiles in 2002. The main responsibilities of the committee were to develop strategies to promote technical textile in India. Mital further reports that in next five years government of India will provide $170-200 million to promote technical textile in India. This amount will be spending on the recommendation of committee. It shows that seriousness of government of India to promote this sector. Mital states that technical textiles in India are attracting a lot of attraction of business people. There is a huge activities expected in the manufacturing and consumption of technical textile. In addition to that, Mital points out that a budget of US$6.25 billion is also available for Technology Up gradation Fund Scheme.
Mital has explained three plans to improve technical textile in India. According to these plans, 50 million US $ will be spend to improve capacity of local manufacturers. 75 Million US $ will be given to develop testing facilities, and finally export of technical textile will be made possible. All above discussion shows the efforts of government of India to improve technical textile in India.
Another example of development in technical textile is the projects launched by USA. The recent project is to develop state of the art uniform marines combating in different parts of the world. The main stress is to develop a composite, uniform nonwoven that possesses high strength, softness, improved abrasion resistance, printability and other related characteristics. It is a 25 years project. This size of this project is an indicator of growth in military textile demands in coming years.
" It is forecast that the world market for technical textiles and industrial nonwovens will increase by 3.5% per annum between 1995 and 2005, and 3.8% per annum from 2005 to 2010 in volume terms, to reach 23.8 MT with a value of $126 Billion by 2010" (Czajka, 2005, p. 14). This report shows that there is a steady growth of technical textile and it is expected that nearly 4% growth rate of technical textile. This growth rate supports that there is a scope of technical textile in coming years. Zhang estimates that technical textiles represent about 40% of the total textile industry and in 2010, technical textile market size will be of $127 billion, and 24 million tons fibres will be consumed for the production of technical textile.
Nomez (2001) has given the major consumers of technical textile and has provides the growth rate of demand for technical textile by different sectors.
Table: 01 Textiles use by final markets Europe 1999 Market share and a Annual growth planned Market Annual Share Growth
13 (%) 21 20 16 10 8 3 2 2 (%) 3.9 2.8 1.5 2.9 1.2 5.7 3.3 5.7
Industry Transport Medical Construction Agriculture Civil Engineering Sports and Leisure Protection Source: Nomez (2001)
Table 01 shows that major consumption of technical textile is in industry, whereas, transport is second major user of technical textile. Nevertheless, protection and civil engineering have the highest growth rate, which is 5.7%.
Memon and Zaman (2007) have discussed the future scenario of technical textile with respect to consumption of synthetic fibre and production of nonwoven fabrics. Memon and Zaman (2007) predicts that in "the share of synthetic fibres in the technical textile sector will rise from 79% in 2000 to 81% by 2010. There will also be an increase in the share of nonwoven and will grow from 35% in 2000 to 39% by 2010 in weight terms" (p. 122). They hold the view that global demand of technical textile will of US $130 Billion. This projection is on the higher side as given by Zhang. They further points out that there will be a 4-5% average growth in technical textile. It is comparatively less than general textile, which is 8 %.
World Consumption and Growth of Technical Textiles (Product Wise) Quantity: Million MT Quantity 2000 2005 Fabrics 3,760 4,100 Non-woven 3,333 4,300 Product % Per 1.7 5.4 Value 2000 2005 26,710 29,870 14,640 19,250 Per 2.2 5.6
Composites 1,970 2,580 Other 7,687 8,703 textiles Total 16,75 19,683 0 5.5 3.4 3.9 5,960 9,160 12,950 14,060 60,260 72,340 5.6 3.3 3.7
Source: Technical Textiles and Industrial Non-woven’s, David Rigby Associates, 2002 (as cited by Memon and Zaman 2007)
World Wide Consumption of Technical Textiles (By application) Quantity: Million MT 2000 Transport textiles (auto, train, sea, Industrial products and components Medial and hygiene textiles Home textiles, domestic equipments Clothing components (thread, Agriculture, horticulture and fishing Construction-building and roofing Packaging and containment Sports and leisure (excluding apparel) Geotextiles, civil engineering Protective and safety clothing All others Total 2005 Quantity Value Quantity Value 2,220 13,080 1,880 9,290 1,380 7,290 1,800 7,780 730 6,800 900 4,260 1,030 3,390 530 2,320 310 2,030 400 1,860 160 1,640 5,410 520 16,750 60,260 2,480 14,370 2,340 11,560 1,650 9,530 2,260 9,680 820 7,640 1,020 4,940 1,270 4,320 660 2,920 390 2,210 570 2,360 220 2,230 6,003 3,580 19,683 75,340
Source: Technical Textiles and Industrial Non-woven’s, David Rigby Associates, 2002 (as cited by Memon and Zaman 2007)
World Wide Consumption of Technical Textiles (By application)
2000 2005 Quantity Value Quantity Value Transport textiles (auto, train, sea, 2,220 13,080 2,480 14,370 Industrial products and components 1,880 9,290 2,340 11,560 Medial and hygiene textiles 1,380 7,290 1,650 9,530 Home textiles, domestic equipments 1,800 7,780 2,260 9,680 Clothing components (thread, 730 6,800 820 7,640 Agriculture, horticulture and fishing 900 4,260 1,020 4,940 Construction-building and roofing 1,030 3,390 1,270 4,320 Packaging and containment 530 2,320 660 2,920
Sports and leisure (excluding apparel) Geotextiles, civil engineering Protective and safety clothing All others Total 310 2,030 400 1,860 160 1,640 5,410 520 16,750 60,260 390 2,210 570 2,360 220 2,230 6,003 3,580 19,683 75,340
Source: Technical Textiles and Industrial Non-woven’s, David Rigby Associates, 2002 (as cited by Memon and Zaman 2007) Nomez sees future of technical textile and writes, "For all future engineers: textile has to be used as a material comparatively with iron, wood, glass, ceramics, plastics ... For all future textile technicians, engineers or managers: textile has to be used as a multifunctional material having high level of physical, mechanical, thermal, chemical properties" (2001 ,p. 10).
