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Biology 11: Immune System and Disease Worksheets

Immune System and Disease


Lesson 24.1: Nonspecific Defenses
Lesson 24.2: Immune Response
Lesson 24.3: Immune System Diseases

Nonspecific Defenses: True or False
Name___________________ Class_______ Date_____
Write true if the statement is true or false if the statement is false.
______ 1. Pathogens are physically forced out of the respiratory tract when a person coughs.
______ 2. In a healthy human, the skin’s surface contains no bacteria.
______ 3. Pathogen is a technical term for germ.
______ 4. All immune system responses are specific; there are no nonspecific defenses.
______ 5. The common cold is caused by a bacterium.
______ 6. Strep throat is caused by a virus.
______ 7. Athlete’s foot is caused by a fungus.
______ 8. Tuberculosis is caused by a bacterium.
______ 9. Cold sores are caused by a fungus.
______ 10. Some mushrooms contain chemicals harmful to humans.
______ 11. Mucus made by the respiratory system is one kind of immune system defense.
______ 12. Cilia move pathogens into the bloodstream.
______ 13. The main function of red blood cells is to make antibodies.
______ 14. Histamines reduce inflammation.
______ 15. Some types of white blood cells secrete histamines.

Urine and vaginal secretions are too acidic for many pathogens. At body openings. such as the mouth and nose. For example. The skin is the most important mechanical barrier. Hydrochloric acid secreted by mucous membranes lining the stomach kills pathogens that enter the stomach in food or water. tears wash pathogens from the eyes. Pathogens are disease-causing agents. In addition. mucous membranes line these and other organs that are exposed to the outside environment. Several types of pathogens that are common causes of human disease can be seen in the Figure below. In fact. and saliva—kill pathogens by breaking open their cell walls. and urine flushes pathogens out of the urinary tract. They include the organs of the respiratory. nearly water-proof coating that is very difficult for pathogens to penetrate. enzymes called lysozymes—which are found in sweat. gastrointestinal. Defenses in the first line are the same regardless of the type of pathogen. which most pathogens cannot tolerate. mucus. The skin and mucous membranes secrete proteins that kill many of the pathogens with which they come into contact. it is the single most important defense of the body against pathogens. and semen contains zinc. The outer layer of the skin is a tough. Instead of skin. the body has a different mechanical barrier. This is why they are called nonspecific defenses. and urinary tracts. . Mucous membranes also have cilia. which are tiny projections that have wavelike motions. First Line of Defense The immune system has three lines of defense. The first line of defense includes a variety of barriers against pathogens that keep most pathogens out of the body. Pathogens are removed from the respiratory tract when you sneeze or cough. Mechanical Barriers Mechanical barriers physically block pathogens from entering the body. It forms a physical barrier between the body and the outside world. such as bacteria and viruses. The movements of cilia sweep mucus and trapped pathogens toward body openings to be removed from the body.Critical Reading Name___________________ Class_______ Date_____ Read this passage from the lesson and answer the following questions. a slimy substance that coats the membranes and traps pathogens. Mucous membranes secrete mucus. Chemical Barriers Chemical barriers are proteins that destroy pathogens at the body’s surface. tears.

c. antibodies. 1. are antibodies that bind to red blood cells. b. b.Biological Barriers Biological barriers involve living organisms that compete with pathogens. Questions 1. including the respiratory tract and intestinal tract. A component of the immune system’s first line of defense is d. a. Mucus is produced by d. c. a. the spine. Lysozymes d. produce acid from protein. are enzymes that break down histamines. . but not by the intestinal tract. the skin. a. cytokines. urinary. How can the skin be considered part of the immune system? 3. 3. 2. Name and briefly describe the immune system’s first line of defense. What is the purpose of the cilia of the cells that line the respiratory lining? Multiple Choice Name___________________ Class_______ Date_____ Circle the letter of the correct choice. Millions more colonize the gastrointestinal. by healthy tissues. Are all bacteria that live in the human body harmful? Why or why not? 5. none of the above c. only damaged respiratory passages. What are mucous membranes? Where are they found? 4. Helpful bacteria may also change pH or other factors and make conditions less suitable for harmful bacteria. by the respiratory tract. and genital tracts. They do this by competing with harmful bacterial for food and space. They are important in defense because they help prevent harmful bacteria from becoming established in or on the body. b. are enzymes that break down bacterial cell walls. Human skin is covered by millions of bacteria. Most of these bacteria are helpful or at least not harmful. 2.

