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In this article, we review some properties of the harmonic quadrilateral related to triangle simedians and to Apollonius circles.

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You are on page 1of 6

www.isfs.org.in

Vol. 1 No. 1 (2014), pp. 12-17

Professor Ion Patrascu, National College "Fraii Buzeti", Craiova, Romania

Professor Florentin Smarandache, University of New Mexico, USA

Abstract: In this article, we review some properties of the harmonic quadrilateral related to triangle

simedians and to Apollonius circles.

Definition

1.

is called harmonic quadrilateral.

having

the

property

Proposition 1. In the triangle

, the cevian

Proposition 2. In an harmonic quadrilateral, the diagonals are simedians of the triangles determined

by two consecutive sides of a quadrilateral with its diagonal.

Proof. Let

be an harmonic quadrilateral and

is simedian in the triangle

.

From the similarity of the triangles

and

, we find that:

, we conclude that:

But

is an harmonic quadrilateral;

consequently,

as shown by Proposition 1,

is a simedian in the

triangle

. Similarly, it can be shown that

is a

simedian in the triangle

, that

is a simedian

12

ISSN: 2349-4484

www.isfs.org.in

Vol. 1 No. 1 (2014), pp. 12-17

in the triangle

, and that

Proposition 3. If in a convex circumscribable

quadrilateral a diagonal is a simedian in the

triangle formed by the other diagonal with two

consecutive sides of the quadrilateral, then the

quadrilateral is an harmonic quadrilateral.

Remark 2. From Propositions 2 and 3 above, it

results a simple way to build an harmonic

quadrilateral. In a circle, let a triangle

be

considered; we construct the simedian of A, be

it

, and we denote by D the intersection of

the simedian

with the circle. The

quadrilateral

is an harmonic

quadrilateral.

Proposition 4. In a triangle

, the points of

the simedian of A are situated at proportional lengths to the sides

Proof. We have the simedian

projections of

on

and

We get:

in the triangle

respectively.

and

and

the

From

respectively, we have:

and

and

, hence:

, and

hence:

13

Vol. 1 No. 1 (2014), pp. 12-17

ISSN: 2349-4484

www.isfs.org.in

Remark 3. The converse of the property in the statement above is valid, meaning that, if

is a

point inside a triangle, its distances to two sides are proportional to the lengths of these sides. The

point belongs to the simedian of the triangle having the vertex joint to the two sides.

Proposition 5. In an harmonic quadrilateral, the point of intersection of the diagonals is located

towards the sides of the quadrilateral to proportional distances to the length of these sides.

The Proof of this Proposition relies on Propositions 2 and 4.

Proposition 6 (R. Tucker). The point of intersection of the diagonals of an harmonic quadrilateral

minimizes the sum of squares of distances from a point inside the quadrilateral to the quadrilateral

sides.

Proof. Let

the distances of

Let be the

We have:

any point within. We denote by

to the

,

,

,

sides of lenghts

(see Fig. 3).

quadrilateral area.

and

real numbers.

Following Cauchy-Buniakowski-Schwarz Inequality, we get:

and it is obvious that:

distances is:

In

Cauchy-Buniakowski-Schwarz

Inequality, the equality occurs if:

Since

is the only point

with this property, it ensues that

,

so has the property of the minimum in the

statement.

14

Vol. 1 No. 1 (2014), pp. 12-17

ISSN: 2349-4484

www.isfs.org.in

triangle a cevian

corresponding to the vertex

, where

is the harmonic conjugate of the point

simedians foot from relative to points

and .

Remark 4. In Fig. 4, the cevian

We have:

is an external simedian.

Proposition 7. The tangents taken to the extremes of a diagonal of a circle circumscribed to the

harmonic quadrilateral intersect on the other diagonal.

Proof. Let be the intersection of a tangent taken in to the circle circumscribed to the harmonic

quadrilateral

with

(see Fig. 5). Since triangles PDC and PAD are alike, we conclude

that:

This relationship indicates that P is the harmonic conjugate of K with respect to A and C, so

is

an external simedian from D of the triangle

.

