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CHENNAI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


ME 2306 THERMAL ENGINEERING LAB-I

TABLE OF CONTENTS

S.No

Date

Name of the Experiment

Port Timing Diagram Of Two Stroke Cycle


Petrol Engine

Valve Timing Diagram Of Four Cycle Diesel


Engine

Redwood Viscometer

Cleveland Open Cup Apparatus For Flash And


Fire Point
Retardation Test On A Four Stroke Single
Cylinder Diesel Engine By Mechanical
Loading
Heat Balance Test On A 4-Stroke Twin
Cylinder Diesel Engine

Performance Test On A 4-Stroke Twin Cylinder


Diesel Engine

Performance Test On A 4-Stroke Single


Cylinder Diesel Engine

10

Performance Test On A Four Stroke Slow


Speed Single Cylinder Diesel Engine By
Mechanical Loading
Heat Balance Test On A Four Stroke Slow
Speed Single Cylinder Diesel Engine By
Mechanical Loading

11

Heat Balance Test On A 4-Stroke Single


Cylinder Diesel Engine

12

Morse Test On Multi Cylinder Petrol


Engine

13

Study On IC Engines

Page
No

Signature

1. PORT TIMING DIAGRAM OF TWO STROKE CYCLE


PETROL ENGINE
Aim :
To draw the port timing diagram of given two stroke cycle petrol engine .

Apparatus Required :
1. Two stroke petrol engine
2. Measuring tape
3. Chalk

Theory and Description :


In the case of two stroke cycle engines the inlet and exhaust valves are not present .
Instead , the slots are cut on the cylinder itself at different elevation and they are called ports.
There are three ports are present in the two stroke cycle engine .
1.
Inlet port
2.
Transfer port
3.
Exhaust port
The diagram which shows the position of crank at which the above ports are open and
close are called as port timing diagram.
The extreme position of the piston at the bottom of the cylinder is called Bottom
Dead centre [BDC] . The extreme position of the piston at the top of the cylinder is called
TOP dead centre [TDC ]
In two stroke petrol engine the inlet port open when the piston moves from BDC to
TDC and is closed when the piston moves from TDC to BDC .
The transfer port is opened when the piston is moved from TDC to BDC and the fuel
enters into the cylinder through this transport from the crank case of the engine . The transfer
port is closed when piston moves from BDC to TDC . The transfer port opening and closing
are measured with respect to the BDC .
The exhaust port is opened , when the piston moves from TDC to BDC and is closed
when piston moves from BDC to TDC . The exhaust port opening and closing are measured
with respect to the BDC.

Tabulation

S.No

Inlet port opens


Inlet port closes
Transfer port opens
Transfer port close
Exhaust port opens
Exhaust port closes

Port Timing Diagram

Piston Position(BDC or
TDC)

Port opening period in


degrees

Procedure :
1. Remove the ports cover and identify the three ports .
2. Mark the TDC and BDC position of the fly wheel . To mark this position follow the
same procedure as followed in valve timing diagram .
3. Rotate the flywheel slowly in usual direction (usually clockwise ) and observe the
movement of the piston
4. When the piston moves from BDC to TDC observe when the bottom edge of the
piston . Just uncover the bottom end of the inlet port . This is the inlet port opening
(IPO) condition , make the mark on the flywheel and measure the distance from TDC
5. When piston moves from TDC to BDC observe when the bottom edge of the piston
completely covers the inlet port . This is the inlet port closing (IPC) condition . Make
the mark on the flywheel and measure the distance from TDC .
6. When the piston moves from TDC to BDC , observe , when the top edge of the piston
just uncover the exhaust port . This is the exhaust port opening [EPO] condition .
Make the mark on the flywheel and measure the distance from BDC .
7. When the piston moves from BDC to TDC , observe , when the piston completely
cover the exhaust port ,. This is the exhaust port closing condition [EPC] . Make the
mark on the flywheel and measure the distance from BDC .
8. When the piston moves from TDC to BDC observe, when the top edge of the piston
just uncover the transfer port . This is the transfer port opening [TPO] condition .
Make the mark on the flywheel and measure the distance from BDC
9. When the piston moves from BDC to TDC , observe , when the piston completely
covers the transfer port. This is the transfer port closing [TPC] condition . Make the
mark on the flywheel and measure the distance from BDC .

Result :
The port timing diagram for the given two stroke cycle petrol engine was drawn.

2. VALVE TIMING DIAGRAM OF FOUR


CYCLE DIESEL ENGINE
Aim :
To draw the valve timing diagram of the given four stroke cycle diesel engine.

Apparatus Required :
1.
2.
3.
4.

Four stroke cycle diesel engine


Measuring tape
Chalk
Piece of paper

Theory and Description :


The diagram which shows the position of crank of four stroke cycle engine at the
beginning and at the end of suction, compression, expansion, and exhaust of the engine are
called as Valve Timing Diagram.
The extreme position of the bottom of the cylinder is called Bottom Dead Centre
[BDC].IN the case of horizontal engine , this is known as Outer Dead Centre [ODC]. The
position of the piston at the top of the cylinder is called Top Dead Centre [TDC].In case of
horizontal engine this is known as Inner Dead Centre [TDC].In case of horizontal
engine this is known as inner dead centre [IDC]
Inlet Valve opening and closing :
In an actual engine , the inlet valve begins to open 5C to 20 C before the piston
reaches the TDC during the end of exhaust stroke. This is necessary to ensure that the valve
will be fully open when the piston reaches the TDC. If the inlet valve is allowed to close at
BDC , the cylinder would receive less amount of air than its capacity and the pressure at the
end of suction will be below the atmospheric pressure . To avoid this the inlet valve is kept
open for 25 to 40after BDC.
Exhaust valve opening and closing
Complete clearing of the burned gases from the cylinder is necessary to take in more
air into the cylinder . To achieve this the exhaust valve is opens at 35 to 45 before BDC and
closes at 10 to 20 after the TCC. It is clear from the diagram , for certain period both inlet
valve and exhaust valve remains in open condition. The crank angles for which the both
valves are open are called as overlapping period . This overlapping is more than the petrol
engine.

