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STATE OF KUWAIT

NEW PRIVATE SECTOR
LABOUR LAW NO.6 OF
2010
WITH EXPLANATORY MEMORANDUM
In Al-Kuwait Al-Yawm, The Official Gazette,
Issue No. 963 Dated 21Feb. 2010

LAW NO. 6 OF 2010
CONCERNING LABOUR IN PRI­
VATE SECTOR

Law Decree No. 67 of 1980 issuing
the Civil Code duly amended by the
Law No. 15 of 1996; and

Having perused the Constitution;

Law Decree No. 64·of 1987 estab­
lishing a Labour Department at the
Court of First Instance; and

The Penal Code issued by the Law
No. 16 of 1960 and its amending
laws; and

Law Decree No. 23 of 1990 organiz­
ing the judiciary and the amending
laws thereof; and

Law No. 38 of 1964 on Labour in
Private Sector and its amending laws;
and

Law No. 56 of 1996 issuing the In­
dustrial Law; and

Law No. 28 of 1969 regarding La­
bour in Oil Sector; and

Law No. 1 of 1990 regarding the
Health Insurance on Aliens and ap­
plying some fees on health services;
and

The Social Security Law issued by
the Amiri Order Law No. 61 of 1976
and its amending laws; and

Law No. 19 of 2000 concerning the
Support and Encouragement of Na­
tional Labour Force to work for Non­
Governmental parties and its amend­
ing laws; and

Law Decree No. 28 of 1980 issuing
the Maritime Law and its amending
laws; and
Law Decree No. 38 of 1980 issuing
the Civil & Commercial Procedure
Law and its amending laws; and

The National Assembly hereby ap­
proves the following law, which we
hereby sanction and issue:
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Article 3
The provisions of this law shall be
enforceable to the marine work con­
tract in all issues which are not espe­
cially stipulated in the Maritime Law;
or the text of this law shall be more
beneficial to the labourer. Article 4
The provisions of this law shall be
enforceable to the Oil Sector in all is­
sues which are not especially stipu­
lated in the Oil Sector Labour Law;
or the text of this law shall be more
beneficial to the labourer. Article 5
The following workers shall be ex­
cluded from the implementation of
the provisions of this law:
-Workers being subjectto the en­
forcement of other laws and the pro­
visions of the relevant laws.
- Domestic Workers regarding whom
a decision shall be issued by the com­
petent Minister for organizing their
affairs and the rules and regulations
governing the relationship between
them and their employers.
Article 6
Without prejudice to any other better
privileges and rights prescribed for

CHAPTER I GENERAL
PROVISIONS Article 1
In the application of the provisions of
this law, the terms stated hereunder
shall have the following meanings:
1. Ministry : denotes the Ministry of
Social Affairs & Labour
2. Minister : denotes the Minister of
Social Affairs & Labour
3. Labourer: Every male or female
who does a manual or intellectual la­
bour in favour of an employer, under
his management and control against a
fixed wage.
4. Employer: denotes every natural or
legal person that employs labourers
against a fixed wage.
5. Organization: denotes an organiza­
tion consisting of a group of labour­
ers or employers whose labours, pro­
fessions or jobs are similar or related
to each other and shall care for their
interests, defend their rights and shall
also represent them in all issues related to their affairs.
. Article 2
The provisions of this law shall be
enforceable to the private sector em­
ployees.
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The data which the employers shall provide to the Ministry in re­ spect of the government employees who are duly licensed to work for 4 . Also. CHAPTER II EMPLOYMENT. norms and traditions. Conditions for labour force trans­ fer from one employer to another. especially the following con­ ditions: 1. Some occupations. 4. This shall be made in the forms especially prepared for this purpose according to the terms and conditions regarding of which a decision shall be issued by the Minis­ ter. 2. Conditions for allowing labourers to work as part-timers with one em­ ployer to another employer. 3. the provisions of this law shall represent the minimum lim­ it for the labourers' rights. APPRENTICE­ SHIP AND VOCATIONAL TRAINING SECTION I : EMPLOYMENT Article 7 The competent Minister shall issue the decisions organizing the condi­ tions of employment in the Private Sector. professions and works which shall be filled only after passing the relevant professional tests as per the rules and regulations to be set forth by the Ministry in co­ ordination with the competent authorities.other employers after the official working hours. Article 8 Every employer shall advise the Competent Authority of his labour force requirements. he shall in­ form the Competent Authority annu­ ally of the number of the employees working for him. This Authority shall undertake the jurisdictions prescribed for the labourers in their individual or col­ lective employment contracts or in the special systems or the applicable rules and regulations at the employer or accordingto the ethics of profession or the public customs. Article 9 A public authority of a separate legal personality and an independent balance sheet shall be founded and to be named: "The Public Authority for Labour Force" under the control of the Minister of Social Affairs & La­ bour.

documents and fees to be charged from the employer. otherwise the decision shall be entirely null as if it is not issued. in this case. Furthermore. Any act deemed in contradiction to this provi­ sion shall be entirely void. for instance by issuing these permits to some em­ ployers and refusing this to other em­ ployers under any reasons or excus­ es. If the worker abandons coming to his work and worked for another em­ ployer. for regulatory reasons. an organizing law shall be issued with regard to this Authority. upon registering an absconding notice against the worker by his main sponsor. to cease the issuance of labour permits and transfers for a maximum period of two weeks per year. In case of refusal. The Ministry shall have the right. The Min­ ister shall issue a decision on the rules.ers from outside the country or ap­ point labourers from inside the coun­ try without making them to work for him. the employer shall be obliged to return the employer back to his home country. Also the Author­ ity shall recruit and employ the expa­ tri<lt'=' 1abour force according to the applications submitted by employers. However.- Ministry in this law. 5 . Within one year from the effective date of this law. Article 10 The employer is banned to employ foreign labour force unless they are duly authorized by the Competent Authority to work for him. the Minis­ try may not exclude certain employ­ ers of ceasing regulations and leave others during this period. the refusal decision shall be reasonable. the employer shall bear the Article 11 Both the Ministry and the competent authority shall be banned to exercise any segregation or preferential treat­ ment while dealing with employers concerning the issuance of labour permits or transfers. An employer shall not recruit labour. the refusal decision shall not be relevant to the capital amount. ------- ------ expenses for returning the labourer to his country. If it is evident that he is not ac­ tually in need of those labourers.

SECTION II APPRENTICESHIP & VOCATION­ AL TRAINING every learning stage. The contract shall state the profession. one copy for each contract party and the third copy shall be given to the competent Au­ thority at the Ministry within one (1) week for authentication. Article 14 An employer may cancel the appren­ ticeship contract if the apprentice vi­ olates his assigned duties under the contract or if it is evident from the periodic reports prepared on him that he is not ready to learn. Article 12 Every person who attains 15 years and enters into a contract with a finn for the purpose of learning a profes­ sion within a specific time period shall be considered as a professional apprentice. the apprentice may also tenninate his contract. In all cases. The profession. according to the tenns and conditions to be agreed upon and also in all that is not especially stipu­ lated in this Chapter. Likewise. the remuneration shall not be decided on the basis of the production or a piece of work. Article 13 The professional apprenticeship con­ tract shall be made in writing and is­ sued in three copies. provided that the remuneration in the last stage shall not be less than the minimum limit prescribed for the present em­ ployment contract. the tenn of its learning. its consecutive phases and the progressive remuneration of Article 15 Vocational training shall mean the theoretical and practical tools and programs that give labourers the chance to develop their knowledge and skills or attend the job training within the firm so as to enhance their 6 .· al apprenticeship contract shall be subject to the provisions concerning the juvenile employment stated in this law. provided that the party who is willing to tenninate the contract shall give notice to the other party of this desire at least sev­ en days in advance.

This decision shall bind one firm or more to provide training for labour­ ers in other centers or institutes if the first firm hasn't got training centers or institutes. Article 17 The firms which are subject to the provisions of this Chapter shall pay the worker his full wages for his training period whether inside or out­ side the firm. to work for the em­ ployer for a similar period of his ap­ prenticeship or training in a term of not more than five years. in cooperation and co­ ordination with the competent educa­ tional and professional institutions. Article 18 The professional apprentice and la­ bourer trainee shall be obliged. in respect of which 7 . the em­ ployer may reimburse from him the expenses spent for his learning or training. Article 20 Juvenile employment who are be­ tween the age of 15 and 18 years may be made by the permission of the Ministry under the following condi­ tions: a) To be employed in such works and trades other than those hazardous & harmful to health.abilities. centers or establishments that achieve this purpose. prepare them for certain profes­ sions or transfer them to others. theoretical & practical programs and the system of examina­ tion and certificates to be issued in this respect and the information to be written therein. SECTION III EMPLOYMENT OF JUVENILES Article 19 Employment of those who did not at­ tain 15 years of age shall be banned. Training shall be organized in insti­ tutes. If he is in breach of these obligations. shall fix the necessary terms & con­ ditions to be satisfied for holding the vocational training programs as well as the prescribed limits for the training period. after the completioof his learning or training period. in proposal to the remaining period to be spent in the work. Article 16 The Minister. to improve their productivi­ ty.

which shall be fol­ lowed by at least one hour rest break. a decision shall be issued by the Min­ ister b) To be medically checked up. SECTION IV ENWLOYMENTOFWOMEN Article 22 Women shall not be employed at night between 10:00 pm to 7:00 am. The Minister of Social Affairs & Labour. Juveniles shall not have to work ad­ ditional working hours or during weekly off days. Also women shall not be employed in such jobs which are violating their morals and based on the utilization of their femininity in a manner which is not in lirie with the public morals. save those who work in hospitals.houses and other health institutions regarding of which a decision shall be issued by the Minister of Social Affairs & Labour. shall issue a decision to specify these jobs and entities. and thereafter periodically for not more than six months. be­ fore the employment. private treatment Article 23 The employment of women in dan­ gerous. The Minister shall issue a decision determining these works and trades in addition to the profes­ sions. hard or harmful to health trades and works shall be prohibited. on condition that the employer shall in all the above cases ensure the security require­ ments for women in addition to the provision of means of transport from and to the place of work. The official work hours during Holy month Ramadan shall be excluded from the above provisions. procedures and dates organiz­ ing the periodic medical examination. Moreover. 8 . holidays or between 7:00pm to 6:00am. health centers. women shall not be em­ ployed in institutions which provide service exclusively for men. Article 21 The juveniles maximum working hours shall be 6 (six) hours per day. on condition that they shall not be made to work for more than 4 hours continuously. in consultation with the Consultant Committee for Labour Affairs.

in accordance with the terms and conditions to be determined by the Ministry's decision. The employer shall not terminate the service of a female labourer while she is in her maternity leave or dis­ continue her joining the work due to a sickness which shall be evidenced by a medical report that it is arising of pregnancy or delivery. if she performs the same job. provided that the delivery shall happen during this perid. Article 24 The pregnant woman shall be entitled to a paid maternity leave of 70 (sev­ enty) days which shall not be includ­ ed within her other leaves. after expiry of the ma­ ternity leave.ployees therein is more than 200. this period shall not exceed one year until he attains the age of 18 years old. The contract shall be drawn up into three 9 I . An employer shall arrange a Day Care Center for children below four (4) years if the number of women in his firm is more than fifty (50) or the number of em- Article 26 A female labourer shall have the right to the same salary given to the male labourer. may give a female la­ bourer upon her request a leave with­ out salary for not more than four months to take care of her child. the effective date. In the case of limited period contract. The employer. amount of wage. Article 28 An work contract shall be prepared in writing and shall particularly consist of the date of signing the contract. CHAPTER III INDIVIDUAL WORK CONTRACT SECTION I WORK CONTRACT FRAME­ WORK Article 27 Every person who attains 15 years of age shall be entitled to sign a work contract for an unlimited period. Article 25 A female labourer shall be given two (2) hours in order to breast feed her child during the official working hours. contract period if it is for a limited period and the nature of work.

The provision of this article shall be applicable to all correspon­ dence. Article 31 If the work contract is for a limited period and both parties continue to implement it after the expiry of its term without extension. Article 30 If the employment contract is for a limited period. bylaws and circulars issued by the employer to his labour­ ers. Article 29 All contracts shall be made in Arabic language and the translation of which 10 . the contract shall be deemed as prevailing and in this case the labourer shall evidence his rights through all evidencing methods. it shall be au­ tomatically renewable for similar pe­ riods under the same conditions con­ tained therein. its term shall not be more than five (5) years and not less than one year. the renewal shall not affect the labourer's accrued dues arising from the previous contract. butthe Arabic language shall have preference in case of discrepan­ cies. If the work contract is for a limited or unlimited period. unless the two parties agree to renew it under other condi­ tions. bulletins.copies. Also an employer may not assign the labourer to perform a work which is not in line with the nature of the work stated in the contract or not compliant with the qualifications and experiences of the labourer on the ba­ sis of which the contract is signed with him. In all cases. If the work contract is not prepared ill a written document. Any agreement signed before the validity of the con­ tract or subsequent thereto shall be deemed absolutely void as it is relat­ ed to the public order. the labourer wage shall not be reduced during the valid­ ity of the contract. in any foreign language can be added to it. one for each party whereas the third copy shall be sent to the Competent Authority at the Ministry. The contract may be extended upon expiry by the agree­ ment of both parties.

the housing allowance shall be deter­ A labourer may not be employed unmined by a decision from the Minis­ der the probation period with the ter. Either party may ter­ suitable accommodation and means minate the contract during the proba­ tion period without notice. In all other cases in which the em­ The Minister shall issue a decision ployer shall be obliged to provide an organizing the rules and regulations accommodation for his labourers. he them an accommodation. the decision provided for in the pre­ Article 33 vious paragraph regarding the condi­ If the employer subcontracts work or tions of the suitable accommodation any part the work to another employ­ and fixing the housing allowance. The two OBLIGATIONS OF LABOURER & employers shall jointly work_together EMPLOYER in this respect. the employer to whom the work is as­ Article 35 signed shall treat his labourers and The employer shall fix in an open those of the main employer equally II . In the event of not providing mination is made by the employer. er under the same work conditions. he shall provide a working days. same employer for more than once. Remote areas and suitable ac­ ment period according to the provi­ commodation conditions as well as sions of this law. he shall shall pay the labourer his terminal give them a suitable housing allow­ service indemnity for his employ­ ance. If the ter­ of transport for his labourers free of charge.SECTION II in all their rights and dues. REGULATIONS AND PENALTIES Article 32 Article 34 The employer who signs a contract The labourer probation period shall be for the implementation of a govern­ specified in the work contract pro­ ment project or employs his labourvided that it shall not exceed hundred ers in remote areas. he of the work during the probation peshall be subject to the provisions of riod.

