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The equipment describedin this manual is


manufacturedand distributed by

TBCQUIPMENT LIMl"l'HU

Suppliers of technologicallaboratory
equipment designedfor teaching.

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--

BONSALLSTREET,LONG EATON, NO'rrINGHAM, NG1O 2AN, ENGLAND

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Tel: (0115) 9722611 : Fax: (0115) 9731520

TecQuipment Limited

No part of this publication may be reproduced or


transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or
mechanical, including photocopy, recording or any
information storage and retrieval system without the express
permission of TecQuipment Limited. Exception to this
restriction is given to bona fide customers in educational or
training establishments in the normal pursuit of their
teaching duties.
Whilst all due care has been taken to ensure that the contents
of this manual are accurate and up to date, errors or

i
.

omissions may occur from time to time. H any errors are


discovered in this manual please inform TecQuipment Ltd.
so the problem may be rectified.
A Packing Contents List is supplied with the equipment and
it is recommended that the contents of the package(s) are
carefully checked against the list to ensure that no items are

missing, damaged or discarded with the packing materials.

In the event that any items are missing or damaged, contact


your local TecQuipment agent or TecQuipment direct as
soon as possible.

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~bbot

-(I,
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Figure 1. GeneralArrangementof Apparatus.

Pagel

H34 LOSSFS IN PIPE JlTJ-J'JNGS

INTRODUCTION Almost all runs of pipework contain fittings such as bends,


changes in

diameter, junctions

and

valves.

The

constrictions,and changesin direction of flow through such


fittings, causelosseswhich are additional to those due to
friction at the pipe wall. Since these losses at fittings
usually contribute significantly to the overall loss through
the pipework, it is important to have reliable information
about them. In this experiment, losses in various typical
fittings are investigatedover a range of flow rates.
...

Description of The equipmentillustrated in Fig I provides a run of


Apparatus pipework, madeup of componentsmanufacturedin rigid

-,a.

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..
~

--

--

plastic material, supportedin the vertical plane from a


baseboardwith a vertical panel at the rear. Water is
suppliedto the pipe inlet from an HI HydraulicBench,and
is discharged
at the exit to the measuringtank of the bench.
In the run of thepipe therearethe following fittings:
90 mitre bend
90 elbow bend
90 large radius bend
Suddenenlargementin pipe diameter
Suddencontractionin pipe diameter

Piezometertappingsare providedin the pipe wall, at clear


lengthsof 4 pipe diameters,upstreamand downstreamof
each of the fittings. The tappings are connectedto a
multitubemanometer
which maybe pressurised
by useof a
cyclepump.The systemmaybe purgedof air by ventingto
atmosphere
throughthe manometer.The flow rate through
the equipmentmay be varied by adjustingthe valve near
thepipeexit.

H34wss~

IN PIPElI'n-I'INGS

r
T

Vu2/2g

r--~

i&H
"'~.

V d2/2g
"',

r
r

'! "

"1'

r~

Figure 2. SchematicRepresentationof Lossat a Pipe Jlitting.

11

Page4

11

H34 LOS~

IN PIPE

rJNGS

Measurement of Loss Fig 2 shows water flowing at speed V u along a pipe of


of Total Head at a diameter Du towards some pipe fitting such as a bend or a
Fitting

valve, but shown for simplicity as a simple restriction in the


cross-section of the flow. Downstream of the fitting, the
water flows along a pipe of some other diameter Dd, along
which the velocity of flow is V d. The figure indicates the
variation of piezometric head along the pipe run, as would
be shown by numerous pressure tappings at the pipe wall.
In the region of undisturbed flow,

far upstream of the

fitting, the distribution of velocity across the pipe remains


unchanged from one cross-section to another; this is the
condition referred to as 'fully developed pipe flow'.

Over

this region, the piezometric head falls, with a uniform,


mild gradient, as a result of the effect of constant friction at
the pipe wall in fully developed pipe flow. Close to the
fitting,

however, there are sharp and substantial local

disturbances to the piezometric head, caused by rapid


changes in direction and speed as the water passes through
the fitting. In the downstream region, these disturbances die
away,

and

the

line

of

piezometric

head

returns

asymptotically
to
a
slight linear gradient, as the velocity distribution gradually
returns to the condition of fully developed pipe flow.

