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Fluid mechanics lab manual

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**UNIVERSITI SAINS MALAYSIA
**

ENGINEERING CAMPUS

EAA 206/2

STRUCTURAL, CONCRETE AND FLUID MECHANICS

ENGINEERING LABORATORY

FLUID MECHANIC LABORATORY MANUAL

1

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS

Code of

Experiment

Name of Experiments

EXPERIMENT 1 : REYNOLDS

H1

Page

1-9

NUMBER TEST

EXPERIMENT 2 : FLOW THROUGH

10-18

ORIFICE

EXPERIMENT 3 : CALIBRATION OF

H2

19-26

**RECTANGULAR AND TRIANGULAR
**

NOTCH

EXPERIMENT 4 : BOURDON

27-30

PRESSURE GAUGE

H3

EXPERIMENT 5 : FLOW THROUGH A

31-41

VENTURI METER

2

**SCHOOL OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
**

UNIVERSITI SAINS MALAYSIA

ENGINEERING CAMPUS

EXPERIMENT 1 : REYNOLDS NUMBER TEST

1.0 OBJECTIVES

1.1

To demonstrate laminar, transitional and turbulent flow.

To calculate Reynolds number for each flow.

INTRODUCTION

When a fluid flows next to a solid boundary the nature of the flow depends on the

**velocity relative to that boundary. At low velocities the layers of fluid move smoothly
**

over one another and this is termed “laminar” flow. However, as the velocity is increased

small disturbances cause eddies which “mix-up” the layers of fluid and produce a

different pattern of flow which is termed “turbulent”. This change has a marked effect on

the forces acting between the fluid and the solid boundary and an understanding of the

behaviour is of fundamental importance in the study of hydraulics and fluid mechanics.

The nature of flow over an aircraft wing affects the drag and hence determines the power

required to propel the aircraft forwards. Similarly, when fluid flows along a pipe the

nature of the flow determines the pressure loss and hence the power required to pump the

fluid along the pipe.

Before the advent of high speed transport, the most important application of fluid

mechanics was in the study of flow in pipes. Many engineers and scientists investigated

the behaviour of flow in pipes but it was a British physicist named Osborne Reynolds

(1842-1912) who first identified the variables controlling the flow and produced a

3

**rational means of predicting the nature of flow. Reynolds showed that the behaviour
**

depends on the balance between inertia and viscous forces in the fluid. This led to the

definition of a non-dimensional parameter, now called Reynolds Number, which

expresses the ratio of inertia to viscous, forces and can be used to identify the conditions

under which the flow changes from laminar to turbulent. By experiment it was found that

the change always occurred at a similar value of Reynolds Number irrespective of the

fluid and the size of pipe.

The Reynolds Number and Transitional Flow Demonstration Apparatus has been

designed to demonstrated the kind of experiment which was conducted to show the

dependence of flow on Reynolds Number. The apparatus enables the nature of the flow in

a pipe to be studied by observing the behaviour of a filament of dye injected into the

fluid. The flow rate can be varied and the changed or “transition” between laminar and

turbulent flow can be clearly demonstrated. The effect of viscosity on the behaviour can

be demonstrated by varying the temperature using an optional temperature control

module, or by using different fluids.

1.2 THEORY

Consider the case of a fluid moving along a fixed surface such as the wall of a

pipe. At some distance y from the surface the fluid has a velocity u relative to the surface.

The relative movement causes a shear stress which tends to slow down the motion so

that the velocity close to the wall is reduced below u. It can be shown that the shear stress

produces a velocity gradient du/dy which is proportional to the applied stress. The

constant of proportionality is the coefficient of viscosity and the equation is usually

written :-

du

dy

…………………..(1)

**The above equation is derived in most text books and represents a model of a
**

situation in which layers of fluid move smoothly over one another. This is termed

“viscous” or “laminar” flow. For such conditions experiments show that Equation (1) is

valid and that is a constant for a given fluid at a given temperature. It may be noted

that the shear stress and the velocity gradient have a fixed relationship which is