Similarly, if we denote by

the intersection of the tangent taken in B to the circle circumscribed

with

, we get:

the harmonic quadrilateral, we know that:

hence

.

Similarly, it is shown that the tangents taken to A

and C intersect at point Q located on the diagonal

.

15

ISSN: 2349-4484

www.isfs.org.in

Vol. 1 No. 1 (2014), pp. 12-17

and

in relation to the circle

circumscribed to the quadrilateral.

b. From the previous Proposition, it follows that in a triangle the internal simedian of an angle is

consecutive to the external simedians of the other two angles.

Proposition 8. Let

be an harmonic quadrilateral inscribed in the circle of center O and let P

and Q be the intersections of the tangents taken in B and D, respectively in A and C to the circle

circumscribed to the quadrilateral. If

then the orthocenter of triangle

is O.

Proof. From the properties of tangents taken from a point to a circle, we conclude that

and

. These relations show that in the triangle

,

and

are heights, so is the

orthocenter of this triangle.

Definition 4. The Apollonius

circle related to the vertex A of

the triangle

is the circle

built on the segment

in

diameter, where D and E are the

feet of the internal, respectively

,external bisectors taken from A

to the triangle

.

Remark 6. If the triangle

is isosceles with

,

the

Apollonius

circle

corresponding to vertex A is not

defined.

Proposition 9. The Apollonius

circle relative to the vertex A of

the triangle

has as center

the feet of the external simedian taken from A.

Proof. Let Oa be the intersection of the external simedian of the triangle

with

(see Fig. 6).

Assuming that

, we find that

Withal,

.

and

It results that:

onward,

Proposition 10. Apollonius circle relative to the vertex A of triangle

cuts the circle

circumscribed to the triangle following the internal simedian taken from A.

Proof. Let S be the second point of intersection of Apollonius circles relative to vertex A and the

circle circumscribing the triangle

.

16

Vol. 1 No. 1 (2014), pp. 12-17

ISSN: 2349-4484

www.isfs.org.in

Because

is tangent to the circle circumscribed in A, it results, for reasons of symmetry, that

will be tangent in S to the circumscribed circle.

For triangle

,

are external simedians; it results that

is internal simedian in

the triangle

, furthermore, it results that the quadrilateral

is an harmonic quadrilateral.

Consequently,

is the internal simedian of the triangle

and the property is proven.

Remark 7. From this, in view of Fig. 5, it results that the circle of center Q passing through A and C

is an Apollonius circle relative to the vertex A for the triangle

.

This circle (of center Q and radius QC) is also an Apollonius circle relative to the vertex C of the

triangle

.

Similarly, the Apollonius circles corresponding to vertexes B and D and to the triangles ABC, and

ADC respectively, coincide; we can formulate the following:

Proposition 11. In an harmonic quadrilateral, the Apollonius circles - associated with the vertexes

of a diagonal and to the triangles determined by those vertexes to the other diagonal - coincide.

Radical axis of the Apollonius circles is the right determined by the center of the circle

circumscribed to the harmonic quadrilateral and by the intersection of its diagonals.

Proof. Referring to Fig. 5, we observe that the power of O towards the Apollonius circles relative to

vertexes B and C of triangles

and

is:

So O belongs to the radical axis of the circles.

We also have

, relatives indicating that the point K has equal powers towards

the highlighted Apollonius circles.

References.

[1] Roger A. Johnson Advanced Euclidean Geometry, Dover Publications, Inc. Mineola, New

York, USA, 2007.

[2] F. Smarandache, I. Patrascu The Geometry of Homological Triangles, The Education

Publisher, Inc. Columbus, Ohio, USA, 2012.

[2] F. Smarandache, I. Patrascu Variance on Topics of plane Geometry, The Education

Publisher, Inc. Columbus, Ohio, USA, 2013.

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