Fuel valve opening and closing :


The fuel valve opens at 10 to 15 before TDC and closes at 15 to 20 after TDC .
This is because better evaporation and mixing fuel.

TABULATION

S.No

Piston
position(BDC
or TDC)

Inlet valve opens


Inlet valve
closes
Exhaust valve
opens
Exhaust valve
closes
Valve Timing Diagram

Distance from their


respective dead
centers in cm

Valve opening period in degrees

Formula:
()

D = Circumference of the flywheel


Where,
S = Distance of the valve opening or closing position marked on flywheel with respect to their dead
centre
Procedure :
1. Remove the cylinder head cover and identify the inlet valve , exhaust valve and
piston of particular cylinder.
2. Mark the BDC and TDC position of flywheel
This is done by Rotating the crank in usual direction of rotation and observe the
position of the fly wheel , when the piston is moving downwards at which the
piston begins to move in opposite direction . i.e from down to upward direction .
Make the mark on the flywheel with reference to fixed point on the body of the
engine. That point is the BDC for that cylinder .Measure the circumference . That
point is TDC and is diametrically opposite to the BDC .
3. Insert the paper in the tappet clearance of both inlet and exhaust valves
4. Slowly rotate the crank until the paper in the tappet clearance of inlet valve is
gripped .make the mark on fly wheel against fixed reference . This position
represent the inlet valve open (IVO ). Measure the distance from TDC and
tabulate the distance .
5. Rotate the crank further , till the paper is just free to move . Make the marking on
the flywheel against the fixed reference . This position represent the inlet valve
close (IVC). Measure the distance from BDC and tabulate the distance .
6. Rotate the crank further , till the paper in the tappet clearance of exhaust valve is
gripped . Make the marking on the flywheel against fixed reference . This position
represents the exhaust valve open (EVO) . Measure the distance from BDC and
tabulate .
7. Then convert the measured distances into angle in degrees

Result :
The valve timing diagram for the given four stroke Diesel engine was drawn.

3. REDWOOD VISCOMETER
Aim :
To determine the kinematic viscosity and absolute viscosity of the given lubricating
oil at different temperatures using Redwood Viscometer

Apparatus required :
1)Redwood Viscometer
2)Thermometer 0-100c
3) Stop watch
4) 50 ml standard narrow necked
5) flask Given Sample of oil

Description :
The redwood viscometer consist of vertical cylindrical oil cup with an orifice in the
centre of its base . The orifice can be closed by a ball . A hook pointing upward serve as a
guide mark for filling the oil . The cylindrical cup is surrounded by the water bath . The water
bath maintain the temperature of the oil to be tested at constant temperature . The oil is heated
by heating the water bath by means of an immersed electric heater in the water bath , The
provision is made for stirring the water , to maintain the uniform temperature in the water
bath and to place the thermometer ti record the temperature of oil and water bath . The
cylinder is 47.625mm in diameter and 88.90mm deep . The orifice is 1.70mm in diameter and
12mm in length , This viscometer is used to determine the kinematic viscosity of the oil.
From the kinematic viscosity the dynamic viscosity is determined .

Theory and Definition :


Viscosity is the property of fluid . It is defined as The internal resistance offered by
the fluid to the movement of one layer of fluid over an adjacent layer . It is due to the
Cohesion between the molecules of the fluid . The fluid which obey the Newton law of
Viscosity are called as Newtonian fluid .
The dynamic viscosity of fluid is defined as the shear required to produce unit rate of
angular deformation .

Tabulation

S.no

1
2
3
4
5

Temperature of
oil

Time taken
forcollecting 50cc
oil in flask

Kinematic viscosity
in stokes

Dynamic viscosity
in stokes

Formulae used :
Kinematic Viscosity =

= At B/t (Stokes)

A = 0.0026
B = 1.72
t = second Density
The kinematic viscosity of the fluid is defined as the ratio of the dynamic viscosity
toss density of the fluid . Its symbol is

= /

= Dynamic Viscosity (Stokes)


= mass density of oil

Procedure :
(1) Clean the cylindrical oil cup and ensure the orifice tube is free from dirt .
(2) Close the orifice with ball valve.
(3) Place the 50 ml flask below the opening of the Orifice .
(4) Fill the oil in the cylindrical oil cup upto the mark in the cup .
(5) Fill the water in the water bath.
(6) Insert the thermometers in their respective places to measure the oil and water bath
temperatures.
(7) Heat the by heating the water bath, Stirred the water bath and maintain the uniform
temperature .
(8) At particular temperature lift the bal valve and collect the oil in the 50 ml flask and
note the time taken in seconds for the collecting 50 ml of oil . A stop watch is used
measure the time taken . This time is called Redwood seconds .
(9) Increase the temperature and repeat the procedure 8 and note down the Redwood
seconds for different temperatures .

Graph :
The following graph has to be drawn
(1)Temperature Vs Redwood seconds
(2)Temperature Vs Kinematic Viscosity
(3)Temperature Vs Dynamic Viscosity

Result :
The kinematic and dynamic viscosity of given oil at different temperatures were
determined and graphs were drawn.

4. CLEVELAND OPEN CUP APPARATUS FOR FLASH AND


FIRE POINT
Aim :
To determine the flash and power point temperatures of the given sample of
lubricating oil using Cleveland open cup apparatus.