4

The nature of the flow is entirely different since the interchange of energy between the layers now depends on the strength of the eddies (and thus on the inertia of the fluid) rather then simply on the viscosity. Re which expresses this ratio. It is now called the ‘Eddy Viscosity” and is no longer constant for a given fluid and temperature. using Equation (1). Similarly the viscous forces are given by shear stress times area so. It may be noted that this implies an increase in shear stress for a given velocity and so the losses in the flow are much greater than for laminar conditions. This was realized by Reynolds who postulated that the nature of flow depends on the ratio of inertia to viscous forces. now called Reynolds Number. ν we may write:Inertia forces α d 2u.determined only by the viscosity of the fluid.u ………………………………………(2) Where d is the diameter of the pipe. On physical grounds we may say that inertia forces are proportional to mass times velocity change divided by time. This led to the derivation of a non-dimensional variable. Equation (1) still applies but the coefficient no longer represents the viscosity of the fluid. we may write :- Viscous forces α du 2 d dy 5 . Since mass divided by time is the mass flow rate and this is equal to density ρ times cross – sectional area times velocity. This is called turbulent flow and under these conditions it is found that the relationship between shear stress and velocity gradient varies depending on many factors in addition to the viscosity of the fluid. small disturbances produce eddies in the flows which cause mixing between the high energy and low energy layers of fluid. Its value depends on the upstream conditions in the flow and is much greater than the coefficient of viscosity for the fluid. If the velocity is increased above a certain value. We have seen that laminar flow is the result of viscous forces and that turbulent flow is in some way related to inertia forces. However. experiments also show that this only applies at low viscosities.

Turn the dye control valve to off and pour suitable dye (e. and partly open the discharge valve at the base of the apparatus.3 PROCEDURE 1. 5.. The apparatus is free-standing and can be mounted on any suitable bench or working surface. 2. 4.g water soluble tank) into the dye reservoir. A water supply and drain are required so a convenient position should be chosen where these services are available. (4) is called the kinematic viscosity ν and it is often convenient to write Equation (4) as :- Re ud ………………………………………….(3) Dividing the inertia forces by the viscous forces we obtain Reynolds Number as :- Re The term d 2u 2 du d …………………………………….. Turn on the water supply. 1. The level of beads should be 10-15 mm below the top of the bell-mouth and should be as flat as possible. Stand the thermometer such that the bulb is resting on the stilling bed.α u d d 2 …………………………………. 6 . A bag of glass beads is supplied and this should be used to fill the lower part of the constant head tank. 6. 3.(5) It may be noted that the above equations can also be derived by dimensional analysis but in either case it should be remembered that Re represents the ratio of inertia to viscous forces. Fit the injector tube to the dye reservoir (if not already fitted) and position the mounting plate on the top of the tank such that the injector tube is in the centre of the bell-mouth..

This can be regarded as the onset of fully turbulent flow. 11. Open the adjust dye injector valve to obtain a fine filament of dye in the flow down the glass tube. Adjust the water supply until the level in the constant head tank is just above the overflow pipe and is maintained at this level by a small flow down the overflow pipe. Slowly increase the flow rate by opening the discharge valve until disturbance of the dye filament. This is the condition required for all tests and at different flow rates through the tube – the supply will need to be adjusted to maintain it. 7 . 10. Record the temperature of the water using the thermometer. If the dye is dispersed in the tube. This can be regarded as the starting point of transition of turbulent flow. then measure the flow rate by timing the collection of a known quantity of water from the discharge pipe. 12. Further increase the flow rate as described above until the disturbances increase such that the dye filament becomes rapidly diffused. Small eddies will be noted just above the point where the dye filament completely breaks down. Now decrease the flow rate slowly until the dye just returns to a steady filament representing laminar flow and again record the temperature and flow rate. A laminar flow condition should be achieved in which the filament of dye passes down the complete length of the tube without disturbance. At any given condition the overflow should only be just sufficient to maintain a constant head in the tank.7. 9. 8. Increase the water supply as required maintaining constant head conditions. reduce the water flow rate by closing the discharge valve and adjusting the supply as necessary to maintain the constant head. Record the temperature and flow rate as in step 10.

Figure 1.1 : Schematic diagram of the Reynolds Number apparatus 8 .

Figure 1.2 : Typical flow patterns at various flow conditions 9 .

3: Variation of some properties of water with temperature 1. dp = Cross sectional area of pipe. = Diameter of pipe.4 RESULT Initial water temperature = Final water temperature = Mean water temperature = Kinematic viscosity of water at above temperature.Figure 1. Ap = 10 .

5 PRESENTATION OF RESULTS 1. determine the Re for each type of flow. 1 2 3 4 Type of flow Time for 200 ml Velocity. From Table 1.1. What suggestions do you have for improving the apparatus? 11 .1: Result for different type of flows No.Table 1. (u) Flow rate (Q) (s) (m/s) (x 10-6 m3/s) Kinematic viscosity (υ) (x 10-6 m2/s) Re Laminar Transition Turbulent Laminar 1. QUESTION FOR FURTHER DISCUSSION 1.

