General Description and Fundamentals of WCDMA

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CONTENTS
Ø Fundamentals of CDMA Ø Introduction to IMT-2000 IMT-2000 Ø FDD Mode of WCDMA

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Multipath
Transmit signal

Receive signal Time

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Fading
Transmit Data

Receive Data
0 -5 -10 -15 -20 -25 -30 -35 -40 dB

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Multi-path Characteristics of Mobile Channel
• Electromagnetic transmission - reflection,scattering, diffraction • Signal fading can be divided into three parts in radio environment: – Path loss: with big range of fading – Big scale fading:slow-speed, with middle range of fading, also with logarithm normal distribution characteristic – Small scale fading: fast-speed, with small range of fading • Two typical types of small scale fading include: – Rayleigh distribution (not line-of-sight transmission) – Ricean distribution(line-of-sight transmission)
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Characteristics of Mobile Channel
• Time delay characteristics – Mean delay – Delay spread (standard deviation), channel coherence bandwidth = 1/delay spread • Spectrum – Doppler spread can cause channel to change(fast and slow fading), channel coherence time = 1/Doppler frequency – Multipath characteristic(channel bandwidth), flat fading and frequency selection fading – Broad band code division multiple access is slow fading frequency selection channel • Methods for testing channels – Probability distribution of fading – Level pass rate - fading speed, channel fading depth – Sustaining time of fading(depth of interleaving)
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Category of Typical Radio Channel

• • • • • •

Static Channel Indoor Channel Outdoor-to-indoor pavement Channel Vehicle mounted Channel Moving Channel Birth-death Channel

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Some Conceptions in Radio Channel
• Multi-access technology
– Time division multiple access, frequency division multiple access and code division multiple access – Duplex technology – Time division duplex and frequency division duplex

• Narrowband and broadband system
– The band of single channel accords with the expected coherence bandwidth – Transmission bandwidth of one channel is bigger than its coherence bandwidth – Broadband usually brings the advantage of frequency diversity
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Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA)
• Each time, only one call can be transmitted on the channel of FDMA. If one channel of FDMA is in idle status, it cannot be used by other MSs to add share capability • After being allocated into a voice channel, signals between base station and mobile station must be transmitted continuously • FDMA is always a narrowband system • Signal delay is much longer than average delay extension. The interference between signals caused by average delay extension is low and needs no equalization • FDMA is simpler than TDMA. There are less bits of synchronization and multiplex frames. System overhead is smaller. • FDMA needs precise RF filters and duplexers(single antenna) • Non-linear effects: Many channels share one antenna. Due to the non-linear feature, the power amplifier generates intermodulation(IM) and RF radiation.
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Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)
• Multiple MSs share one carrier frequency and different time slots. • Data transmission of TDMA system is discontinuous packet transmission and can be closed. • Discontinuous transmission. BTS can monitor other base stations when by using idle timeslots. Handover can be processed. • No duplexer is needed even though FDD is used. • Self-adaptive equalization is required. Protection time slots are required. • Packet transmission needs additional system overhead, such as protection data synchronization • It can provide different band for different MSs • Efficiency of TDMA refers to the ratio of information in transmitted data. • Power control frequency is 2Hz or lower • Quality control is achieved via frequency plan
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Spread Spectrum Multiple Access (SSMA)
• Frequency Hopping CDMA (FH-CDMA) – Adopting narrowband FM or FSK, using high-energy, efficient and constant envelope for modulation, using cheap receiver to implement FHMA non-coherence detection. – Security: adopting error correcting code and multipath technology to avoid the impact from collision • Direct Spending CDMA – Multiple UEs share one frequency – CDMA is a soft capacity limitation system. When the number of UEs increase, to all the UEs, system performance descends, whereas, when the number of UEs reduces, system performance increases. – In CDMA, channel data rate is smaller than delay extension. So RAKE Rx technology can be used. – Macro space diversity is adopted. Multiple NodeBs monitor at the same time. Soft handover can be realized without switching frequencies. Self interference system - multiple code interference, near-far effect. • Time Hopping CDMA (TH-CDMA)
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Multiple Access Technology
Frequency Frequency

