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Determination of natural

Frequencies-Analytical Methods
• Dunkerley’s Formula
• Rayleigh’s Method

• These methods will give approximate value (s) of natural frequencies and mode shapes BITS Pilani.Preamble • Expansion of characteristic determinant and the solution of the resulting nth degree polynomial to get natural frequencies is tedious for large values of DOF (n). K K Birla Goa Campus .

• Derived from the fact that the higher natural frequencies of most vibratory systems are large compared to their fundamental frequencies. • Frequency equation I . K K Birla Goa Campus .[k] +?2 ? I = 0 (1) I- 1 [I] ?2 +? ? I=0 where [a] is flexibility matrix (2) BITS Pilani.Dunkerley’s Formula • Gives approximate value of fundamental frequency of a composite system in terms of natural frequencies of its component parts.

(1) becomes I- 1 ?2 ?11 ⋯ 0 ⋱ ⋮ + ⋮ ??1 ⋯ 1 1 ⋮ 0 − I 1 ?2 + ?11 ?1 ⋮ ??1 ?1 ⋯ ?1? ⋱ ⋮ ⋯ ??? ⋯ ⋱ ⋯ ?1 ⋮ 0 ⋯ 0 ⋱ ⋮ I=0 ⋯ ?? ?1? ⋮ 1 − 2 + ??? ?? I=0 (3) ? BITS Pilani.Dunkerley’s Formula For a lumped mass system with a diagonal mass matrix. K K Birla Goa Campus .

Let the roots of (4) be denoted by 1 1 1 . …...Dunkerley’s Formula The expansion of equation (3) leads to 1 n ?2 ..?11 ?1 + ?22 ?2 + … . 2 ?12 ?22 ?? Thus 1 ?2 − 1 ?12 1 ?2 − 1 ?22 ….= 0 (4) . ??? ?? (6) BITS Pilani. ??? ?? Polynomial of nth degree in 1 ?2 1 n-1 ?2 . Equating coefficients of 1 ?12 + 1 ?22 + 1 … 2 ?? 1 ?2 − 1 2 ?? 1 n-1 ?2 = 1 n ?2 - 1 ?12 + 1 ?22 + … 1 2 ?? 1 n-1 ?2 -… = 0 (5) in (4) and (5) = ?11 ?1 + ?22 ?2 + … . K K Birla Goa Campus ..

the higher frequencies ?2 . ?3 …?? are considerably larger than fundamental frequency ?1 .Dunkerley’s Formula In most cases. ?12 I = 2.3…. ∴ 1 ??2 ≪ 1 .n ∴ Equation (6) can be written approximately as 1 ?12 ≅ ?11 ?1 + ?22 ?2 + … . K K Birla Goa Campus . ??? ?? (7) • Fundamental frequency given by (7) is always smaller than the exact value BITS Pilani.

K K Birla Goa Campus .Problem 1 Estimate the fundamental frequency of a simply supported beam carrying 3 identical equally spaced masses. BITS Pilani.

• The PE and KE of the n-DOF system is 1 2 V T = 1 2 = {?}? [k] {?} (8) {?}ሶ ? [m] {?}ሶ (9) • Assume harmonic solution x = X cos ?? X.natural frequency of vibration (10) BITS Pilani. in fact. ?.Rayleigh’s Method Rayleigh’s Principal: • The frequency of vibration of a conservative system vibrating about an equilibrium position has a stationary value in the neighborhood of a natural mode. is a minimum value in the neighborhood of the fundamental natural mode.mode shape vector / modal vector. K K Birla Goa Campus . This stationary value.

Rayleigh’s Method If the system is conservative. the maximum KE = maximum PE Tmax = Vmax (12) Substituting (10) in (8 and 9) and simplifying 1 2 1 Vmax = ? ? [k] 2 Tmax = ? ? [m] ? ?2 ? Equating ? ? [k] ? 2 ? = ? ? [m] ? (13) Rayleigh’s Quotient Rayleigh’s quotient provides an upper bound for?12 BITS Pilani. K K Birla Goa Campus .

If the trial vector is more closer to first natural mode X1 . K K Birla Goa Campus . value of ?12 will be more accurate BITS Pilani.Rayleigh’s Method Procedure: 1. Select a trial vector X to represent the first natural mode X1 and substitute in RHS of (13). Calculate ?12 3. 2.

K K Birla Goa Campus . and the mode shape is X = { 1 2 3}T BITS Pilani. Assume that for k1=k2=k3=k.Problem 2 Estimate the fundamental frequency of vibration of the system shown in Figure. m1=m2=m3=m .

gears etc. ?1 ?12 + ?2 ?22 … … . Vmax = 1 2 Tmax = ?2 2 ?1 ??1 + ?2 ??2 … . • ?? . . . • Static deflection curve is used as an approximation of dynamic deflection curve. K K Birla Goa Campus . • Shaft carrying several masses and is assumed to have negligible mass.Total static deflection of mass mi due to all the masses. ?2 = ? ?1 ?1 + ?2 ?2 … . ?1 ?12 + ?2 ?22 … … . BITS Pilani.Fundamental frequency of Beams and shafts • Procedure for finding fundamental frequency of lateral vibration of beam / shaft carrying pulleys.

l1 = 1 m. BITS Pilani. K K Birla Goa Campus .Problem 3 Estimate the fundamental frequency of the lateral vibration of a shaft carrying three rotors /masses as shown in Figure. l3 = 4m and l4 = 2m. l2 = 3m. m2= 50 kg. m3= 40 kg. The shaft is made of steel with a solid circular cross section of diameter 100 mm. m1= 20 kg.