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LED

DRIVER

The traditional .The device uses a digital technique that allows it to automatically detect the AC input voltage condition. allowing it to create a special internal reference signal that results in high power factor correction. automatically sensing AC versus DC input voltage conditions. The FL7701 will also work from a DC input voltage condition.

compared to the three years achievable by current solutions. Reliability is also improved since no electrolytic capacitors for the input. output. or the FL7701 VDD supply are required. . Digital power factor (PF) realization (>0.technique of using a transformer in an MR application incurs additional losses with the transformer conversion. this traditional inefficient method can now be replaced using the FL7701 connected directly to a DC or AC off-line input. The high degree of integration designed into the FL7701 provides the high reliability required to increase the luminary lifespan to more than five years. This combination creates a solution suitable for the space-constrained PCB sizes found in LED lighting applications and supports analog dimming.9) and lower total harmonic distortion (THD). The FL7701 combines high functional density in a small form factor that provides designers up to 20 percent lower bill of material (BOM) costs and up to 60 percent board space savings.

(<20W). Reflector. MR or classic styles E26/E27 or Bi-Pin base. Available in an SOP8 package. Combined. Fairchild's IC design technology results in high power efficiency (>90 percent) and provides high light quality required for residential applications. LED light bulbs or down lights in PAR.along with the 90% electrical efficiency results in increased energy savings for the end system. Fairchild's extensive product portfolio ranges from discrete devices to integrated solutions that contain PFC . as well as LED lamps for low power lighting fixtures. Our highly integrated PWM and PFC controller solutions reduce component BOM counts to enable smaller lamp sizes and eliminate design complexities. while improving overall lighting efficiency.(20W to 50W) and high(>50W) LED driver applications. mid. Fairchild offers a total solution portfolio for low. such as Energy Star®. the FL7701 is ideal for interior decorating/ornamental lights. these features allow the FL7701 to provide energy savings that meet the most stringent worldwide regulations.

Fairchild's Global Power ResourceSM Center comprised of online tools. . Fairchild has developed innovative products that maximize performance while reducing board space. With commitment to energy savings and meeting the most stringent regulations. is the industry standard for customer design support.controllers. In addition. high voltage gate drivers and MOSFETs. FAEs and regional centers staffed by power engineers. design complexity and system costs.

current only flows in one direction. It can be seen that. therefore. for a given temperature. Too little current and voltage will result in little or no light. constant current DC power to produce light. unlike fluorescent or discharge lamps. A typical LED forward voltage vs. a small change in forward voltage produces a disproportionately large change in forward current. In addition. LED die lot variations. LEDs have polarity and. forward current profile is given in Figure 1. . LED die material. and too much current and voltage can damage the light-emitting junction of the LED diode. they do not require an ignition voltage to start. the forward voltage required to achieve a desired light output can vary with LED die size. Driving LEDs is relatively simple and. and temperature.Driving LED light sources LEDs are semiconductors with light-emitting junctions designed to use low-voltage.

As LEDs heat up. the forward voltage drops (Figure 2) and the current passing through the LED increases. This phenomenon is referred to as thermal runaway. The increased current generates additional heating of the junction. the junction will fail due to the heat. If nothing limits the current. .

The heat generated by resistors needs to be dissipated. First. However. Therefore. For some applications. A few applications. current-limiting devices such as resistors can be an inexpensive alternative to constant-current drivers for restricting current flow. may tolerate these trade-offs but. for most applications resistors are not recommended. such as portable lighting.By driving LED light sources with a regulated constant-current power supply the light output variation and lifetime issues resulting from voltage variation and voltage changes can be eliminated. and with resistors alone there is no protection for the LEDs to prevent damage from high voltage. . there are many trade-offs. In addition. waste power. therefore. resistors generate heat and. voltage changes from supply voltage variations will translate into changes in light output. constant current drivers are generally recommended for powering LED light sources.

catastrophic failure. This Test current is provided as a reference point for other technical information provided. Driving LED light sources above the maximum recommended currents may result in lower lumen maintenance or. Figure 3 illustrates this relationship. Drive currents may be chosen at any current up to the maximum recommended current for the specific LED light source used. LED lamps normally have a “Test” current listed on the product data sheets. with excessive currents. However the efficiency.Light output Light output of LED light sources increases with increasing drive current. is adversely affected. Temperature effects Performance characteristics of LED light sources are specified for a rated current . expressed in lumens per watt.

Since most LEDs operate well above 25°C. these values should be considered for reference only and the light output should be based on the anticipated operating temperatures. Red and amber die manufactured from the AlGaInP (aluminium indium gallium phosphorus) material system are more sensitive to temperature effects than blue and green InGaN (indium gallium nitride)-based devices. can have a significant effect on light output. The light output from an LED light source decreases with increasing LED die junction temperature.and for an LED die junction temperature of 25°C. Higher LED die junction temperatures. . resulting from increased power dissipation or changes in ambient temperature.

and to maximize the thermal management of the system. it is important to consider the effects of temperature when designing for specific light output or efficacy levels. Temperature variation can also cause slight shifts in colour temperature for LED white light sources.13 nm/°C. . With increasing LED die junction temperatures resulting from higher drive currents or ambient conditions. Figure 4 shows the changes in light output for LED die versus LED die junction temperature. wavelengths typically increase in from 0.Therefore. Applications requiring specific wavelengths or colour temperature should take this effect into account when designing drive conditions and heat sinking. In addition to affecting light output.03 to 0. temperature also has an effect on the dominant and peak wavelength. depending on die type. LED die wavelength characteristics are commonly reported at 25°C junction temperatures.

many of the undesirable effects resulting from varying current levels. known as PWM. or through a technique called Pulsed Width Modulation (PWM). the output voltage should be high enough to accommodate the sum of the maximum input voltages of LED light sources. This technique. such as wavelength shift or forward voltage changes. with enough forward voltage output to accommodate the maximum input voltage of the LED source. When selecting a series string driver. Driving multiple LED light sources with one driver is generally done with the LEDs arranged in series strings to avoid uneven light levels resulting from voltage variations. is the best way to achieve stable .Electrical design Driving single LED light sources in non-dimming applications is relatively simple. Dimming and PWM Dimming LEDs is most commonly done either by lowering the current. and instantaneously reach full light output. Therefore. LED light sources are not designed to be driven with a reverse voltage. A constant-current driver is chosen to deliver the desired current. LEDs have a very quick response time (~20 nanoseconds). can be minimized by driving the light engine at its rated current and rapidly switching that current on and off.

the brightness can be lowered.results for applications that require dimming to less than 40% of rated current. . The human eye can not detect individual light pulses at a rate greater than 200 cycles per second and averages the light intensity thereby perceiving a lower level of light. By keeping the current at the rated level and varying the ratio of the pulse “on” time versus the time from pulse to pulse (commonly referred to as the duty cycle).