Article 36 The employer shall approve the pen­ alties rules & regulation. b) They shall include progress penal­ ties for contraventions. The Ministry shall present these regulations to the competent organization. Article 37 The labourer shall not be punished unless he is informed in writing of the contravention committed by him and after hearing his testimony. if any. c) No more than open punishment shall be imposed on one single con­ travention. Article 39 The labourer may be prevented to continue his work for the interest of 12 . If the penalty exceeded this limit. The Ministry may amend these regula­ tions according to the nature of the firm activity or work conditions in such a way which is in line with the provisions of this law. the extra amount shall be reduced from the sal­ ary of next month or months.place at the work center the rules and regulations of penalties applicable to the violating workers. Article 38 No deduction may be executed from the worker's wage for a period of more than five days monthly. e) A labourer shall not be punished for any act committed after the ex­ piry of fifteen (15) days from the date of its proof. provide that the rules and regulations shall ob­ serve the following: a) The regulations shall specify the contraventions which may be com­ mitted by workers. reasons for imposition and the pun­ ishment which he may exposed to if he repeated the same act. then the regulations shall be referred to the General Union in order to give its remarks and proposals on these regulations. extent. re­ ceiving his pleading and proving the same in the minutes to be lodged in the labourer's file. their type. by the Ministry. d) No Penalty shall be imposed on a labourer for an act committed outside the place of work unless it is related to the work. before its application. If there is no competent organization. The labourer shall be notified in writing of the penalties imposed on him.

3. The Minister shall issue a decision on the rules and regulations organiz­ ing the above fund and the distribu­ tion method. economic and cultural activi­ ties for the benefit of the labourers. If he commits an act against the Article 40 The employer shall deposit the de­ ducted amounts from the labuorer wage of in a fund to be allocated for social. In the event of dissolution of the firm. The deduction penalties imposed on the labourers shall be registered in a special record showing the labourer name. SECTION III EXPIRY OF EMPLOYMENT CON­ TRACT& TERMINAL SERVICE INDEMNI­ TY Article 41 Without prejudice to the provisions of Article (37) of this law: a) The employer may terminate the labourer's service without notice. If the labourer has been convicted of a crime affecting honor. 2. honesty or morality. he shall be paid his salary for the period of suspension. If the labourer commits a fault that resulted in a gross loss to the employ­ er. amount of deduction and the cause of its application. 2. the deduc­ tion proceeds in the fund shall be distributed among the existing workers at the time of dissolution in propor­ tional to the service term of each.- the investigation conducted by the employer or his representative for a period not exceeding ten days. b) The employer may terminate the labourer in one of the following cases: 1. indemnity or remuneration if the la­ bourer commits one of the following acts:1. If the labourer discloses any se­ crets related to the firm he works for which caused or could have caused certain losses to it. If the investigation with the labourer has concluded that he is not responsible for the relevant act. 13 . If it is evident that the labourer has used any fraudulent act or cheating to obtain the work.

the termination de­ cision shall not result in depriving the labourer of his terminal service indemnity.public morals in the place of work. In all these cases. If he repeatedly disobeys the in­ structions of the employer. Article 42 If a labourer discontinues work without an acceptable reason for seven consecutive days or twenty interrupt­ ed days within one year. the provisions of Article (53) of this law shall be applicable on the labourer's eligibility to terminal service indemnity. he shall be considered as suspended from the work but the employer shall not terminate his employment con­ tract unless he is convicted by virtue of a final court judgment. or fails to carryout any of the obligations im­ posed on him under the terms of the relevant contract and the provisions ofthis law. the employer shall in- form the Ministry by the termination decision and its causes. the employer or his representative during work or be­ cause of work. In all cases. the employer 14 . If he commits a breach of. If he commits any assaults upon a fellow worker. The Ministry shall advise the Labour Force Re­ structuring Program according!y. 4. the employ­ er may deem him resigned legally. 3. In this case. under a pre­ ventive imprisonment or in execution to a non-final court judgment. If it is evident by virtue of a final court judgment that the employer has ter­ minated the labourer in an arbitrary way. the latter shall be entitled to a terminal service indemnity and com­ pensation for the material and moral damages incurred by him. 5. If a judgment is issued on his inno­ cence from the charge(s) attributed to him by the employer. Article 43 If a labourer is imprisoned due to a charge by the employer. c) The terminated worker for any of the above cases in this Article shall have the right to appeal the ter­ mination decision before the compe­ tent Labour Circuit according to the procedures stipulated in this law.

IS . If the party who terminated the contract does not observe thno­ tice period.shall be obliged to pay him his wage for the period of suspension along with indemnifying him in a fair com­ pensation to be decided by the court. he shall be obliged to pay the other party a notice period amount equal to the labourer's salary for the same period. The labourer shall have the right to fix the absent day and hours provided that he shall inform the employer at least in the day preceding his ab­ sence. either of the two parties may terminate it after giving notice to the other in writing. Article 44 If the contract is made for an unlimit­ ed period. in the event of monthly salary labourer. Article 46 The service of the labourer shall not be terminated without reason or due to his trade union activity or as are­ sult of claiming for or enjoyment of his legitimate rights according to the provisions of the law. Article 45 The employer may not use his right to terminate the contract under the previous Article while the labourer enjoys one of his leaves provided for in this law. origin or religion. b) At least one month prior to termi­ nation of contract. and the notice shall be made in the following man­ ner: a) At least three months prior to the termination of the contract. together with the effects arising thereof particularly the labourer's entitlement to his wage for the notice period. the labourer shall have the right to be absent from work for one full day within a week or eight (8) hours during the week in or­ der to search for another job along with his entitlement to his wage for the absent day or hours. Also. a labour­ er service shall not be terminated by reason of his sex. in case of other la­ bourers. c) If the termination notice is made by the employer. d) The employer may terminate the labourer during the notice period along with calculating the labourer service term continuously until the expiry of that period.

f) If the employer or whoever repre­ sents him has committed an act that violate the morals against the labour­ er. he shall then be obliged to compensate the other party for the damage incurred by him. While fixing the damage extent with regard to the two contracting parties. provided that the compensation amount shall not ex­ ceed what is equal to the labourer's wage for the remaining period of the contract. d) If the employer or his representa­ tive has introduced any act of cheat­ ing or fraud at the time of contracting in relation to the contract conditions. c) If his continuation of doing the work will threaten his safety or health by a decision by the Medical Arbitration Committee at the Ministry of Health. and generally all other considerations which·may affect the damage in terms of its existence and extent. by a certified certificate from the competent official medical authorities.Article 47 If the work contract is for a limited period and either party terminates it without having any right to do so. 16 . contract term. b) If an assault is committed against him by the employer or whoever rep­ resents him or by instigation or in­ citement by either of them. Article 48 A labourer shall have the right toter­ minate the work contract without no­ tice together with his entitlement to the terminal service indemnity in any of the following cases: a) If the employer does not abide by the provisions of the contract and the law. work nature. e) If the employer charges the labour­ er of committing a criminal act and a final judgment is issued and declared his innocence. Article 49 The employment contract shall expire by the death of the labourer or if it is evident that he is unable or dis­ able to perform his duty or by reason of such a sickness that consumed his sick leave. Any debts which may be due for the other party shall be deducted from the compensation amount. the prevailing customs.

provided that the total indemnity shall not ex­ ceed one and a half year wage. donation or any other legal ac­ tion. The amount of any debts or loans which may be due from the labourer shall be deducted from the terminal service indemnity In this connection. A labourer shall be entitled to the ter­ minal service indemnity for any part of the year in proportion to the period of service he spent in the work. provided that the employer shall be obliged to pay the net differ­ ence between the amounts he affords against the labourer's subscription in the Social Security and the due amounts for the labourer against the terminal service indemnity. with regard to monthly paid labourers. the labour­ er shall be entitled to the terminal 17 .Article 50 The work contract shall expire in the following cases: a) Issuance of a final court judgment that declares the bankruptcy of the employer. Article 51 The labourer shall have the right to the terminal service indemnity as per the following manner: a) A ten days wage. However. b) A fifteen-day-wage for every one year of service of the first five years. piece or per hour. if the firm is sold or merged in another firm or if it is transferred by the means of inheri­ tance. b) The final closure of the firm. the provisions of the Social Security Law shall be ap­ plicable. for every one year of service of the first five years and fifteen (15) days wage for every one year of service for the following years. with regard to the labourers who re­ ceive their wages per day. the work contract shall be effec­ tive on the successors under the same conditions mentioned therein. and one month salary for very year of the following years. Article 52 Without prejudice to the provisions of Article (45) of this law. week. The rights and obligations of the previous employer towards the labourers shall be transferred to the employer who replaces him. provided that the total indemnity shall not exceed a year wage.

If the period of his service has reached five (5) years and did not complete ten (10) years. CHAPTER IV LABOUR SYSTEM & CONDI­ TIONS SECTION I : WAGES Article 55 The word wage denotes the basic sal­ ary received or should be received by 18 . as stipulated in the previous Article. profession and the last salary he obtained. If the term of hisser­ . then he shall be entitled to two-thirds of the indemnity. The employer shall return to the labourer any documents or certificates which may be submitted by him. and the term of his service is not less than three (3) years and did not complete five (5) years. c) If the contract is terminated ac­ cording to the provisions of Articles (48. he shall then be entitled to the full in­ demnity. d) If the female labourer terminates the contract from her part due to her marriage within one year from the date of such marriage.service indemnity. if he terminates the unlimited period contract from his own part. This cer­ tificate shall not include any expressions which may harm the labourer or it may be issued in such a form that may reduce the chances of work before him. as stipulated in Article (51). vice has reached ten (10) years. 50) of this law. Article 53 The labourer shall have the right to receive half the terminal service in­ demnity. b) Upon the expiry of the term of the limited contract period without being renewed. Article 54 The labourer whose work contract has expired shall obtain from the em­ ployer a service termination certifi­ cate which consists of a statement of his period of service. whether explicitly or im­ plicitly. in full in the fol­ lowing cases: a) If the contract is terminated by the employer. 49.

The payment of salaries shall not be delayed after the seventh day of the due date. (19) of 2000. Without prejudice to the social allow­ ance and children allowance pre­ scribed according to the above mentioned Law No. grants. A decision shall be issued by the Council of Ministers.the worker against or because of his work in addition to all the elements stipulated in the contract or employer's rules & regulations. which shall determine those institu­ tions and the rules for dealing with these accounts in terms of the ex­ penses. commissions and organizing rules & regulations in this regard. b) Other workers shall be paid their salaries at least once every two weeks. donations or cash privi­ leges received by the labourer periodically shall be included within the calculation of the wage. If a labourer wage is determined as a share of the net profit and the firm did not realize profit or realized little profit so that the labourer's share be­ comes not consistent with the work performed by him. Article 57 The employer who have labourers work for him according to the provi­ sions of this law shall deposit their salaries in their relevant accounts opened with local financial institu­ tions. then his wage shall be estimated on the basis of a similar wage or according to the pre­ vailing traditions in this profession or for justice requirements. their salaries at least once a month. according to the proposal of the Minister of Social Affairs & Labour and the Minister of Finance. remunerations. the allowances. commis­ sions. Article 56 Wages shall be paid on a working day in the legal currency in circula­ tion together with observing the fol­ lowing: a) Monthly rate workers shall be paid Article 58 The employer shall not transfer a la19 . A copy of the statements sent to those institutions in this regard shall be forwarded to the Ministry of Social Affairs & Labour.

he shall be obliged to pay the salaries of his la­ bourers for the entire period during which the firm is closed. and the employer shall not receive any inter­ est on such entitlements. food. In the event of co­ incidence. the last salary paid to him shall be considered. alimony debt shall have preference over any other debts. Also. without prejudice to the rights ob­ tained by the labourer during his . Article 61 The employer shall undertake to. since the employer would like them to continue to work with him. save within the limits of 25% for settling a debt of alimony. If a labourer receives a salary on the basis of piece work. If the term of his service is Article 60 The labourers shall not be obliged to buy any foodstuff or commodities from certain shops or to buy from the employer's products. 20 . b) The retention of the wage accrued by the labourer or deduction of any part from this wage may not be made. whether totally or partially. the relevant estimate shall be made on the average wage duly paid to him for the actual working hours during the last three months. work under the monthly salary. Article 62 When calculating the labourer dues. including the employer's debts. Article 59 a) No more than 10% of a worker's wage may be deducted for the settle­ ment of any debts or loans which may be due for the employer.pay the salaries of his labourers during the closure period if he intentionally closes the firm in order to force the labourers to submit or surrender to his demands.bourer who works in a monthly sala­ ry to another class without securing the labourer's written consent and . clothes and other debts. for any other reason which the workers have no hand in it. The assessment of cash and in kind incentives shall be made by dividing the average of what is received by the labourer from the salary during the last twelve months into the enti­ tlement.

er shall not be made to work for more than 8 hours a day or 48 hours a week. taking into account the inflation rates wit­ nessed by the country. according to the provision of the above Article 64. The working hours of hard labour. a labourer may be made to work over­ time hours under a written order issued by the employer if that is neces21 . Article 65 a) The labourer shall not be made to work for more than five continuous hours per day without being followed a break period of not less than one hour. The banking. A labourer's wage shall not be reduced during the course of his work for any reason whatsoever. at least one hour less. financial and invest­ ment sector shall be exempted from this provision and the working hours shall be eight continuous hours.less than one year. labourers may be made to work with­ out any break for technical or emer­ gency reasons or in office works. b) Upon the approval of the Minister. Article 66 Without prejudice to the provisions of Articles (21) & (64) of this law. Break hours shall not be calcu­ lated within the working hours. provided that the total worked hours per day shall be. the labour. SECTION II WORK HOURS & WEEKLY OFF DAYS Article 64 Without prejudice to the provisions of Article (21) of this law. Article 63 The Minister shall issue a decision within a period of not later than eve­ ry five years in which he shall fix the minimum wages according to the nature of profession and trade. after consulta­ tion with the Consultant Committee for Labour & Organization Affairs. health harmful labour and hazard la- bour or for hard conditions may be reduced by virtue of a decision to be issued by the Minister. the average shall be computed in accordance with the percentage period spent in the ser­ vice. Working hours during the holy month of Ramadan shall be 36 hours a week. save the cases provided for herein.

or the labourer's right to obtain a wage against the overtime hours in a rate which is more than his ordinary rate in a similar period by 25%. An em­ ployer. The employer shall keep a special record for the overtime work hours indicating the dates of relevant days. the provisions of Article (56) of this law shall be ap­ plicable. may make a labourer to work during his weekly ·off day if the work conditions so re­ quires. The additional working hours shall not be more than two hours per day and in a maximum number of one hundred eighty (180) hours per year. number of overtime hours and the respective wages for the addi­ tional work which he assigned to the labourer. this shall not pre­ vent the labourer's right to evidence his being entrusted by the employer to perform an additional work through all methods of proof. The provision of the previous para: graph shall not affect the calculation of the labourer's dues including his daily wage and leaves where these dues shall be calculated by dividing his salary into the number of the ac­ tual working days without calculat­ ing therein his weekly off days. Article 68 The official holidays granted to a la­ bourer with full pay are: a) Hijiri New Year Day -One day b) Ascension (Isra & Miraj) Day -One day c) Eid Al Fitr (Lesser Bairam) 22 . Also the additional work periods shall not exceed three days a week and ninety days per year. al­ though the off days are paid days. Article 67 The labourer shall have the right to one fully paid weekly off day which shall be fixed by _24 continuous hours after every six worked days. Also he shall be compensated another day for his off day. when necessary.sary for preventing the occurrence of a dangerous accident or for the repair of any breakdowns arising thereof or for avoiding a certain loss or meeting such works more than the daily re­ quired work. The labourer shall receive at least 50% of his salary in addition to the original salary. When calculating this wage. Furthermore.