Apparatus Required:
1. Cleveland open cup apparatus
2. Thermometer
3. Splinter sticks
4. Sample of oil

Theory and Definition :


The flash point of the lubricating oil is defined as the lowest temperature at which it
forms vapours and produces combustible mixture with air. The higher flash point temperature
is always desirable for any lubricating oil. If the oil has the lower value of flash point
temperatures, it will burn easily and forms the carbon deposits on the moving parts. The
minimum flash temperature of the oil used in IC engines varies from 200C to 250C. When
the oil is tested using the open cup apparatus, the temperature is slightly more than the above
temperatures. The flash and fire point temperatures may differs by 20C to 60C when it is
tested by open cup apparatus. However, a greater difference may be obtained if some
additives are mixed with oil. The flash and fire power point temperatures depends upon the
volatility of the oil.

Description :
The Cleveland open cup apparatus consists of a cylindrical cup of standard size. It is
held in position in the metallic holder which is placed on a wire gauge. It is heated by means
of an electric heater housed inside the metallic holder. A provision is made on the top of the
cup to hold the thermometer. A standing filling mark is done on the inner side of the cup and
the sample of oil is filled up to the mark. This apparatus will give more accurate results than
the pensky martens closed cup apparatus.

Tabulation:

S. No.

Name of the oil sample

Temperature (

1
2
3
4
5
6

Cleaveland open cup Apparatus

C)

Observations

Procedure :
1. Clean the cup and fill it with the given sample of oil up to the filling mark.
2. Insert the thermometer in the holder. Make sure that the thermometer should not
touch the metallic cup.
3. Heat the oil by the means of electric heater so that the sample of oil gives out
vapour at the rate of 10C per minute.
4. When the oil gives out vapour , introduce the test flame above the oil,
without touching the surface of the oil and watch for flash with flickering sound.
5. Introducing the test flame should not continued at regular intervals until the flash
is observed with peak flickering sound. The temperature corresponding to this
flickering sound is noticed and it is the flash point temperature of the given sample
of oil.
6. Continue the process of heating and introducing the test flame until the oil will
begins to burn continuously and observe the temperature . This is the fire pint
temperature of the given sample of oil.
7. Repeat the test twice or thrice with fresh sample of oil and observe the
results.
8. The observations are tabulated .

Result :
The flash and fire point temperatures of the given sample of oil were
determined using Cleveland open cup apparatus.
1) The flash point temperature of the given sample of oil is
C
2) The fire point temperature is of the given sample of oil is
C

5. RETARDATION TEST ON A FOUR STROKE SINGLE


CYLINDER DIESEL ENGINE BY MECHANICAL LOADING
Aim
To conduct retardation test on a four-stroke single-cylinder diesel slow speed
engine by mechanical loading with specified speed to calculate frictional power.
Apparatus Required
1)Tachometer
2) stopwatch
3) Single cylinder diesel engine
Specification
Single cylinder, vertical, water cooled, 4-stroke diesel engine.
Make
: KIRLOSKAR
Bore
: 114.3mm
Stroke
: 139.7 mm
Cubic capacity
: 1433cc
Speed
: 850 rpm
Power
: 8HP/7.4 kW
Compression ratio
: 16:1
Fuel
: High speed diesel oil
Calorific value
: 44000 kJ/kg
Specific gravity of oil : 0.8275
Type of loading
: Mechanical Loading
Formulae Used
1. Torque(T)
T=

(N-m)

Where,
BP = Brake Power (Kw)
N = Engine Speed (rpm)
2. Frictional Torque (Tf)
Tf = [ T3 / (T2 T3)] x ( Torque)
3

Frictional Power (FP)


(Kw)

3. Mechanical efficiency (m)

(%)

Procedure:
1. Calculate maximum load to be applied for a selected engine.
2. Check the fuel supply, water circulation in the water system and lubricating oil in
the oil sump.
3. Ensure no load condition.
4. The engine is started and allowed to run on idle speed for a few minutes.
5. Then the speed is set to the rated speed.
6. Time taken to reach the required speed is noted down at no load condition.
7. Repeat the procedure for drop in speeds 50,100,150,200 and 250.
8. Apply half of the maximum load on the brake drum.
9. Then the speed is set to the rated speed.
10. Time taken to reach the required speed is noted down at half load condition.
11. Repeat the procedure for drop in speeds 50,100,150,200 and 250.
12. After taking the readings unload the engine and allow it to run few minutes and
then stop the engine.

Result:
The retardation test on a four-stroke single-cylinder diesel engine by mechanical
loading with specified speed is conducted and the following parameters were found.
Frictional power

Mechanical efficiency (m) =

6. HEAT BALANCE TEST ON A 4-STROKE TWIN CYLINDER DIESEL


ENGINE
Aim
To conduct Heat balance test on a twin cylinder 4-stroke diesel engine and draw the
characteristics curve.
Specifications:
Twin cylinder, vertical, water cooled, 4-stroke diesel engine.
Make
: KIRLOSKAR
Bore
: 87.5mm
Stroke
: 110mm
Cubic capacity
: 1323cc
Speed
: 1500rpm
Power
: 10HP/7.4 kW
Compression ratio
: 16:1
Fuel
: High speed diesel oil
Calorific value
: 44000 kJ/kg
Specific gravity of oil : 0.8275
Type of loading
: Electrical swinging field dynamometer with rheostat load
bank
Formulae:
1. Total Fuel consumption TFC =

( Kg/hr)

Where,
q = Fuel consumption (10cc)
t = Time taken for 10cc of fuel consumption (sec)
= Density of diesel =0.83 kg/m3
2. Specific Fuel consumption SFC
SFC = TFC/BP (Kg/Kwhr)
3. Heat input, HI = TFC x calorific value / 3600 ( Kw)
Where CV= 43000 Kj/Kg
4. Brake power, BP =

kW

(By using rheostat load bank)

Where,
V = Voltmeter reading (Volts)
I = Ammeter reading (Amperes)
g = Generator efficiency = 70%
Brake power, BP =

kW (By using swinging field dynamometer)

Where,
T = Torque = RS N-m
R= Torque arm length = 0.123m

S = spring balance reading (kg)