If the upstreamand downstreamlines of linear friction


gradientare now extrapolatedto the planeof the fitting, a
lossof piezometrichead~h due to the fitting is found. To
establishthe correspondingloss of total head ~H it is
necessaryto introducethe velocity headsin the upstream
anddownstream
runsof pipe. From Fig 2 it is clearthat:
AH

Ah + Vu2/2g - Vd2/2g

---

It is conveniantto expressthis as a dimensionlessloss


coefficientK, by dividing throughby the velocity headin
eitherthe upstreamor the downstream
pipe (thechoice

1
H34 LOSS~ IN PIPE JI"n-J"INGS
dependingon the context, as we shall seelater).
The result is thus
4H
4H

K=

or

2a

For the case where Du= Dd, the flow velocitiesin the
upstreamanddownstream
areidentical,so we may simplify
the definition to:
K = 2Mi

V /2g

or

2~
V /2g

2b

whereVdenotesthe flow velocity in either the upstreamor


the downstream
piperun.*
To obtainresultsof high accuracy,long sectionsof straight
pipe (of 60 pipe diametersor more)are neededto establish
with certaintythe relativepositionsof the linear sectionsof
the piezometriclines. Suchlong upstreamand downstream
lengthsareimpracticablein a compactapparatus.However,
if just two piezometersare placed,one upstreamand one
downstreamof the fitting, outside the region of severe
disturbance,reasonableaccuracyis obtained simply by
takingAh asthedifferentialreadingbetweenthe two.

0
L'

[
[
* The velocity headv2/2g usedhere is basedsimply on
the mean flow velocity V. Becausethe velocity varies
acrossthe pipe cross-section,from zero at the wall to a
maximum at the centre, the velocity head in this nonuniform flow is somewhathigher, being typically 1.05 to
I.O7V2/2g.

L
0
0

'"

"

".,
'f/
,~

RX

,-

(a) 908bend

(c) Suddencontraction

Figure

3.Flow in a Bend, SuddenEnlargementan SuddenContraction.

Charactermics of a Fig 3(a) illustrates flow round a 900 bend which has a
}low Through Bends constantcircular cross-sectionof diameter D. The radius of
and at Changesin the bend is R, measuredto the centre line. The curvature of
Diameter the flow as it passesround the bend is causedby a radial

gradient of piezometric head, so that the piezometric head


is lower at the inner surface of the pipe than at its outer
surface.

Page7

l
H34 LOSS~ IN PIPE.l4rJ-rINGS
As the flow leavesthe bend,theseheadsstartto equaliseas
theflow losesits curvature,so that piezometricheadbegins
to rise alongthe inner surface.This rise causesthe flow to
separate,so generatingmixing lossesin the subsequent
turbulent reattachmentprocess. Additionally, the radial
gradientof piezo-metrichead sets up a secondarycrossflow in the form of a pair of vortices, having outward
directed velocity componentsnear the pipe centre, and
inward components near the pipe walls. When
superimposed
on the generalstreamingflow, the result is a
double spiral motion, which persistsfor a considerable
distancein the downstreamflow, and which generates
further lossesthat are attributableto the bend. Clearly, the
value of the loss coefficientK will be a function of the
geometricratio RID; as this ratio increases,making the
bend less sharp,we would expectthe value of K to fall.
The smallestpossiblevalue of RID is 0.5, for which the
bendhasa sharpinner comer.For this case,the valueof K
is usuallyabout1.4. As RID increases,the valueof K falls,
reducingto valueswhich may be as low as 0.2 as RID
increases
up to 2 or 3. Thereis alsoa slight dependence
on
ReynoldsNumberRe, but for most purposesthis is small
enoughto be ignored.
Fig 3(b) showsthe flow in a suddenenlargement.The flow
separates
at the exit from the smallerpipe, forming a jet
whichdiffusesinto the largerbore, and which reattaches
to
the wall somedistancedownstream.
The vigorous turbulent mixing, resulting from the
separationand reattachment
of the flow, causesa loss of
total head. The piezometrichead in the emergingjet,
however,startsat the samevalueas in the pipe immediately
upstream,and increasesthrough the mixing region, so
rising acrossthe enlargement.

Page8

H34 LQSSFSIN ~F1

TI'lNGS
Thesechangesin total and piezometric head, neglecting the
small effect of friction gradient, are illustrated in Fig 3(b).
Assuming that the piezometric pressureon the face of the
enlargementto be equal to that in the emergingjet, and that
the momentumflux is conserved,the loss of total head may
be shown to be:

4H = (Vo

(3)

The correspondingrise in piezometric headis:


.db
...