skin cell production. a. 5. a. cilia.4. the immune system shuts down. The diagram below shows the process of d. pinocytosis. monoamine. phagocytosis. muscle cell. 7. c. . 6. bacteria. a. b. A chemical that is produced as a part of the inflammatory response is d. c. macrophage. b. b. the second line of defense of the immune system is activated. the third line of defense of the immune system is activated within seconds. A type of human immune system cell that ingests pathogens by phagocytosis is d. the first line of defense of the immune system has succeeded. cilia action. histamine. neuron. a. When bacteria enter the body through a cut in the skin d. c. b. flagella. c.

chemicals that cause inflammation . Chemicals that destroy pathogens at the body’s surface. e. g. c. such as bacteria and viruses. histamines ____ 2. Living organisms that compete with pathogens. tears. j. Enzymes that kill pathogens by breaking open their cell walls. Defenses that are the same regardless of the type of pathogen. The process of engulfing and breaking down pathogens and other unwanted substances. lysozymes ____ 6.Vocabulary Name___________________ Class_______ Date_____ Match the vocabulary term with the correct definition. chemical barriers Definition a. d. i. nonspecific defenses ____ 9. Term ____ 1. leukocytes f. help prevent harmful bacteria from becoming established in or on the body. biological barriers ____ 3. h. and saliva. b. triggered by chemicals called cytokines and histamines. cytokines ____ 7. white blood cells ____ 8. phagocytosis ____ 4. Proteins that act as chemical signals used to communicate between cells. one of the first responses of the immune system to infection or injury. found in the first and second line of defense. pathogens ____ 5. found in sweat. A complex biological reaction to tissue damage. mucus. Disease-causing agents. inflammatory response ____ 10.

______ 10. ______ 13. The lymphatic system is not part of the immune system. A major function of the humoral immune system is to destroy proteins that are nonself. B cells mature in the thymus. ______ 7. ______ 8. The spleen makes new red blood cells. The red bone marrow is part of the lymphatic system. ______ 1. The lymphatic system produces white blood cells. . Helper T cell cytokines stimulate the development of B cells into mature antibodyproducing cells. Another name for white blood cell is leukocyte. Humans cannot survive without tonsils. ______ 12. ______ 2. ______ 11. The lymphatic system transports fatty acids out of the bloodstream. ______ 6. T cells mature in the thymus. The base of a Y-shaped antibody is the part of the protein that binds specifically to an antigen.Immune Response: True or False Name___________________ Class_______ Date_____ Write true if the statement is true or false if the statement is false. ______ 3. Both T cells and B cells have receptors that bind specifically to a particular antigen. ______ 14. ______ 15. The third line of defense is nonspecific. ______ 5. Lymph is pumped through the lymphatic vessels by the lymphatic pumping organ. ______ 9. ______ 4.

The B cell then displays fragments of the antigen on its surface.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:B_cell_activation. A B cell encounters its matching antigen and engulfs it.10 |title= |license=Public Domain | url=http://en. B Cell Activation Naïve B cells are activated by an antigen in the sequence of events shown in Figure below.png |date= |other= Questions 1. Define antigen display as illustrated in the above figure. Cytokines from the helper T cell stimulate the B cell to develop into plasma cells or memory cells. |author=Courtesy of the National Institutes of Health and DO11. What is the second step in the activation process? 3. The helper T cell binds to the B cell at the antigen site and releases cytokines. What is the first step in the activation of a naïve B cell? 2. As you read in Lesson 1. . This attracts a helper T cell (which you will read about below). cytokines are chemical signals used to communicate between cells.Lesson: Critical Reading Name___________________ Class_______ Date_____ Read this passage from the lesson and answer the questions that follow.