-Three days d) Waqfat Arafat -One day Day e) Eid Al Adha (Greater Bai-Three days ram) f) Prophet Birthday One day g) National Day (25th February) -One day h) Liberation Day (26th February) -One day i) New Gregorian Year One day If the work circumstances require keeping any labourer in work on any of the official holidays.with half wage .with full wage . he shall be paid a double wage together with an alternative compensation day. The labourer shall have the right to leave for the fractions of the year in pro­ portional to the period spent in work. then such diseases shall be excluded by a deci­ sion from the competent Minister in which he shall specify the type of such diseases.without wage The sickness which needs a sick leave . However.30 days . In relation to the serious diseases which are difficult to cure.with quarter wage . Official holidays and sick leave days penetrating the leave shall not be counted in the annual leave. SECTION III PAID ANNUAL LEAVES Article 70 The labourer shall have the right to a paid annual leave of thirty days. In the event of any conflict re­ garding the entitlement to the sick leave or its term.15 days . a labourer shall be entitled to a leave for the first year only after the completion of at least nine months in the service of his employ­ er. 23 . the labourer shall have the right to the following sick leaves during the year: . shall be evidenced by a certificate from the physician to be determined by the employer or the doctor who is incharge of a government health center. then the medical doctor certificate shall be approved. Article 69 Without prejudice to the provision of Article 24 herein.10 days.10 days .with three quarter wage .10 days . even if during the first year of ser­ VlCe.

Article 71 The labourer shall have the right to be paid his due salary for the annual leave in advance before obtaining his leave. the labourer shall not have the right to assign his annual leave. with or without com­ pensation. The labourer shall have the right to accumulate his leaves on condition thafthey shall not exceed the leaves of two years. Article 73 Without prejudice to the provisions of the above Articles (70) & (71). provided that the labourer shall be obliged to work for the employer a period equal to the education leave period which shall not exceed five (5) years period. Moreover. Also. The employer shall have the right to reimburse from the la­ bourer any salary paid by him against the leave if it is proven that he is working during his leave with an­ other employer. Article 72 The employer shall have the right to determine the annual leave date. annual leaves may be accumulated by the mutual agreement of both par­ ties for more than two years. the labourer shall have the right to re­ ceive a cash equivalent against his accumulated annual leave days upon the expiry of the contract. he shall be obliged to reim­ burse the salaries received by him during the leave period in proportion to the remaining period to be spent by thlabourer in the work. If the labourer is in breach of this con­ dition. Article 76 The labourer who completes two 24 . the labourer may obtain the leave in one time upon the approval of the employer. Article 75 The employer may give the labourer a paid leave for education in order to obtain a higher qualification in the field of his work. and may grant it partially upon securing the consent of the labourer after the expiry of the first fourteen days thereof. Article 74 Without prejudice to the provisions of the above Article 72.

a special leave without pay in addition to the above­ mentioned other leaves. overtime hours. copy of work contract. SECTION IV OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY & HEALTH FIRST BRANCH RULES OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY & HEALTH MAINTE­ NANCE Article 80 Every employer shall keep a separate labour file for every worker compris­ ing of a copy of the work permit. A female Muslim labourer whose husband expires shall be entitled to a fully paid leave of four months and ten days as from the date of death for the period of waiting (iddat).continuous years in the service of his employer shall be entitled to a paid leave of 21 days for performing Raj rituals. copy of his Civil Identity Card. provided that he should not have previously performed the Raj. occupational diseases. The conditions for granting such leave shall be orga­ nized by a decision from the Minister. provid­ ed that she shall not practice any work with a third party for the entire leave period. work injuries. penalties im- Article 78 The employer shall have the right to grant the labourer a fully paid leave 25 . rules & regulations orga­ nizing this kind of leave. The Minister shall issue a decision on the conditions. for attending Labour Periodic Con­ ferences & Social Gatherings. copies of rele­ vant annual & sick leaves documents. a non-Muslim female labourer whose husband passes away shall be entitled to be paid a full leave salary of twenty one (21) days. upon his request. Article 79 The employer may grant the labour­ er. Also. Article 77 The labourer shall have the right to a leave with full pay of three days upon the death of a first or second grade relative.

service termi­ nation date. circulated 26 . and the personal safety measures which the employer shall provide for the different activities.posed on the labourer. Article 84 Article 81 Every employer shall keep occupa­ tional safety records according to the forms. which shall be delivered to him after the expiry of his work. materials in the firm and the persons utilizing these materials against the work hazards. the hazards which he may be exposed to and the necessary protection measures he should have. equipment. before commencing his work. Article 82 The employer shall fix in a conspicu­ ous place at the work center an ap­ proved rules & regulations by the competent Labour Department at the Ministry. machinery. service termination rea­ sons. consisting in particular of the daily working hours and the break period therein. Also the employer shall provide the required safety and occupational health instruments & kits regarding of which a decision shall be issued by the competent Minister upon seek­ ing the opinion of the competent au­ thorities. the weekly off day and official holidays. copy of receipts of any papers. rules and regulations regard­ ing of which a decision shall be is­ sued by the Minister. The labourer shall not be afforded with any expenses or any amounts may be deducted from his salary · against the provision of protection measures & safety tools for him. The Minister shall issue the relevant regulatory de­ cisions on the instructions and pre­ cautionary warning signboards to be fixed in conspicuous places in the work center. tools & experience certificates deliv­ ered by the labourer to the employer. The employer shall explain to the la­ bourer. Article 83 The employer shall take all needful precautionary safety measures for se­ curing the safety of his labourers.

health and protection against injuries and occupational diseases. the em­ ployer shall be obliged to arrange the required insurance coverage over his workers with insurance companies against work injuries and occupation­ al diseases. schedules of harmful materials and the permissible concentrates for such materials. and he shall undertake to utilize them diligently any protection measures under his possession and to implement the rele­ vant instructions stipulated for his safety. SECOND BRANCH WORK INJURIES & OCCUPA­ TIONAL DISEASES Article 89 Upon the enforcement of the work 27 . along with the appoint­ ment of the specialized technicians or specialists for controlling and ensur­ ing to what extend the safety & occu­ pational measures conditions have been observed. professions and industries that cause such diseases. upon obtaining the opinion of the Minister of Health. .Article 85 The Minister. ' Article 87 The labourer shall exert the neces­ sary protection efforts.. The Minister shall have the right. upon seeking the opinion of the competent authorities.. occupational diseases schedules. Article 86 The employer shall take the neces­ sary precautionary measures for pro­ tecting workers against health hazards and occupational diseases resulting from the practice of such work. Also the decision shall indicate the qualifications and responsibilities of those technicians and specialists as well as their trainmg programs. Article 88 Without prejudice to the provisions of the Social Security Law. shall issue a decision identifying the kinds of activities which shall abide with the provision of the necessary equipment and tools for the workers' safety & occupational health in such installations. to issue the deci­ sions organizing these precautionary measures. and shall further provide the necessary first aid kits and medical services.

Article 90 If the worker is injured due to reason and in the course of or on his way to and from the work. by an application to be submitted to the competent department.injuries insurance terms & conditions as per the Social Security Law. it may be notified by whoever repre­ sents him. the employer shall report the accident immediately upon its occurrence or promptly upon having knowledge thereof. c) The Public Institution for Social Security or the insurance company in which the workers are insured against the work injuries. to each of the follow­ ing:a) The Police Station of the area un­ der whose jurisdiction the place of work is situated.shall replace the provisions stipulated in the following Articles in relation to the work injuries and oc­ cupational diseases. including the value of the medi­ cine and transport expenses. may object to the medical report within one month from the date of being informed thereof before the Medical Arbitration Committee at the Minis­ try of Health. Each of the labourer and the employ­ er. the per­ centage of disability resulting from the injury and to what extent the worker is able to continue the perfor­ mance of his work. The at­ tending doctor shall determine in his report the treatment period. This proc­ lamation may be made by the worker jf his health so permits and also. b) The Labour Department under whose jurisdiction the place of work is situated. (1) of 1999 concern­ ing Health Insurance over the expa. 28 . the employer shall bear the expenses of the injured labourer treatment against work injuries and occupational dis­ eases with a governmental hospital or a private clinic to be determined by him. Article 91 Without prejudice to the provisions of the Law No.triates and the application of fixed fees against the health services.with regard to the in­ sured who are subject to this insu­ rance . these provisions . as the case may be.

Article 93 A labourer who suffers a work injury or occupational disease shall be enti­ tled to receive his wage for the entire treatment period fixed by the medical doctor. The Minister shall issue a resolu­ tion fixing the necessary time period for submission of such statistics. Any act commit­ ted by the injured under the effect of drinks or drugs and every violation to the instructions regarding the protec­ tion against the work hazards and occupational harms that should be hanged in a conspicuous place at the work center.Article 92 Every employer shall provide the Ministry of Health with statistical statement about work injuries acci­ dents and occupational diseases that took place at his firm on periodic ba­ sis. 94. Article 97 1. 95) of this law. The medical report issued by the attending doctor or the decision of the Medical Arbitration Committee on the condition of an injured labour­ er shall identify the liability of the 29 . b) The injury has occurred as a result of gross misconduct and intentional act by the labourer. Article 95 A labourer shall lose his right to the compensation for the injury if the in­ vestigation proved that: a) The labourer has willfully injured himself. upon taking the opinion of the Minister of Health. shall be deemed as will­ ful misconduct unless the injury leads to the death of the labourer or results in a permanent disability of more than 25% of the total disability. he shall then be subject to the provisions of Articles (93. Article 96 If a labourer suffers from a occupa­ tional disease or any relevant symp­ toms are developed on him during his service or within one year after leaving the service. he shall be entitled only to half the wage until his recov­ ery or proven disability or death. Article 94 The injured labourer or his benefici­ aries shall be entitled to receive com­ pensation for work injuries or occu­ pational diseases pursuant to the schedule to be issued by a resolution from the Minister. If the treatment period ex­ ceeds six months.

CHAPTERV COLLECTIVE LABOUR RELA­ TIONS SECTION I ORGANIZATIONS OF LABOUR­ ERS & EMPLOYERS AND RIGHT OF TRADE UNIONS Article 100 The following procedures should be adopted in the establishment of a trade union: 1. The labourer or his eligible benefi­ ciaries shall receive the compensa­ tion stipulated in Article (94) from the Public Institution for Social Security or the insurance company with which the labourer is insured. bourer in his service . as the case may be.each in pro­ portion to the period spent by the la­ . employers may form federations for the same objectives. and those em­ ployers shall be bound .previous employers. Article 99 All Kuwaiti labourers shall have the right to form among them trade un­ ions that look after their interests and work for improving their material and social conditions. Similarly. the provisions of this law. The provi­ sions of this Chapter shall be effec­ tive on the labourers in the private sector and shall be applicable to the labourers in the government & oil sectors such a manner which shall not be contradictory to the laws that organize their affairs. 2. and to repre­ sent them in all the matters that con­ cern. A number of laboureres who wish to establish a trade union or a number of employers who desire to form a federation shall meet in a general consistent assembly by announcing the same in at least two daily news­ papers for a period not less than two Article 98 The right of forming federations by employers and trade unions by la­ bourers is secured in conformity with 30 .if the industries and trades they practice can cause the disease which the la­ bourer suffers from. and each of them may claim the previous employers to honour their obligations as provided for in paragraph (1) of this Article.

and they shall practice their ac­ tivity within the limits of the objectives stated in the articles of 31 . procedures for its dissolution and manner of liquidating its funds as well as the books & records to be kept by the organization and the bases of self-supervision. within 15 days from the date of its election. tions. shall observe all the applicable laws in the country like all other organized enti­ ties. its membership conditions. the number of the board of directors members. deposit the organization in­ corporation documents with the Min­ istry. the jurisdictions of the ordinary & extraordinary gen­ eral assembly. Article 101 The Articles of Association of the or­ ganization shall state the objectives & purposes for which it has been es­ tablished. the subscriptions to be collected from the members. 2. The Constituent Assembly shall elect the Board of Directors pursuant to the provisions of its Articles of As­ sociation. Article 102 The elected board of directors shall. its term & juris­ dictions. The legal entity of the organization shall be proved as from the date of is­ sue of the Ministers' decision ap­ proving its incorporation after the de­ posit of the duly completed documents with the Ministry. its mem­ bership conditions. upon enjoying the rights provided for in this Chapter. time and objec­ tives. the procedures required for amending the articles of association of the organization. The constituent general assembly shall approve the articles of associa­ tion of the organization and it may be guided in this regard by the model bylaw to be issued by virtue of a res­ olution from the Minister. provided that they shall fix the meeting place. the budget rules & regula- Article 103 All labourers. employers and their or­ ganizations. the rights & obligations of its mem­ bers.weeks as from the date of general as­ sembly. 3.

association of the organization with­
out any violation or deviation from
these objectives.
Article 104
The Ministry shall direct and guide
labourers trade unions and employ­
<'
er's federations towards the proper
application of the law and the manner
of how to make entries in the finan­
cial books & records related to each
organization. Also, it shall guide
them towards rectifying any missing
in the entered data and entries there­

for serving the labourers within the
limit of the establishment. Article
106
The declared trade unions pursuant to
the provisions of this chapter may
form among them such federations to
...
take care of their common objectives,
Also, the declared federations under
the provisions of this law may form
among them general federation provided that there shall not be more
than one general federation for each of
the labourers & employers. Upon
forming the federations & general
m.
federation, the same procedures relat­
Trade unions shall be prohibited
from the following:
ed to trade unions' formation should
1. Engaging in political, religious or
be followed.
sectarian issues.
2. Investing their funds in financial or
Article 107
real estate speculations or any oth­ er Federations, the general federation and
type of speculations.
trade unions shall have the right to
accede to Arab or international
3. Accepting donations & bequests,
federations which they believe that
except under the consent of the Min­
their interests are related thereto, pro­
istry.
vided that they shall inform the Min­
istry of the accession date. In all casArticle 105
es, they shall observe in this regard
Trade Unions shall have the right,
that such accession should not violate
upon the approval of employers and
the public order or the State public
the competent authorities in the coun­
interest.
try, to open canteens & restaurants
32

Article 108
Employers & labourers' organiza­
tions may be dissolved voluntarily by
a resolution to be issued by the gen­
eral assembly according to the organ­
ization's article of association. The
trade union's property after its disso­
lution shall be decided on pursuant to
the resolution of the general assem­
bly, in case of the optional dissolu­
tion.
Moreover, the board of directors of
the organization may be dissolved by
filing a case by the Ministry before
the Court of First Instance so as to
issue a judgment on the dissolution
of the board of directors of the trade
union if is commits such an act that
violates the provisions of this law
and the laws related to keeping the
public order and morals. The court
judgment may be appealed within 30
days from the date of issue at the
Court of Appeal.