2Vd(V u - V d>/2g

(ii)

The loss coefficientK is, in this case,best relatedto the


upstreamvelocityVu, sothat:

.
(5)

.
--

This showsK increasingfrom zero whenAu/~ = 1.0,to


1.0 whenAu/~ falls to zero.

I.

Considerlastly the caseof the suddencontraction shown in


Fig 3(c). The flow separatesfrom the edge where the face
of the contraction leadsinto the smaller pipe, forming a jet

which convergesto a contracted section of cross-sectional


area Ac. Beyond this contractedsection there is a region of

..

turbulent mixing, in which the jet diffuses and re-attaches


to the wall of the downstreampipe. The lossesoccur almost
entirely in the process of turbulent diffusion and re-

attachment.The lossesare therefore expected to be those


due to an enlargementfrom the contracted area Ac to the

J.

downstreampipes area ~. Following the result of equation


(3), the expectedloss of total headin contraction is:
4H

(V c

- V d)2/2g

.(6)

H34 LOSS~ IN PIPE ~"'l-l'INGS


The obvious choice of referencevelocity in this caseis V d,
so the loss coefficient K becomes:
IC

==

[<"c"/d)

- 1]2 == [(~'1lC) - 1]2

(7)

Considernow the probable range of values of Ad' Ac. If the


value of the pipe contraction ratio is 1.0, viz if Ad' Au =
1.0, there will be no separationof the flow, so Ad' Ac =
1.0 also. Equation (7) then gives a zero value of K. If,
however, the contraction is very severe, viz. Ad' Au -+ 0,
then the upstream pipe tends to an infinite reservoir in
comparison with the downstream one. We might then
reasonablyexpect the flow at the entry to the downstream
pipe to resemble that from a large reservoir through an
orifice of area Ad. For such an orifice, the contraction
coefficient has the value 0.6 approximately, so that

~/Ac = 1/0.6= 1.667


Substitutingthis value in equation(7) gives:

K = 0.44
It might thereforebe expectedthat K would rise from zero
whenthe pipe arearatio ~I Au = 1 to a value of about
0.44 asratio ~I Au falls towardszero.

1
1

H34 LOSS~ IN PIPE l4Tl-l"JNGS


Installation
Instructions

Connectthe supply hoseof the HI Hydraulics Bench to the


inlet of the unit. Fix a further hoseto the outlet of the unit,
to direct the dischargeto the measuringtank of the bench.
Ensure that the connectionsare made correctly by referring
to the mimic diagram, which shows the direction of flow.
Ensure that the hose clip connecting the inlet hose to the
apparatus is tight. Start the pump, and open fully the
control valve at the exit from the unit, to allow water to
circulate through the pipework. Check the systemfor leaks.
Now use the following procedure to ensure that all air is
expelled from the system. Depress the Schrader valve,
which is situatedin the manometermanifold. Partially close
the control valve at the exit from the unit. Air bubbles will
be seento be carried upwards by the water currents along
the manometertubes into the manifold, from which they
escapeto atmospherethrough the depressedSchradervalve.
Adjust the control valve at the exit from the unit to produce
vigorous flow up the manometertubes, so ensuring that the
systemis thoroughly purged of air. When this is complete,
close the Schrader valve, and close the valve at the exit
from the unit. Now connect the air pump to the Schrader
valve, and carefully pump air into the manifold. Continue
to pump until air is driven down the manometertubes to a

...

convenientheight. Again check for leaks by observing that


the water levels in the manometer tubes remain constant
over a period of time.

Page11

H34 LOSSFSIN PIPE lIII-rINGS


Routine Care and Cleanwatershouldalwaysbe usedwith the unit. If usedin
Maintenance conjunctionwith a TQ Hydraulic Bench(HI or HID) the
water should be changedperiodically in line with the
manufacturers
instructions,and a suitablestain and deposit
removerused.To cleanthe apparatusexternallyit should
only be necessary
to wipe with warm water and a lint-free
cloth; do not usedetergentsor any abrasivesas thesemay
damagethe smoothfibreglassand painted surfaces.The
equipment is designed for trouble-free operation and
service, but if for any reasondamagedoes occur then
TecQuipmentor their accreditedAgent shouldbe informed
immediatelyto advise and arrange for the appropriate

repair.

Page12

H34 LOSS~ IN PIPE I1U-."INGS

EXPERIMENTAL Set up the unit and level it as describedin the Installation


PROCEDURE Instructions. Note the diameters of the pipes and
dimensionsof the fittings, as shownon the mimic diagram.