0 OBJECTIVE To determine Cd . This reduction in flow is normally due to a contraction of the stream which takes place through the restriction and continues for some distance down-stream of it. 2.SCHOOL OF CIVIL ENGINEERING UNIVERSITI SAINS MALAYSIA ENGINEERING CAMPUS EXPERIMENT 2 : FLOW THROUGH ORIFICE 2. rather than to a considerable energy loss. the discharge is considerably less than the amount calculated on the assumption that the energy is conserved and that the flow through the constriction is uniform and parallel.1 INTRODUCTION It often happens that when a fluid passes through a constriction. as water discharges into the atmosphere from a sharp-edged orifice in the base of a tank (Figure 2. Cc and Cv for orifice. contraction of the stream and energy loss. 12 . such as through a sharp-edged hole or over a weir. arrangements are made to measure the extent to the reduction in flow.1). In this experiment.

e. i.2 THEORY Figure 2. The pressure everywhere on the surface of the jet is atmospheric.Figure 2. as typified by the streamline MN indicated on the figure. The reduction of area due to this local curvature may be taken to be complete at about half the orifice diameter downstream of the plane of the orifice.1: Arrangement of apparatus 2.2 shows the essential features of flow through the orifice. so that as the jet emerges it suffers a reduction of area due to the curvature of the streamlines. In the vicinity of the orifice. but within the jet pressure does not fall to atmospheric until the acceleration is complete. The tank is assumed to be sufficiently large for the velocity of flow in it to be negligibly small except close to the orifice. the reduced section is usually referred to as the vena contracta. the fluid accelerates towards the centre of the hole. 13 . until the vena contracta is reached.

Moreover. the total head at M is Vm P m zm 2g w and at N is Vn P n zm 2g w 2 so that. ie. if there were no loss of total head: 2 2 Vm P V P m zm n n zn 2g w 2g w ………(1) In this equation.2: Diagrammatic sketch of flow through orifice 2 From Bernoulli. from Equation (1) and (2). if the energy were conserved. Pm and Pn are equal (both being atmospheric) and U m is negligibly small according to our assumption. Figure 2. M being in the surface and N being in the plane of the vena contracta. the ideal velocity at N is given by 14 ..Consider now the total head of the water at points M and N of a typical stream-line. zm zn H o ………(2) So that.

. which would occur if there was no energy loss.(6) In a similar sense. The ratio of actual velocity Vc and ideal velocity Vo is often referred to as the coefficient of velocity Cv of the orifice.…….2 Vn Ho 2g ………(3) This result applies to all points in the plane of the vena contracta.(7) 15 .……(4) Because of the energy loss. Cc Ac Ao ……. 2 Vo Ho 2g …. the coefficient of contraction Cc is defined as the ratio of cross-section of the vena contracta Ac ..……. we obtain : Cv Vc Vo Hc Ho . and may be calculated from the Pilot tube reading by the equation : 2 Vc H c 2g .(5) It is clear that H o H c represent the energy loss.. so changing the notation to let Vo be the ideal velocity in the plane of the vena contracta. the actual velocity Vc in the plane of the vena contracta will be less than Vo . which in fact takes place as the water passes down to the tank and through the office. From the Equation (4) and (5). to the cross –section of the orifice Ao .

firstly.(9) So.Finally.3 PROCEDURE 1. Cv . The actual discharge Q is given y: Q Vc Ac ………(8) and if the jet discharged at the ideal velocity Vo over the orifice area Ao the discharge Qo would be : Qo Vo Ao Ao 2 gH o ………. 3. 2. The experiment may be divided into two parts. The equipment is set on the bench and leveled so that the base of the tank is horizontal. and Cc at a single constant value of H o . the measurement of Cd .………(10) or in terms of quantities measured experimentally.………. The flexible supply pipe from the bench control valve is connected to the inlet pipe of the apparatus which is positioned to discharge directly back to the weigh 16 . measurement of discharge at a number of different values of H o .. Cd Q Ao 2 gH o . Cd Q Vc Ac Qo Vo Ao . from the definition of the coefficient of discharge. (7) and (10) it follows immediately : Cd CvCc ………. and secondly.(12) 2. the coefficient of discharge Cd is defined as the ratio of the actual discharge to that which would take place if the jet discharged at the ideal velocity without reduction of area.(11) From Equations (6).