5. Heat carried by cooling water, Qw = mwCpw(Tw2-Tw1)

kW

Where,
Tw1 = Inlet temperature of engine cooling water (0C)
Tw2 = Outlet temperature of engine cooling water (0C)
Cpw = Specific heat of water = 4.187 kJ/kg0K
mw = Mass flow rate of cooling water =
kg/sec
tw = Time taken for flow of 10 litres of water
6. Heat carried by exhaust gas Qg = mgCpg(Tag-Ta) kW
Where, Tag = Exhaust gas temperature (0C)
Ta = Atmospheric temperature (0C)
Cpg = Specific heat of exhaust gas = 1.1 kJ/kg0K
mg = Mass flow rate of exhaust gas = TFC+ma
ma = Mass flow rate of air = CdA
a (kg/sec)
Cd = Co-efficient of discharge of orifice meter = 0.62
A = Area of orifice =
m2
d = Diameter of orifice = 20mm
Ha = Head of air column = Hw

Hw = Head of water column (m)


w = Density of water = 1000kg/m3
a = Density of air =
kg/m3
pa = Atmospheric pressure = 1.01325105 N/m2
R = Characteristic gas constant of air = 287 J/kg0K
7. Percentage of brake power, %BP =
8. Percentage of heat carried by cooling water, %Qw =
9. Percentage of heat carried by exhaust gas, %Qg =
10. Percentage of unaccounted loss = 100-(%BP + %Qw + %Qg)

Procedure:

1. Calculate maximum load to be applied for a selected engine


2. Check the fuel supply, water circulation in the water system and lubricating oil in the oil
sump.
3. Ensure no load condition
4. The engine is started and allowed to run on idle speed for a few minutes.
5. Gradually the engine is loaded by Electrical load method and the speed is maintained constant.
6. Make sure the cooling water is supplied to the brake drum.
7. Load the engine in steps of 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% & 100% of maximum load to be applied.
8. Note the corresponding readings of spring balance, mass flow rate of water, fuel consumption,
manometer reading, water inlet and outlet temperature, exhaust gas temperature, etc.
9. After taking the readings, unload the engine, allow it to run for few minutes and then stop the
engine.

Result:
The heat balance test on a twin cylinder 4-stroke diesel engine was conducted and the
results were shown in the observation table, graphs are drawn.

7. PERFORMANCE TEST ON A 4-STROKE TWIN CYLINDER DIESEL


ENGINE
Aim
To conduct Performance test on a twin cylinder 4-stroke diesel engine and draw the
characteristics curve.
Specifications:
Twin cylinder, vertical, water cooled, 4-stroke diesel engine.
Make
: KIRLOSKAR
Bore
: 87.5mm
Stroke
: 110mm
Cubic capacity
: 1323cc
Speed
: 1500rpm
Power
: 10HP/7.4 kW
Compression ratio
: 16:1
Fuel
: High speed diesel oil
Calorific value
: 44000 kJ/kg
Specific gravity of oil : 0.8275
Type of loading
: Electrical swinging field dynamometer with rheostat load
bank
Formulae:
1. Brake power, BP =

kW

(By using rheostat load bank)

Where,
V = Voltmeter reading (Volts)
I = Ammeter reading (Amperes)
g = Generator efficiency = 70%
2. Total Fuel consumption TFC =

( Kg/hr)

Where,
q = Fuel consumption (10cc)
t = Time taken for 10cc of fuel consumption (sec)
= Density of diesel =0.83 kg/m3
3. Specific Fuel consumption SFC
SFC = TFC/BP (Kg/Kwhr)
4. Heat input, HI = TFC x calorific value / 3600 ( Kw)
Where CV= 43000 Kj/Kg
5. Indicated power
IP = BP+FP (Kw)

Where,

FP = Friction power (measured from Willans Graph)


6. Brake thermal efficiency (bth) =

(%)

7. Indicated thermal efficiency (Ith) =


8. Mechanical efficiency (m) =

(%)

(%)

9. Indicated mean effective pressure


IMEP = (BP x 60) / (ALNK) (kN/m2)
10. Brake mean effective pressure (BMEP)
BMEP = (BP x 60) / ALNK (kN/m2)
Where,
L = Length of stroke (m)
A = Area of piston =

(m2)

d = Bore diameter (m)


N = Number of working strokes in one complete cycle
For 4-stroke n = N/2
For 2-stroke n = N
K = Number of cylinders
11. Volumetric efficiency v =

(%)

Actual volume of air sucked into cylinder (va) = CdA2gh m2/hr


Where, H =
A = Area of orifice

(m2)

h = Manometer reading (m)


density of water (kg/m3)
= density of air
Cd = Coefficient of discharge
of air =
12. Swept volume (vs) =
Where,
D = dia of bore
L = Length of stroke
N = Speed of engine in RPM

Procedure
1. Calculate maximum load to be applied for a selected engine
2. Check the fuel supply, water circulation in the water system and lubricating oil in the
oil sump.
3. Ensure no load condition
4. The engine is started and allowed to run on idle speed for a few minutes.
5. Gradually the engine is loaded by electrical dynamometer and the speed is maintained
constant.
6. Load the engine in steps of 0%, 25%, 50% , 75% & 100% of maximum load to be
applied.
7. Note the corresponding readings of voltmeter, ammeter and fuel consumption.
8. After taking the readings, unload the engine, allow it to run for few minutes and then
stop the engine

Result:
The performance test was conducted on the Twin cylinder diesel engine and the
performance curves were drawn.

