# IMO Training 2006 − 2007 Phase 1 (Level 1): Inequalities (I) 2006/07/22

I.

A Taste of Inequalities

1.

Let x, y be real numbers such that x + y = 10 . What is the largest value of xy?

2.

If x is a positive real number, what is the minimum value of x +

1 ? x

II. The Three Means

3.

(a) A man drove for 2 hours. In the first hour he travelled 40 km, and in the second hour he travelled 60 km. What is his average speed for the whole journey? (b) The number of bacteria grows by a certain percentage each month. In July if a certain year, the number of bacteria was 40 million. In September of the same year, the number increased to 60 million. What was the number of bacteria in August that year? (c) A man drove from City P to City Q at a speed of 40 km/h and returned at 60 km/h. What is his average speed for the whole journey?

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4.

What is meant by the arithmetic mean (A.M.), the geometric mean (G.M.) and the harmonic mean (H.M.)?

5.

(IMO Hong Kong Preliminary Selection Contest 2006) Investment funds A, B and C claim that they can earn profits of 200%, 300% and 500% respectively in one year. Tommy has $90000 and plans to invest in these funds. However, he knows that only one of these funds can achieve its claim while the other two will close down. He has thought of an investment plan which can guarantee a profit of at least $n in one year. Find the greatest possible value of n.

III. The AM-GM-HM inequality

6.

In the figure, A is the centre of the circle. PQ is a diameter and M is a point on the circumference. G is the foot of the perpendicular from M to PQ and H is the foot of the perpendicular from G to AM. Let PG = x and GQ = y. (a) Find, in terms of x and y, the lengths of (i) AM

M

H P A G

3.04

Q

.96

x

y

(ii) GM (iii) HM (b) Arrange the above lengths in ascending order.

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7.

State the AM-GM-HM inequality.

IV. Applications of the AM-GM-HM inequality

8.

Let a, b, c be positive real numbers. Show that (a) (a + b)(b + c)(c + a) ≥ 8abc

(b) a 2 + b 2 + c 2 ≥ ab + bc + ca (c) a 3 + b3 + c 3 ≥ 3abc

9.

Do Questions 1 and 2 again using the AM-GM inequality.

**10. Let a and b be real numbers such that a > b > 0 . Determine the least possible value of
**

a+ 1 . b( a − b )

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11. Prove that if a, b, c are less than 1 and a + b + c = 2 , then abc ≥ 8. (1 − a)(1 − b)(1 − c)

12. Let a1 , a2 , …, an be positive real numbers. (a) Prove that a12 a2 2 a2 + + L + n ≥ a1 + a2 + L + an . a2 a3 a1

(b) If (1 + a1 )(1 + a2 )L (1 + an ) = 2n , prove that a1a2 L an ≤ 1 .

**13. Let a, b, c be real numbers greater than 1. Show that
**

9 ⎛ log a log c b log a c ⎞ 2⎜ b + + . ⎟≥ ⎝ a+b b+c c+a ⎠ a+b+c

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V.

The Cauchy-Schwarz inequality

14. Let a, b, c, d be real numbers. Prove that (a 2 + c 2 )(b 2 + d 2 ) ≥ (ab + cd ) 2 . Determine when equality holds.

15. State the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality.

⎛1 1 1⎞ 16. Prove that for positive real numbers a, b, c, we have (a + b + c) ⎜ + + ⎟ ≥ 9 . ⎝a b c⎠

17. Do Question 13 again using the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality.

VI. The rearrangement inequality

18. A class of 40 students is split into four groups, A, B, C and D, with 7, 8, 12 and 13 students respectively. Each group is to choose a type of shirts to represent their group. These are four types of shirts, and their unit prices are $10, $15, $20 and $25 respectively. Of course, each student will buy a shirt representing his group and each group will choose a different type of shirts. What matching between groups and shirts will yield a minimum total expenses of the class on shirts? What matching will yield a maximum?

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19. State the rearrangement inequality.

20. Let a1 , a2 , …, an be positive real numbers and {b1 , b2 , K , bn } be a permutation of {a1 , a2 , K , an } . Prove that a1 a2 a + +L + n ≥ n . b1 b2 bn

VII. Miscellaneous Problems

21. A triangle has perimeter 12. What is its largest possible area?

22. Let x, y, z be greater than

1 1 8 and x + y + z = 2 . Prove that < xyz ≤ . 2 4 27

23. Let x, y be real numbers with | x | < 1 and | y | < 1 . Show that

1 1 2 + ≥ . 2 2 1 − x 1 − y 1 − xy

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24. Let a1 , a2 , K , a2005 be positive real numbers such that a1 + a2 + L + a2005 < 1 . Determine the maximum possible value of a1a2 L a2005 (1 − a1 − a2 − L − a2005 ) . (a1 + a2 + L + a2005 )(1 − a1 )(1 − a2 )L (1 − a2005 )

25. (IMO 1978) Let a1 , a2 , …, an be distinct positive integers. Prove that 1+ 1 1 a a + L + ≤ a1 + 2 + L + n . 2 2 n 2 n2

VIII. Homework

26. Prove that for positive real numbers a, b, c, a b c 3 + + ≥ . b+c c+a a+b 2

27. Let x, y, z be real numbers such that x + y + z = 1 . What is the smallest possible value of x2 + y 2 + z 2 ?

28. Prove that for positive real numbers x, y, z, ⎛ y+z⎞ 2⎛ z+ x⎞ 2⎛ x+ y⎞ x3 + y 3 + z 3 ≥ x 2 ⎜ ⎟+ y ⎜ ⎟+ z ⎜ ⎟. ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠

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