4. water is admitted to the tank to allow it to fill to the height of the overflow pipe and the inflow is regulated so that a small steady discharge is obtained from the overflow.tank and the overflow of the apparatus is directed onto the bench top. The blade is brought to each edge of the jet in turn. H c and head. 17 . 8. and the values of Pitot head. the plane of the blade being normal to the direction of traverse of the tube. and the positions of the tube as read on the lead screw and graduated nut read in each case. the Pitot tube is inserted into the emerging jet close to the underside of the tank. The diameter of the sharp-edged orifice is noted. H o on the orifice are noted. The difference of the readings represents the diameter of the jet. 6. This ensures that the level in the tank remains constant while the measurements are made. it is necessary to find the diameter of the jet at the vena contracta. About 6-8 different flow rates should be sufficient to establish the relationship between discharge and head on the orifice. 9. To measure Cd the discharge is obtained by collection of a known weight of water from the orifice in the weighing tank. This is done by utilizing the sharp-edged blade attached to the head of the Pitot tube. 5. 12. the discharge from the orifice being measured at each stage. 10. 11. just below the tank. 7. and it is advisable to read this level several times while the discharge is being collected and to record the mean value over the time interval. Care should be taken to allow the level to settle to a steady value after the inflow to the tank has been changed. To measure C v . In the first part of the experiment. To obtain the steadiest readings the vertical position of the inlet pipe should be adjusted to be just submerged. In the second part of the experiment the inflow to the tank is reduced to lower the level in the tank in stages. and recording the value of head H o on the orifice. To measure Cc .

A Cc c Ao (10) Average Value of Cc = 18 .2.1 : Data recorded and the calculations of flow rate. No. (1) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Stop watch reading Initial End Time (s) (s) (s) (2) (3) (4) Volumetric tank reading Initial End Volume (m3) (m3) (m3) (5) (6) (7) Q =V/t x 104 (m3/s) dj = dc (mm) (8) (9) Coefficient of contraction. Q.013 m Area of Orifice. = Ao d2 4 m2 = dc = Diameter of jet Ac = Area of jet Cc = Coefficient of contraction Table 2. do = 0.4 RESULT Diameter of Orifice.

Hc (m1/2) Hc Cv (5) Ho (6) Average Value of Cv = Table 2.3 : Calculation of Cd . Head of tank Ho (m) (1) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Head of pitot tube Ho (m1/2) (2) (3) Hc (m) (4) Coefficient of velocity. (1) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Average Q x10-4 (m3/s) Ho (m1/2) Cv (2) (3) (4) Qo Ao 2 gH o x 10-4 (m3/s) (5) Cd Q Qo (6) Cc Cd Cv (7) Average Value of Cv = Average Value of Cd = Average Value of Cc = 19 . Cc and Cv for orifice No.2: Data recorded and the estimation of Cv .Table 2. No.

5 PRESENTATION OF RESULTS 1.2. Plot graph Q versus H o . The flow rate through the orifice is stated as: QK H where K Cd A 2 g The plotted gradient line will represent K value while Cd can be computed using the equation below: Cd K / A 2 g The above equation represent the Cd value of the orifice. 2.6 QUESTIONS FOR FURTHER DISCUSSION 1. What suggestions have you for improving the apparatus? 20 .

the rate of flow over the weir depends solely on the water level just upstream of the weir (the relationship between flow rate and water level being sometimes known as the “rating curve”).SCHOOL OF CIVIL ENGINEERING UNIVERSITI SAINS MALAYSIA ENGINEERING CAMPUS EXPERIMENT 3 : CALIBRATION OF RECTANGULAR AND TRIANGULAR NOTCH 3. In many cases. the flow separates at the crest to form a curved jet which plunges into the downstream pool. The crest is frequently rounded or broad as shown in Figure 3. In the case of the sharp crested weir shown in Fig 3. however. the weir may be straight or curved to suit site condition. The purpose is often to maintain water depth for some purpose such as navigation. the crest 21 . but a weir may also be used to measure the flow rate. the water level downstream of the weir may rise sufficiently as to affect the conditions of flow.0 OBJECTIVE To calibrate the rectangular and triangular notch by using the hydraulic bench and panel 3. In plan view.1 (c). so that the flow rate now becomes a function not only of the upstream water level but also of the water level downstream.1 INTRODUCTION Weirs are commonly used to regulate flow in rivers and in other open channels. Frequently. However. or on grounds of aesthetics. the flow usually remains attached to the downstream surface. The weir is then referred to as being “suppressed” or “drowned”. For such weirs.1 (a) and (b). and availability of materials. The cross-section of a weir is usually determined by considerations of strength and stability in relation to the conditions of the site.