gall bladder. blood. stimulated to divide by helper T cells. skeletal muscle cells. Helper T cells 1. helper T cells. 3. 3. 4. heart. antigen-presenting cells. Located behind the breast bone. 4. regulatory T cells. 6. intestine. 4. 2. 5. tonsils. 4. Transport of fatty acids occurs from the ________ into the ________. Describe the basis of the T cell binding to the B cell in the above figure. spleen. 2. Cells that display parts of a pathogen’s proteins on their surface are called 1. none of the above 7. small intestine. 4. spleen. 3. destroyed by cytotoxic T cells. 5. 2. 1. one possible cause of localized fluid accumulation in the tissues is 1. Lymph drains into the bloodstream from the 1. 3. 2. drinking more than 8 glasses of water in one day. small intestine 3. 2. lymphatic system 2. small intestine 4. 1. this gland functions to mature T cells of the immune system 1. urinary tract. red blood cells. too rapid transport of fatty acids from the blood to the intestine. 3. lymphatic ducts in the chest. thymus. antigen 2. kill cancerous cells. 3. 2. making antibodies. destroy pathogens. none of the above . Cells infected with a virus are 1. too rapid transport of fatty acids from the intestine into the lymph. 4. 3. 4. damage to the lymph vessels such that they do not take up excess body fluids from the tissues. What stimulates the maturation of B cells? What do mature B cells produce? Lesson: Multiple Choice Name___________________ Class_______ Date_____ Circle the letter of the correct choice. make antibodies.4. From the choices below.

Inflammation of the skin can result from a bee sting. ______ 6. or to none. All allergies are severe. Immune System Diseases: True or False: Write true if the statement is true or false if the statement is false. ______ 8. ______ 2. An antidote to anaphylaxis is immediate injection of epinephrine. ______ 4. Anaphylaxis is the most severe response to an allergen. Histamines stimulate inflammation. ______ 1. ______ 13. label the five structures to which arrows point. . ______ 11. ______ 9. An allergen is any antigen that causes an allergic reaction in a sensitive person. The absence of a thymus (thymic aplasia) results from a genetic defect. and is potentially fatal. ______ 7.2: Vocabulary Labeling a Diagram: In the diagram of the human lymphatic system.Lesson 24. HIV is an example of an autoimmune disease. A person is either allergic to many antigens. ______ 5. One symptom of an allergy can be itchy eyes. Multiple sclerosis is an example of an autoimmune disease. ______ 10. ______ 3. ______ 12. Congenital immunodeficiency is usually caused by a mutation. Joint inflammation is a typical symptom of both Type I diabetes and multiple sclerosis.

since the hypersensitivity response begins in as little as a few minutes after exposure. green with a reddish tinge. Poison Ivy grows in the 48 contiguous states of the United States. They then suffer from an intensely itchy red rash that results from contact with poison ivy’s leaves or stems. then yes. You may be wondering. Such a rash is a classic example of a delayed hypersensitivity response. what is it in poison ivy that causes the rash? Is poison ivy contagious? The answer to the first question is: urushiol. People who have received an organ transplant often are treated with drugs that suppress their immune system. let them be?” That admonition refers to poison ivy. and some of the urushiol gets transferred to their skin. This response is also a form of allergic contact dermatitis. ______ 15. References: . climbing vine. a short.______ 14. you will not get a rash. shiny. clothes. Lesson 24. if you touch poison ivy you must wash it off immediately. Contact with Poison Ivy: A Classic Example of a Delayed Hypersensitivity Response Have you every heard the saying “Leaves of three. or not). an oil that the plant makes. Urushiol can also be transferred to garden tools. and pet fur. trailside plant. or a pet who has urushiol on its fur. However. Depending upon the particular variety and its environment. Now let’s answer to the second question: is poison ivy contagious? If you touch someone who still has urushiol on their skin or clothes. poison ivy can be a fuzzy. Leaves are arranged in groups of three. you can contract the poison ivy rash this way. The variation in appearance is probably one reason why so many people brush against poison ivy without knowing. The exact shape and color of the leaves can vary (they can be green. causes the angry red rash.3: Critical Reading Name___________________ Class_______ Date_____ Read this passage and answer the questions that follow. However. or shrublike. People who have AIDS are susceptible to certain types of pathogens that don’t often infect healthy people. if you touch a poison ivy rash on someone else. It can be inactivated with lots of soap and water. People get the rash when they touch or brush up against part of the plant.

