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Chapter three

Water Quality And Standards

CHAPTER 3

WATER QUALITY AND
STANDARDS
In This Chapter
 History of Water Quality Standards
 Importance of Water Quality Standards
 National and International Water Quality Standards
 Chemical and Bacteriological Characteristics

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This means that it may be consumed in any desired amount without concern for adverse effects on health ( Pontius. Water meeting these conditions is termed ''Potable Water''. 1990).Chapter three Water Quality And Standards Chapter (3) WATER QUALITY AND STANDARDS w ater is very important for our life. While others produced infection. the father of medicine. color. 3. The general practice of making 42 . Early historical treatment was performed only for the improvement of the appearance or taste of the water.1 History of Water Quality Standards Water quality was hot very well documented and people knew relatively little about disease as it related to water quality. 1990).'' His interest in water centered on the purifying the most healthgiving source of supply rather than on purifying the waters that were bad. Hippocrates. and odor and from any objectionable taste. The first drinking water standards were issued at least 4000 years ago. By the 18th century. ancient people deduced by observation that certain waters promoted good health. Therefore. No definite standards of quality other than general clarity or palatability were recorded by ancient civilizations. Apparently. filtration of particles from water was established as an effective means of clarifying water. Drinking water should be aesthetically acceptable. stated that ''water contributes much to health. water must be free from organisms that are capable of causing disease and from minerals and organic substances that could produce adverse physiological effects (Pontius. it should be free from apparent turbidity.

Aside from the frequent references of concern for the aesthetic properties of water. The first municipal water filtration plant started operations in 1832 in Scotland. significantly reducing turbidity and bacteria in the water. combined coagulation with rapid sand filtration.. The basic formal and comprehensive review of drinking water concerns was launched. cholera and typhoid) had been caused and spread by water contamination. more stringent quality criteria would be a necessary historical development.Chapter three Water Quality And Standards water clean was well recognized by that time. The next major milestone in drinking water technology was the use of chlorine as disinfection. In the mid-1890s. The concept of maximum permissible and safe limit was introduced. 43 . Chlorination was first used in 1908 and was introduced in a large number of water systems. Louisville. the Louisville Water Company. With the realization that various epidemics (e. As a result. Reliance on taste and smell was not an accurate means of judging the acceptability of water. These standards (Pontius. 1990) included the following : i. the water quality standards was developed and regulated to give best potable water. but the degree of clarity was not measurable. in 1852 a law was passed in London stating that all waters should be filtered. In the 19th century. people saw that the quality of drinking water could not be accurately judged by sensory perception.g. historical records indicate that standards for water quality were notable absent up to and including much of the 19th century. ii.

Chapter three Water Quality And Standards iii. Some of these are still in use. 1962) can be divided into three types: i. where more suitable. iv. Samples for bacteriological examination were to be obtained from pointes in the distribution system. iii. acceptable and attainable from available sources. Brief information about these standards is presented below. ii. National (Saudi Arabian Standards) and selected international water quality standards for drinking water which are currently in use are presented in Table 3. and.3 National and International Water Quality Standards Several water quality standards were established and implemented. Physical and Chemical constituents were limited. Maximum concentrations.1.2 Importance of Water Quality Standards Water quality standards normally identify the concentration of component properties shown by examinations of water samples to be safe. 3. The maximum permitted concentration of various substances in public water supply is controlled throughout the world by legislation and varies to some extent from country to country. and bacteriological examinations were illustrated. 3. whereas. For pure waters from a restricted area. Standards of water quality (Babbitt et al. v. 44 . vi. For limits of matters permitted in water. Physical. For water of exceptionally great natural purity. not to be exceeded always. some were modified. Chemical.

3 World Health Organization Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality The primary aim of the World Health Organization (WHO) Guidelines for drinking water quality is the protection of public health and thus the elimination. There are two drinking water quality standards currently in use in Saudi Arabia.Chapter three Water Quality And Standards 3.3.3. 3. 3. 1990). The un bottled drinking water quality standards have been issued in 1403 H (1982 G) by the Saudi Arabian Standards Organization (SASO and standardization and Metrology Organization for Gulf Cooperation Council Countries (GSMO) and implemented in 1413 H (1993 G). or reduction to a minimum.1 Saudi Arabian Standards Drinking water quality standards in Saudi Arabia (SAS) are issued by the Saudi Arabian Standards Organization (SASO). 45 .2 Gulf Cooperation Countries Standards Gulf Cooperation Council Countries Standards are the ''Unbottled Drinking Water Quality Standards'' (GCS. The bottled drinking water quality standards are currently in use of the water quality in the distribution system. of constituents in water that known to be hazardous to the health and well-being of the community (Pontius. These are the bottled drinking water quality standards (SASO. 1993).3. 1993) which have been issued in 1403 H (1982 G) by the Saudi Arabia Standards Organization (SASO) and Standardization and Metrology Organization for Gulf Cooperation Council Countries (GSMO). The former have been issued in 1392 H (1972 G) by the Saudi Arabian Standards Organization (SASO) and implemented in 1405 H (1985 G). 1997) and the unbolted drinking water quality standards (GCS.

