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Chapter 1 and Chapter 10 Reading Worksheet

Complete this by the end of the first week of classes.
The goal of this assignment is to guide you through your reading of chapter 1 and a
small part of Chapter 10 (p. 264-272). These topics will not be specifically covered in
lecture since they are discussed thoroughly in the text. This worksheet will NOT be
collected and evaluated but you are responsible for the information. Questions on these
topics will be included on Exam 1.
1. Define pathogenic: disease-producing

2. The minority (majority or minority) of microorganisms are pathogenic.

3. Scientific nomenclature (naming system) assigns 2 names to an organism this
nomenclature is referred to as binomial nomenclature and was first developed by
Carolus Linnaeus. What are these two names?
a. genus
b. specific epithet (species name)
In the bacterial name Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella is the genus name and
pneumoniae is the species (two words).
Whenever you are writing out the scientific name of an organism, the name
must be italicized or underlined. On any written homework, you will lose
points if you do not italicize or underline names of microorganisms.
4. Name the 7 groups of microorganisms often included in the study of microbiology:
4a. Bacteria
4b. Archaea
4c. Fungi
4d. Protozoa
4e. Algae
4f. Viruses
4g. Multicellular Animal Paracites
5. Which of the above organisms are prokaryotes?
5a. Bacteria
5b. Archaea
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6. Which of the above organisms are eukaryotes?

6a. Fungi
6b. Protozoa
6c. Algae
6d. Multicellular Animal Parasites
7. Which of the above organisms does not fit all of the criteria used to define life?
- Viruses: Considered living only when they multiply within host cells they infect.
Viruses not considered to be living because they are inert outside living hosts.
8. List and briefly describe the 3 DOMAINS of living things (p. 265-267, Fig. 10.1, Table
8a. Eukarya: Eukaryotic
- Cell Wall: Varies in composition, contains carbs
- Membrane Lipids: Composed of straight chain carbon chains attached to
glycerol by ester linkage
- First Amino Acid in Protein Synthesis: Methionine
- Antibiotic Sensitivity: No
- rRNA Loop: Lacking
- Common Arm of tRNA: Present
8b. Bacteria: Prokaryotic
- Cell Wall: Contains peptidoglycan
- Membrane Lipids: Composed of straight carbon chains attached to glycerol
by ester linkage
- First Amino Acid in Protein Synthesis: Formylmethionine
- Antibiotic Sensitivity: Yes
- rRNA Loop: Present
- Common Arm of tRNA: Present
8c. Archaea: Prokaryotic
- Cell Wall: Varies in composition, contains no peptidoglycan
- Membrane Lipids: Composed of branched carbon chains attached to
glycerol by ether linkage
- First Amino Acid in Protein Synthesis: Methionine
- Antibiotic Sensitivity: No
- rRNA Loop: Lacking
- Common Arm of tRNA: Lacking
9. Which 2 domains contain prokaryotic organisms?
9a. Bacteria
9b. Archaea
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10. What are the 4 kingdoms within the domain Eukarya? What distinguishes these
kingdoms from one another?
10a. Protists
10b. Fungi
10c. Plants
10d. Animals
11. The following men made important contributions to the study of biology and more
specifically microbiology. For each of the individuals listed, state the dates or general
time period in which they did their most significant work, and list their contributions.
More space is allotted for Koch and Pasteur because of their multiple contributions.
11a. Robert Hooke:
When: 1665
Contribution: Beginning of Cell Theory all living things are composed of cells.
11b. Anton van Leeuwenhoek:
When: 1673-1723
Contribution(s): Probably first to observe live microorganisms though magnifying
lens of microscope made detailed drawings of organisms (bacteria and protozoa).
11c. Edward Jenner:
When: 1796
Contribution: Discovered immunity the protection from disease provided by
vaccination or recovery from disease itself through smallpox experiments.
11d. Semmelweis:
When: 1840s
Contribution: Demonstrated physicians, who didnt disinfect their hands at the
time, routinely transmitted infections between patients advocated washing hands to
stop spread of disease.
11e. Louis Pasteur:
When: 1857-1880

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Contributions: Fermentation, disproved spontaneous generation, pasteurization,

basis for aseptic techniques, presence of microorganisms in the air and their ability to
contaminate nonliving matter.
11f. Joseph Lister:
When: 1860s
Contribution: Applied germ theory to medical procedures began treating surgical
wounds with phenol solution to kill bacteria greatly reduced incidence of infections
and deaths. His findings proved microorganisms cause surgical wound infections.
11g. Robert Koch:
When: 1876
Contributions: Germ theory of disease proved bacteria actually cause disease.
Kochs postulates: a sequence of experimental steps for directly relating a specific
microbe to a specific disease.
11h. Paul Ehrlich:
When: 1890
Contribution: Theory of immunity, syphilis treatment, discovery of
chemotherapeutic agent able to hunt down and destroy pathogen without harming
infected host.

