Kinetics of a Particle

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Kinetics of a Particle

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KINETICS OF A PARTICLE

FORCE AND ACCELERATION

NEWTON`S SECOND LAW OF MOTION

The linear momentum:

If a particle of mass m is moving with a velocity v , the linear momentum is defined by :

P = mv

The linear momentum is a vector quantity of a magnitude mv and its direction is the same

as that of the velocity. If the path of the particle is a planar curve , then , the linear

momentum vector is resolved into two orthogonal components along the x and y axes if

Cartesian coordinates are used.

Py = m y&

Px = mv x = m x&

x

Py = mv y = my&

Px = m x&

y

x

O

In the case of intrinsic coordinates, the linear momentum is a vector which is being tangent

to the path at any instant , so, both its magnitude and direction are varying with the time.

s

O

It states that the unbalanced force acting on the particle is proportional to the time rate

of change of its linear momentum

F =

F2

F1

d

d P d ( m v ) dm

=

=v

+m v .

dt

dt

dt

dt

dm

If the particl`s mass m is constant then,

=0

dt

F3

d

= m v = ma.

dt

ma

External forces

Effective force

second law of motion may be used which is:

the effective force of a particle m a is equivalent to the resultant of the external forces

law is applied in the two orthogonal directions according to the used system of coordinates.

In the case of Cartesian coordinates , there will be the following two equations of motion:

FX

= ma x = m &x&

Fy

m&y&

F y = ma y = m&y&

Fx

y

O

m&x&&

y

O

x

Effective forces

External forces

where x.. is the horizontal component of acceleration and y.. is the vertical one.

For the case of intrinsic coordinates, the two equations of motion will be :

Ft

= ma t

Fn

= ma n

Fn

s

ma n

Ft

External forces

ma t

O

Effective forces

Steps of solution:

To apply Newton`s second law for the solution of a problem , the following steps are

executed :

1. Assume that the particle is at its general position and indicate all the external forces

to which it is subjected.

2. Apply Newton`s second law ( the equivalence between the external forces and the

effective forces ) to determine the acceleration.

3. Integrate the acceleration with the substitution of the associated initial conditions to

determine the velocity and the position.

Example ( 1 ):

A block of 2 - kg mass starts to move down an inclined

A

the coefficient of friction of the surface knowing that :

= 15 , d = 9 m , g = 10 m/s2.

Solution:

Kinematics:

considering that the point A from which the particle starts its motion is to be the origin,

then ,

x 0 = 0 , v 0 = v A = 6 m / s , x B = d = 9 m , v B = 3m / s .

Substituting in the equations of constant acceleration motion :

v 2 = v 02 + 2 a ( x x 0 )

( 3 ) 2 = ( 6 ) 2 + 2a( 9 0 )

ma

18a = 9 36 = 27

Effective forces

a = 1.5 m / s 2 .

v0 = 6 m / s

Kinetics:

mg sin

v B = 3m / s

x

External forces

mg cos

mg

Fy = 0

N mg cos = 0

N = mg cos .

ma = mg sin N = mg sin mg cos

a = g sin g cos

g sin a 10 sin 15 ( 1.5 )

=

=

= 0.42

g cos

10 cos 15

Example ( 2 ) :

A block of weight 500 N is moving down a rough

surface for which the coefficient of kinetic friction

v 0 = 3m / s

P = 200 t

30

after 2 seconds. ( g = 10 m/s2 )

Solution:

Kinetics:

Applying the equilibrium equation in the y direction:

Fy

=0

ma

500

a = 200 t + 250 0.3 * 250 3

10

a = 4 t + 2.4 m / s 2 .

v 0 = 3m / s

mg sin 30

P

N

x

Kinematics:

30

mg cos 30

mg

dv

= 4 t + 2.4

dt

dv = ( 4 t + 2.4 )dt

a=

dv = ( 4 t + 2.4 )dt

3

v 3 = 2 t 2 + 2.4 t

v = ( 2 t 2 + 2.4 t + 3 )m / s

when t = 2 sec.

v = 15.8 m/s.