Article 110
An employer may dedicate one or
more members of the trade union or
federation board of directors for fol­
lowing up the trade union affairs
with the labor department or the
competent authorities in the country.
SECTION II COLLECTIVE
EMPLOYMENT
CONTRACT
Article 111
The collective or group employment
contract is the contract which regu­
lates the work conditions and circum­
stances between one or more labour­
ers trade union or federation, on one
hand, and one or more employers or
whoever represents them from em­
ployer's federations, on the other
hand.
Article 112
The collective or group employment
contract should be made in writing
and duly signed by the labourer. This
contract shall be presented to the
general assembly of labourers trade

Article 109
Employers should provide labourers
with all the decisions, rules & regula­
tions related to their rights & obligations.
33

unions and employers federations or
both parties, and it should be ap­
proved by the members of those or­
ganizations pursuant to the provi­
sions of the Articles of Association
of the organization.
Article 113
The collective employment contract
should be a limited period contract
provided that its term shall not be
more than 3 years. If the two contract
parties have continued to implement
the same after the expiry of its term,
then it should be deemed renewed for
one year period under the same con­
ditions stated therein unless the con­
tract conditions stipulates otherwise.
Article 114
If either party of the collective em­
ployment contract is not desirous to
. renew it after the expiry of its term,
he shall inform the other party and
the competent Ministry in writing at
least three months from the contract
expiry date. If the contract parties are
multiple, then its termination with re­
gard to one party shall not result in
its termination with regard to the oth­
er parties.

Article 115
1. Any condition in the individual
employment contract or collective
employment contracts which violates
the provisions of this law shall be
deemed void and null even if it pre­
cedes the execution of this law unless
such condition is more beneficial to
the labourer.
2. Any conditions or agreement signed
before or after the enforce­ ment of
this law under which the la­ bourer
waivers any right granted by this law
shall be deemed null and void. Also,
any reconciliation or quit­ claim deed
that comprises a reduc­ tion or release
from a labourer's
rights due to him under the employ­
ment contract during its validity peri­
od or three months after its expiry
shall be null and void whenever it vi­
olates the provisions of this law.
Article 116
The collective employment contract
shall be effective only after its regis­
tration with the competent Ministry
and a summary of which is published
in the Official Gazette.
34

Article 120 Those who have not entered into con­ tracts from among the labourers' 35 . c) The trade unions organizing the federation that signed the contract or joined it after its conclusion. If it is concluded at the national level. The concluded contract at the indus­ try's level shall be considered as amendment to the contract signed at the enterprise's level.The competent Ministry may object to any conditions it deems as violat­ ing the law. Article 118 The provisions of the collective em­ ployment contract shall be applicable to: a) Labourers' trade unions and feder­ ations that concluded the contract or joined it after its conclusion. and the con­ tract signed at the national level shall be deemed as amendment to any of the other two contracts. Article 119 Labourers' withdrawal or dismissal from the trade union shall not affect their being subjugated and governed by the provisions of the collective employment contract if such with­ drawal or dismissal took place subse­ quent to the date of signing the con­ tract or joining it by the trade union. then it should be signed by the general federation of labourers. and the two parties shall am nd the contract within 15 days from the receipt of such objection. If the collective employment contract is concluded at the level of the industry. then it should be signed on behalf of the labourers by the fed­ eration of such industry's trade un­ ions. industry or at the national level. within the limits of the common provisions stip­ ulated therein. d) Employers who joined the federa­ tion that signed the contract or joined it after its being concluded. otherwise the registration application will be deemed as if it did not take place. b) Employers or their federations that signed the contract or joined it after its conclusion. Article 117 A collective employment contract may be concluded at the level of the enterprise.

As for the contract signed by a federation or trade union with a specific employer. SECTION III COLLECTIVE LABOUR DIS­ PUTES Article 123 Collective or group labour conflicts are those disputes arising between one or more employers and all his la­ bourers or some of them because of labour or work conditions. The accession shall be made by vir­ tue of an application to be submitted to the competent Ministry duly signed by both parties. The approval of the competent Ministry to the ac­ cession application shall be published in the Official Gazette. this shall be without prejudice to the provision of Article (115) of this law in relation to the most beneficial conditions to the labourer. Article 121 The collective or group employment contract signed by the firm's trade union shall be applicable to all la­ bourers of the firm even if they are not members of such Trade Union. both parties shall resort to direct ne­ gotiation between the employer or his representative and the labourers or their representatives. may join the collective employment contract after the publication of its summary in the Official Gazette by the agree­ ment of both parties requesting the accession without any need for tak­ ing the consent of the main contracting parties. - Article 122 The labourers & employers organiza­ tions which are a party of the collec­ tive employment contract may file all cases arising out of the breach of the contract conditions in favor of any member of such organization without need for a power of attorney to be is­ sued by him for this purpose. Article 124 If collective conflicts have arisen.------------------------------------- trade unions or federations. it shall be effective only to the la­ bourers of the relevant employer. The compe­ tent Ministry shall have the right to delegate its representative to attend 36 . or employers or their federations.

may submit an application to the competent Ministry for the ami­ cable settlement of such dispute through the Collective Labour Dis­ putes Committee regarding of which a resolution shall be issued by the Minster. The committee may seek the opinion of whoever deems useful for the per­ formance of its task. In case that they reached a mutual agreement among them. the competent Ministry may demand such information it deems necessary for settling the dis­ pute. Article 127 The reconciliation committee shall complete its looking into the dispute within one month from the date in which it receives the application. a) Two representatives to be selected by the employer trade union or the disputing labourers. The application should be signed by the employer or his authorized repre­ sentative or by the majority of the dispute labourers or by whomever they authorize to represent them. then such agreement should be enrolled with the competent Ministry within 15 days pursuant to the rules & regula­ tions in respect of which a resolution shall be issued by the Minister. If it could solve the dispute. c) Chairman of the Committee and -representatives of the competent Ministry to be appointed by the com­ petent Minister by a resolution in which he shall also specify the num­ ber of the dispute parties representatives. b) Two representatives to be selected by the employer (s) who are a party of the dispute.if the di­ rect negotiation did not lead to a so­ lution. totally or partially. Article 125 Either party to the dispute. In all the previous stages.these negotiations in the capacity of supervisor. it shall then evidence the agreed points in minutes to be prepared in three copies to be signed by Article 126 The labour disputes reconciliation committee shall be formed from the following: 37 .

then it shall re­ fer the dispute or refer the un-agreed upon points thereof. the attending parties. and the dispute shall be decided on within a period not exceeding three months from the date of the first ses­ sion for looking into the dispute. within one week from the date of the last meeting of the committee. it may re38 . Article 130 The arbitration board shall have all the power and authorities of the court of appeal pursuant to the provisions of the judiciary organizing law and the Civil & Commercial Procedures Code. The parties of the dispute or their le­ gal representatives shall appear be­ fore the arbitration board. The arbitration shall issue jus­ tified and causative decisions which shall be the same as those decisions issued by the court of appeal. Article 129 The arbitration board shall look into Article 131 As an exemption from the provision of Article (126) of this law. A representative for the competent Ministry to be appointed by its Min­ ister. Either party to the dispute should be notified of the session date at least one week prior to its holding. Article 128 The arbitration board of collective la­ bor disputes shall be formed as fol­ lows:1. interfere without request by one of the dispute parties to settle the dispute amicably. Also. The agreement shall be deemed as a final and bind­ ing agreement to both parties.the dispute in a period not later than twenty (20) days from the date of ar­ rival of its papers to the Clerical De­ partment. A head of prosecution to be dele­ gated by the Public Prosecutor. 3. to be annually appointed by the general assembly of this court. 2. the com --petent Ministry may. to the arbitration board duly accompanied with all the documents. How­ ever. A circuit of the court of appeals. in the event of collective dispute and if the necessity so requires. if the reconciliation committee is not able to settle the dispute within the prescribed period.

impartiality.fer the dispute to the reconciliation committee or arbitration board as it deems appropriate. each of them shall perform the fol­ lowing oath before the Minister: Article 132 The parties of the dispute are prohib­ ited to stop the work. if so summoned. they shall have the right in this connection to check and take samples of the circulated materials for analysis pur- CHPATER VI LABOUR INSPECTION & PENAL­ TIES SECTION I LABOUR INSPECTION Article 133 The competent employees to be iden­ tified by the Minister by a resolution shall have the authority of legal & ju­ dicial capacity to oversight the imple39 . credibility and impartiality. regulations & decisions. and they shall appear. and to request such data & information re­ lated to manpower affairs. shall submit all the documents required by the com­ petent Ministry. Those employees shall perform their duties with due honesty. totally or par­ tially. Article 134 The employees referred to in the pre­ vious Article shall have the right to enter work places during the firm's official working hours. and to keep top confidential the information which I may have access to by virtue of my work even after the end of my service". persistence and they shall undertake not to disclose the secrets of employ­ ers which they may have access to by virtue of their work. and to have access to all books & records. before the board. "I swear by Almighty Allah to per­ form my duties with due honesty. in this case. Accordingly. mentation of this law and its execu­ tive rules. Also. The parties to this dispute. during the direct negotiation proceedings or before the reconcilia­ tion committee or the arbitration board due to the interference of the competent ministry in the disputes pursuant to the provisions of this Chapter.

in coordination with the com- SECTION II PENALTIES Article 137 Prejudice to any other harder penalty provided for in any other law. petent authorities. 84. harmful to the public health or the safety & health of labourers. In case of repeating the 40 . or to stop the use of a certain machine(s) till the rectification of such contra­ vention. Article 136 The employees who are authorized to conduct the inspection shall have the authority to issue notices on the com­ mitted contravention by the labourers working without a specific work center. and they shall further be enti-1ttled to enter such places allocated by employers for labour services pur­ poses. Article 135 The inspection employees. if the em­ ployer is in breach of the provisions of Articles (83. in this re­ spect. 86) of this law and the promulgated resolutions in its implementation in such a manner that threatens by environment pollution. Moreover. the right to seek the assistance of the public authorities and to coor­ dinate with the concerned authorities regarding the goods left by any of the said labourers and whose owners cannot be identified. may prepare minutes on the relevant con­ travention and refer it to the compe­ tent Minister who shall have the right. and they may seek the assis­ tance of the public force for the exe­ cution of the functions of their tasks. and they shall have. shall be pun­ ished by a penalty of not more than KD 5001-. those employees shall have the right to prepare minutes on the contraventions committed by em­ ployers and to grant them the neces­ sary period for rectifying the relevant contravention. 35) herein. to issue a resolu­ tion on the lockout of the business concern.pose. whoever violates the provisions of Articles (8. totally or partially. and to refer the pre­ pared minutes on such contraven­ tions to the competent court so as to impose the punishment provided for in this law.

. Article 140 Without prejudice to any harder pen­ alty provided for in any other law. an employer shall be punished by a penalty not exceed­ ing the total of labourers dues which he fails to pay. ister to perform their duties provided for in Articles (133. shall be punished by a fine not to ex­ ceed KD 1. the penalty shall be doubled. b) If the contravention is not rectified or remedied within the prescribed pe­ riod. the violating party shall be punished by a penalty of not less than KD 100/. Article 138 Without prejudice to by any harder penalty provided for in any other law. whoever violates the provision of paragraph (3) of Article (10) of this law shall be punished by impris­ onment for not more than three years and a fine not more than KD 1. within three years from the date of the final judgment. without prejudice to his obligations to pay these dues to the labourers in the same procedures provided for in Article (57) hereina­ bove. whoever violates the remaining pro­ visions of this law and the executive resolutions thereto shall be punished as follows: a) The party in breach shall be given a notice to rectify the contravention within the period specified by the Ministry provided that it shall not be more than three months. In the event of repetitions.34) herein. the penalty should be doubled. Article 141 Without prejudice to any harder pen­ alty provided for in any other law. 1. whoever fails to enable the compe­ tent employees specified by the Min- Article 142 Whoever violates the writ of suspen41 .and not more than KD 200/ .000/-. Article 139 In case of breach to the provisions of Article (57) herein.000/or with both penalties.per every labourer against whom the penalty is committed.same act within three years from the fmal judgment date.

the due amounts for the public treastions. or with one of ' " Civil Code shall be applicable to de­ the two penalties. 42 . Man­ basis. work therein tial dwellings. However.upon rejecting such ac­ tions . CHAPTER VII CONCLUDING the court. the the Minister deems appropriate. nial.may bind the party who files PROVISIONS Article 143 the case to pay all or part of the ex­ A Consultant Committee for Labour Affairs shall be formed by a resolu­ penses. power Restructuring & State Execu­ Article 145 tive Body Program. The actions filed by labourers or their beneficiaries shall be exempt­ ed from the judicial fees. have preference & priority over all The resolution shall also issue the employer's money.sion or closure issued pursuant to the Article 144 provisions of Article 135 herein with­ Upon denial. Labour cases shall be looked tion by the Minister consisting of into forthwith on prompt summary representatives of the Ministry. rights of labourers prescribed accord­ whose task is to give opinion on the ing to the provisions of this law shall issues presented to it by the Minister. These amounts shall and how to issue its recommenda­ be collected after the legal expenses. except private residen­ committee for meeting. the actions filed by the out remedying the contraventions nolabourers under the provisions of this tified to him by the competent em­ law. ury. shall be punished by the employment contract expiry date imprisonment for a period not ex­ shall not be heard. after the lapse of one year from ployees. Employers & LaAs exemption from the provision of bourers organizations and whoever Article (1074) of the Civil Code. The provisions of ceeding six month and a fme not Clause (2) of Article (442) of the more than KD 1000/-. such as movables necessary procedures for inviting the & real estates. and document keeping and re­ pair costs.

Article 149 Law No. to the Court of First In­ stance to decide on it. within 3 days from the receipt of the application. pleadings of both parties and comments of the department. 43 . decisions and bylaws for this law. within one month from the case sub­ mission date. schedule a session for looking into the case which shall be notified to both parties of the dispute. in AMIR OF KUWAIT SABAH AL AHMED AL JABER ALSABAH Issued at Sief Palace on : 26th Safar.consultation with employers and la­ bours. 1431 H. ap­ plication to be filed by the labourer or his beneficiaries to the competent labour department which shall summon the dispute parties or their repre­ sentatives to appear. regulations. regulations & decisions for implementing this law within six months from the date of publishing this law in the Official Gazette. and all the implementing resolutions thereof shall remain ap­ plicable in such a manner which is not contradictory to the provisions of this law till the issue of the executive rules. Corresponding to : lOth February. each within his jurisdiction. shall im­ plement this law which shall be oper­ ative as from the date of its publica­ tion in the Official Gazette. Article 147 The Clerical Department at the Court of First Instance shall. The referral shall be made by a mem­ orandum comprising a summary of the dispute. Article 150 The Prime Minister and Ministers. it shall refer the case. 38 of 1964 on the Private Sector Labour shall be repealed and the labourers shall reserve all the rights arising thereof before its can­ cellation. If the depart­ ment could not reach an amicable settlement. Article 148 The Minister shall issue the neces­ sary rules. Article 146 A case should be preceded by ap.