Wilson (2007) has reported views of Roshan Shishoo of Shishoo Consulting who paint the picture of future of technical textile in a very rational way. Shishoo foresees that technical textile industry will be driven by two main factors; first development in textile materials and at the same time demands of the customers as well as new avenues of consumption of technical textile. Shishoo has identified some important market drivers for new technical textiles. These are related to life style, fashion, better quality life and highly functional sports, leisurewear and personal protection areas.
According to Research and Market (2008), technical textiles are a sector, which provides a lucrative scope of developed countries, which are facing difficulties to compete traditional textile, manufacture due the stringent environmental regulations. This statement shows that technical textiles are a vital area for developed countries. Nevertheless, there is a great chance for developing countries to enter in this market but apparently, it looks difficult due to its high tech nature. Presumably, developed countries will take more shares as compared to developing countries. This is mainly due to requirement of most modern technical knowledge and high tech instruments.
17 Personal protection is one of the major issues of the current world. It has been discussed in length in the report published to elaborate the future of technical textile in Europe by A Lead Market Initiative for Europe. Heading of this report is "Accelerating the Development of the Market for Recycling in Europe". In this report, authors have pointed out many new areas, which are become highly important for personal protections. This report indicates that nearly 20% consumption of Technical textiles will be for protection purpose. It may at individual level or in war field. This report further links the demand of Technical textiles with the current geo political situation. Report says that due to the security concerns at international scenario, the uncertainties around terrorist attacks, frequent occurrence of extreme situation, fire and hazardous environments, risk of contamination, along with increase in safety awareness both at personal and public level, will act as demand drivers in the coming years. According to report, highest growth rate is expected in the demand of personal protection materials. One major area of technical textile is medical textiles. Czajka point outs it is expected that in 2010, there will be more than 8.00 Billion US $ market of hygienic and medical products. Czajka (2005) has discussed the growth of medical textile and work out the future of technical textile. "In 2004, the number of people aged over 60 amounts to 40% of the entire population. In 1980, only 22% of the Europeans belonged to this group age. Textiles represent an absolutely ideal interface between man and medical treatment facilities" (Czajka, 2005, p. 13). Czajka takes the demographic change as one of the drivers of demand for technical textile in future. All above discussion is sufficient to understand the future of technical textile. One can conclude that there will be a steady growth of technical textile and it will be nearly 4%. Nevertheless, it seems that developed countries will keep their share intact, rather will endure to improve their share. Complacent attitude of under developed countries about their current role and share in technical textile will also provide a crucial support to develop countries to progress in the domain of technical textile. A Few Modern Examples of Technical Textiles Tex.in has provided a long list of fibers and fabric, which will be available in future and will serve specific purposes and help making life better and secure from certain extreme situations. Here is the list of such products:
18 1. Breathable Synthetic Fabrics 2. Some Synthetic Fibers are Ultra-lightweight & High-stretch, some are thin & lightreflective, Some Hollow Fibers Trap Air to Retain Heat 3. Natural Fibers Blended with Synthetics to Improve Strength, Crease Resistance & Easy Care 4. Ultra Microfibers – Using the latest in micro technology, scientists are building fabrics where the fiber itself is scrutinized and manipulated in minute detail. A microfiber is by definition a material in which the yarn’s thickness is equal to or less than 1/60th the thickness of an average human hair. Ultra-microfibers on the market are even finer – some having thickness of just 1/200th the thickness of human hair. 5. Fabrics that have relief surfaces and even three-dimensional (3-D) structure 6. Metallic textiles – fluid & shimmering materials 7. Extreme Sportswear 8. Polyamide (warp) and paper (weft) woven together and then hand silkscreen printed. This exquisite fabric, designed in a customized manner in Japan, is used for high-end interiors. 9. Microfiber with metal foil spots combine to give a consistent metallic finish. This blend can be used for high-end fashion garments (especially outerwear) 10. Phase change materials incorporated in fabrics can absorb excess heat, store it, and gradually release it later. These are ideal for body temperature control. 11. Fabrics with charcoal as a component can filter odour and pollution. Charcoal was used for its health-giving properties as it has the ability to absorb chemical impurities in the air. 12. Microfibers engineered with substances suspended in minute bubbles that can be gradually released. These microcapsules can contain medication, vitamins, insect repellants, moisturizers, essential oils or perfumes...