For instance. but rectangular and V-shaped notches. so that it comes into use only at higher flow rates. is the “notch”. so called because it comprises a sharp edged notch cut out of a metal plate. particularly suitable for flow measurement. the reminder of the weir having a higher crest. The cut out may of course be of any shape.level is not uniform along the whole of the length. a) Round crested b) Broad crested c) Sharp edged Fig 3.1 Examples of various weir profiles A form of weir. 22 . just part of the whole length may used to carry normal flow.

then: Q ( 2 / 3)Cd ( 2 g )1 / 2 LH 3 / 2 ……………(2) Q k1H 3 / 2 ………….(1) Where : n = number of end contractions (= 2 for this case) L = width of the crest H = head over the weir If end contraction is negligible.2 THEORY Rectangular Notch Panel L Peak level H P Figure 3..3.2 : Front and side view of a rectangular notch The relationship for the flow rate (Q) of a rectangular notch is : Q 2 / 3Cd ( 2 g )1 / 2 ( L nH / 10) H 3 / 2 ……………. Cd can be obtained using the equation below : Cd 3k1 /[ 2( 2 g )1 / 2 ]L ……………(4) 23 .(3) or Equation (2) and (3) shows that the value of Q and H3/2 should be plotted in a graph as a straight line... The gradient of the graph will represent ‘k1’ value.

Equation (2) also can be expressed as : Q k1 (2 g )1 / 2 LH 3 / 2 ……………(5) k1 0. Equation 6 is only valid for H/P values up to 10 as long as the weir is well ventilated.3 : Front and side view of triangular notch (V-Notch) panel The relationship for the flow rate (Q) of a triangular notch is : Q (8 / 15)Cd tan( / 2)( 2 g )1 / 2 H 5 / 2 ……………….4 0.(7) or Q k2 H 5 / 2 ……………….(8) 24 . Triangular Notch Panel θ Peak level H P Figure 3.05( H / P) Cd (3 / 2) * [0.4 0.05( H / P)] ……………(6) Where : P is the height of the weir crest above from the base of the tank.

The above equations shows that the value of Q and H5/2 should be plotted in a graph as a straight line. The apparatus is first connected to the supply and then leveled. the flow being regulated by the bench supply valve. 2. 8.3 ………………(9) PROCEDURE 1. About 6-8 experimental points for each notch should be sufficient. 25 . and the calibrated dial either read or. this is likely to occur when the head is reduced to about 10 mm for the rectangular notch and about 30 mm for V notch. care should be taken to ensure that condition have settled completely before starting to measure the discharge. As it takes a little time for the water level to stabilize after changing the flow rate. It is recommended that the first reading be taken at maximum flow rate. the point gauge is also brought exactly to the water surface. Reading should be discontinued when the level has fallen to the condition at which the stream ceases to spring clear of the notch plate. 3. Cd can be obtained using the equation below : C d 15k 2 /[(8)( 2 g )1 / 2 tan( / 2)] 3. The gradient of the graph will represent ‘k2’ value. 5. Sets of measurements of discharge rate and head are taken for each notch in turn. and subsequent values with roughly equal decrements in head. set to zero. When the correct level has been obtained. 6. The rate of flow is found by timing the collection of a known amount of water in the weighing tank. if adjustment is possible. 4. 7.

030 m Height of the crest. Q Serial Number (1) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Initial (s) (2) Time taken End (s) (3) Time (s) (4) Start (m3) (5) Volume recorded End Volume (m3) (m3) (6) (7) Q =V/t (m3/s) (8) Table 3. (1) (4) (6) (6) (7) (8) 26 . Eq. Eq.1: Data recorded and the calculation of the flow rate.4 RESULT Rectangular Notch Width of the crest.2 : Reading of point gauge for water level and calculation for Cd Serial Number Discharge Q (m3/s) (1) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 (2) Reading of point gauge (m) Crest Level Head. H (3) (4) (5) H3/2 (L0.2H) (m) Discharge coefficient ‘Cd’ Eq.3. n = 2 Table 3. L (m) = 0. P (m) = Number of end contractions.