Traditional Multiple Access Technology
Time FDMA TDMA Time

Frequency

Code Multiple Access Technology
Time CDMA Code
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Rx Mode of Different Multiple Access
• Frequency division multiple access: long signal sustaining duration, no interference between signals, direct decision. • Time division multiple access: has interference between signals, can’t distinguish multi-path, use filter to equalize signals – With self adaptive equalizer, coefficient can be modified – Every slot has pilot frequency to train coefficient • Direct spending code division multiple access – Broadband system. Multi-path can be distinguished. – Multi-path receiver (RAKE), multi-path diversity.
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Advantages of CDMA in Radio Transmission
• RAKE receiver is adopted. The time diversity effect generated by channel coherence time is efficiently used. • Broadband transmission system- the effect of frequency diversity is utilized. • Multiple access transmission of codes- the effect of multi-user diversity is utilized. • Low signal transmission power - interference is decreased, while security is increased. • Spreading factor can be changed flexiblely. Helpful for transmitting multiple rate concurrent services such as multimedia. • High utilization of spectrum, superior to previous AMPS and GSM. Coefficient of frequency multiplex in WCDMA is 1, while in GSM, it is 1~18. • Supporting soft handover and softer handover. • Supporting the application of new technology, such as multi-user detection. • Downlink transmit diversity (unique in WCDMA).
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CONTENTS
Ø Fundamentals of CDMA Ø Introduction to IMT-2000 IMT-2000 Ø FDD Mode of WCDMA

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3G of Mobile Communication

• IMT-2000, the general designation of 3G mobile communication system
– 3G mobile communication system is first put forward by International Telecommunications Union(ITU) in 1985. Considering that this system will enters commercial market, working frequency band is at 2000MHz, and the maximum rate is 2000Kbps, so it is renamed formally in 1996 as IMT2000 (International Mobile Telecommunication-2000) – 3G mobile communication system is a communication system that can provide multiple types of high-quality multimedia services, can achieve global seamless coverage, has global roaming capability, is compatible with fixed network, and uses small portable terminals to implement any type of communications at anytime and anywhere.
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Direction of 3G Standard • The development of 3G standard is drived by five forces:
– The process of IMT-2000 (started in 1985) – Increasing requirements of radio services, which have exceeded the capacity of systems such as D-AMPS, GSM,PDC,and PHS. – Expected high-quality voice services – High speed data and multimedia services to be introduced into radio network – The development speed of mobile communication is about one generation per ten years
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Standardization Course of ITU IMT-2000
• 1985: FPLMTS, renamed as IMT-2000 in 1996 • 1992: 230MHz spectrum was allocated in conference WRC92 • 1999.3: Key parameters of IMT-2000 RTT were completed • 1999.11: Technical specifications of IMT-2000 RTT were completed • 2000: All the network standards of IMT2000 were completed • “Family concept ” was adopted in network part • Standardization organizations such as 3GPP(1998.12), 3GPP2(1999) were established
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Standardization Organization
3GPP
CATT
IMT-DS IMT-TC (UTRA-TDDHCR) IMT-TC (UTRA-TDDLCR) IMT-FC

DECT OHG

IMT-2000 Recommendations

3GPP2

IMT-MC

IMT-SC All-IP

SRAN

UWCC

Satellites 3G.IP

OHG = operators Harmonization Group UWCC = Universal Wireless Communications Consortium

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Main CDMA 3G Proposals
Regional Standard Radio Organization(RSO) Transmission Technology(RTT)

U.S. Korea

TIA(TR 45.5) T1 TTA

Japan Europe China

ARIB ETSI(SMG 2) CWTS

cdma2000 W-CDMA TTA1(~cdma200 0) TTA2(~WCDMA) W-CDMA W-CDMA TD-SCDMA
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Evolution of Radio System
1G 2G 2+G 3G
TDD/FDD

PDC GSM
HSCSD

ARIB (WCDMA)

WCDMA
UTRA (WCDMA) TD-SCDMA GPRS

EDGE
136HS Outdoor

AMPS

IS-54

IS-136
136HS Indoor

UWC-136

IS-95A
IS-95B

cdma2000

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3G Evolution Strategy

Legacy System IS-95 CDMA

Technology Family cdma2000 MC

3G Mode

FDD/TDD GSM WCDMA TD-SCDMA
GPRS

EDGE & 136 HS Outdoor

IS-136 TDMA

UWC-136 136HS Indoor

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Evolution Strategy from GSM to WCDMA
1999 2000 2001 2002 2003

EDGE - Enhanced Data rate for Global Evolution GPRS = General Packet radio Service HSCSD = High Speed Circuit Switched Data

WCDMA IMT-TDDLCR
GSM Phase 2+

HSCSD

GPRS

EDGE EGPRS

WCDMA IMT-FDD WCDMA IMT-TDDHCR

9.6 kbps

14.4 kbps

57.6 kbps

115 kbps

384 kbps

2 Mbps

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Evolution from GSM to WCDMA
• GPRS will be fully popularized in the near future • Promotion of EDGE technology, maybe already in commercial use in U.S. • WCDMA R99 in FDD mode will be utilized in Japan.
– In Mar. 2001, NTT DoCoMo began to run its commercial network in Tokyo. Commercial networks in Nagoya and Osaka began to run in the third season. – Currently, every big operators in Japan has begun to operate his 3G trial network. – Many companies begin to release core networks and terminal equipment.

