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Chapter 8 Reading Worksheet

(also see p. 44 p. 46 in text)
1. The two different kinds of nucleic acids in cells are
a. DNA
b. RNA
2. The building blocks of nucleic acids are nucleotides.
a. In DNA they are called cytosine, guanine, adenine, thymine.
b. In RNA they are called cytosine, guanine, adenine, uracil.
3. The 3 components of a nucleotide are
a. Sugar ribose or deoxyribose
b. Nitrogenous base
c. Phosphate group
4. In the table below, list the 5 different kinds of nitrogenous bases found in nucleic
acids and indicate whether each is found in DNA, RNA, or both.
Nitrogenous Base
a. Cytosine
b. Guanine
c. Adenine
d. Thymine
e. Uracil



a. How many strands make up a DNA molecule?

b. How many strands make up an RNA molecule?
5. a. What kinds of chemical bonds join the nucleotides in DNA? (1) Strong covalent
phosphodiester bonds hold backbone together (2) Hydrogen bonds hold nitrogenous
bases together
b. Describe the shape of a DNA molecule.
- Double helix of two nucleotides that form base pairs and the repeating sugarphosphate combination that form the backbone
c. In DNA, indicate what each of the following bases will pair within the
complementary strand:
Adenine Thymine
Cytosine - Guanine
Guanine Cytosine
Thymine Adenine
List 3 differences between DNA and RNA.
slong 2016

a. DNA is a double stranded molecule, RNA is single stranded

b. DNA has Thymine as a base, RNA has Uracil
c. The sugar in DNA is deoxyribose, the sugar in RNA is ribose
7. The following is the base sequence of one strand of DNA. What is the base sequence
of the complementary strand of DNA?
8. What are the 3 types of RNA and what is the function of each type?
a. mRNA: template which determines order of amino acids
b. tRNA: brings amino acids to the ribosome
c. rRNA: forms structure of the ribosome
9. a. The process of copying DNA (or duplicating the chromosome) is known as
Replication, and occurs prior to cell division.
b. The enzyme that copies DNA is known as DNA Polymerase.
10. The process of DNA replication occurs in such a way that each of the two DNA
molecules that result from the replication of the original molecule is composed of one
strand of the original DNA and one newly synthesized strand. The word used to
describe this is semiconservative.
11. Genes are located on the chromosome. They contain the DNA code of directions for
how to make polypeptides (proteins). Generally, each gene encodes a different
12. The first step when synthesizing polypeptides (proteins) is to copy the DNA of the
gene into mRNA. This process is known as Transcription and the enzyme that
catalyzes this process is known as RNA Polymerase.
13. After transcription, ribosomes attach to the mRNA and begin to synthesize
polypeptides from amino acids, using the mRNA as a pattern or template.
a. This process is known as Translation.
b. tRNA bring amino acids to the ribosome.
DNA ------------------------> 2 copies of DNA Replication Name this process.
DNA -------------------------> mRNA

Transcription Name this process

mRNA - at ribosome polypeptide chain Translation Name this process

with amino acids-tRNAs
15. What is reverse transcription?
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- Start with RNA and synthesize DNA from an RNA template

a. What enzyme catalyzes reverse transcription?
- Reverse Transcriptase
b. What microorganisms use this process (general group)?
- Retroviruses
c. What well-known infectious agent is in this group?
16. Define mutation.
- A change in the genetic material (DNA) that may be neutral, beneficial, or
- Change in genotype may cause change in phenotypic trait
17. What specific kind of mutation is caused by UV radiation?
- Formation of harmful covalent bonds between pyrimidine bases
- Adjacent thymine in DNA strand can cross-link to form thymine dimers cell
cannot properly transcribe or replicate the DNA
18. Name and describe the 3 different genetic transfer mechanisms that operate in
a. Transformation: genes are transferred from one bacteria to another as naked
1) Recipient cell takes up donor DNA
2) Donor DNA aligns with complementary bases
3) Recombination occurs between donor DNA and recipient DNA
b. Conjugation: transfer of genetic material from one cell to another involving cellto-cell contact
- Mediated by one kind of plasmid circular piece of DNA that replicates
independently from cells chromosome
- Transmissible between cells during conjugation
- Requires direct cell-to-cell contact
- Conjugating cells must generally be of opposite mating type
- Donor cells carry plasmid, recipient cells do not
- Conjugative plasmid: carries genes for sex pili and transfer of the plasmid
- R factors: plasmid that encode antibiotic resistance
- Many R factors are conjugative
c. Transduction: the transfer of bacterial DNA from a donor bacterial cell to a
recipient bacterial cell by a bacteriophage
- Bacteriophage virus that infects bacteria
- When bacteriophage moves from one bacteria to another, it may take some
of the bacterial DNA with it
19. Why is genetic transfer among bacteria of interest to the medical community?
- It can result in increased resistance to antibiotics

slong 2016

slong 2016