Example ( 3 ) :

The elevator E has a mass of 500 kg and the counterweight

A has a mass of 150 kg. If the motor applies a constant force

of

E

B

A

Solution:

Kinetics:

Fy

= ma

1500 T1 = 150 a

T1

T1

TB

T1

TB

(1)

T1 = 1500 150 a

TB=5000N

B

ma = F y

500 a = T1 + 5000 5000

TB

(2)

T1 = 500 a

From the two equations (1 ) and ( 2 ) , we obtain:

T1

5000N

1500N

a = 2.31 m/s2

500a

Kinematics:

a = constant = 2.31 m/s2,

5000N

T1

T1

v0 = 0

v = v 0 + at

v = 0 + 2.31 * 3 = 6.93m / s

150a

5000N

1500N

Example ( 4 ) :

tension T in the hoisting cable is 8300 N. Find the

reading R of the scale in Newtons during this interval

and the upward velocity of the elevator at the end of

the interval. The total mass of the elevator, man and

scale is 750 kg. ( g = 10 m/s2 ).

Solution:

T=8300N

750a

ma = F y

750 a = 8300 7500

a = 1.067 m / s 2 .

7500N

mg = 750N

75a

ma = F y

75 a = R 750

R = 750 + 75 a

R = 750 + 75 * 1.067

R = 830 N .

Example ( 5 ) :

If block B is raised up a distance of 0.4 m in 2 seconds from rest,

determine the magnitude of the horizontal force P. All surfaces are

15

respectively . ( g = 10 m/s2 ).

P

A

Solution :

There is a relation between the horizontal motion of block A and the vertical motion of

block B , this relation is derived as follows:

If block A is displaced horizontally to be at a position x , the corresponding position of

block B will be y where

y

= tan 15

x

y = 0.268 x

15

y = 0.268 x

y = a B = 0.268 x = 0.268a A . ( 1 )

200aB

200N

a B = 0.268a A

RB

For block B :

Kinematics:

Nsin15

N

Ncos15

15

v0 = 0 , y0 = 0 ,

40aA

t = 2 sec ., y = 0.4 m

y y0 = v 0 t +

1 2

at

2

Nsin15

P

a B = 0.2 m / s 2 .

From equation ( 1 ),

a A = 0.75 m / s 2 .

Kinetics:

Fy

=0

Ncos15

1

0.4 = 0 + a B ( 2 ) 2

2

RA

400N

20 a B = N cos 15 200

N = 211.2 Newtons .

For block A:

Fx

= ma A

40 a A = P N sin 15.

Example ( 6 ):

A v0 = 20m/s

A with a horizontal velocity of 20 m/s , if

20m

the velocity and the position of the particle

Solution:

Considering that point A is an origin

motion are :

m &x& = 0

m&y& = mg

mg

y

External forces

10

m x&&

&x& = 0 ,

&y& = g

m&y&

Effective forces

x& o = v 0 = 20 m / s , y& o = 0 , x o = 0 , yo = 0.

&& and &y& , we obtain :

Integrating each of x

y& = g t

Integrating the two velocity components ,we get :

x = 20 t

y=

1 2

gt

2

1

* 10 * t 2

2

t = 2 sec .

20 =

x B = 20 * 2 = 40 m , x B = 20 m / s , y B = 10 * 2 = 20 m / s

v B = 20 2 m / s , = 45.

y

Example ( 7 ) :

6m

The 10kg particle slides down the curved ramp for which the

x2

y=

8

point A , it has a velocity of 5 m/s, determine the normal reaction

Solution :

The Cartesian equation of the path is given

y=

x2

8

From the Cartesian equation, the slope of the curve ( dy/dx = tan ) and

the radius of curvature at point A ( x = 6 m ) are determined as follows:

A

x

11

tan =

dy

)x = 6 = 1.5

dx

dy 2

1 + ( dx )

=

d2y

= 56.3

3/ 2

= 23.44 m

dx 2

mg sin

A

mg cos

x

mg

ma N = N mg cos

N = 10 *

N =m

v2

+ mg cos

25

+ 100 cos 56.3 = 66.14 Newtons

23.44

ma t = mg sin N

10 a t = 100 sin 56.3 0.2 * 66.14

at = 7 m / s 2 .

where at is the rate of increase of the velocity at point A.

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