• WCDMA in Europe
– Currently, Ericsson and Fujitsu have founded their trial networks in England.

• WCDMA in China(with predominance of GSM-MAP core network)

– Currently, many companies have trial equipment from Huawei, Ericsson, Nokia, etc.
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Spectrum Allocation of IMT-2000
1850 1900 1950 2000
2010 MHz

2050

2100

2150

2200

2250

ITU
1885 MHz

IMT 2000
GSM 1800 DECT
1805 MHz
cellular(1)

MSS 2025 MHz

IMT 2000
2110 MHz

MSS

2170 MHz

Europe

UMTS
cellular(2)

MSS 1980 MHz
2025MHz

UMTS

MSS

1880 MHz
cellular(2) CDMA
1865

China

GSM 1800

FDD TDD WLL WLL
1945 1920

CDMA

FDD WLL
1960 1980

1885

1895

1918

2170 MHz

Japan
1865 1870

C PHS

IMT A 2000
1965 1970 1975 1930 1945

MSS

B

IMT A’ 2000

MSS

1885 1890 1895

1910

1990 MHz

2165 MHz Broadcast auxiliary Reserve MSS

USA

PCS
A D B EF C A D B EF C

MSS

1850

1900

1950

2000

2050

2100

2150

220 0

225 0

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Requirement of 3G Spectrum
• ITU has no specified spectrum restriction on IMT-2000 • Japan/Korea/Europe has reserved 60Mhz for 3G, called area 1/3 band plan. • America (area 2) cellular and PCS bands will be used for 3G • Cellular: 824-849MHz reverse(Uplink), 869-894MHz forward (Downlink) • PCS: 1850-1910MHz reverse(Uplink), 1930-1990MHz forward(Downlink) • Advise ITU that all global areas use 1920-1980MHz for forward • Reduce the interference between 3G and PCS frequency bands • The existing cellular frequency band can be developed for 3G services
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Acceptance of Additional Frequencies for IMT-2000
• At World Radio Conference(WRC-200) of International Telecommunication Union(ITU) (From May 8 to June 2, Istanbul), additional frequencies for IMT-2000 were accepted. • Allocation of additional frequencies took the increase of future requirement into consideration. The following bands were added: – 800MHz frequency band (806-960MHz) – 1.7GHz frequency band (1710-1885MHz) – 2.5GHz frequency band (2500-2690MHz) • The addition scheme basically adopted the scheme proposed by APT(Asia and Pacific Telecommunication Union) in Feb. 2002.
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3G Spectrum (After WARC2000)

800

850

900

950

1000

1700

1750

1800 1850

1900

1950

2000

2050

2100

2150

2200

2250

2500

2550

2600

2650 2700

ITU Identifications Europe

IMT 2000
GSM

IMT 2000
DECT

IMT 2000

MSS

IMT 2000

MSS

*

IMT 2000 UMTS

*

GSM 1800

UMTS

MSS

UMTS

MSS

China**

Cellular

GSM

[GSM 1800, PCS]

IMT 2000

MSS

IMT 2000

MSS

IMT 2000

Japan, Korea (w/o PHS) Americas***

PHS

PDC IMT2000

IMT 2000

MSS

IMT 2000

MSS

IMT 2000 IMT 2000

Cellular

PCS
UPCS

A D B EF C

A D B EF C

MSS

Reserve

MSS

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Qos Requirements
Sensitivity of error
conversational

streaming

interactive

background

Sensitivity of delay
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Services Provided by IMT-2000

5th Tier

4th Tier 1st Tier

3rd Tier

2nd Tier

LCS

Bank account ID

PDA

Traditional services
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Comparison of Provided Services
Full-time Remote SOHO Online

3G

Telecommunication (intermittent Access)

Frequent

GPRS WLAN

Wireless Conference Wireless Office

Occasional Deferred

SMS GPRS
Fixed Remote Halting On the Run

Transportation Dispatch

Mobility

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Comparison of Network Application
HiperLAN1 HiperLAN2 IEEE 802.11a (11b, 11e, 11f) MMAC 5WLIAG