Then. the Law No. (28) of 1969 was issued for canceling and re­ placing this Chapter for regulating the necessary benefits for Oil Sector­ labourers. Consequently. on the other hand.D. The first law for organizing labour in Kuwait had come out in the year 1959. (38) of 1964 on the Private Sector Labour.2010 A. (1) of 1961 until it has been can­ celled by virtue of the Law No. (43) of 1960 and thereafter the Law No. Therefore. (6) OF 2010 CONCERNING PRIVATE SEC­ TOR LABOUR LAW EXPLANATORY MEMORANDU LAW NO. (43) of 1968 that added a new Chapter to this law under Chapter Sixteen concerning the employment of labourers in the oil industry. the competent persons be­ gan to think of the necessity of issu- ing a law for the private sector labour in order to regulate the relationship between labourers and employers be­ cause this will have positive effects on the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) on one hand. it was natural for the legislator to work for organiz­ ing these types of labour in such a way that shall be consistent with th nature of these new labours and be compliant with the spirit of work and copes with the modem renaissance and boom that began to prevail in the different aspects of life in the coun­ try. this law was amended by virtue of the Amiri Decree No. Then. econom­ ic and political changes that had re­ sulted and accompanied this discov­ ery. new types of labour had emerged. the basic law that gov- 44 . (6) OF 2010 CONCERNING PRIVATE SEC­ TOR LABOUR LAW EXPLANATORY MEMORAN­ DUM By the discovery of oil in the State of Kuwait as well as the social. This law had been subject to several amendments that aimed at securing special privileges to the labourers who are working in the oil sector by virtue of the Law No. Hence. LAW NO. and coping with the global attitudes for taking care of the working class.

(38) of 1964 so as to accommodate and cope with the new developments. particularly that this law has been under enforcement for more than thirty years. Due to the fact that the labour law has always been targeting a basic aim that intended to make a fair balance between the interests of labourers and their protection on one hand. and thereafter the amendments can come successively whenever there is a need to such modifications. due to the positive effects of this balance on the Gross Domestic Product in general. it concerns particularly the oil labour sector within the limits of the definitions and provisions stipulated in this law. provided that there should be taken into consideration upon prepar­ ing the draft of the law the future am­ bitions and realization of the intend45 . the urgent necessity has arisen for amending the current Law No.·(38) of 1964 concerning the Pri­ vate Sector Labour. the Kuwaiti arena has wit­ nessed new developments. While thinking seriously to amend this law. For all these reasons. As for the second attitude. and that of the employers on the other hand.the first one aims at amending cer­ tain provisions of the current Law in such a way that complies with the new developments of the economic and social changes. that ob­ tained the views of the majority of supporters. both the Arab and international arenas have witnessed many developments that cannot possibly be ig- nored especially that the State of Ku­ wait is one of the foreign labour force recruiting countries. social and economic changes that necessitate the introduction of a new approach to the amendments of the existing law. two attitudes have emerged . Regarding the Law·No. Also. (28) of 1969. Now. and all other kinds of labour shall be applicable to the Private Sector Labour Law being the general law that regulates the relationship between the two parties of production in this sec­ tor.ems the labour relations is the Law No. aims at issuing a new law which shall be compliant with the circumstances of the current stage in­ cluding the new emerging develop­ ments.

the Public Authority for Applied Education & Training and the Civil Service Commission (General Secretariat for Labour force). Ministry of Oil. related governmental authorities rep­ resented by the Public Authority for Housing Care. amended and re­ worded certain articles through many sessions until the law has been ap­ proved in its semi-final copy which has adopted a future approach and avoided any aspects of shortage or omission in the current law in order to put the State of Kuwait in its right position among those countries with advanced labour legislations. A special committee has been estab­ lished for conducting the necessary contacts and correspondences with those authorities and providing them with the semi-final copy of the draft 46 .and this is one of the main objectives of the State that should finally be achieved. These committees have carefully dis­ cussed the draft. Ministry of Justice. and the labourers who are represent­ ed by the General Federation for Kuwait Employees for thoroughly ex­ amining and scrutinizing this law. the concerned parties have de­ cided to poll the opinion of the . The Ministry of Social Mfairs & La­ bour has drafted the bill of the at­ tached law in the light of a compres­ sive approach for the labour laws in the region as well as the International & Arab Labour Agreements besides the most recent jurisprudent attitudes and the judicial principles set forth by the Kuwaiti judiciary in the cur­ rent law. Kuwait University. Higher Council for Planning & Development. Ministry of Com­ merce & Industry. employers who are represented by the Kuwait Chamber of Commerce & Industry. Therefore. the Public In­ stitution for Social Security. Accordingly.whenever it can be possible . several successive com­ mittees have been formed from the Ministry representatives.ed goals through the replacement of the expatriate labour force by the na­ tionallabour force . for the purposes of preva­ lent benefits and realizing the same goal intended by the legislators to­ wards arriving at the grade of perfec­ tion. Ministry of Health. Kuwait Municipali­ ty.

The draft of this law comes in seven chapters. Chapter One is about the General Provisions. the draft of the law has developed new rules & regu­ lations which are deemed necessary by the legislator comprising more guarantees to the both parties of pro­ duction in such a manner that ensures justice and stability in labour rela­ tions in the country and also secures that these rules & regulations will cope with similar legislations appli­ cable abroad. Appren­ ticeship & Vocational Training Pro­ visions. Chapter Two regulates the Employment.law. especially those agreements to which the State of Kuwait has acceded or ratified. The Ministry of Social Affairs & La­ bour. Chapter Five on Collec­ tive Labour Relations. the thing that has resulted in the proof reading of the draft law articles one by one together with re-wording the necessary articles thereof in the light of those suggestions as well as adding new articles or paragraphs thereto. Hereunder we will shed light on the articles of the law according to the order of its chapters: 47 . In all the foregoing. The re­ sponse of those authorities and their efforts were all positive where the committee has been provided with valuable proposals which are appre­ ciated by the committee and consid­ ered. and finally Chapter Seven is on the Concluding Provisions. Chapter Three is on the Individual Employment Contract. Chapter Four on Labour Conditions & System. Chapter Six on Labour Inspection & Penalties. due to its keenness to cope with the contents of the International Agreements on labour. receive their replies and make the necessary final review in the light of the received answers. especially the Interna­ tional & Arab Agreements duly ratified by the State of Kuwait. the Ministry has sought the assistance of the International Labour Organization (ILO) within the framework of the technical aid provided by the ILO to the Member States and whose ex­ perts have assisted in reviewing cer­ tain provisions of the draft law and arranged its chapters in such a man­ ner that it is issued in its final current form.

represent the minimum limit 48 . That is to say the provisions of this law.CHAPTER 1 GENERAL PROVISIONS This Chapter comprises the articles from Article (1) to Article (6). Also. i. In this meaning. this Article has defined term like "Labourer". Article (6) acknowledges a principal rule which is duly prescribed in juris­ prudence and the judiciary and being codified by most of the modem legislations. and defined "The Competent Minister" by the Ministry of Social Affairs & Labour. where Article (1) has specified what is meant by the term "The Competent Ministry" and defined it by the Min­ istry of Social Affairs & Labour.e. house servants or maids and the like. this Article has referred the governing of the relationship be­ tween them and their employers to a decision to be issued by the compe­ tent Minister for organizing their affairs in this respect. including all the rights and benefits stipulated for labourers therein. or the text of this law shall be more beneficial to the labourer. Also. Article (4) provides for the ap­ plicability of the provisions of this law to the labourers in the Oil Sector in all which is not particularly pro­ vided for in the Oil Sector Labour Law. Regarding the Domestic La­ bourers. the definitions assigned to each of the "Labourer" and the "Em­ ployer" in Article 1 should be considered so that what is meant by the ex­ pression "the labourers in the private sector" can be defined clearly. or the text of this law shall be more beneficial to the labourer. "Employer" and the concept of "Organization". Article (2) has specified the scope of enforcement of the law when it de­ cided that it shall be applicable to the labourers in the private sector. Article (3) has determined the scope of the applicability of the draft law to the marine employment contract in all which is not particularly provided for in the Maritime Law. Article (5) has exempted the labour­ ers whose relationships with their employers are regulated by other laws.

for labourers' rights which shall not be assigned and any agreement to the contrary will be deemed as null and void. since the rights and benefits prescribed for labourers in this law represent the minimum limit secured for them by the legislator. and also in implementation to a defi­ nitely confirmed fact that the human psyche has but to hate anything that reduces its rights after being pre­ scribed. no agreement may be made for affecting these rights unless such agreement is more beneficial to labourers. APPRENTICE­ SHIP AND VOCATIONAL TRAINING SECTION 1 :EMPLOYMENT Article (7) authorizes the Competent Minister (i. vided for in this law. In other words. Article (9) decides the establishment of public authority of a separate legal entity and an independent budget to be named: "The Public Authority for Labour force" under the supervision of the Minister of Social Affairs & Labour and it shall carry out the ju- CHAPTER2 49 . Minister of Social Af­ fairs & Labour) to issue the organizing decisions to the conditions for employment in the Private Sector. EMPLOYMENT. they should be enforced and labourers shall be treat­ ed according!y. As for the better rights and ben­ efits stipulated in collective or indi­ vidual employment contracts or the applicable rules & regulations by the employers that exceed what is pro. in periodic basis accordingto the terms and conditions in respect of which a decision shall be issued by the competent Minister. Article (8) requires every employer to inform the Competent Authority of his labour force requirements in the relevant forms prepared for this pur­ pose as well as the type and number of the labourers in the light of any expansion or shrinking in his activi­ ty. This is for the purpose of cop­ ing with the spirit of legislation relat­ ed to the public interest on one hand. whether the agreement is made upon entering into or during the validity of the con­ tract.e.

Article (11) stipulates that the Minis- so . this Article prohibits any employer to recruit foreign labour force or to em­ ploy labourers from inside the coun­ try without having them to work for him or if it becomes proven that he is not actually in need of them. such rejection should be justified. Furthermore. this Article bans em­ ployers to employ non-Kuwaiti la­ bourers unless they hold labours per­ mits issued by the competent labour department entitle them to work for him. In this connection. the Article binds the Ministry if the employer's appli­ cation for recruiting foreign labour force is rejected. and for regulating the labour market on the other hand. Within one year from the enforce­ ment of this law. try in this law. Also the authority shall recruit and employ the expatri­ ate·labour force according to the ap­ plications submitted by employers. This is for treatment of the re- cruitment of foreign labour force more than what is needed on one hand. Article (10) determines the rules and procedures in the employment of nonKuwaitis in such a way that gov­ erns the competent Ministry's control on the labour market and to direct it in such a manner that conforms to the goal of the state to gradually replace the expatriate labour force by the Ku­ waiti labour force. Also. an organizing law shall be issued in respect of this authority.risdictions prescribed for the Minis. after filing an ab­ sconding proclamation against the la­ bourer by his main sponsor. At the end of this Article. this Article prescribed that the employer is to bear the ex­ penses for returning the labourer bach home. by having every labourer to work for the em­ ployer who recruited him. for ensuring the best supervision over the perfor­ mance of the government in the event of the rejection. the latter shall un­ dertake to return the employer back to his country. and that the capi­ tal amount should not be taken as a cause for such rejection. Accordingly. it provides that if the labourer discontinue to come to work and joined work with another employer.

Similarly. the Article entitles the apprentice to terminate his contract and fixed seven days as a notice period which both contract parties shall observe. Article (12) defines the professional apprentice. Also. SECTION II APPRENTICESHIP & VOCATION­ AL TRAINING This Section consists of Articles from (12 to 18) in which the law in­ troduces the Professional Apprentice­ ship Contract for giving the opportu­ nity for creating a suitable environment for developing the na­ tional human resources necessary for burdening the future's responsibili­ ties. one for each contract party. this Article prohibits the fixing of the remuneration on the basis of production or piece in order to mani­ fest the educational nature of the pro­ fessional apprenticeship contract wliich is different from the ordinary employment. Article (13) stipulates that the professional apprenticeship contract shall be written and issued in three copies. and it has expressly men- tioned that the professional appren­ tice contract shall be. it au­ thorizes the Ministry. particularly upon securing them the necessary training and education.try is prohibited to practice any dis­ crimination or preference while deal­ ing with employers for issuance of work permits or transfers. for such rea­ sons it decides. Also. provided that the Ministry may not exempt some employers of this stopping procedure and disregard others during this period. whereas the third copy shall be forwarded to the Competent Authority at the Min­ istry within one week for attestation. Article (14) permits an employer to terminate the apprenticeship contract if the apprentice violates his assigned duties under the contract or if it is proved from the periodic reports pre­ pared on him that he is not ready to learn. subject to the terms and conditions for juveniles' employment as provided for in this law. 51 . to stop the issuance of work permits and transfers for a period not more than two weeks per year.

which shall be 52 . prior to employment. af­ ter the completion of his learning or training period. etc. Article (18) binds each of the professional apprentice and the labourer trainee to work for the employer. regarding of which a decision shall be issued by the Minister. whereas Article (19) prohibits the employment of those who are under 15 years of age. the first one is to be employed in industries and trades other than those hazardous & harmful to health. provided that they are not made to work for more than 4 hours continuously. The Article stipulates that the deci­ sion may include the binding of one establishment or more to provide training for labourers in other centers or institutes if the first establishment hasn't got training centers or institutes. and the other condition is to be medically ex­ amined. Article (17) requires such establish­ ments to pay the labourer his full wage for his training period whether within or outside the establishment. to re­ imburse from them the expenses he borne for this learning or training.After Article (15) has defined what is meant by vocational training. in case of breach of these obligations. and thereafter periodically for not more than six months.. pro-rata the remaining period to be spent in the work. for a similar period of his apprenticeship or training in a maximum term of five years.. Article (20) defines juveniles as those whose age is falling between 15 and 18 years and allows their em­ ployment by the permission of the competent Ministry under two condi­ tions. Article (21) fixes the maximum hours of work for juveniles by 6 (six) hours per day. Article (16) provides that the competent Minister shall issue a decision on the necessary terms & conditions to be satisfied for holding the vocational training programs . It also gives the employer the right. as ex­ plained in its express words. SECTION III EMPLOYMENT OF JUVENILES This Section consists of Articles from (19) to (21).

the Article bans juve­ niles to work additional working hours or during weekly off days. after ex­ piry of the maternity leave. together with granting a female labourer upon her request.followed by at least one hour rest break. Article (23) prohibits the employ­ ment of women in hazardous. private treatment houses and other health institutions in respect of which a decision shall be issued by the Minister of Social Affairs & Labour. Moreover. Also. bearing in mind that these hours are normally night hours. Also they shall not be em53 . Also. shall issue a decision to specify these jobs and entities. where Article (22) pro­ hibits the employment of women at night during 10:00 pm to 7:00 am. except those who work in hospitals. SECTION IV EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN This Section comprises Articles from (22) to (26). hol­ idays or between 7:00pm to 6:00 am. in consultation with the Con­ sultant Committee for Labour Af­ fairs. provided that the employer shall ensure the security re­ quirements for women in addition to the provision of means of transport from and to the place of work. hard or harmful to health trades shall be pro­ ·hibited. women shall not be employed in institutions which provide service exclusively for men. the employer shall not termi­ nate the service of a female labourer while she is enjoying her maternity leave or discontinue joining the work due to a sickness which shall be proved by a medical report that it is resulting from pregnancy or delivery. a leave without pay for not more than four months. provided that the de­ livery shall take place during this pe­ riod. ployed in such jobs which are harm­ ful to morals and based on the exploi­ tation of their femininity in a manner which is not consistent with the pub­ lic morals. The Minister of Social Affairs & La­ bour. health centers. Article (24) provides that the female labourer shall be entitled to a paid maternity leave of 70 (seventy) days which shall not be included within her other leaves.