provided that public health and welfare are not adversely affected. issued a council directive relating to the quality of water intended for human consumption. also known as primary standards. 46 .5 European Economic Community Drinking Water Directives The European Economic Community (EEC). 3. (RCL. In addition. having been established by a treaty of the Council of the European Communities. and for bacterial population. secondary standards) have been established for certain contaminants. 1990). which are primarily of esthetic importance (Pontius. recommended contaminant levels.3. and the definition of physical.3. for turbidity. Specifically. the EEC standards provide for both the setting of standards to apply to toxic chemicals and bacteria that present a health hazard. The present standards include maximum contaminant le4vel (MCL). chemical. Specifically for the use of human consumption (Pontius. States may establish higher or lower levels that may be appropriate depending upon local conditions such as unavailability of alternative source water or other compelling factors. for those organic and inorganic chemicals known to have toxic or carcinogenic effects.4 United States Environmental Protection Agency for Drinking Water Regulations U.Chapter three Water Quality And Standards 3. and biological parameters for different uses of water. 1990).S Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA's) secondary regulations set desirable levels for drinking water contaminants that may adversely affect the aesthetic value of drinking water.

In general. 1990). 47 . The first comprehensive Canadian drinking water guidelines were published by the Department of National Health and Welfare in 1968. safe supply. provincial governments are responsible for an adequate. drinking water is a shared federal-provincial responsibility.6 Canadian Drinking Water Guidelines In Canadian.3.Chapter three Water Quality And Standards 3. (Pontius. Guidelines for Canadian Drinking water quality (CGL) are developed through a joint federal-provincial mechanism and are not legally enforceable unlesss promulgated as regulations by the appropriate provincial agency. whereas the Federal Department of National Health and Welfare develops quality guidelines and conducts research. They were completely revised in 1978 and again in 1987.

0 NTU 5.0 TCU <5 NTU Inoffensive Inoffensive <500 0.0 0.4-2.0 as N 10 10 400 400 250 25(500) 1.05 --<250 10 0.5-8. (3) O dilution No.5 1000 15.NO3 Aluminum mg/1 mg/1 mg/1 45 --- <1.05(0.0 TCU SASª (1984/409) USS EEC 6.0 TCU 500 15.5 1.05 Fluride F1 mg/1 0.NO2 Nitrite.5 6.0 NTU 5.5 800-2300 GCS (1993/149) SAS (1993/701) 6.7) at 253u° C (0.0-5.0 NTU 1.0 NTU 1(10) mg/1 SiO2 Taste Acceptable Acceptable Inoffensive Acceptable Order Acceptable Acceptable Inoffensive Acceptable O dilution No.5-8.5 160-1600 1500 50.05(0.7 1.2 Sulfate.0 0.4 Nitrite.1) 25 (50) 0.2) 0.05 (0.3 chlorine Coliform no.5 400 6.2-1./100 ml Bacteria Fecal no.0 Coliform J MF method coliform no.5 TCU 1500 1 mg/1 Pt/Co scale <500 µ/cm at 20° C mg/1 TCU(true Color unit NTU.2 1.D.1 200 250 0.1 200 250 0./100 ml 0/100 ml 0.3 0.3 0.Chapter three Constituent pH Electric Conductivity T. (3) 100 30(50) 60 Ca mg/1 minimum Turbidity CGL (1987) WHO Calcium Magnesium Ca mg/1 mg mg/1 200 30-150 200 150 Total Hardness mg/1 as CaCo3 500 500 500 Manganese Sodium Chloride Mg mg/1 Na mg/1 C1 mg/1 0.6-1.2) 1.3 0.05) 20(175) 25 <0.5-8.0 0.5-8.0 0./100 ml <1/100 ml 0.SO4 mg/1 400 Iron Fe mg/1 Free residual mg/1 <15.0 0.0 as N 10 as N 0.05 --600 0.5 1. (nephelometrc turbidity unit) 25.0 j MF method MPN/100 ml SAS : Saudi Arabia Standard Community standard GCS : Gulf Countries Standard WHO : World Health Organization USS : United States Standard EEC : European Economic CGL : Canadian Guideline 48 .5 <1/100 0/100 ml ml MF method 250 <0.5 6.6-1.02 (0.0 TCU 100-1000 15.0 -8.5-8.0 10 as N 0.S Color Water Quality And Standards Units 6.2-0.