Drive

Outdoor

Walk

Mobility

2G

Fixed

3G

WLAN

Indoor

Walk Fixed

PAN
0.1 1 10

LAN Mbps
100

Bluetooth UWB IEEE 802.15 HomeRF

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Target of IMT-2000 • Global uniform frequency band and standard, global seamless coverage • High efficient spectrum utility • High quality of service, high security • Easy for transit from 2G system • Providing multimedia service
– Car speed environment: 144kbps – Walk speed environment: 384kbps – Indoor environment: 2048kbps
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Mode of IMT-2000
• IMT-DS (Direct Spread) UTRA-FDD 3GPP • IMT-TC (Time Code) UTRA-TDD 3GPP
– UTRA-TDDHCR – UTRA-TDDLCR TD-SCDMA (CATT)

• IMT-MC (Multi-carrier) CDMA2000 3GPP2
– IX RTT – 3XRTT

• IMT-SC (Single Carrier) UWC-136
– 136HS Outdoor EGPRS Classic and EGPRS Compact – 136HS Indoor

• IMT-FC (Frequency Time) DECT
CATT = China Academy of Telecommunications Technology
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UTRA Mode

UTRA-FDD

UTRA-TDDHCR

UTRA-TDDLCR

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Research Contents of IMT-2000 RTT
• • • • • • •

Multiple access technology Modulation technology Channel coding and interleaving Multiplex technology Physical channel structure Frame structure RF channel parameter

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Advanced Radio Transmission Technology
• High capacity, high quality, high transmission rate • Complex encoding-decoding and modulationdemodulation
– Higher utilization rate of spectrum. – Supporting high speed movement(500Km/h) – Providing high quality data transmission(BER<10-6)

• Fast power control • Multi-access inter-elimination technology
– Weakening or eliminating the interference inter or intra cells, expanding system capacity.

• Smart antenna
– Improving the capacity of cellular system, enlarging the coverage of NodeB, and improving transmission quality of signals.
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Complex encoding-decoding and modulation-demodulation
• New challenges:
– – – – – High speed at 500km/h(high speed train) Multiple data transmission rates, max. 2Mbps High quality data services with BER below 10-6 Supporting more than 100 voice channels in 5M bandwidth Higher locating precision. Based on handset, precision is 67% in 50m and 95% in 150m. If based on network, the precision doubles.

• Key technology:
– Advanced multiple access -WCDMA – Technology of fast fading channel estimation and equalization – Multipath-resistant technology such as RAKE Rx/Tx diversity/antenna diversity. – Advanced channel encoding-decoding technologyconcatenation code/Turbo code – Multi-user detection technology
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Fast Power Control Technology

•Reduce interference of multiple access, and ensure network capability •Prolong the using time of battery
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Multi-user Detection Technology
• Current CDMA receiver is based on RAKE theory. It regards other users’ interference as noise. • Capacity of RAKE-based CDMA system is restricted by interference. • Best receiver can associatively detect all the signals together, then eliminate other user’s interference from expected signals(The coherence of signals is known, interference is certain). • Multi-user detection(MUD) is associative detection. By interference inter-elimination, the interference of multiaccess can be reduced, and the system capability can be increased. • Multi-user detection can eliminate near-far effect. • Best multi-user detection is very complex. Actually better multi-user detection and interference elimination receiver is adopted.
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Research of Smart Antenna
• Recent achievement(Arraycomm)
– For products DCS-1800 and PHS, the coverage range can be increased by 230% – The number of NodeBs can be reduced by 70%, and the average cost can be reduced by 40%

• Key technology for implementation:
– – – – Multi-wave-beam generation technology Adaptive interference resistance technology Space-time 2-dimensional RAKE receiving technology Multi-path channel estimation and equalization technology

• Application in TDD technology
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Principle of Smart Antenna
•Reduce interference from other directions, and enhance Rx sensitivity of the desired signal direction . •Enlarge the coverage range of NodeB, and improve the transmission quality of signals.