such period shall not exceed one year until he at­ tains 18 years of age. and in the case of a limited period contract. he binds the employer to estab­ . If the contract is not prepared in a written document. Also.Article (25) the legislator stipulates for granting a female labourer 2 hours break for breast feeding her child during the working hours. if she performs the same work without any discrimina. SECTION 1 EMPLOYMENT CONTRACT STRUCTURE Article (27) defines the labourer's el­ igibility to sign an employment con­ tract by attaining the age of 15 years old if the contract is an unlimited period contract. Also. Article (29) is keen to stipulate that all the contracts shall be prepared in Arabic language and the translation ' CHAPTER III INDIVIDUAL EMPLOYMENT CONTRACT 54 . in ac­ cordance with the terms and condi­ tions to be specified by the Ministry's decision. Article (26) stipulates for equal treat­ ment for the female labourer by giv­ ing her the same salary given to her male counterpart. tion between them. so that the special regulation provided in this law on the employment of women shall not be taken as a justification or reason for fixing a certain wage for women less than the recognized prescribed wage for men for the same work. one for each party whereas the third copy shall be forwarded to the com­ petent department). Article (28) stipulates that the con­ tract should be prepared in writing and it shall contain all the details re­ lated to the contract. lish a Day Care Center for children below 4 years if the number of women is more than 50 or the number of employees therein is more than 200. the con­ tract shall be issued in (three copies. in this case the labourer shall prove his right through all evidencing methods. This provision is in line with the provision of Article (94) of the Civil Law in this respect.

bylaws and circulars issued by the employer to his labourers. if the limited period con­ tract is renewed. 38 of 1964 in terms of the necessity of equal treat­ ment between all labourers if the em55 . Also. Article (30) confirms that if the em­ ployment contract is a limited period contract. it shall be automatically renewable for similar periods under the same conditions contained therein. Article (33) came similar to the pro­ vision of the Law No. In any case. 38 of 1964. Like the text as mentioned in the Law No. what is applicable to contracts shall be appli­ cable to all correspondence. he shall pay the labourer his end of service remuneration for his employment period accordingto the provisions of this law. However. but the Arabic language shall legally prevail in case of any discrepancies.ployer. its term shall not exceed 5 years and not less than one year to­ gether with it may be renewed upon expiry by the agreement of both parties. bulletins. unless the two parties agree to renew it under other conditions. if the termination is made by the em.of which in any foreign language may be added to it. Article (31) prescribes that if the em­ ployment contract is a limited period contract and both parties continue to implement after the expiry of its term without renewal. SECTION2 ON THE OBLIGATIONS OF LA­ BOURER & EMPLOYER AND DISCIPLINARY PENALTIES Article (32) provides that the proba­ tion period shall be specified in the employment contract but preconditioned that it shall not exceed 100 working days. this Article provides that the labourer may not be employed under the pro­ bation period with the same employ­ er for more than once. and this it has clarified the ambiguous in the said law when it gives the right to both parties to terminate the contract dur­ ing the probation period. this shall not affect the labourer's accrued rights arising from the previous contract. and the labourer shall be entitled to the acquired rights under the previous con- tract.

together with reserving his right to receive his salaries for the period of suspension if the investigation concludes that he is not responsible. Article 38 provides for the principle of not exceeding the deduction which may be executed from the labourer's wage for a period of more than 5 days per month.player subcontracts work to any oth­ er employer under the same work conditions under the same working conditions. they shall provide a suitable accommodation and means of transport for their labourers. Article (40) is introduced in this Sec­ tion and after it prescribed the em­ ployer's compliance to deposit the deduction proceeds from the wages of his labourers in a fund to be allo­ cated for social. the employ­ er shall give them a suitable housing allowance. Article (34) binds the employers who are involved in the execution of governmental projects or those who make their labourers work in such ar­ eas which are remote from the inhib-. Also. the labourers of both par­ ties shall be treated equally and the two employers shall jointly work to­ gether to pay the dues of the labour­ ers of the main employer. Article 39 has intro­ duced the principle of suspending the labourer to perform his work for the interest of the investigation but the suspension shall not exceed 10 days. the employer undertakes to approve the penalties bylaw before the applica­ tion of its provisions by the competent Ministry which shall have the right to enter any amendments there­ to in such a way which is in line with the nature and circumstances of the work. confirm­ ing that it shall be free of charge. ited areas. Articles from (35) to (40) explain the disciplinary rules & regulations to be observed by the employer before applying any penalty on his labourers as well as the necessary guarantees for reserving the labourers' rights to defend himself and refute the contra­ ventions attributed to him. economic and cultu56 . And in the event of not providing them an accommodation. Remote areas and suitable accommodation conditions as well as the housing allowance shall be deter­ mined by a decision from the Minister.

this Article provides that the Minister shall issue a decision on the rules & controls organizing the above fund and the distribution meth­ od. Also. the pro­ visions of Article (53) shall be applicable on the labourer's eligibility to the end of service indemnity. the legislator explained the cases in which an employer may terminate the labourer's service without notice.decision and its causes.ral activities for the benefit of the la­ bourers. In Article (41). to deem him as resigned. and after it prescribed the employer's obligation to keep a spe­ cial record for the deductions made against the labourers. Morover. this Article explains the cases in which a labourer shall be entitled to the end of service indemnity upon his termination. it gives the ter­ minated labourer the right to appeal the termination decision before the · competent Labour Circuit. indemnity or remuneration. This Artide is similar to Article (48) in which a labourer may terminate the employment contract without notice together with his entitlement to the full end of service indemnity. this Article binds the employ­ er. to inform the Ministry by the termination. SECTION III TERMINATION OF EMPLOY­ MENT CONTRACT & END OF SERVICE INDEMNITY This Section consists of Articles from (41) to (55). If it is proved that the employer has terminated the labourer in an arbitrary way. Also. In this case. and the latter shall advise the Labour force Restructuring Program accordingly. Article (43) comprises new provi­ sions governing a labourer's dues if he is imprisoned under a preventive 57 . Article (42) entitles the employer. the Article in­ troduced a provision for the distribu­ tion of the deduction proceeds available in the fund among the existing labourers in the firm equally in the event of its dissolution for any rea­ son. Further­ more. if a labourer discontinues work for sev­ en consecutive days or twenty inter­ rupted days within one year. in all cases. he shall be entitled to an end of service indemnity and compensation for the damages incurred by him as a result of such termination.

exercise his trade union right. Article 46 does not consider the contract termination reasons by the employer because they are related to the basic rights duly guaranteed under the constitution and the international agreements that secure the labourer's right to ac­ cede to or join labourers trade un­ ions. Also. litigation and that nothing shall affect his rights due to the racial or sectarian beliefs. Article (44) mentions the procedure to be followed upon the termination of an unlimited period contract where either shall notify the other at least three months prior to the termination of the contract in the event of month­ ly salary labourers. Article (47) explains the rules of compensation which both parties to the limited period employment con­ tract shall be complied with if terminated by either party prematurely without having any right to do so. Article (45) prohibits the employer to use the right of termination author­ ized to him under the above Article (44) while the labourer or female la­ bourer enjoys one of his leaves pro­ vided for in this law in order to pro­ tect the labourer not to be surprised of being terminated while enjoying any of his leaves. Also Article (46) prohibits the employer to terminate the labourer con­ tract unless this is based on the la­ bourer's abilities.imprisonment or in execution to a non-final court judgment due to a charge by the employer. In particular. he shall then be obliged to compensate 58 . freedom of faith. behavior or the firm or firm's operation requirements. If a court judgment is issued on his innocence the employer should be obliged to pay him his wage for the period of suspension in a fair compensation to be decided by the court. and decided to deem him as suspended from the work and the employer shall not ter­ minate his employment contract unless he is convicted in a final judg­ ment. this Article determines the compensation to be payable by the party who terminated the contract if he does not observe the notice period by an amount equal to the labourer's salary for the same period. and at least one month in case of other labourers.

contract parties the prevailing customs. dona­ tion or any other legal action. this Article decides fifteen­ day-wage for every one year service of the first five years and thereafter one month salary for every year of the following years provided that the total indemnity shall not exceed one and a half year wage. If the firm is transferred to a third party accordingto the above means. whereas Article 49 explains the contract termination cases for a reason related to the death of the la­ bourer or if it is proved that he is disable to perform his duty or by reason of the expiry due to the exhaustion of his sick leaves.. etc. work nature. For the first class.mination cases represented the firm's transfer to a third party through sell­ ing or merging or inheritance. 59 . while Article (50) explains the employment contract ter- Article (51) provides for the end of service indemnity due for labourers working on monthly salary basis as well as the other classes.. . or the final lockout of the firm or the issue of a final judgment on the employ­ er's bankruptcy. Article (50) prescribes that the la­ bourers' dues shall become a payable debt by the assignor and assignees jointly. the other party for the damage in­ curred by him for an amount equal to the labourer's wage for the remaining period of the contract. Article (49) and Article (50) the con­ tract termination cases by the force of the law. and generally all other considerations which may affect the damage in terms of its existence and extent. Article (48) provides for the cases in which the labourer may terminate the employment contract together with his entitlement to the end of service indemnity. provided that upon determining the damage for both . it authorizes labourers to continue work with the person to whom the firm is transferred together with binding the latter by the obliga­ tions arising from the employment contract signed by the assignor. Also. The same Article has decided the swap or setoff principle between any debts which may be due for the em­ ployer and the compensation amount tOr the labourer.

The Article also prohibits employers that this certificate shall not include any expressions which may insult the labourer or it may be issued in such a form that may reduce the chances of work before him.As for the second class. when it made him be entitled to half the end of ser­ vice indemnity if the term of his service is not less than three years and did not complete five years. If the term of the la­ bourer service has reached ten years. If the period of his service has reached five years and did not complete ten years. for every one year ser­ . it prescribes ten day wage. he shall be entitled to two-thirds of the indemnity. vice of the first five years and a fif­ teen day wage for every one year service for the following years. Article (53) clarifies the partial enti­ tlement cases to the end of service in­ demnity if the labourer tenders his resignation in an unlimited period contract from his part. Article (52) explains the cases in which a labourer shall be entitled to the full end of service indemnity. Thereafter. provided that the total indemnity shall not exceed a year wage. and it bound the employer to return to the labourer any documents or certificates which may be submitted by him. The Article prescribes in both cases that the a labourer shall be entitled to the end of service indemnity for any fractions of the year in proportion to the period of service he spent in the work. comes Article (54) and stipulates that the labourer whose employment contract is terminated shall obtain from the employer a ser­ vice termination certificate compris­ ing a statement of his period of service or experience. and binds the employer to pay the net difference between the amounts he affords against the la­ bourer's subscription in the social se­ curity and the due amounts for the end of service indemnity. CHAPTER IV LABOUR SYSTEM & CONDI­ TIONS 60 . he shall be entitled to the full indem­ nity.

then his wage should be estimated on the basis of a similar wage or accordingto the prevailing customs in this profession or for justice require­ ments.This Chapter consists of Four Sec­ tions and Articles from (55) to (97): vides for his labourers in remote are­ as. where Article (55) defines the meaning of the word "Wage" by the basic salary received or should be received by the labourer against his performance of the work including all other elements provided for in the contfact like the allowances and remunerations or prescribed by the employer's rules & regulations. Moreover. the wage shall include the social allowance and children allow­ ance as per the Law No. All these latter benefits are not deemed as wage and shall not be included therein. The concept of wage shall not in­ clude the bonuses & grants which may be paid voluntarily by the em­ ployer to the labourer. However. and fixed a certain limit for pay­ ing labourers' wages who work on SECTION I: WAGES This Sections comprises the Articles from (55) to (97). Also. Article (56) is quite keen to provide that wages shall be paid on a working day in the legal currency in circula­ tion. (19) of 2000 or any other financial privileges granted by the state to the labourer periodically. this Article has added a new provision for dealing with the wage when it is a share of the net profits and stipulated at the end of this Article that if a labourer wage is fixed as a share of the net profit and the firm did not realize profit or realized a very few profit so that the la­ bourer's share becomes not consis­ tent with the work performed by him. it shall not include the amounts or other privileges received by the la­ bourer for meeting the actual expens­ es or necessary expenditure required for the performance of the work or by the reason of the work nature like the car allowance allocated for the work trips or the accommodation provided for the watchmen of the real estates or buildings and the means of transport which the employer pro61 .

Article (57) binds the employer who employs labourers accordingto the provisions of this law and the Oil Sector Law No. Also. Article (60) provides that a labourer shall not be obliged to buy any foodstuff or commodities from certain shops or to buy from the employer's products. does not allow an employer to transfer a labourer who works in a monthly salary to another class without his written consent and without prejudice to the rights ob­ tained by the labourer during his work under the monthly salary. it provides that the attachment of the wage due o the labourer or de­ duction of any part thereof may not be made. save within the limit of (25%) for settling a debt of alimony. Article (62) is quite serious to con­ firm the applicable principle in the Law No. (28) of 1969 to de­ posit the dues of his labourers in their relevant accounts opened with local financial institutions and a copy of the statements be dispatched to the Ministry Article (58). Article (59) provides that the employer shall not deduct more than 10% of labourer's wage for the set­ tlement of any debits or loans due to the employer. and no interests may be received against such dues.e. the 62 . i. in order to enhance the protection of labourers. In the event of coincidence. clothes and other debts. alimony debt shall have priority over other debts.monthly basis at least once a month. and the other labourers shall be paid their wages at least once every two weeks. In order to protect the labourers's rights. If a labourer receives a wage on the basis of piece work. Also. upon cal­ culation of labourer dues. food. the last sal­ ary paid to the labourer shall be considered. (38) of 1964. Also. Article (61) has introduced a new provision that binds an employer to pay the wages of his labourers during the lockout period if they have no in this lockout. includ­ ing the employer debts. the employment contract shall not be terminated for the same reason. The legislator. this Article added that the payment of wages shall not be de­ layed after the seventh day of the due date. for avoiding any damages to labourers.

as a general principle. and in addition to that a labour­ er's wage shall not be reduced during the course of his work for any reason whatsoever. for fi­ nalizing this debate. Article (63)has introduced a new provision that requires. by a decision from the competent Minister.ion is different about the optional word "or" in terms of the extent of the possibility of increasing the number of the daily working hours to more than 8 hours when it is satisfied by the maximum limit of the working hours by 48 hours a week. (38) of 1964 is amended which was stipulat­ ed as "A labourer manot be made to work for more than 8 hours per day or 48 hours a week" where the opin. So. the preparation of schedules on the mini­ mum limit of wages accordingto the nature of profession and trade. where Article (64) has fixed the weekly working hours by 48 hours.relevant estimate shall be made on the average wage duly paid to him for the actual working hours during the last three months. for responding to future requirements and coping with the modem trends for setting a minimum limit of wages for securing a reasonable standard of liv­ ing for labourers and in such a man­ ner that shall act as a motivation for the Kuwaiti labuor force and encouragement to join work in the private sector. the views came to the conclusion that the old text 63 . SECTION II WORKING HOURS & WEEKLY OFF DAYS This Section comprises Articles from (64) to (69). The estimation of cash and in kind incentives shall be made by dividing the average of what is received by the labourer from the wage during the last 12 months into the entitlement. The decision shall be issued after consultation with the Consultant Committee for Labour & Organiza­ tion Affairs. in such a manner that a labourer shall not be made to work for more than 8 hours a day. Here the provision of Article (33) of the Law No. the av­ erage shall be calculated based on the percentage period spent in the ser­ vice. If the term of his service is less than one year.