plot graph Q versus H3/2 for rectangular notch. The plotted gradient line will represent k1 value. 27 .(9) (7) (8) 3.5 PRESENTATION OF RESULTS 1. From Table 3.2.3 : Data recorded and the calculation of the flow rate.(7) Eq. P (m) = Table 3. Q Serial Number Initial (s) (2) (1) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Time taken End (s) (3) Time (s) (4) Start (m3) (5) Volume recorded End Volume (m3) (m3) (6) (7) Q =V/t (m3/s) (8) Table 3.4: Reading of point gauge for water level and calculation for Cd Serial Number Discharge Q (m3/s) (1) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 (2) Reading of point gauge (m) Crest Level (3) (4) Head.Triangular Notch = 30º Angle of V notch. Cd can be computed using Equation (1). θ Depth of V notch from base. Equation (4) and Equation (6). H (5) H5/2 (6) Discharge coefficient ‘Cd’ Eq.

The plotted gradient line will represent k2 value. 3.4. Cd can be computed using Equation (7) and Equation (9).6 QUESTION FOR FURTHER DISCUSSION 1. plot graph Q versus H5/2 for triangular notch. Discuss the importance of weir or notch concept in water resources.2. 28 . From Table 3. What suggestions do you have for improving the apparatus? 2.

1). A tube having a thin wall of oval cross-section is 29 .1 : Bourdon pressure gauge The mechanism of the gauge may be seen through the transparent dial of the instrument (illustrated in Figure 4. Figure 4.0 OBJECTIVE 4.SCHOOL OF CIVIL ENGINEERING UNIVERSITI SAINS MALAYSIA ENGINEERING CAMPUS EXPERIMENT 4 : BOURDON PRESSURE GAUGE 4. which is used to a very great extent is engineering practice.1 To calibrate the Bourdon Pressure Gauge INTRODUCTION The pressure gauge fitted to the tester is of a type known as the Bourdon Gauge.

works satisfactorily with water instead of oil. To prevent the piston sticking.3 EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE 1.bent to a circular are encompassing about 270 degrees. Fill the cylinder with water.2 kg. On no account should more than the supplied masses be loaded. gauges with a very wide selection of pressure ranges are commercially available. rotate the piston gently as each mass is added. allowing air and excess water to escape through the top hole in the side of the cylinder. 2. The cross-sectional area and the mass of the piston should be noted. When it is desired to check the accuracy of a Bourdon gauge. It is rigidly held at one end where the pressure is admitted to the tube and is free to move at the other end. Always load the masses gradually. and the movement at the free end operates a mechanical system which moves a pointer round the graduated scale. do not drop them onto the platform. The sensitivity of the gauge depends on the material and dimensions of the Bourdon tube. Top up with water and insert piston into cylinder. The piston is delivered lightly oiled and should be wiped only when the unit is to be used. 7. the usual procedure is to load it with known pressures by a dead weight tester using oil to transmit the pressure. Masses are added in approximately eight increments up to a maximum of 5. 6. Reverse the above procedure.2 INSTALLATION PROCEDURE Remove the piston from the unit. The present experiment. 4. taking readings as the masses are removed. 3. and remove air trapped in the transparent tube by tilting and gently tapping the unit. 4. 30 . which is sealed. the tube tends to straighten. Ensure the cylinder is vertical. Allow the piston to settle. A small amount of air left in the system will not affect the experiment. 5. the movement of the pointer being proportional to the pressure applied. When pressured is admitted. The pressure gauge reading should be recorded at each increment of loading. however. 4.

5 0. What suggestions do you have for improving the apparatus? 31 .0 2.4 RESULT AND CALCULATIONS The actual hydrostatic pressure (P) in the system due to mass of M kg (including the piston mass) applied to the given by :P = M x 9. plot the graph of the gauge pressure against actual pressure and gauge error against actual pressure.5 PRESENTATION OF RESULTS 1.1.5 5.0 4.5 0.5 0.2 Total mass on piston (M) kg 1. m = 1.2 Actual pressure (P) kN/m2 Increasing Pressure Gauge Gauge reading error kN/m2 kN/m2 Decreasing Pressure Gauge Gauge reading error kN/m2 kN/m2 Table 4.0 1.5 4.81 x 10-3 kN/m2 A Mass of piston. From Table 4.4. 4.0 kg Cross section area of piston.5 0.5 0.0 5.1: Result for increasing and decreasing pressure 4.0 3. A = 315 mm2 Mass added to piston kg 0 0.6 QUESTIONS FOR FURTHER DISCUSSION 1.5 0.5 2.5 3.5 0.5 0.

