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Chem 17 kids: So bakit walang nag-claim ng papers kahapon? Naghintay ako, ngunit
walang dumating... (Except Thea Viktoria Ogalesco) Hindi ko na nilagay sa labas ng
room ko yung papers kasi mahangin, umuulan, at baka kunin ng iba.
Anyway, here are some general comments/feedback on your papers, based on common
mistakes:
Abstract (E5)
1. Most abstracts were too wordy or long. Even though your abstracts satisfied the word
count, many still contain too much background info or details that are better placed in
other parts of the paper.
2. Many lack one or two statements that should be included in the abstract. Remember
that it must contain: a statement of objectives and significance of the study, brief
summary of methodology, presentation of final results, and conclusions. An abstract
serves as a summary of the study for those who are too lazy or busy to read the entire
paper.
3. As much as possible, no equations and raw data must be placed in the abstract. These
are presented in R&D or appendix. For example, in E5, the equations of the calibration
curve and the equilibrium constant are not to be placed in the abstract. But the values of
molar absorptivity and Keq must be presented with % error.
4. Do not state how you performed the calculations. Also, do not present the sources of
errors.
Introduction (E5)
1. This part serves to give the reader some background info about the "real-life problem"
and concepts involved in the experiment. It is NOT like the introduction of the
experiment in the lab manual.
2. Thus, nothing that directly refers to the experiment should be included here. In E5, for
example, you are supposed to discuss the concept of chemical equilibrium and
equilibrium constant, and perhaps also some background about the Fe(SCN)2+ system,
but not the application of chemical equilibrium on the Fe(SCN)2+ system, and the
determination of its Keq. These are to be placed in R&D.
3. Always number your mathematical and chemical equations, like how you see them in
books. Example:
aA + bB --> cC + dD (1)
4. Cite your references in text for everything that you have sourced from those listed in
the references sections. The purpose of the numbers in the reference list is so that they
can be briefly cited in the text.
5. Always end your introduction with a statement of the objectives of the experiment.
Example: "The study aimed to determine the equilibrium constant of Fe(SCN)2+ using
spectrophotometry."
Methodology (E3)
1. Only include those that were actually done in the experiment. If the amounts of
reagents or other parameters were changed from the written procedure in the manual, it
should be reflected in your methodology.

2. Write in past tense, passive voice. Do not refer to any person in the methodology.
Example: "Two (2.00) milliliters of 3.0 M HCl were added to 5.00 mL of 0.10 M
Na2S2O3.", not "2.00 mL of 3.0 M HCl is added to 5.00 mL of 0.10 M Na2S2O3 by the
students."
3. Do not start any sentence with a numeral. These should be spelled out if at the start of
the sentence. (See example above.)
4. Avoid being repetitive. Some actually repeated mentioning the procedure for each of
different runs of the experiment, in which only the amounts were changed. For this
purpose, you may just tabulate the amounts of reagents and just state the procedure once,
and refer to the table. Example: "Table 1 shows the amounts of reagents that were used in
this procedure."
5. Place headers or titles for each part of the experiment. It is confusing when you just
continuously narrate the steps of the experiment without proper transition.
[TO BE CONTINUED]
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Results and Discussion (E3)
1. The title for this part is "results and discussion". Thus, results (not just raw data) must
be presented, along with a discussion of these results. When we say "discussion", you
must be able to do an assessment or interpretation of data. Example, in E3, you must
have provided the calculated rate law, since it was the objective of the experiment.
2. Do NOT present all raw data here; in other words, do not copy the data sheet here. You
must only present those results that are significant for the discussion. Medyo marami kasi
ang naglagay ng reaction time and reactant concentrations sa E3, although nasa data
sheet naman. Hint: In E7, you must not present the volumes of titrant in the R&D; only
the calculated [OH-] and molar solubilities are to be presented.
3. Tables and figures must be properly introduced in the text. Hindi puwedeng biglang
may lalabas na table or figure nang walang pasabi. Examples: "Figure 1 below shows the
Arrhenius plot of ln k against 1/T for the obtained data." "The calculated molar solubility
for each medium is shown in Table 1."
4. Graphs should have proper labels (with units) on the x-axis and y-axis. Example:
"Time (s)"
Trendline (linear regression) equations and r^2 values should not appear on the graph
itself. They should be placed instead in the caption or in the text.
5. The discussion must be coherent and smooth. What I mean is that similar ideas or
concepts must be closely placed in the discussion. Know how to organize your thoughts
properly. Also, be concise and do not include too much unnecessary details. Please
directly answer the guide questions, not necessarily in order, but should go with the flow
of discussion.
6. Possible sources of errors must be discussed, along with their effect on the results.
Make sure that these sources of errors must actually be applicable or have occurred in the
experiment.
Conclusion and Recommendations (E5)
1. This must be very brief. One or two short paragraphs will suffice. Just state whether

the objectives have been satisfied and how. Example, for E5, you must have stated the
value of the equilibrium constant and the % error, since this tends to show whether you
have achieved your objectives.
2. Do not repeat what have you stated in previous parts. So do not place an intro or
metho or detailed discussion here.
3. Recommendations should be for the improvement of the procedure. (What must be
modified in the procedure in order to obtain better results?) The statement "It is
recommended that the experimenters must correctly measure the prescribed amounts of
reagents" is not a true recommendation, because it just shows that the experimenters did
not follow the procedure.
References: At least two book or journal sources are required. Again, .gov or .edu sites
(and some .org sites) are the only recommended websites for references. And you must
cite them in the text. Definitely, Wikipedia and Yahoo Answers are not reliable sources.
Do not also include the Chem 17 lab manual as a reference; try to find those info
elsewhere.
Other remarks:
1. Check your paper for grammatical and typo errors. Proofread before submitting.
Huwag ipahalatang nag-cram kayo. wink emoticon
2. Again, your FR must be short but comprehensive. Try your best in bringing out your
scientific writing skills. (Also, remember that this is not a creative writing class.)
I think those are the general comments that I can make, but I highly recommend that you
see your own paper to know the comments that I specifically wrote for you. And also
watch out for another post that I'll make later. smile emoticon