1. 3. PH is an important factor in the chemical and biological system of natural water. relative concentration. and the measurement temperature.Electrical Conductivity Electrical conductivity is a numerical expression that shown the ability of water to hold electrical current.1. Electrical conductivity depends on the ionic forces of the solution. 3. nitrate.1 Chemical Characteristics 3. and carbonate ions. The unit of Electrical conductivity is mhos / cm.4 Chemical and Bacteriological Characteristics This section gives a brief description of the chemical and bacteriological characteristics parameters that were measured in this study. chloride.4. bicarbonate ions.4. appearance of the dissolved ions and their concentration. Total dissolved Solid Total dissolved Solid is the summation of all dissolves solids in the water. Water with a pH less than 7 is acidic.1.3. The concentration of the hydrogen ion (H+) morality in a solution determines the pH.pH pH is a measured of the acidic or basic (alkaline) nature of a solution.4. The principle system regulating pH in natural water is the carbonate system composed of carbon dioxide.2.Chapter three Water Quality And Standards 3.4. carbonate. Pure water has pH equal 7 and is neutral. TDS affects the other characteristics of drinking water such as taste and hardness. and magnesium. 3. bicarbonate. 49 .1. sodium. such as non-organic materials. carbonic acid. and water with pH greater than 7 is basic. The degree of dissociation of weak acids or bases is affected by changes in pH. potassium.

and as a waste product of photosynthesis. Carbonates.1. by aeration. It is the sum total of components in the water that tend to elevate the pH of the water above 4. 3. Alkalinity The alkalinity of the water is its ability to neutralize an acid. oxygen in water prevents the chemical reduction and subsequent leaching of iron and manganese. Dissolved Oxygen Dissolved Oxygen analysis measure the amount of gaseous oxygen dissolved an aqueous solution. bicarbonates. principally from the sediments.5.1. and the development of carbon dioxide an methane in sediments that bubble to the surface or which tend to float sludge. Dissolved Oxygen in the water column causes the anaerobic decomposition of organic materials leading to the formation of noxious gases.5. Dissolved Oxygen in municipal water supplies is desired as an indicator of satisfactory water quality in terms of low residual of biologically available organic material. and hydroxide 50 . phosphates. excess oxygen increases the rate of metal corrosion. Oxygen gets into water by diffusion from the surrounding air. It generally ahs also been considered significant in the protection of aesthetic qualities. Insufficient.4. On the other hand. Dissolved Oxygen concentration are an important tool to determine the ability of a water body to support a well-balanced aquatic fauna.Chapter three Water Quality And Standards 3. such has hydrogen sulfide.4. In addition. which can increase the concentration of iron and other metals in drinking water supplies.4.

1.6. 3.4. Intensive animal farming produces large amounts of nitrogenous materials that may be converted into nitrates.7. 3. It has undergone profound modifications as a result of agricultural and industrial activities of man. Atmospheric nitrogen is transformed by microbial action in plants and in the soil.Chapter three Water Quality And Standards contribute the common materials in natural water that increase alkalinity. and metal. Nitrates The continuous interchange between atmospheric terrestrial nitrogen is referred to as nitrogen cycle. Chloride is a salt compound resulting from the combination of the gas. The typical taste may be absent in waters containing as much as 1. may be increased by the use of commercial nitrogenous fertilizers and farm animal waste. and by industrial process compounds. Chloride Chloride ion is one of the major inorganic anions in water and wastewater. Maximum levels up to 400 mg/L as calcium carbonates are not considered a problem.4. Levels in cultivated soils. most of which are readily soluble in water. by various atmospheric processes. chlorine. The chloride concentration is higher in wastewater than in raw water because sodium chloride is a common component of the diet and passes unchanged through the digestive system. such as ammonia. and thus levels in groundwater. Nitrates are salts of nitric acid. High chloride content may 51 . and nitrites. Alkalinity resulting from naturally occurring materials is not considered a health hazard in drinking water supplies. nitrates.1.000 mg/L when the predominant cautions are calcium and magnesium .

3. forming scale in boilers. Therefore. gypsum. Magnesium Magnesium. The calcium content may range from zero to several hundred milligrams per liter. to more than 500 mg Na/1.8. Calcium contributes to the total hardness of water. in the form of K.1. Chloride can corrode metals and affect the taste of food products.11. in the form of Na+. 3.9. ranks eighth among the elements in order of abundance and is a common constituent of natural water. depending on the source and treatment of the water. magnesium salts breaks down when heated. Calcium The pressure of calcium in the form Ca2+ in water supplies as a result of passage through or over deposits of limestone. depending on the source and treatment of the water. Potassium Potassium. dolomite. in the form of Mg2+.4. yet its concentration in most drinking waters seldom 52 .1. as well as growing plants. 3. The magnesium may very from zero to several hundred milligrams per liter.4.1.4.1. ranks seventh among the elements in order of abundance. ranks sixth among the elements in order of abundance and is present in most natural waters.4.Chapter three Water Quality And Standards metallic pipes and structures. Important contributes to the hardness of water. The levels may very from less than 1 mg Na/1. 3. and gypsiferous shale. The ratio of sodium to total cations is important in agricultural and human pathology. water is used in industry or processed for any use has a recommended maximum chloride level.10. Sodium Sodium.