health harmful labour and haz­ ard labour or for hard conditions may be reduced by a decision from the Minister.shall be replaced by the current text as provided in this law. This is in order to stick to the opinion which says that the labourer should be protected in every day of his working days. the same article provides that the working hours of hard la­ bour. and therefore stipulates that the daily working hours should not be more than 8 hours save within the limits of the exceptions stipulated in the law. Thereafter. at least one hour less. (38) of 1964 which prohibits making a labourer work for more than five continuous hours per day without being followed a break peri­ od of not less than one hour and such break hours shall not be calculated within the working hours. but it ex­ empted from this provision the bank­ ing. accordingto the provision of Article 64 herein. Article (66) sets forth the rules & regulations for overtime hours where it provides that a labourer may be made to work an additional period by a written order from the employer if that is necessary for preventing the occurrence of a dangerous accident or for the repair of any faults arising 64 . provided that the total worked hours per day shall be. Accordingly. upon the approval of the Minis­ ter. Moreover. Article (64) pus it in a decisive way that the labourers' working hours shall be 48 hours per week and the daily working hours shall not exceed 8 hours except in the cases provided for in the law. this Article has intro­ duced a new provision necessitated by the practical requirements and al­ lows. after having acknowl­ edged the provision of the second paragraph of Article (33) of the Law No. Article (65). financial and investment sector where the working hours shall be eight continuous hours. labourers may be made to work without any break for technical or emergency reasons or in office works. Also. this Article has introduced a new provision which stipulates that the working hours during the holy month of Ramadan shall be 36 hours a week.

his ordinary salary multiplied into two alongwith an alternative compensation day. as follows: .e.10 days with quarter wage . on condition that the sickness shall be proved by a medical certificate. i. he shall be paid a double w ge. If the work circumstances require keeping any labourer in work on any of the official holidays. and that the addi­ tional work periods shall be added by 25% of ordinary wage for the same period and the employer is bound to keep a special record for the overtime work.10 days with three quarter wage .15 days with full wage . However an employer.30 days without wage The sickness that requires a sick leave shall be proven by certificate from the physician determined by the employer or the doctor in-charge in a government health center.10 days with half wage . then the medical doctor certificate shall prevail. In the event of any conflict regarding the el­ igibility to the sick leave or its term. it fixed the overtime working hours per day' week and per year.thereof or for avoiding a certain loss or meeting such works more than the daily required work. the la­ bourer shall receive at least 50% of his wage in addition to the original wage and he shall be compensated another day for his rest day. Article (67) gives the labourer the right to one fully paid weekly rest day which shall be fixed by 24 con­ tinuous hours after every six worked days. Article (68) fixes the official holi­ days granted to a labourer with full pay as per the number stated therein and fixed the total due official holidays for the labourer by 13 days a year. for the work requirements and necessity. The due sick leaves in the light of the provision of Article 69 have become. This double wage shall be taken as a basis for calculating the overtime hours necessitated by the wok condi­ tions in this day. The last paragraph stipulates that re­ garding serious diseases which are 65 . may make a labourer to work during his weekly rest day if the work condi­ tions so requires. Also. In this case.

this Article gives the em­ ployer the right to refund from the la­ bourer any wage paid by him against the leave if it is proven that he is working during his leave with an66 . ing the consent of the labourer after the expiry of the first fourteen days thereof. they shall be ex­ empted by a decision from the com­ petent Minister which shall specify the type of such diseases. Therefore. Also. a labourer shall be entitled to leave for the fractions of the year in proportional to the period spent in work. Moreover. 71) herein. Article (73) provides for the labour­ er's right to receive a cash equivalent against his accumulated annual leave days upon the expiry of the contract. with or without compensation for the lofty aims intended by the leg­ islator when prescribed this leave. Also. Official holidays and sick leave days falling within the leave shall not be counted in the annual leave.difficult to cure. Article (71) added that the labourer shall be entitled to be paid his due wage for the annual leave in advance before enjoying his leave in order to prepare his affairs. and may grant it partially upon secur- Article (74) does not gives the la­ bourer the right to waive his annual leave. Also. namely the labourer's comfort and reactivation of his working spirits. where Article (70) has increased the labourer's right to the annual leave by making it thirty (30) days for every service year. it gives the labourer the right to accumulate his leaves provided that they shall not exceed the leave of two years. even if during the first year of service. SECTION III PAID ANNUAL LEAVES This Section consists of Articles from (70) to (79). annual leaves may be accumulated by the mutual agreement of both parties for more than two years. he may enjoy the leave in one time upon the consent of the employer. taking into consideration the provi­ sions of Articles (71 . Article (72) gives the employer the right to fix the date of annual leave.

he shall be obliged to reimburse the wages received by him during the leave period in proportion to the remaining period to be spent by the labourer in the work. If the labourer violates this condition. the death of a first or second grade relative. Also. a special leave without pay in addi67 . Moreover. rules & regulations organizing this leave. Also. Article (79) entitles the employer to grant the labourer.other employer. provided that the labourer shall undertake to work for him a period equal to the education leave period in a maximum limit of five years. The Minister shall issue a decision on the condi­ tions. upon his request. A female Muslim labourer whose husband passes away shall be entitled to a fully paid leave of 4 (four) months & 10 (ten) days as from the -date of death for the period of wait­ ing (iddat). Article (75) has introduced a new provision stipulates that the employer may grant the la­ bourer a paid leave for education for obtaining a higher qualification in the field of his work. Article (76) has introduced a new provision stipulates that the la­ bourer who spent two continuous years in the service of his employer shall have the right to a paid leave of 21 days for performing Haj rituals. Article (77) introduced a new type of leaves when it stipulates that the labourer shall be entitled to a fully paid leave of three days upon Article (78) has also introduced an­ other leave with full pay that the em­ ployer shall have the right to grant the labourer a fully paid leave for at­ tending Labour Periodic Conferences & Social Gatherings. a non-Muslim female labourer whose husband passes away shall be entitled to a fully paid leave of 21 days. As encouragement for labourers to study and education. provided that he should not have previously performed the Haj. provided that she shall not practice any work with a third party for the entire leave period. The conditions for granting such leave shall be organized by a decision from the Minister.

and all necessary data and records in the light of these articles. before under­ taking his work. together with binding the employer to hang in a conspicuous place at the work center the bylaws of penalties. Article (85) stipulates that the Minis­ ter. work in­ juries. upon taking the opinion of the competent authorities.tion to the other leaves referred to in this Section. service start date. weekly off days and official holidays in addition to the provision of the necessary occupa­ tional health & safety means in such a way that protects labourers against the work hazards. working hours system. and it is divided into two branches: First Branch: On Maintaining Rules of Occupational Safety & Health This Branch consists of Articles from (80) to (88). and the personal safety tools which the employer shall supply for the different activities. occupational diseases. service termination date. shall issue a decision specifying the types of ac­ tivities which shall comply with the provision of the necessary equipment and tools for labourers' safety & oc­ cupational health. the hazards which he may be exposed to and the neces­ sary protection means he should take. The Minister shall issue the neces­ sary decisions on the instructions and precautionary warning sign boards to be fixed in conspicuous places in the work center. along with the ap­ pointment of the specialized techni68 . occupa­ tional health & safety. SECTION IV OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY & HEALTH This Section comprises Articles from (80) to (97). and the labourer shall not be burdened with any ex­ penses or deducting any amounts from his wage against the provision of protection means for him. Article (84) requires the employer to explain to the labourer. where Articles from (80) to (83) explain the types of records and files which an employer should maintain for his labourers and shall consist of all the required entries of the necessary information about all types of the different leaves.

Article 88 obliges the employer to make the necessary msurance coverage over his labourers with insurance compa­ nies against work injuries and occu­ pational diseases. including the value of the medi­ cine and transport expenses The attending doctor shall specify in his report the treatment period.cians or specialists for operating these equipments. likewise. Article (91) stipulates that the em­ ployer shall bear the expenses of the injured labourer treatment against work injuries and occupational dis­ eases with a governmental hospital or a private clinic to be specified by him. in order to enhance the protection of labourers.shall take upon the occurrence of the injury as well as the authorities to be informed thereof. In this branch the legis­ lator introduced a new provision which provides in Article (89) that the following provisions related to work injuries and occupational dis­ eases shall not be applicable to the insured persons who are subject to the insurance provisions for the work injury stipulated in the Social Securi­ ty Law upon its application on them. (1) of 1999 on health insurance. SECOND BRANCH WORK INJURIES & OCCUPA­ TIONAL DISEASES This Branch consists of Articles from (89) to (97). All this shall be without prejudice to the pro­ visions of the Law No.or the labourer if his condition permits . and to undertake to utilize carefully any protection means under their possession and to execute the relevant in­ structions issued in this respect. together with tak­ ing into consideration the provisions of the Social Security Law. it explains the actions which the employer . In the meantime when Article (86) requires the employer to take the necessary precautionary measures for protecting labourers. to use the necessary protection means. Article (87) re­ quires the labourers. the percentage of disability resulting from the injury and to what extent the labourer is able to continue the performance of his work. The legislator. Also this Article 69 . In Article (90).

entitles each of the labourer and the employer may object to the medical report before the Medical Arbitration Cortunittee at the Ministry of Health. Article (97) binds the previous em­ ployers for whom the labourer has worked. he shall be entitled only to half the wage until his recovery or proven disability or death. Article (93) gives the labourer who suffers a work injury or occupational disease the right to receive his full wage for the entire treatment period fixed by the medical doctor. to compensate the labourer or his beneficiaries for his injury as per the manner stipulated in this text. for the compensation as provided for in paragraph (1) of this Article. each in proportion to the pe­ riod spent by the labourer in his ser­ vice. CHAPTERV COLLECTIVE LABOUR RELA­ TIONS SECTION I 70 . Article (94) stipulates that the injured labourer or his beneficiaries shall be entitled to receive compensation for work injuries or occupational diseas­ es accordingto the schedule to be is­ sued by a decision from the Minister. If the treatment period exceeds six months. 94. upon taking the opinion of the Minister of Health. Article (95) refers to the cases in which the injured labourer shall be deprived of his right to the compen- sation for the injury and the scope of this depriving. 95) of this law if he suffers from a occu­ pational disease or any relevant symptoms are developed on him even after leaving the service within one year. after compensating the labourer or his beneficiaries. and gives the insurance company or the Public Institution for Social Security the right to claim. Article 96 extends the prescribed pro­ tection to the labourer under the to the provisions of Articles (93. Article (92) binds every employer to provide the Ministry of Health with statistical statement about work injuries accidents and occupational dis­ eases that took place at his firm on periodic basis.

it explains the manner of evidencing le­ gal entity of the organization. (87) of 1948 on the freedom of trade unions and securing the right of accession to trade unions. Rather. as the case may be. Also. and to repre­ sent them before third parties. improving their materi­ al and social conditions. Also.which is represented by looking after the interests of the members of the organization. after confirming the right of forming trade unions and federations. within 15 days from the date of its election. it gives this right in conformity with the declared principles in the constitution and the relevant interna­ tional agreements. Article (101) provides for the basic information that should be included in the Articles of Association of the organization. Article (99). this Article prescribes the prin-· ciple of forming federations and trade unions for labourers and sectors with their different classes. government & oil sectors in consistence with the principle of freedom of forming the associations and trade unions as prescribed in the Arti­ cle 43 of the constitution. and also in compliance with the relevant international agreements. ORGANIZATIONS OF LABOUR­ ERS & EMPLOYERS AND RIGHT OF TRADE UNIONS This Chapter consists of Three Sections and Articles from (98) to (110). the rights & obligations of its members and how to practice its activity. this Article has explained the required procedures for forming trade unions or federations. Also. where Article (98) ensures the right of forming federations by employers and trade unions by labourers in conformity with the provisions of this law. it specifies the purpose for establishing such organizations 71 . particularly the Agreement No. de­ posit the organization incorporation documents with the Ministry. Article (100) does not put as a pre­ condition the completion of a certain number of labourers or employers for the establishment of a trade union or federation. Article (102) explains that the elected board of directors shall. the pri­ vate.

form a general federation provided The trade union's property after its that there shall not be more than one dissolution shall be decided on accor72 . ions are prohibited to practice. ing the rights provided for in this Article (107) stipulates that the federChapter. and also stipassembly according to the organizaulates the activities which trade untion's article of association. provided that they shall inform the Ministry of tion. ations which they believe that their des of association of the organizainterests are related thereto. to open canteens & resrectors on the basis of the organizataurants for serving the labourers tion's violation to the provisions of within the limit of the establishment. the right of the federations to at the Court of Appeal. upon enjoybourers & employers. the general federation and ble laws in the country and shall trade unions shall have the right to practice their activity within the limaccede to Arab or international federits of the objectives stated in the arti. Article (104) obliges the competent the accession date. upon the approval of employthe request of the competent Ministry ers and the competent authorities in for the dissolution of the board of dithe country. the law or the articles of association. etc. this article stipulates that the ions' right to form federations to take court judgment may be appealed care of their common objectives.· -. Ministry to direct and guide labourArticle (108) has mentioned two ers trade unions and employer's fedmethods for the dissolution of emerations towards the proper applicaplayers & labourers' organizations: tion of the law and the manner of 1.. and within 30 days from the date of issue also.. The voluntarily dissolution by a how to make entries in the financial decision to be issued by the general books & records . Article (106) confirms the trade unAlso. shall observe all the applicaations. The legal dissolution by virtue Article (105) gives trade unions the of a court judgment to be issued upon right. 2.Article (103) stipulates that the lageneral federation for each of the labourers and employers.

Article (113) puts it as an obligation that the collective employment con­ tract should be a limited period con­ tract provided that its term shall not be more than 3 years. . on the other hand. Article (111). and one or more employers or whoever represents them from employer's fed­ erations. rules & regulations related to their rights & obligations Article (110) authorizes the employer to dedicate one or more members of the trade union or federation board of directors for following up the trade union affairs with the labor depart­ ment or the competent authorities in the country. Article (109) has introduced a new provision that binds employers to provide labourers with all the deci­ sions. then it should maintain its capacity as a limited period contract for one year period under the same con­ ditions stated therein. defines the collective or group employment contract as the contract which regulates the work conditions and circumstances be­ tween one or more labourers trade 73 . in case of the optional disso­ lution. Article (114) provides that if either SECTION II COLLECTIVE EMPLOYMENT CONTRACT This Section which consists of Arti­ cles from (111) to (122) is introduced for governing the collective or group employment contract which had not been particularly regulated before un­ der any of the previous labour laws. union or federation. If the two contract parties have continue to imple­ ment the same after the expiry of its term. The consent with regard to labourers' trade unions and employers' federa­ tions should be issued by the mem­ bers of those organizations accordingto the provisions of the Articles of Association of the organization. Article (112) puts as a precondition that the collective employment con­ tract should be prepared in writing and duly signed by both parties. All this shall be subject to that the contract itself contains special conditions that conflict with the prescribed provision stipulated in this text.dingto the decision of the general as­ sembly. on one hand.

either at: party of the collective employment contract is not desirous to renew it af­ ter the expiry of its term. is principally a mutual satisfaction contract. The industry level. 2. Further. he shall in­ form the other party and the compe­ tent Ministry in writing at least three months from the contract expiry date. or 3. Although the collective employment contract. Also. however. and obliges the two parties to amend the contract within 15 days from the receipt of such objection. like an individual employ­ ment contract. Article (115) sets forth an important guarantee represented by the nullity of any condition in this contract if it violates any provisions stipulated in the articles of this law except those conditions that comprise such rights or privileges in the law which are more beneficial to the labourers. Arti­ cle 116 puts as a precondition for its effectiveness that it shall be registered with the competent Ministry and a summary of which shall be published in the Official Gazette. Also. this Article provides that any conditions or agreement signed be­ fore or after the enforcement of this law under which the labourer waivers any right granted by this law shall be deemed null and void. any reconciliation or quitclaim deed that comprises a reduction or release from a labourer's rights due to him under the employment contract during its 1. this Article provides that if the 74 . the registration application will be deemed as if it did not take place. the second paragraph of the same Article authorizes the compe­ tent Ministry to object to any conditions it deems as violating the law. Article (117) stipulates that this con­ tract may be concluded. then its termination with regard to one party shall not result in its termi­ nation with regard to the other parties. otherwise. as a minimum limit for their rights. If the contract parties are multiple. Also. The national level. The firm's level.validity period or three months after its expiry shall be null and void whenever it violates the provisions of this law.