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Cell Configuration of Smart Antenna

Omnidirectional cell

Three-sector cell

Smart antenna cell

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Merits of Smart Antenna
•High speed users bring big interference, dynamic adjustive wave beams of smart antenna array track high speed users. It can isolate users and eliminate interference. The performance of dynamic adjustive smart antenna array is superior to that of static multi-wave-beam antenna. •Increase system capacity •Increase coverage range, and improve the signal receiving quality in buildings or at high speed. •Improve signal receiving quality, decrease call drop rate, and improve voice quality. •Reduce transmission power, and prolong battery life of UEs. •Improve flexibility for system design
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Space Division Multiple Access
• Use directional wave beam antenna to serve different users • Self-adaptive antenna system

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CONTENTS
Ø Fundamentals of CDMA Ø Introduction to IMT-2000 IMT-2000 Ø FDD Mode of WCDMA

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FDD Mode of WCDMA(1)
• • • • • • • • • Channel bandwidth: 5MHz Symbol rate: 3.84Mbps Frame length: 10ms Voice coding: AMR (Adaptive Multi-Rate) Uplink and downlink modulation: QPSK/QPSK spreading Coherence modulation aided with pilot frequency Fast open loop and closed loop power control: 1500Hz Handover: soft/hard handover Support synchronous and asynchronous NodeB operation
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FDD Mode of WCDMA(2)
• Satisfy the minimum performance requirement of IMT2000 • Compatible with GSM-MAP core network • Comparatively steady version R99 has been released • Support open loop and closed loop transmit diversity mode • Support Common Packet Channel(CPCH) and Downlink Share Channel, adapt to Internet data access mode • Support macro diversity, selection diversity of NodeB location • Support different fast power control algorithms and open loop, out loop power control • Fully support UE locating services
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WCDMA Rx/Tx Diversity
• Forward link capacity is the bottle neck of CDMA cellular system capacity. WCDMA standard has deeply researched the application of transmission diversity. New transmit diversity scheme has been put forward. It will improve forward link capacity. • Open loop transmission diversity – transmit diversity based on space-time block coding (STTD) – Time switched transmit diversity on SCH • Closed loop transmission diversity, FBI domain • Site selection diversity(macro diversity) cell selection, FBI domain
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Transmitter Antenna Diversity Based on Time-space Block Coding

b0 b1 b2 b3 Antenna 1 b0 b1 b2 b3 -b2 b3 b0 -b1 Antenna 2

Channel bits STTD encoded channel bits for antenna 1 and antenna 2.

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Time Switched Transmit Diversity on SCH

Slot #0 acp Antenna 1 acs
i,0

Slot #1 acp acs
i,2

Slot #2 acp acs
i,14

Slot #14

Antenna 2

acp acs
i,1

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Closed Loop Transmit Diversity

w1 S p r e a d /s c r a m b le

C P IC H 1

Ant

Tx

DPCCH DPDCH

DPCH

Ant


w2 C P IC H 2 Rx w1 w2 Rx

Tx

W e ig h t G e n e r a tio n

D e te r m i n e F B I m e s s a g e fr o m U p li n k D P C C H

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Receiving Effects for Different Multi-path Diversity
1 1-path rayl 2-path rayl 5-path rayl No attenuation

0.1

BER

0.01

0.001

0.0001 5 10 15

SNR(dB)

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WCDMA Voice Evolution • Adopt AMR voice coding, and support voice quality of 4.75Kbps ~ 12.2Kbps • Adopt soft handover and transmit diversity to improve system capacity • Provide high fidelity voice mode • Fast power control

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Data Service Evolution of WCDMA
• • • • • Support maximum 2Mbps data service Support packet switch Adopt ATM platform currently Provide Qos Common Packet Channel(CPCH) and Downlink Share Channel(DSCH) can support Internet packet services better • Provide mobile IP service(dynamic allocation of IP addresses) • TFCI domain provides dynamic data rate • Provide high-quality support for uplink-downlink symmetric data service, such as voice, video phone, conference TV
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Diversity Technology
• It is implemented via independent(at lease high irrelevant) multi-path signals in natural radio transmission environment. • Cheap investment • It overcomes small scale fading(caused by complex reflection of objects near UEs), can adopt dual-antennas Rx diversity • It overcomes large scale fading(resulted from the shadow areas which are caused by the difference between environmental segments and surface features). A NodeB of which, the transmitted signals are beyond the shadow areas, can be selected to to complete location selection transmission diversity. • Max. ratio combination • Transmit diversity technology can also be applied to improve the peek throughput of single user in radio telecommunication.
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Space Diversity Technology

• • • • • •

Selection diversity Feedback diversity Receive diversity Transmission diversity Maximum ratio combination Equivalent gain combination

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Other Diversity • Polarization diversity • Frequency diversity • Time diversity: transmit signal repeatedly at more than the intervals of channels coherent time. RAKE receiver assume that one chip time is larger than the coherent time of channel.

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Principle of Transmit Diversity (OTD mode)

Transmit diversity technology can improve system downlink capacity, adapt to the requirement of asymmetric services.
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