1.SCHOOL OF CIVIL ENGINEERING UNIVERSITI SAINS MALAYSIA ENGINEERING CAMPUS EXPERIMENT 5 : FLOW THROUGH A VENTURI METER 5. much of the head loss is recovered as the fluid decelerates in the diffuser. This is because in the venture tube. followed by a section which diverges gently back to the original diameter. As seen from Figure 5. the magnitude of which depends on the flow rate. The differential piezometric head from inlet to the throat can be several times greater than the total head loss across the whole device. Such a unit is referred to as a Venturi flow meter. (The slowly diverging section is frequently referred to as a diffuser). an orifice causes a bigger head loss than a corresponding venturi tube. In comparison with the Venturi meter however. whereby the differential pressure produced by flow through the orifice may similarly be used to infer the flow rate.1 OBJECTIVES To validate Bernoulli’s Theorem To calculate the value of C d by using venturi meter INTRODUCTION The Venturi tube is a device which has been used over many years for measuring the flow rate along a pipe. The flow rate may therefore be inferred from the difference in pressure.0 5. Another way of metering the flow would be to insert a sharp edged orifice into the pipe. As the velocity increases from the inlet section to the throat. measured by piezometers placed upstream and at the throat. there is a fall in pressure. it consists of a tapering contraction section. 32 . An orifice meter has the advantages of simplicity and cheapness. along which the fluid accelerates towards a short cylindrical throat.

Although piezometer tappings are needed only at the upstream section and at the throat to infer the flow rate.(2) 33 . Comparison with measurements will then show where the losses occur in the unit. ……………(1) (velocity head) + (pressure head) + (elevation head) = constant Equation (1) can be expressed as: 2 2 v1 P v P 1 Z1 2 2 Z 2 2g 2g ……………. Therefore. it is instructive in a laboratory experiment to insert numerous further tappings to show the distribution of piezometer head along the whole length of the Venturi tube. Figure 5. it is possible to calculate the distribution of pressure along the tube.1 : Arrangement of venturi meter apparatus 5.2 THEORY Bernoulli’s Theorem stated that v2 P Z cons tan t 2g .

h2 .v n An or 34 ....2: Ideal conditions in a venturi meter Equation (2) can be expressed as: 2 2 v1 v h1 2 h2 2g 2g ….Pn / γ Figure 5.. and at any other arbitrary section n is An.. h2 and hn above the arbitrary datum shown...(3) The continuity equation is: v1 A1 v 2 A2 v3 A3 ....Consider flow of an incompressible.. The cross sectional area at the upstream section 1 is A1. …… hn where it can replace P1/ γ..... z = z1=z2=z3=………zn.. Piezometer tubes at these sections register h1. although the tube may have any inclination... Pressure can be expressed in piezometer head form: h1 .2. So.. Note that.. it is necessary for the datum to always be horizontal.. ………. inviscid fluid through the convergent-divergent Venturi tube shown in Figure 5. the elevation head.... at the throat section 2 is A2. P2 /γ ……..

.92 . gives : v2 2 g (h1 h2 ) 1 ( A2 / A1 ) 2 or Q A2 2 g (h1 h2 ) 1 ( A2 / A1 ) 2 …………..99 is established by experiment. As a result. Cd can be computed by the equation below : Cd K 1 ( A2 / A1 ) 2 A2 2 g ……………(7) 35 . Q C d A2 2 g (h1 h2 1 ( A2 / A1 ) 2 . one-dimensional flow. which usually lies between 0.. obtained by assuming inviscid.0. the velocity is not absolutely constant across either of these sections. Equation (5) can be expressed as : Q K (h1 h2 ) …………………(6) The above equation shows that when the graph Q versus h1 h2 is plotted.(4) This is the ideal flow rate. Its value. Also. there is some loss of head between sections 1 and 2. In practice.(5) In which Cd known as the coefficient of flow rate in venturi meter. the actual values of Q fall a little smaller of those given by Equation (5).………. K.A v1 v 2 2 A1 Substituting in Equation (3). it will form a straight line which represent the gradient of the graph.

3. The values will be plotted against the distance from the inlet. 36 . The dimensions of the meter and the position of the piezometer tappings are shown in Figure 5. the ideal values are tabulated in Table 5. For the existing apparatus.To validate the Bernoulli’s Theorem. after which a steadily increasing loss of energy becomes apparent..(9) for inviscid fluid.1.(8) The continuity equation gives v1 / v 2 ( A2 / A1 ) and v n / v 2 ( A2 / An ) Equation (8) can be replaced with 2 hn h1 A2 A2 v 22 / 2 g A1 An Equation (9) gives the value of hn h1 2 v2 / 2 g 2 …………. The results are compared with the value of hn h1 2 v2 / 2 g which is calculated from the observation.. results at different discharges become directly comparable. By expressing piezometric changes hn h1 as a fraction of the velocity head v22 at the 2g throat. and it is seen that the experimental values follow the ideal curve quite well up to the throat. Equation (3) can be expressed as: 2 hn h1 v1 v n v 22 / 2 g v 22 2 …………….