8. PERFORMANCE TEST ON A 4-STROKE SINGLE CYLINDER


DIESEL ENGINE
Aim
To conduct Performance test on a Single cylinder 4-stroke diesel engine and draw the
characteristics curve.
Specifications:
Single cylinder, vertical, water cooled, 4-stroke diesel engine.
Make
: KIRLOSKAR
Bore
: 87.5mm
Stroke
: 110mm
Cubic capacity
: 1323cc
Speed
: 1500rpm
Power
: 5HP/3.7 kW
Compression ratio
: 16:1
Fuel
: High speed diesel oil
Calorific value
: 44000 kJ/kg
Specific gravity of oil : 0.8275
Type of loading
: Mechanical Loading
Formulae:
1. Brake power, BP =

kW

Where,
N= Speed of the engine
T= torque developed across the brake drum
BP= brake power in Kw
1. Total Fuel consumption TFC =

( Kg/hr)

Where,
q = Fuel consumption (10cc)
t = Time taken for 10cc of fuel consumption (sec)
= Density of diesel =0.83 kg/m3
2. Specific Fuel consumption SFC
SFC = TFC/BP (Kg/Kwhr)
3. Heat input, HI = TFC x calorific value / 3600 ( Kw)
Where CV= 43000 Kj/Kg
4. Indicated power
IP = BP+FP (Kw)

Where,

FP = Friction power (measured from Willans Graph)


5. Brake thermal efficiency (bth) =

(%)

6. Indicated thermal efficiency (Ith) =


7. Mechanical efficiency (m) =

(%)

(%)

8. Indicated mean effective pressure


IMEP = (BP x 60) / (ALNK) (kN/m2)
9. Brake mean effective pressure (BMEP)
BMEP = (BP x 60) / ALNK (kN/m2)
Where,
L = Length of stroke (m)
A = Area of piston =

(m2)

d = Bore diameter (m)


N = Number of working strokes in one complete cycle
For 4-stroke n = N/2
For 2-stroke n = N
K = Number of cylinders
10. Volumetric efficiency v =

(%)

Actual volume of air sucked into cylinder (va) = CdA2gh m2/hr


Where, H =
A = Area of orifice

(m2)

h = Manometer reading (m)


density of water (kg/m3)
= density of air
Cd = Coefficient of discharge
of air =
11. Swept volume (vs) =
Where,
D = dia of bore
L = Length of stroke
N = Speed of engine in RPM

Procedure
1. Calculate maximum load to be applied for a selected engine
2. Check the fuel supply, water circulation in the water system and lubricating oil in the
oil sump.
3. Ensure no load condition
4. The engine is started and allowed to run on idle speed for a few minutes.
5. Gradually the engine is loaded by mechanical brake method and the speed is
maintained constant.
6. Make sure the cooling water is supplied to the brake drum.
7. Load the engine in steps of 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% & 100% of maximum load to be
applied.
8. Note the corresponding readings of spring balance, fuel consumption, manometer
reading .
9. After taking the readings, unload the engine, allow it to run for few minutes and then
stop the engine.

Result:
The performance test was conducted on the Single cylinder diesel engine and the
performance curves were drawn.

9. PERFORMANCE TEST ON A FOUR STROKE SLOW SPEED


SINGLE CYLINDER DIESEL ENGINE BY MECHANICAL
LOADING
Aim
To conduct Performance test on a four-stroke single-cylinder SLOW speed diesel
slow speed engine by mechanical loading method.
Apparatus Required
1)Tachometer
2) stopwatch
3) Single cylinder diesel engine
Specification
Single cylinder, vertical, water cooled, 4-stroke diesel engine.
Make
: KIRLOSKAR
Bore
: 114.3mm
Stroke
: 139.7 mm
Cubic capacity
: 1433cc
Speed
: 850 rpm
Power
: 8HP/7.4 kW
Compression ratio
: 16:1
Fuel
: High speed diesel oil
Calorific value
: 44000 kJ/kg
Specific gravity of oil : 0.8275
Type of loading
: Mechanical Loading
Formulae Used:
1.

Brake power, BP =

kW

Where,
N= Speed of the engine
T= torque developed across the brake drum
BP= brake power in Kw
2. Total Fuel consumption TFC =

( Kg/hr)

Where,
q = Fuel consumption (10cc)
t = Time taken for 10cc of fuel consumption (sec)
= Density of diesel =0.83 kg/m3
3. Specific Fuel consumption SFC
SFC = TFC/BP (Kg/Kwhr)

4. Heat input, HI = TFC x calorific value / 3600 ( Kw)


Where CV= 43000 Kj/Kg
5. Indicated power
IP = BP+FP (Kw)
Where,
FP = Friction power (measured from Willans Graph)
6. Brake thermal efficiency (bth) =

(%)

7. Indicated thermal efficiency (Ith) =


8. Mechanical efficiency (m) =

(%)

(%)

9. Indicated mean effective pressure


IMEP = (BP x 60) / (ALNK) (kN/m2)
10. Brake mean effective pressure (BMEP)
BMEP = (BP x 60) / ALNK (kN/m2)
Where,
L = Length of stroke (m)
A = Area of piston =

(m2)

d = Bore diameter (m)


N = Number of working strokes in one complete cycle
For 4-stroke n = N/2
For 2-stroke n = N
K = Number of cylinders
11. Volumetric efficiency v =

(%)

Actual volume of air sucked into cylinder (va) = CdA2gh m2/hr


Where, H =
A = Area of orifice

(m2)

h = Manometer reading (m)


density of water (kg/m3)
= density of air
Cd = Coefficient of discharge
of air =
12. Swept volume (vs) =
Where,

D = dia of bore
L = Length of stroke
N = Speed of engine in RPM
Procedure

1. Calculate maximum load to be applied for a selected engine


2. Check the fuel supply, water circulation in the water system and lubricating oil in the
oil sump.
3. Ensure no load condition
4. The engine is started and allowed to run on idle speed for a few minutes.
5. Gradually the engine is loaded by mechanical brake method and the speed is
maintained constant.
6. Make sure the cooling water is supplied to the brake drum.
7. Load the engine in steps of 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% & 100% of maximum load to be
applied.
8. Note the corresponding readings of spring balance, fuel consumption, manometer
reading .
9. After taking the readings, unload the engine, allow it to run for few minutes and then
stop the engine.