all T cells are inactivated.cdc. AIDS. caused by inflammation of the joints resulting from an immune system attack against the joint tissues typifies _________. 1. b. Allergic symptoms of sneezing and itchy. a. most often causes joint pain.cdc. 3. a. Painful joints. 4. 5. d. c.http://www. c. 2. b.3: Multiple Choice Name___________________ Class_______ Date_____ Circle the letter of the correct choice. the antigen is removed from the person’s environment.edu/IPM/homegrnd/htms/poisivy2. type I diabetes. c. a. rheumatoid arthritis. watery eyes can often be treated effectively with d. systemic lupus erythematosus.gov/niosh/topics/plants/ http://www. a person is injected repeatedly over time with an allergen to which they are sensitive. antihistamines. The autoimmune disease that results from the body attacking tissues such as the heart or lungs is called d. a. Pollen from the ragweed plant d. c.gov/niosh/topics/plants/ Lesson 24. aspirin. acts as an antihistamine. causes HIV. histamines. In one type of immunotherapy used to treat allergic symptoms. d.htm Poison Ivy from http://www. . type I diabetes. the allergen is removed from a person’s system. with the goal of reducing the person’s sensitivity to that allergen. b. b. b. causes allergic rhinitis in sensitive individuals. multiple sclerosis.ipm.uconn. antibiotics. c. delayed hypersensitivity response.

a. an overactive immune system that persists for years. HIV results from d. avoidance of exercise. 7. The “fight-or-flight” hormone that your adrenal glands normally produce when you are in danger. . HIV ____ 7. Diseases that occur when the immune system fails to recognize the body’s own molecules as self and attacks the body’s cells as though they were foreign invaders. f. Drugs that reduce or eliminate the effects of histamines. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome. anaphylaxis ____ 2. immunodeficiency ____ 8. a. a diet high in sugar. destruction of helper T cells because of infection by the human immunodeficiency virus. allergic rhinitis ____ 9. autoimmunity ____ 6. a bacterium found in contaminated water. massive release of histamines throughout the body. opportunistic diseases ____ 5. b. acquired immunodeficiency ____ 10. elevation of the heart. b. a. often called hay fever. Term ____ 4. a late stage in the progression of an HIV infection. all of the above c. rheumatoid arthritis. epinephrine ____ 3. An allergic response in which there is a sudden. Lesson 24. antihistamines ____ 1. e.3: Vocabulary Name___________________ Class_______ Date_____ Match the vocabulary term with the correct definition. d. delivered as injections or through a pump. insulin. 6. c. c. b. affects mainly mucous membranes lining the nose. A common immediate hypersensitivity reaction. Treatment for type I diabetes includes d. AIDS Definition a.

j.g. Chemicals in the environment are one cause of some cancers. h. the virus that causes AIDS. i. Occurs when one or more components of the immune system are not working normally. ______ 1. Immunodeficiency that occurs when immune function declines in a person who was born with a normal immune system. The human immunodeficiency virus. Infections and tumors rare in people with a healthy immune system but common in immunodeficient people. . Environmental Problems and Human Health: True or False Name___________________ Class_______ Date_____ Write true if the statement is true or false if the statement is false.

The stage of cancer refers to the extent to which the cancer has developed. ______ 15. Some people are allergic to mold. ultraviolet radiation is not considered a carcinogen. Ozone is a gas that can be hazardous to human health. ______ 8.______ 2. ______ 7. ______ 4. Cancer may be treated with a combination of surgery. chemotherapy drugs caused serious side effects. Generally.4: Critical Reading Name___________________ Class_______ Date_____ Read this passage from the lesson and answer the questions that follow. There is no link between air pollution and asthma. Many of today’s chemotherapy drugs target specific molecules in tumors. ______ 5. ______ 3. Mutations in some genes can contribute to the development of cancer. Tumor removal by surgery is one strategy used to treat some cancers. Oncogenes are mutated genes that have lost their normal. The Air Quality Index can vary between different geographical locations. Cancer Treatment and Prevention Most cancers can be treated and some can be cured. ______ 9. there have not yet been any acts of bioterrorism in the US. This reduces damage to normal body cells and causes fewer side effects. All agents of bioterrorism are spread through the air. regulated function. ______ 11. ______ 13. Damaged DNA can be repaired by the gene products of tumor-suppressor genes. The general goal of treatment is to remove the tumor without damaging the rest of the body. Non-cancerous cells have lost the ability to regulate their cell cycles. ______ 14. All viruses cause the same cancer. ______ 12. That’s why it’s important for people to be aware of the following warning signs of cancer:    A change in bowel or bladder habits A sore that does not heal Unusual bleeding or discharge from any place . The outcome of cancer treatment depends on factors such as the type of cancer and its stage. Since it is present in sunlight. ______ 10. chemotherapy. early diagnosis and treatment lead to the best chances of survival. As of 2009. ______ 6. and/or radiation. Lesson 24. All tumors are cancerous. In the past.