Moreover. Article (118) has mentioned the body-corporates. Article (119) confirms that the la­ bourers' withdrawal or dismissal from the trade union shall not affect their right to enjoy the conditions of this contract together with their com­ pliance with the obligations stipulat­ ed therein. Article (120) Those who have not en­ tered into contracts from among the labourers' trade unions or federa­ tions. natural persons and other classes which shall be subject to the provisions of the collective employment contract including. employers who 75 . if such withdrawal or dismissal took place subsequent to the signing the contract or joining it by the trade union. the trade unions organizing the federation that signed the contract or joined it after its conclusion. this will ensure the best factors of group labour rela­ tions stabifity along with the potential positive economic and social out­ comes arising thereof.contract is concluded at the level of the industry. first. employers or their federations that signed the contract or joined it after its conclusion. and fourth. and the contract signed at the na­ tionallevel shall be deemed as amendment to any of the other two contracts. For the generalization of the benefits derived from the positive effects of the collective employment contract.labourers and employers in the collective employment con­ tract. Consequently. loabourers' trade unions and federa­ tions that concluded the contract or joined it after its conclusion. second. third. it should be signed by the general federation oflabour­ ers. or employers or their federa­ tions. the text will accom­ modate and contain the largest possi­ ble base of . it deems the conclud­ ed contract at the industry's level to be considered as an amendment to the contract signed at the firm's lev­ el. and if it is concluded at the'national level. within the limits of the common provisions stipulated there­ joined the federation that signed the contract or joined it after its being concluded. may join the collective em­ ployment contract after the In. then it should be signed by the federation of such industry's trade unions. Thus.

im­ portant principle which stipulates that the collective or group employ­ ment contract signed by the firm's trade union shall be applicable to all labourers of the firm even if they are not members of such Trade Union. SECTION III COLLECTIVE LABOUR DIS­ PUTES This Section includes Articles from (123) to (132) which aim at maintain­ ing the stability of labour relations especially when the dispute involves large numbers of labourers.publication of its summary in the Official Gazette by the agreement of both parties requesting the accession without any need for taking the con­ sent of the main contracting parties. due to the work or its conditions. On the other hand. it shall be effective only to the la­ bourers of the relevant employer. against one or more employers. The approval · of the competent Ministry to the ac­ cession application shall be pub­ lished in the Official Gazette. this shall be without prejudice to any other provision related to the most beneficial conditions to the labourer in an individual employment con­ tract. has established ap. this text has widened the collective dispute con­ cept so as to be deemed as such if it The provision of Article (122) adopts 76 . The accession shall be made by vir­ tue of an application to be submitted to the competent Ministry duly signed by both parties. Article (123) defines the collective or group labour conflicts as those dis­ putes arising between one or more employers and all his labourers or some of them because of labour or work conditions. Thus. as for the contract signed by a federation or trade union with a specific employer. Article (121). the principle of proxy on behalf of the members when·it established that the labourers & employers organiza­ tions which are a party of the collec­ tive employment contract may file all cases arising out of the breach of the contract conditions in favor of any member of such organization without need for a power of attorney to be is­ sued by him for this purpose.

This is in order to achieve a stable environment in la­ bour relations whether at the firm. Also. this Article authorizes the competent Ministry shall have the right to delegate its representative to attend these negotiations in the capacity of supervisor and be acquainted of the dispute be­ ginning and aspects. Article (124) specifies the first ac­ tions to be taken by the dispute par­ ties for solving the collective con- flicts. (38) of 1964 where the disputes were deemed as individual even if they are filed by all the labourers or part 'Of them if the labour relation still exists so long as the cause of the dispute or conflict is related to a certain provision in the law or the contract. in­ dustry or level or the similar activity or at the national level. Therefore. Also. The application should be 77 . by solving this dispute and removing its causes · within a short time period. as in Article (88) of the Law No. The second paragraph of this Article stipulates that in case that the reached a mutual agreement among them. this will reduce the resort to the courts and intends to minimize the number of court judgments looked into be­ fore courts. the legislator is quite keen that the dispute shall bear the collec­ tive description even if the cause of the dispute is referred to the labour it­ self and not related only to its condi­ tions.arises because of the work and is not restricted only to just the conditions. as per the manner explained hereinabove. If the dispute parties failed to reach a solution as mentioned above. Article (125) provides that either party to the dispute may submit an application to the competent Ministry for the amicable settlement of such dispute through the Collective Labour Dis­ putes Committee regarding of which a decision shall be issued by the Min­ ster. then such-agreement should be en­ rolled with the competent Ministry within 15 days accordingto the rules & regulations in respect of which a decision shall be issued by the Minister. where both the dispute parties shall resort to direct negotiation be­ tween the'employer or his representa­ tive and the labourers or their repre­ sentatives.

Article (128) provides for the forma­ tion of the arbitration board of collec­ tive labor disputes which shall be formed of a circuit of the court of ap­ peals. The par­ ties of the dispute or their legal repre­ sentatives shall appear before the arbitration board. In all the previous stages. Article (127) fixes the rules and pro­ cedures which the reconciliation committee shall follow until the stage for signing a final amicable settle- ment which shall be deemed as a fi­ nal and binding agreement to both parties. then it shall refer the dispute or refer the un-agreed upon points there­ of.signed by the employer or his author­ ized representative or by the majority of the dispute labourers or by whom­ ever they authorize to represent them. However. if the reconcilia­ tion committee is not able to settle the dispute within the prescribed pe­ riod. the competent Ministry may demand such information it deems necessary for settling the dis­ pute. a representative for the competent Ministry to be appointed by its Minister. The committee may seek the opinion of whoever deems useful for the per­ formance of its task. to be annually appointed by the general assembly of this court. Article (129) obliges the arbitration board to look into the dispute in a period not later than twenty (20) days from the date of arrival of its papers to the 78 . two representatives to be selected by the employer (s) who are a party of the dispute. and the Chair­ man of the Committee and represen­ tatives of the competent Ministry to be appointed by the competent Min­ ister by a decision in which he shall also specify the number of the dispute parties representatives. Article (126) stipulates for the formation of a reconciliation committee and that this disputes reconciliation committee shall be formed from two representatives to be selected by the employer trade union or the disputing labourers. a head of prosecution to be delegated by the Public Prosecutor. within one week from the date of the last meeting of the committee. For ensuring a better speed for set­ tling the collective disputes. to the arbitration board duly accompanied with all the documents.

otherwise.Clerical Department. it may refer the dispute to the reconciliation commit­ tee or arbitration board as it deems appropriate. in this case. shall submit all the documents required by the competent Ministry. Article (130) provides that the arbi­ tration board shall have all the power and authorities of the court of appeal accordingto the provisions of the ju­ diciary organizing law and the Civil & Commercial Procedures Code. Also. if so sum­ moned. the dispute will be deemed as personal whatever the parties involved therein. The arbitration shall issue justified and causative decisions which shall be the same as those decisions issued by the court of appeal. CHAPTER VI LABOUR INSPECTION & PENAL­ TIES SECTION I LABOUR INSPECTION 79 . in the event of collective dis­ pute and if the necessity so requires. totally or partially. and the dispute shall be decided on within a period not exceeding three months from the date of the first session for looking into the dispute. Article 132 prohibits the parties of the dispute to stop the work. and either party to the dispute should be notified of the session date at least one week prior to its holding. this Article binds both the parties to this dispute. 'Article (131) has introduced a new principle that the competent Ministry may. Also. It goes without saying that the provi­ sions of this Section govern only the continuous labour relations between the parties of the dispute (the em­ ployer and labourers). during the direct negotia­ tion proceedings or before the recon­ ciliation committee or the arbitration board due to the interference of the competent Ministry in the disputes accordingto the provisions of the Ar­ tide (131). interfere without request by one of the dispute parties to settle the dis­ pute amicably. and they shall appear. before the board.

totally or partially. SECTION II PENALTIES This Section comprises Articles from (137) to (142) in which we notice in general that the legislator tends to­ wards hardening the punishments against the violators to such an extent which is harder than what was pre­ scribed in the Law No. to issue a decision on the lockout of the business concern. petent employees of the ministry the right to take the necessary actions. in coordination with the other competent authorities. and they shall further be entitled to enter such places allocated by employers for labour services purposes. impar­ tiality and persistence and they shall undertake not to disclose the secrets of employers which they may have access to by virtue of their work. and to request such data & information related to la­ bour force affairs. Article 136 gives the official employ­ ees the authority to issue notices on the committed contravention by the labourers working without a specific work center. or to stop the use of a certain machine(s) till the rectification of such contravention.Article (133) grants the authority of leg&! and judicial capacity to the competent employees to be identified by the Minister by a decision to over­ sight and control the implementation of this law and its executive rules. they shall have the right in this connection to check and take samples of the circulated materials for analysis purpose. (38) of 1964 after it became proven that those penalties were not enough to prevent the violators to commit such contraventions. they shall perform the neces­ sary legal oath before the Minister: Article (134) specifies the powers and authorities of those employees and they shall have the right to enter work places during the firm's official working hours. 80 . regulations & decisions. and they may seek the assistance of the public force for the·execution of the functions of their tasks. Article (135) gives the official com­ . Also. and to have access to all books & records. Also. provided that those employees shall perform their duties with due honesty.

it prescribed a penalty on whoever violates the remaining provisions of this law and the execu­ tive decisions thereto.000/-. it has stipulated in Article (140) a penalty against whoever fails to enable the competent employees specified by the Minister to perform their duties provided foin Articles (133. so as to confirm this principle. Article (139) provides for the penal punishment against the employer who will be in breach of the provi­ sions of Article (57) herein. Article (137) provides for the punishment and penalty of not more than KD 500/. or with one of the two penalties.serve the rules. regulations and meas­ ures of occupational health & safety as well as the Ministerial Decisions issued for the implementation of the same. In order to reactivate the Ministry controlling role. Article (141) explains the method of notification about the contravention in order to remove the causes of vio­ lation and the prescribed punishment thereof. 35) herein.applicable on · whoever violates the provisions of Articles (8. Also. CHAPTER VII CONCLUDING PROVISIONS This Chapter comprises Articles 81 . the penalty shall be doubled. Article (138) has introduced the pun­ ishment by imprisonment for not more than three years and a fine not more than KD 1. shall be punished by a fine not to exceed KD 1.000/. due to its belief on the controlling role carried out by the Ministry on the firms so as to make sure to what extent they ob. the legislator. Also.Accordingly. shall be punished by imprisonment for a period not exceeding six month and a fine not more than KD 1000/-. Article (142) stipu­ lates that whoever violates the writ of suspension or closure issued accor­ dingto the provisions of Article 135 herein without remedying the contra­ ventions notified to him by the com­ petent employees. and in case of repeating the same act.or with both penalties to be applicable on whoever violates the provision of paragraph· (3) of Article (10) of this law. 134) herein.

Labour force Restruc­ ' . If he is a heir or legal representa­ izations and whoever the Minister tive of the debtor or for his heirs. he deems appropriate.may bind the with all the warranties provided for party who files the case to pay all or therein to the cases and lawsuits filed part of the expenses. where the the Ministry. the court . where Article (144) of this law duced a new provision which stipu­ stipulates that the actions filed by the lates that the rights of labourers pre­ labourers under the provisions of this scribed according to the provisions of law. Employers & Labourers organ. along rejecting such actions . Finally. 38 of Article (145) of the law has intro­ 1964. where Article the employment contract expiry date (143) stipulates that a Consultant shall not be heard.from (143) to (150). sue its recommendations._ employer who sticks to not hearing turing & State Executive Body Prothe lawsuit must give oath that he has gram. Committee for Labour Affairs shall Upon denial. This is contrary to shall be looked into forthwith on what was applicable in the light of prompt summary basis. Labour cases by the labourers. However. This decision that it has been settled. he brought the provision of fees. after the lapse of one year from 82 . the same Article provides in The legislator.upon Article (442) of the Civil Code. This oath shall also issue the necessary proce­ shall be taken by the court spontane­ dures for inviting the committee for meeting. whose task is to shall perform the oath that he has no give opinion on the issues presented knowledge of such debt or he knows to it by the Minister. in order to strengthen its last paragraph that the actions filed the protection of labourers and to en­ by labourers or their beneficiar­ ies sure that they receive their labour shall be exempted from the judi­ cial rights.actually settled the debt to the labour­ er. Article (96) of the Law No. the provision of para­ be formed by a decision by the Min­ graph (2) of Article (442) of the Civil ister consisting of representatives of Code shall be applicable. work therein and how to isously without being demanded to do so.

to the Court of First Instance to decide on it. Article (149). The referral shall be made by a memorandum comprising a summary of the dis­ pute. except private residential dwellings. pleadings of both parties and comments of the department. decisions and bylaws for this law. each within his jurisdiction. Finally. schedule a session for looking into the case which shall be notified to both parties of the dispute.tion with employers and labours. in consulta. (38) of 1964 and the amending laws thereto. These amounts shall be collected after the legal expenses. within 3 days from the receipt of the application. and document keeping and repair costs. such as movables & real estates. Article (150) requires the Prime Minister and Ministers. 83 . the due amounts for the public treasury. If the depart­ ment could not reach an amicable settlement. the Clerical Department at the Court of First Instance shall. According to the Article (147). to implement this law which shall be operative as from the date of its publication in the Official Gazette. after it has provided for the cancellation of the Law No. regulations. within one month from the case sub­ mission date. this Article adds that the la­ bourers shall maintain all the rights arising thereof before its cancella­ tion. Article (146) puts it as a pre-requisite that a case should be preceded by an application to be filed by the labourer or his beneficiaries to the competent labour department which shall summon the dispute parties or their repre­ sentatives to appear. and all the implementing deci­ sions thereof shall remain applicable in such a manner which is not contradictory to the provisions of this law until the issue of the executive rules. regulations & decisions for imple­ menting this law within six months from the date of publishing this law in the Official Gazette.this law shall have preference & pri­ ority over all employers' money. Article (148) stipulates that the Min­ ister shall issue the necessary rules. it shall refer the case.

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