Above all the most advanced area is E- textiles. There is a long list of E-Textiles. Here is a short list of such products, which are a combination of electronics and textiles: 1. Sports shoes 2. Wearable computer jackets 3. Warning vests
19 4. Photonic textiles for innovative lighting solutions 5. Wearable E-Health system 6. Electronic Textiles to Help Battlefield Medics Tex.in has further pointed out that there are a number of products, which are made by the combination of textile and non-textile materials. Some products are as under:
1. Combination of Stainless Steel Fiber with Cotton & Polyamide to create a soft & flexible cloth 2. Combination of cotton, copper, polyamide, and polyurethane to create a metallic surface 3. Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) embedded in hand-woven linen, programmable, and controllable through sensors. These can be used in creative arts practice, sportswear, & medical use, as well as in interactive costumes for dance, theatre, and expressive gallery textiles. 4. Metals & Papers in combination with silks & polyesters 5. Layered weave structures made on computer-assisted looms allow for intricate constructions and reversibles
Tex.in underpins the use silicone in technical textile. This shows that in future silicone will be one of the major raw materials to manufacture technical textile. "Silicones possess excellent thermal stability over a temperature range of more than 300° C, low surface tension, good electrical properties, and a high degree of water-repellency, and are effective as release agents. The mechanical properties of the condensed polysiloxanes are poorer than those of most organic polymers at moderate temperatures, but are markedly superior at extremes of temperature" (Tex.in, 2009). Many companies have developed different products with the help of silicone application. Silicones are used to retain shapes, texture, and resistance to abrasion. Silicone is also used for water proofing of leather, which is used in shoe making. Most common area of silicone is conveyor belts, fabric insulation, water proofing of tarpaulins etc.
20 All above discussion is a brief introduction of future products of technical textile. It is hoped that in future we will see many more products, which will be able serve in extreme situations and help in alleviation of current era severities. These may be related to our health, environment, security, terrorist attacks, calamities etc.
Guidance to Enter in Technical textile Market Textile Intelligence provides guidance for companies who are willing to enter in technical textile business. This report suggests, "Companies looking to enter the technical textile sector must understand the key differences between technical textiles and the traditional industry in which they are used to operating. Customers look for products with highly specific performance attributes and functions, and they are often willing to pay a premium for these features. In return, manufacturers need to use approved testing methods to convince customers and others in project teams that their products meet the required specifications" (Research and Market, 2008, p. 1). Above statement shows that there are three main areas to be considered for entering in technical textile: 1. Clarity between technical textile and general textiles 2. Knowledge about the requirements of customer and matching production facilities 3. Testing facility to test the product to ensure to meet the customer expectation and specifications Technical textile needs state of the art knowledge for production and testing. Currently developed countries have dominance in this market. This is mainly due to many Conclusion Technical textile has two distinctive characteristics; first, it is high tech business and second it has a niche market. Nevertheless, it owns it a specific place in the market. Apparently, size of technical textile is small when it is compared with traditional/general textiles. It seems that it cannot replace traditional textile. Currently, development countries are having a dominant share in this sector and it is more likely that developed countries will improve their share in this sector and will keep continual retreat from traditional market. On the other hand it is also, a fact that technical textile provides better return on investment. Keeping all in view it is suggested that developing countries should come forward and endeavour to have its share in
21 this area. There is a steady growth in the demand of technical textile and it will continue in future since there are many demand drivers are pushing the demand. For better results, it is recommended that traditional textile manufacturers should start from the simple products and then move to high tech products.
References Chakrabarty, S. (2007). Indian Technical Textiles Prospects India: Textile Machinery Manufacturing Association India. Document Number) Chang, W., & Kilduff, P. (2002). The US Market for Technical textiles: SMALL BUSINESS & TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT CENTERo. Document Number)
Czajka, R. (2005). Development of Medical Textile Market FIBRES & TEXTILES in Eastern Europe 13(1 (49)), 13-15. Memon, N. A., & Zaman, N. (2007). Pakistan lags behind in Technical textiles. Journal of Management and Social Sciences, 3(2), 120-127. Nemoz, G. (2001). Applications and markets of Technical textiles: Actual situation and trends [Electronic Version], Research and Market. (2008). Making the Transition from Traditional to Technical textile Markets Dublin. (T. Intelligence) Tex.in. (2009). The future of textile. Retrieved Jan 5, 2009, from http://www.tex.in/reports TT&NW. (2006). The Australian Technical Textiles & Nonwovens Industry Profile Manufacturing Skills Australia Wilson, A. (2007). Successfully transforming your business to technical textiles [Electronic Version]. Technical textiles International, April/May 2007, from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa5405/is_200704/ai_n21289237/pg_1?tag=artBo dy;col1 Zhang, D. (2008). The evolving roles of nonwovens in technical textiles. Nonwovens Industry. Accelerating the Development of the Market for Recycling in Europe. A Lead Market Initiative for Europe.
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