Result:
The performance test was conducted on the single cylinder slow speed diesel engine and the
performance curves were drawn.

10. HEAT BALANCE TEST ON A FOUR STROKE SLOW SPEED


SINGLE CYLINDER DIESEL ENGINE BY MECHANICAL
LOADING
Aim
To conduct Performance test on a four-stroke single-cylinder SLOW speed diesel
slow speed engine by mechanical loading method.
Apparatus Required
1)Tachometer
2) stopwatch
3) Single cylinder diesel engine
Specification
Single cylinder, vertical, water cooled, 4-stroke diesel engine.
Make
: KIRLOSKAR
Bore
: 114.3mm
Stroke
: 139.7 mm
Cubic capacity
: 1433cc
Speed
: 850 rpm
Power
: 8HP/7.4 kW
Compression ratio
: 16:1
Fuel
: High speed diesel oil
Calorific value
: 44000 kJ/kg
Specific gravity of oil : 0.8275
Type of loading
: Mechanical Loading
Formulae Used:
1. Total Fuel consumption TFC =

( Kg/hr)

Where,
q = Fuel consumption (10cc)
t = Time taken for 10cc of fuel consumption (sec)
= Density of diesel =0.83 kg/m3
2. Specific Fuel consumption SFC
SFC = TFC/BP (Kg/Kwhr)
3. Heat input, HI = TFC x calorific value / 3600 ( Kw)
Where CV= 43000 Kj/Kg
4. Brake power, BP =
Where,
T = Torque = RS

N-m

R= Torque arm length = 0.15 m


S = spring balance reading (kg)

5. Heat carried by cooling water, Qw = mwCpw(Tw2-Tw1)

kW

Where,
Tw1 = Inlet temperature of engine cooling water (0C)
Tw2 = Outlet temperature of engine cooling water (0C)
Cpw = Specific heat of water = 4.187 kJ/kg0K
mw = Mass flow rate of cooling water =
kg/sec
tw = Time taken for flow of 1 litres of water
6. Heat carried by exhaust gas Qg = mgCpg(Tag-Ta) kW
Where, Tag = Exhaust gas temperature (0C)
Ta = Atmospheric temperature (0C)
Cpg = Specific heat of exhaust gas = 1.1 kJ/kg0K
mg = Mass flow rate of exhaust gas = TFC+ma
ma = Mass flow rate of air = CdA
a (kg/sec)
Cd = Co-efficient of discharge of orifice meter = 0.62
A = Area of orifice =
m2
d = Diameter of orifice = 20mm
Ha = Head of air column = Hw

Hw = Head of water column (m)


w = Density of water = 1000kg/m3
a = Density of air =
kg/m3
pa = Atmospheric pressure = 1.01325105 N/m2
R = Characteristic gas constant of air = 287 J/kg0K
7. Percentage of brake power, %BP =
8. Percentage of heat carried by cooling water, %Qw =
9. Percentage of heat carried by exhaust gas, %Qg =
10. Percentage of unaccounted loss = 100-(%BP + %Qw + %Qg)

Procedure:

1. Calculate maximum load to be applied for a selected engine


2. Check the fuel supply, water circulation in the water system and lubricating oil in the oil
sump.
3. Ensure no load condition
4. The engine is started and allowed to run on idle speed for a few minutes.
5. Gradually the engine is loaded by Mechanical load method and the speed is maintained
constant.
6. Make sure the cooling water is supplied to the brake drum.
7. Load the engine in steps of 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% & 100% of maximum load to be applied.
8. Note the corresponding readings of spring balance, mass flow rate of water, fuel consumption,
manometer reading, water inlet and outlet temperature, exhaust gas temperature, etc.
9. After taking the readings, unload the engine, allow it to run for few minutes and then stop the
engine.

Result:
The heat balance test on a single cylinder 4-stroke slow speed diesel engine was
conducted and the results were shown in the observation table, graphs are drawn.

11. HEAT BALANCE TEST ON A 4-STROKE SINGLE CYLINDER


DIESEL ENGINE
Aim
To conduct Performance test on a Single cylinder 4-stroke diesel engine and draw the
characteristics curve.
Specifications:
Single cylinder, vertical, water cooled, 4-stroke diesel engine.
Make
: KIRLOSKAR
Bore
: 87.5mm
Stroke
: 110mm
Cubic capacity
: 1323cc
Speed
: 1500rpm
Power
: 5HP/3.7 kW
Compression ratio
: 16:1
Fuel
: High speed diesel oil
Calorific value
: 44000 kJ/kg
Specific gravity of oil : 0.8275
Type of loading
: Mechanical Loading
Formulae:
1. Total Fuel consumption TFC =

( Kg/hr)

Where,
q = Fuel consumption (10cc)
t = Time taken for 10cc of fuel consumption (sec)
= Density of diesel =0.83 kg/m3
2. Specific Fuel consumption SFC
SFC = TFC/BP (Kg/Kwhr)
3. Heat input, HI = TFC x calorific value / 3600 ( Kw)
Where CV= 43000 Kj/Kg
4. Brake power, BP =
Where,
T = Torque = RS N-m
R= Torque arm length = 0.3 m
S = spring balance reading (kg)

5. Heat carried by cooling water, Qw = mwCpw(Tw2-Tw1)

kW

Where,
Tw1 = Inlet temperature of engine cooling water (0C)
Tw2 = Outlet temperature of engine cooling water (0C)

