How to calculate number of heat exchangers and utilities for a distillation column

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How to calculate number of heat exchangers and utilities for a distillation column

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In order to calculate the number of heat exchangers and utilities required in this

distillation column design, the following parameters were required (as shown in

the table below):

molar heat flow capacities of each stream, starting

temperature of each stream, target temperature of each stream, change in

temperature and absolute values of heat required by the system.

CP was obtained, as mentioned previously using the equation

CP=mC

p

where

is the molar flow rate of the specific stream. The starting and target

temperatures of the six streams are the initial temperatures which are then

required to be heated or cooled to their respective temperatures, which also

determines whether or not a stream is hot or cool. Streams 1o and 1b

denoted this way to represent 1 octane and 1 benzene are the cool streams in

this case and the remaining streams are therefore hot. Delta T is calculated by

subtracting the starting temperatures from the target temperatures. However,

the Ts value for both of the cold streams is the cold pinch temperatures

previously calculated.

The first step in approaching this task is to identify the criteria in place for above

the pinch, which is given as:

CP h CP c

This denotes that the hot pinch molar flow heat capacity must be greater than or

equal to the molar flow heat capacity of the cold pinch.

Stream

1b

9b

6b

1o

9o

6o

CP

[kW/C]

5.3520152

79

3.1566322

25

2.1615117

66

7.8034643

88

3.5858662

74

4.1618423

17

Using this criterion, the cold streams were all paired off with the hot streams as

they all satisfied the above condition. This resulted in eight different possible

stream pairings however, only one is possible. In order to narrow these pairings

down, the amount of heat transferred was calculated, and the one with the

maximum heat transfer was the pairing that was eventually chosen. The Q value

for each stream in a pairing was compared against one another and the smallest

absolute value from the two was the amount of heat transferred across.

Stream

1b

9b

6b

1o

9o

6o

Q [kW]

38.53451001

0

-69.1683765

-542.340775

279.1596894

207.0100368

Pairing

(9b, 1b)

(6b, 1b)

(9o,1b)

(6o,1b)

(9b,1o)

(6b, 1o)

(9o,1o)

(6o,1o)

Qlargest

[kW]

0

38.534510

01

38.534510

01

38.534510

01

0

69.168376

5

279.15968

94

207.01003

68

After classifying the smallest absolute Q value, and tabulating them for

comparison, it can be seen that the greatest amount of heat transfer occurs by

pairing streams 9 octane and 1 octane and gives approximately 279 kW of

energy.

For the first heat exchanger, HEX1, all the stream heat values were kept the

same as before with the exception of streams 9 octane and 1 octane. Here, the

previously obtained value of 279 kW was subtracted from the original Q value of

stream 1 octane which was approximately 542 kW. 542 279 = 263 kW and 279

279 0 kW.

Stream

1b

9b

6b

1o

9o

6o

Q (abs)

[kW]

38.53451

001

0

69.16837

65

542.3407

75

279.1596

894

207.0100

368

HEX1 [kW]

38.53451001

0

69.1683765

263.1810856

0

207.0100368

Figure ??: absolute values of heat transferred and energy needed by the first

heat exchanger

For the second heat exchanger, the pairings are then reviewed once again to

obtain the next highest value for heat transferred. In this case, it is streams 6

octane and 1 octane, where the amount of heat transferred is 207 kW. A new

column labelled HEX2 was then created where all the streams once again

remained the same apart from 1 octane and 6 octane for which the HEX1 values

were subtracted from the Q absolute values as shown in the table below.

Stream

1b

9b

6b

1o

9o

6o

Q (abs)

[kW]

38.53451

001

0

69.16837

65

542.3407

75

279.1596

894

207.0100

368

263.1810856

HEX2

[kW]

38.534

51

0

69.168

38

56.171

05

207.0100368

HEX1 [kW]

38.53451001

0

69.1683765

For HEX3, the next highest pairing (6 benzene, 1 octane) could not be used as

when this value of 69 kW is subtracted from the absolute value of Q, a negative

answer arises and therefore this is thermodynamically impossible. 56 69 = -13

kW. Consequentially, the next value of Q was taken which was for pairing 6

benzene and 1 benzene. In the same procedure as followed before, values for

HEX3 are calculated.

Stream

1b

9b

Q (abs)

38.53451

001

0

HEX1

38.53451001

0

HEX2

38.534

51

0

HEX3

H1

0

0

0

0

69.16837

65

542.3407

75

279.1596

894

207.0100

368

6b

1o

9o

6o

263.1810856

69.168

38

56.171

05

30.6338664

9

56.1710487

4

207.0100368

69.1683765

0

0

After this, the lowest amount of heat transferred between streams is reached and

this value is zero. Therefore, the two heat values that remain are summed

together and this is the minimum amount of energy that must be supplied for

maximum energy recovery. 31 + 56 = 87 kW.

This value of 87 kW matches the value of minimum heat required which was

calculated via the difference between the summation of the heat supplied to the

cold streams and heat supplied by the hot streams.

QH [kW]

417.0013497

QC [kW]

503.806265

Figure ??: Sums of

heats of hot and cold

QC

QH

streams

[kW]

86.80491523

Therefore, there are three heat exchangers and one heater which is being

supplied 87 kW in this network.

Calculations for below the pinch are not possible as none of the values for CP

(molar flow heat capacity) satisfy the criteria where

CP h CP c

Minimum number of heat exchangers required

To calculate the minimum number of heat exchangers required in this design, the

following equation for simple networks can be implemented:

Z min =N ' 1

Where Zmin is he minimum number of exchangers including heaters and coolers

needed;

N is the number of streams including the utilities.

N in this case is 7 therefore Zmin is effectively 6.

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