37 . so as to allow water to flow for a few seconds to clear air pockets from the supply hose.(1) (2) Diameter (mm) Distance from entrance (mm) Figure 5.3 : Dimensions of venturi meter and positions of piezometer tubes 5. The apparatus is first levelled. This is done by opening both the bench supply valve and the control valve downstream of the meter.3 PROCEDURES 1.

5. thereby compressing the air contained in the manifold. so that when both valves are finally shut off.2. subjecting the venture tube to a gradual increase in pressure. This condition is obtained by gradually opening both the bench valve and the control valve in turn. i. 38 . The control valve is then gradually closed. 3.e with h1 close to the top of the scale and h2 near to the bottom. Readings are then taken over a series of reducing values of (h2-h1). and the water level in the manometer tubes stands at a convenient height. The rate of flow is found by timing the collection of a known amount of water in the weighing tank (Table 5. equally spread over the available range from 250 mm to zero (Table 5.3. The adjusting screws are then operated to give identical readings for all of the tubes across the whole width of the manometer board. To establish the meter coefficient. the meter is left containing static water at moderate pressure. 6. the bench valve is also closed gradually. About 7-8 readings should be sufficient.5).2). which causes water to rise up the tubes of the manometer. The board should also be reasonably vertical when viewed from the end. 4. The first reading should be taken with the maximum possible value of (h2-h1). Note all piezometer reading (from A to L) in Table 5. measurements are made of a set of differential heads (h2-h1) and flow rates Q. When the water levels have risen to a convenient height. whilst values of h1 and h2 are noted from the manometer scale.

‘n’ (1) A (1) B C D(2) E F G H J K L Diameter dn (mm) (2) d2 / dn ( A2 / An ) 2 ( A2 / A1 ) 2 ( A2 / An ) 2 (3) (4) (5) Table 5. t (s) Flow rate.5. V (liter) Final Total Time.4 RESULT Experiment 1 : To validate Bernoulli’s Theorem Table 5.1 : The distribution of ideal pressure as a fraction of velocity head at throat Piezometer tube No. Q (m3/s) Data required Flow rate (Q) = m3/s Velocity at throat section v 2 Q / A2 = m/s = m 2 Velocity head at throat (v 2 / 2 g ) 39 .2: Flow rate Initial Volume.

3 : Pressure along the venturi meter. Serial Number Piezometer (1) (2) 1 A (1) 2 B 3 C 4 D (2) 5 E 6 F 7 G 8 H 9 J 10 K 11 L * Notes : n change from A to L hn (mm) ( hn h1 ) / 1000 (m) (3) (4) ( hn h1 ) / 1000 2 v2 / 2 g (5) Table 5.Table 5.4 : Comparison between ideal values and measured values Ideal values Measured values ( A2 / A1 ) 2 ( A2 / An ) 2 ( hn h1 ) / 1000 2 v2 / 2 g 40 .

plot graph Q versus (h1-h2)1/2.4. 41 . The plotted gradient line will represent K value. 2.Experiment 2 : To calibrate venturi meter and determine Cd value Diameter at inlet (d1) = mm Cross sectional area at inlet (A1) = m2 Diameter at throat (d2) = mm Cross sectional area at throat (A2) = m2 Table 5.5 PRESENTATION OF RESULTS 1.5 : Determination of Cd S V (liter) (1) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 (2) t (s) (3) Q = (V/10000t) h1 h2 h1-h2 (h1-h2)1/2 (m3/s) (mm) (mm) (m) (m)1/2 (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) Cd (9) Average of Cd Notes : h1 = Reading at piezometer A h2 = Reading at piezometer D 5. Cd can be computed using Equation 7. plot graph measured ( A2 / A1 ) 2 ( A2 / An ) 2 ( hn h1 ) / 1000 2 v2 / 2 g and ideal pressure distribution along venturi meter versus distance from inlet to contraction section. From Table 5.5. From Table 5.

6 QUESTION FOR FURTHER DISCUSSION 1.5. What suggestions have you for improving the apparatus? 42 .

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