11i. Alexander Fleming:

When: 1928
Contribution: Discovered first antibiotic, penicillin, by accident. He noticed a mold
inhibited growth of a bacterium penicillin is an antibiotic produced by a fungus.
11j. Florey and Chain:
When: 1942
Contribution: Developed penicillin for mass production for medicinal use.
11k. Selman Waksman:
When: 1942
Contribution: Coined term antibiotic to describe any substance produced by a
microorganism that is antagonistic to the growth of other microorganisms in high
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12. Define aseptic technique: Procedures that prevent contamination by unwanted


13. Briefly describe or explain the germ theory of disease: The realization that
yeasts play a crucial role in fermentation was the first link between activity of a
microorganism and physical and chemical changes in organic materials. This discovery
alerted scientists to the possibility that microorganisms might have similar relationships
with plants and animals specifically, that microorganisms might cause disease.

14. In your text, three different individuals are mentioned, regarding their contributions
to the development of the germ theory of disease. Name these individuals.
14a. Pasteur
14b. Lister
14c. Koch
15. Define vaccination: Cultures of avirulent microorganisms that are used for
preventative inoculation able to induce immunity against subsequent infections by its
virulent counterparts.

16. Define chemotherapy. What is meant by the term magic bullet.

- Chemotherapy: Treatment of disease by using chemical substances
- Magic Bullet: Capable of hunting down and destroying a pathogen without
harming the infected host

17. Match the following.

E the study of fungi
I the study of resistance to disease
L the study of the relationship between microbes and their
G the study of protozoa and parasitic worms

a. biotechnology
b. virology

K the study of bacteria

f. recombinant DNA

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d. bioremediation
e. mycology

J the study of mechanisms by which microorganisms inherit traits

B the study of viruses
g. parasitology
C the study of all of an organisms genes
i. immunology
A the practical applications of microbiology
j. microbial
D the use of bacteria to break down toxic materials
k. bacteriology
F manufacturing and manipulating genetic material in vitro
l. microbial
18. Briefly describe recombinant DNA technology or genetic engineering and
provide an example: Inserts recombinant DNA into bacteria (or other microbes) to
make large quantities of a desired protein.
- Discovery that genetic material could be transferred from one bacterium to
another by process called conjugation
19. Do the majority of microorganisms cause disease? No
20. List 4 beneficial activities of microorganisms:
20a. Sewage Treatment: Using Microbes to Recycle Water
20b. Bioremediation: Using Microbes to Clean Up Pollutants
20c. Insect Pest Control by Microorganisms
20d. Recycling Vital Elements
21. Define and provide an example of bioremediation: Usage of microbes to clean up
pollutants and toxic wastes produced by various industrial processes. Some bacteria can
use pollutants as energy sources, others produce enzymes that break down toxins into
less harmful substances.
- Toxins can be removed from underground wells, chemical spills, toxic waste sites,
oil spills
- Bacterial enzymes used in drain cleaners to remove clogs without adding harmful
chemicals to the environment

22. How are microorganisms used to control insect pests? Name the bacterial species
that has been used most effectively for this purpose?
- Bacillus thuringiensis used to control pests extensively in the US incorporated
into a dusting powder applied to the crops the insects eat.
- The bacteria produce protein crystals that are toxic to the digestive enzymes of
the insects. The toxin gene also has been inserted into some plants to make them insect
- Usage of microbial rather than chemical insect control helps farmers to avoid
harming the environment.

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23. List 4 examples of products made using biotechnology (genetic engineering).

23a. Alternative fuels made from microbes that produce methane and ethanol
23b. Proteins, vaccines, enzymes
23c. Genetically altered bacteria to protect fruit from frost damagek
23d. Manipulation of enzymes to cause microbes to produce substances they dont
normally synthesize insulin
24. Define or briefly describe normal microbiota: Made up of a variety of
microorganisms on and inside our bodies. Normal microbiota do us no harm, and in
many cases benefit us. For example, protecting the body from disease by preventing
the overgrowth of substances like vitamin K and some B vitamins.
- However, when some normal microbiota leave their habitat they can cause

25. Define/Explain what a biofilm is: Microorganisms that attach to each other and/or
some usually solid surface, such as the slime covering a rock in a lake or the biofilm
on teeth.
- Can be beneficial: Protect mucus membranes from harmful microbes, important
food for aquatic animals in lakes
- Can be harmful: Can clog water pipes, cause infections in medical implants such
as joint prostheses and catheters

25. Define infectious disease: Disease in which pathogens invade a susceptible host,
such as a human or an animal.
- In the process, pathogen carries out at least part of its life cycle inside the host
disease frequently results.
26. What is meant by the term emerging infectious disease?
- Diseases that are new or changing and are increasing or have the potential to
increase in incidence in the near future.
- Factors include: Evolutionary changes in existing organisms, spread of known
diseases to new geographic regions or populations by modern transportation,
increased human exposure to new/unusual infectious agents in areas undergoing
ecologic changes (deforestation and construction)
27. List 5 examples of emerging infectious diseases:
27a. Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)
27b. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
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27c. Avian Influenza A: H5N1 (Bird Flu)

27d. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA)
27e. West Nile encephalitis (WNE)

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