or at least their risk can be reduced. and UV radiation. ultraviolet radiation 4. 2.    A lump in the breast or other parts of the body Chronic indigestion or difficulty in swallowing Obvious changes in a wart or mole Persistent coughing or hoarseness Having warning signs of cancer does not mean that you have cancer. How can you reduce your risk of developing cancer? Lesson 24. sexually transmitted viruses. 2. What are three standard types of cancer treatment? 2. Carcinogens cause cancer by 1. 3. all of the above 2. What is meant by a stage of cancer? 3. none of the above 3. and maintaining a normal weight. when chances of a cure are greatest. Many cancers can be prevented. inducing mutations that cause unregulated cell division of cells. Other lifestyle choices you can make to reduce your risk of cancer include being physically active. can also help detect cancers early. sarcoma. Questions 1.4: Multiple Choice Name___________________ Class_______ Date_____ Circle the letter of the correct choice. 5. suppressing the division of cells that have damaged DNA. Name 3 symptoms that may indicate cancer. hepatitis B virus 3. . A tumor of connective tissues is classified as a 1. Getting recommended tests for particular cancers. Which of the following is a potential carcinogen? 1. neuroma. but you should see a doctor to be sure. improperly cooked foods. You can help reduce your risk of cancer by avoiding specific carcinogens and maintaining a healthy lifestyle. repairing mutations in DNA. eating a low-fat diet. 1. How does early diagnosis aid survival? 4. asbestos 5. Carcinogens you can avoid or limit your exposure to include tobacco smoke. 3. such as colonoscopies for colon cancer. radon 2. 4. carcinoma.

cholera. c. An abnormal mass of tissue. Anthrax 4. 5. Outdoor 3. such as bone. Cholera 3. 4. 3. Sarcoma ____ 5. 3. A tumor of epithelial tissues. ozone ____ 10. tumor ____ 8. 6. . 4. bioterrorism ____ 6. Smallpox 2. Term ____ 1. 1. oncogene ____ 9. colorectal cancer. carbon monoxide Definition a. 2. Indoor and outdoor One of the most dangerous bioterrorism agents is 1. A tumor of connective tissues. A gas that forms close to the ground when high concentrations of air pollutants are heated by sunlight. 2. tumor-suppressor genes ____ 4.4: Vocabulary Name___________________ Class_______ Date_____ Match the vocabulary term with the correct definition. The most common type of infant cancer is 1. d. smallpox. No 2. Indoor 4. bladder cancer. 7. ricin. lung cancer. lymphoma ____ 7. leukemia. such as lung tissue. carcinoma ____ 2. ________ is a pathogen that has been used in a documented incident of bioterrorism in the US. proto-oncogenes ____ 3. Brucellosis Lesson 24. ________ air pollution is a human health problem 1. b.4. brucellosis. 4. lymphoma.

and other devices that burn fuel. Terrorism by intentional release or spread of pathogens.e. A gene that. Genes that normally repair damaged DNA or prevent cells with badly damaged DNA from dividing. A tumor of lymphatic cells. g. . A gas produced by cars. helps turn a normal cell into a cancer cell. furnaces. such as T cells. Genes that normally help regulate cell division. f. j. i. when mutated or expressed at high levels. h. replaces oxygen in the blood and quickly leads to death.