Openthe exit valve carefully, watchingthe water levelsin


the manometertubes.Admit or releaseair as necessaryto
keepall the readingswithin the rangeof the scale.When
the maximumfeasible flow rate is reached,record the
differential readingsacross each of the fittings, while
timing the collectionof a known quantityof water in the
measuringtankof the bench.
Repeatthesemeasurements
at a numberof ratesof flow. It
maybe necessary
to pumpin moreair to the manometerto
keepthe readingswithin boundsasthe exit valve is closed;
alternativelythe benchvalve may be usedto effect part of
the flow reduction.

ra..

...

~
Page13

H34 LOSS~ IN PIPE J4'r.-rINGS


~UL TS AND Dimensions of Pipesand Fittings
CALCULA nONS
Diameter of smaller bore pipe
Diameter of larger bore pipe
Radius to centre line of mitre
Radius to centre line of elbow
Radius to centre line of bend
Piezometer

Differential
Total Head

Dl =
D2 =

mm Al =
mm A2 =

Rm=
Re=
Rb =

mm
mm

m2
m2

mm

Readings and

Loss

of

If the measuredflow rate is Q l/s, then the velocities VI


and V 2 along the pipes of cross-sectionalA 1 and A2 m2
areasare:
VI

lQ-3QtAI mts and V2

lQ-3Q/A2 m/s

The laboratoryreadingsare recordedas follows (note that


the readingfor the enlargement
is negative):

Differential Piezometer Reading (mm)


Qty

Time

Mitre

0)

(s)

(l/s)

1-2

24

43.3

0.554

154

Eloow
3-4

Enlargement
S-6

Contract
-ion
7-8

113

-28

104

Bend
9-10

62

Table 1 PiezometricHead Lossesat Various Ratesof Flow


n.

Page14

H34 LOSS~ IN PIPE J4I...'INGS


Next, velocities and velocity heads are calculated at each
rate of flow, for both the smaller and larger diameterpipes.
The calculationsare tabulatedas follows. (Values are based
on Dl = 22.5mm and D2 = 29.6mm).

Note that, for the case of the enlargementand of the


contractiononly, the loss of total head differs from the
differential piezometerreading, as shown in equation 1.
For example,the sampleentriesin the tablesshow, in the
caseof the suddenenlargement:

Ah
V u2/2g
Vd2/2g

So

4H

~I..A...'T

,~

OL~
=)

.61-1

:.

VI :'A.

~:~~

VI
(mls)

V2
(m/s)

Lossof Total Head (mm)


V12/2g
(mm)

Vr/2g
(mm)

Mitre
1-2

~
1.394

Vu "':;./.
A~ +-~~ - ~

Q..

Q.

/~

0.806

99

33

154

Elbow
3-4

EnJargement
5-6 ~

Cootract-

38

43

-.

J.

113

ion .
7-8
. - II..

Bend
9-10

'\J

62

Table 2 Total Head Loss at Various Ratesof Flow

Page15

H34 WSS~

IN PIPE i4I.-.'INGS

Calculation of Loss To obtain the loss coefficients of eachof the fittings, values
CoefficientsK of total head loss shown in Table 2 are plotted against

values of velocity head V 12/2g, which is the velocity head


in the pipe of smaUerdiameter. For every fitting other than
the suddencontraction, V 12/2grepresentsthe velocity head
in the upstream pipe, and so conforms with the relevant
definition of K. For the contraction, V 12/2g representsthe
velocity head in the downstream pipe, which again
conforms with the relevant definition. The slopes of the
lines through the origin give the values of K for each of the
fittings in turn, as shown in Figs 4 and 5.

1~

I-X

'~:~ j
-.} 6H.2g

120

0.22.5

<2

-g
.!

]
'0

I')

$/

80

If/y
../

40

A"

'.'

r"

20

40

80

100

VeJodty head va /2g (mm)

Figure 4. Total Bead Lossin 90 Bendsof Various Radii.

J
Page16

1
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i

-.

H34 LOSSF$IN PIPE Frj-j'1NGS

60
.50

-:I:
~

~
]

40

30

""fa

:g
'0

20

10

i-

-.+::~~~=3

50

Du= 29.6mm

40

-<]
]
i
-

4H=k~
29

=22.5 mm

~~

30
20

(.S"
..,

,~

'0
II)

vu

10

20

40

'

(,0

Ix,wnsb'eamvelocity
head v: /

100

(mm)

729

Figure S. Total Head Lossat a SuddenEnlargementand a SuddenContraction

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