Cpw = Specific heat of water = 4.187 kJ/kg0K


mw = Mass flow rate of cooling water =
kg/sec
tw = Time taken for flow of 1 litres of water
6. Heat carried by exhaust gas Qg = mgCpg(Tag-Ta) kW
Where, Tag = Exhaust gas temperature (0C)
Ta = Atmospheric temperature (0C)
Cpg = Specific heat of exhaust gas = 1.1 kJ/kg0K
mg = Mass flow rate of exhaust gas = TFC+ma
ma = Mass flow rate of air = CdA
a (kg/sec)
Cd = Co-efficient of discharge of orifice meter = 0.62
A = Area of orifice =
m2
d = Diameter of orifice = 20mm
Ha = Head of air column = Hw

Hw = Head of water column (m)


w = Density of water = 1000kg/m3
a = Density of air =
kg/m3
pa = Atmospheric pressure = 1.01325105 N/m2
R = Characteristic gas constant of air = 287 J/kg0K
7. Percentage of brake power, %BP =
8. Percentage of heat carried by cooling water, %Qw =
9. Percentage of heat carried by exhaust gas, %Qg =
10. Percentage of unaccounted loss = 100-(%BP + %Qw + %Qg)

Procedure:

1. Calculate maximum load to be applied for a selected engine


2. Check the fuel supply, water circulation in the water system and lubricating oil in the oil
sump.
3. Ensure no load condition
4. The engine is started and allowed to run on idle speed for a few minutes.
5. Gradually the engine is loaded by Mechanical load method and the speed is maintained
constant.
6. Make sure the cooling water is supplied to the brake drum.
7. Load the engine in steps of 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% & 100% of maximum load to be applied.
8. Note the corresponding readings of spring balance, mass flow rate of water, fuel consumption,
manometer reading, water inlet and outlet temperature, exhaust gas temperature, etc.
9. After taking the readings, unload the engine, allow it to run for few minutes and then stop the
engine.

Result:
The heat balance test on a single cylinder 4-stroke diesel engine was conducted and the
results were shown in the observation table, graphs are drawn.

12. MORSE TEST ON MULTI CYLINDER PETROL ENGINE


Aim :
To conduct morse test on given multi cylinder petrol engine in order to determine
the indicated power developed in the each cylinder of the engine and to determine the
mechanical efficiency.
Apparatus Required :
1. Multi cylinder petrol engine with ignition cut off
arrangement
2. Loading arrangements
3. Tachometer
Theory and Description :
For slow speed engine the indicated power is directly calculated from the
indicator diagram. But in modern high speed engines , it is difficult to obtain
accurate indicator diagram due to inertia forces , and therefore , this method cannot be
applied . In such cases the morse test can be used to measure the indicated power and
mechanical efficiency of multi cylinder engines . The engines test is carried out as follows
. The engine is run at maximum load at certain speed . The B.P is then measured when all
cylinders are working .
Then one cylinder is made in operative by cutting off the ignition to that cylinder . As a result
of this the speed of the engine will decrease . Therefore , the load on the engine is reduced
so that the engine speed is restored to its initial value . The assumption made on the test
is that frictional power is depends on the speed and not upon the load on the engine .
Formulae used:
1. Brake power, BP =
Where,
T = Torque = RS N-m
R= Torque arm length = 0.3 m
S = spring balance reading (kg)
2. Total Fuel consumption TFC =

( Kg/hr)

Where,
q = Fuel consumption (10cc)
t = Time taken for 10cc of fuel consumption (sec)
= Density of diesel =0.83 kg/m3
3. Specific Fuel consumption SFC
SFC = TFC/BP (Kg/Kwhr)
4. Heat input, HI = TFC x calorific value / 3600 ( Kw)
Where CV= 43000 Kj/Kg

5. Indicated power
Ip = ip1 + ip2 + ip3 + ip4 kw
Where,
Ip1 = bp bp1
Ip2 = bp bp2
Ip3 = bp bp3
Ip4 = bp bp4
6. Brake thermal efficiency (bth) =

(%)

7. Indicated thermal efficiency (Ith) =


8. Mechanical efficiency (m) =

(%)

(%)

9. Frictional Power
Fr P = BP IP (Kw)
Procedure :
1. Check the engine for fuel availability, lubricant and cooling water connections .
2. Release the load completely on the engine and start the engine in no load conditions
and allow the engine to run for few minutes to attain the rated speed.
3.
Apply the load and increase the load upto maximum load. (All four cylinders
should be in working ) . Now note the load on the engine and speed of the engine say
the speed is N rpm
4.Cut-off the ignition of first cylinder, Now the speed of engine decreased . Reduce the
load on the engine and bring the speed of the engine to N rpm. Now note the load on
the engine.
5.Bring the all four cylinders are in working conditions and cut off the 2nd , 3rd and 4th
cylinder in turn and adjust the load to maintain same N rpm and note the load .

Result:
Morse test was conducted on given petrol engine and indicated power developed
in each cylinder are determined and mechanical efficiency are also determined .

STUDY ON IC ENGINES
Aim:
To study on a 4 stroke petrol engine and its components.
Operation
1. Induction
2. Compression
3. Power
4. Exhaust
As their name implies, four-stroke internal combustion engines have four basic steps that repeat
with every two revolutions of the engine:
(1) Intake/suction stroke (2) Compression stroke (3) Power/expansion stroke and (4) Exhaust
stroke
1. Intake stroke: The first stroke of the internal combustion engine is also known as the suction
stroke because the piston moves to the maximum volume position (downward direction in the
cylinder) creating a drop in pressure. The inlet valve opens as a result of the cam lobe pressing
down on the valve stem, and the vaporized fuel mixture is sucked into the combustion chamber.
The inlet valve closes at the end of this stroke.
2. Compression stroke: In this stroke, both valves are closed and the piston starts its movement
to the minimum volume position (upward direction in the cylinder) and compresses the fuel
mixture. During the compression process, pressure, temperature and the density of the fuel
mixture increases.
3. A Power stroke: When the piston reaches a point just before top dead center, the spark plug
ignites the fuel mixture. The point at which the fuel ignites varies by engine; typically it is about
10 degrees before top dead center. This expansion of gases caused by ignition of the fuel
produces the power that is transmitted to the crank shaft mechanism.
4. Exhaust stroke: In the end of the power stroke, the exhaust valve opens. During this stroke, the
piston starts its movement in the maximum volume position. The open exhaust valve allows the
exhaust gases to escape the cylinder. At the end of this stroke, the exhaust valve closes, the inlet
valve opens, and the sequence repeats in the next cycle. Four-stroke engines require two
revolutions.
Different Parts of I.C. Engine
Cylinder, Cylinder head, Piston, Piston rings, Gudgeon pin, Connecting rod,
Crankshaft, Crank, Engine bearing, Crank case, Flywheel etc.
Cylinder Head
Also referred to as the top end, the cylinder head houses the pistons,
valves, rocker arms and camshafts.
Valves
A pair of valves, used for controlling fuel intake and exhaust, is
controlled by a set of fingers on the camshaft called lobes. As the intake
valve opens, a mixture of fuel and air from the carburetor is pulled into