The use of phosphate detergents and other domestic phosphates increases the phosphorus load to natural habitats.4. Phosphorus Phosphorus. have wastewater high in phosphates.1. 53 .1. in the form of P+. Some industries. Phosphorus enters waterways from several different sources. colorless. alkaline compound of nitrogen and hydrogen that is highly soluble in water. However.12. 3. The human body excretes about 1 pound per year of phosphorus. Ammonia Ammonia in the form of NH3 is a pungent.Chapter three Water Quality And Standards reaches 20 mg/L. It may also reach surface waters through the discharge of industrial wastes containing ammonia as a byproduct or wastes from industrial processes using ''ammonia water''. occasional brines may contain more than 100 mg/L potassium.4. It was found that total phosphorus concentrations in excess of 100 mg/L might interfere with coagulation in water treatment plants. It is a biologically active compound present in natural waters as a normal biological degradation product of nitrogenous organic matter and wastewater. phosphorus as phosphate (PO4+) is one of the major mutrients required for plant nutrition and essential for life. gaseous. is particularly toxic and is subject to bioaccumulation in much same way as mercury. 3. However. such as potato processing.13.

4. It is soluble in acid. particularly in urban areas. People are exposed to lead by ingestion of food and fluids and by inhalation. malleable metal or grayish-white powder.16. soil. ammonium nitrate. is generally low in comparison with exposure through air and food. Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) Chemical oxygen demand is a measure of water pollution resulting from organic matter. naturally present in air. exposures of man to these sources are negligible. Since these areas constitute a small percentage of total land. 3. such as rock erosion and abrasion. and of singular occurrences. or equivalent.4.Chapter three Water Quality And Standards 3. blue-white. therefore. STET the amount of oxygen required. and insoluble in water. some environment have much higher concentrations. Cadmium is.15.1. water. for the oxidation of all chemically oxidyzable matter contained in a water sample. This is accomplished using a number of methods utilizing a 54 . it caused symptoms resembling food poisoning. Cadmium has been shown to be toxic to man when ingested or inhaled. Cadmium Cadmium in the form of (Cd) occurs as a soft.1.14. however. 3. Man's intake of lead through water.4. such as volcanic eruptions.1. When ingested. Lead Lead in the form of (Pb) is a silver-gray soft metal that occurs in the earth's at crust at an average concentration of about 13 mg/kg. The naturally occurring presence of cadmium in the environment results mainly from gradual phenomena. and foodstuffs.

and hepatitis A. Fecal coliform Bacteria Total coliforms are measure of thee concentration of bacteria associated with the presence of sewage pollution. producing acid and gas. Total coliform bacteria are all gram-negative asporogenous rods and have been associated with faces of warm-blooded animals and with soil. 55 .50C and ferment lactose. Fecal coliform bacteria are the most frequently applied microbiological indicators of water quality to determine the safety of water for drinking. swimming.Chapter three Water Quality And Standards strong chemical oxidant. Bacteriological Characteristics 3.1. At the time this occurred. Some waterborne pathogenic diseases include typhoid fever.2.4. 3.4. viral and bacterial gastroenteritis. which can also exist in fecal material. Boiling a solution containing chromic and sulfuric acids can digest the majority or organic matter.2. The coliform group is made up of a number of bacteria. Use of fecal coliform bacteria has proven to be of more sanitary significance than the use of total coliform bacteria because to define water quality for swimming. the source water might have been contaminated by pathogens or disease producing bacteria or viruses. The presence of fecal coliform bacteria in aquatie environments indicates that the water has been contaminated with the fecal material of man or other animals. and shellfish harvesting. They are able to grow at 44.

require a high quality of water in order to be microbiologically safe for human consumption. Shellfish concentrates fecal coliform bacteria.Chapter three Water Quality And Standards The presence of fecal contamination is an indicator that a potential health risk exists for individual exposed to this water. and viruses found in water and sediment. as filter feeders. fecal coliform bacterial may occur in ambient water as a result of the overflow of domestic sewage or nonpoint sources of human and animal waste. either raw or partially cooked. other bacterial pathogens. Shellfish. 56 .