the cylinder. The exhaust valve expels the spent air/fuel mixture after
combustion.
Camshaft
Usually chain or gear-driven, the camshaft spins, using its lobes to
actuate the rocker arms. These open the intake and exhaust valves at
preset intervals.
The Piston
The piston travels up and down within the cylinder and compresses
the air/fuel mixture to be ignited by a spark plug. The combustive
force propels the piston downward. The piston is attached to a
connecting rod by a wrist pin.
Piston rings:
These are circular rings which seal the gaps made between the
piston and the cylinder, their object being to prevent gas escaping and
to control the amount of lubricant which is allowed to reach the top of
the cylinder.
Gudgeon-pin:
This pin transfers the thrust from the piston to the connecting-rod
small-end while permitting the rod to rock to and fro as the crankshaft
rotates.
Connecting-rod:
This acts as both a strut and a tie link-rod. It transmits the linear
pressure impulses acting on the piston to the crankshaft big-end
journal, where they are converted into turning-effort.
Crankshaft
The crankshaft is made up of a left and right flywheel connected to
the piston's connecting rod by a crank pin, which rotates to create the
piston's up-and-down motion. The cam chain sprocket is mounted on the
crankshaft, which controls the chain that drives the camshaft.
Carburettor
The carburetor is the control for the engine. It feeds the engine with
a mixture of air and petrol in a controlled volume that determines the
speed, acceleration and deceleration of the engine. The carburetor is
controlled by a slide connected to the throttle cable from the handlebar
twist grip which adjusts the volume of air drawn into the engine.

IC ENGINE

Tabulation

S.No

Load
in %

Load
Applied
in
Amps

Voltmeter
Reading in
Volts

Time taken
for 10 cc Fuel
Consumption
(Sec)

Manometer
Reading(m) *
10 -2
h1

h2

Cooling water
Temperature
( o C)
Tw1

Tw2

Exhaust Gas
temperature(Tg)
(oC)

Time taken
for collecting
1 Litre of
water(Sec)

Tabulation

S.No

TFC
(Kg/hr)

Heat
Input
(Kw)

Brake
Power
(Kw)

Heat
carried
by
Cooling
Water
(Qw) in
Kw

Heat
Mass of carried
the Gas
by
Unaccounted
Mg *
Exhaust Loss of Heat
10 -3
Gas
(Qun) in Kw
In Kg
(Qg) in
Kw

% of
BP
(%)

% of
Heat
carried
by
water
(%)

% of
Heat
Un
carried accounted
by
Heat loss
Exhaust
in %
(%)

Tabulation

S. No.

Drop in
Speed (rpm)

Time for fall of


speed at
no load condition
(T2) sec

Time for fall of


speed at half
load condition
(T3) sec

Frictional Torque (Tf)


N-m

Fp avg

Frictional power(FP) from


graph (KW)

Tabulation:

Weight (Kg)
S.No

Load in %
W1

W2

Time taken for 10


cc Fuel
Consumption
(Sec)

Manometer Reading(m) * 10 -2

h1

h2

Tabulation:

Torque

TFC

SFC

kg/hr

kg/hr
kW

HI

BP

kW

kW

IP

bt

it

BMEP

IMEP

bar

bar

Sl.
No.
N-m

kW

Tabulation
Mechanical
Load(Kg)
S.No

Load
in %
W1

W2

Time taken
for 10 cc Fuel
Consumption
(Sec)

Manometer
Reading(m) * 10 -2

h1

h2

Cooling water
Temperature
( o C)

Tw1

Tw2

Exhaust Gas
temperature(
Tg)
(oC)

Time taken for


collecting 1
Litre of
water(Sec)

Tabulation
Tabulation

S.No

TFC
(Kg/hr)

Heat
Input
(Kw)

Brake
Power
(Kw)

Heat
carried
by
Cooling
Water
(Qw) in
Kw

Mass of
the Gas
Mg *
10 -3
In Kg

Heat
carried
by
Exhaust
Gas
(Qg) in
Kw

Unaccounted
% of
Loss of Heat
BP (%)
(Qun) in Kw

% of
Heat
carried
by
water
(%)

% of
Heat
carried
by
Exhaust
(%)

Un
accounted
Heat loss
in %

Tabulation
Loading
S No

Conditions

All cylinders are working

First cylinder was cut off


and remaining are in working

Second cylinder was cut off


and remaining are in working

Third cylinder was cut off


and remaining are in working

Fourth cylinder was cut off


and remaining are in working

W1 kg

Note : The speed should be same for all readings

W2
kg

W1 W2 kg

Net load W
in N

Speed
Rpm

BP KW

Tabulation

S.No

Load in %

Load Applied
in Amps

Voltmeter Reading
in Volts

Time taken for 10 cc


Fuel Consumption
(Sec)

Manometer Reading(m) * 10 -2

h1

h2