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The job of a refrigeration plant is to cool articles or substances down to, and
maintain them at a temperature lower than the ambient temperature.
Refrigeration can be defined as a process that removes heat. The oldest and
most well-known among refrigerants are ice, water, and water. In the beginning,
the sole purpose was to conserve food. The Chinese were the first to find out
that ice increased the life and improved the taste of drinks and for centuries
Eskimos have conserved food by freezing it. All we are using Refrigeration
system now a days because of this high heat as well as global warming.
Refrigeration is a process in which work is done to move heat from one location
to another. Refrigeration has many applications, including, but not limited to:
household refrigerators, industrial freezers, cryogenics, and water conditioning.

Refrigeration is a process of producing low temperatures as
compared to the surrounding temperatures. It will be possible
only if heat is transferred from the low temperature region to a
high temperature region. Obviously it is not possible in the
natural manner because heat flows from high temperature to
low temperature like fluid flows from high pressure to low
pressure/ current flows from high voltage to low voltage/ gas
flows from high concentration to the region of low
concentration. It means in refrigeration one is trying to go
against the natural process as well as against the second law of
thermodynamics which states that heat cannot flow from low
temperature region to a high temperature region without the
use of an external agent. The external agent in refrigeration is
the compressor which introduces the most common method of
The most commonly used closed vapour compression
refrigeration system consists of six main parts namely
compressor, condenser, expansion device, evaporator, piping
and circulating working substance called the refrigerant.


To build a low cost but effective vapour compression type

refrigeration system.
To make it available for commercial use.

1.4 Methodology:
Collection of data and technical information from the manuals

Purchase of the discrete components from local market.

Pressure is the force on an object that is spread over a surface area. The
equation for pressure is P = F/A. Pressure can be measured for a solid is pushing
on a solid, but the case of a solid pushing on a liquid or gas requires that the fluid
be confined in a container. The force can also be created by the weight of an
object. So that,
P=F/A Where,
P=Pressure is new tons per square meter (N/m) or Pascals (Pa).
F=The force in new tons (N).
A=The area in square meters (m).
Another common unit of pressure measure is the bar.
One bar is equal to 100000 pa or N/m.

2 Pascals Law:
To honour the scientist Pascal, the SI metric system uses the
term "Pascal" as a unit of pressure. A Pascal is a Newton per
square meter (N/ m).A Newton is the metric unit offorce. One
Newton is equal to the mass of 1 kilogram being accelerated at
rate of 1 meterper second per second. Pascal low states that
pressure applied upon a confined fluid is transmitted equally in
all directions. It is the basis of operation of most hydraulic and
pneumatic system.
Pressure gage:
A pressure gage is an instrument, which used to measure fluid
(Gaseous or liquid) pressure in a closed vessel. Pressure gages

commonly used in the refrigeration industry are of two principle

types. Such as manometer and bourdon tube.
Atmospheric pressure:
The earth is surrounded by an envelope of atmosphere or water
extends upward from the surface of the earth to a distance of
some 50 miles or more. Since water has mass and is subject to
the actions of gravity. It exerts a pressure that is known as the
atmospheric pressure.
Absolute pressure:
Absolute Pressure is the sum of the available atmospheric
pressure and the gage pressure in the pumping system.
12Heat is a from of energy. This is evident from the fact that
heat can be converted in to other forms of energy and that










Thermodynamically heat is the defined as energy in transit

from one body to another as the result temperature difference
between the two bodies. All other transfers occur as work.
Specific heat:
Specific heat is the amount of heat per unit mass required to raise the
temperature by one degree Celsius. The specific heat of water is 1
calorie / gram C.
So that ,Q = c m dT
Q = Heat added. c = Specific heat. m = Mass. dT = Change in

Sensible heat:
Sensible heat is the heat absorbed or given off by a substance
that is not in the process of changing its physical state.
Sensible heat can be sensed or measured with a thermometer
and the addition or removal of sensible heat will always cause a
change in the temperature of the substance.
Latent heat:
Latent heat is the heat absorbed or given off by a substance
while it is changing its physical state. The heat absorbed or
given off does not cause a temperature change in the
substance the heat is latent or hidden. In other words, sensible
heat is the heat that affects the temperature of things latent
heat is the heat that affects the physical state of things.
Once a liquid has been vaporized, the temperature of the
resulting vapour can be further increased by the additional of
heat. The heat added to a vapour after vaporization is the
sensible heat of the vapour, more commonly called super heat.
Temperature is a measurement of the average kinetic energy of
the molecules in an object or system and can be measured with
a thermometer or a calorimeter. It is a means of determining
the internal energy contained within the system.
Absolute temperature:

The temperature value relative to absolute zero. The absolute

zero is the theoretical temperature at which molecular motion
vanishes and a body would have no heat energy the zero point
of the Kelvin and Rankin temperature scales. Absolute zero may
be interpreted as the temperature at which the volume of a
perfect gas vanishes or more generally as the temperature of








Saturation temperature:
13Saturation temperature means boiling point. The saturation
temperature is the temperature for a corresponding saturation
pressure at which a liquid boils into its vapour phase. The liquid
can be said to be saturated with thermal energy. Any addition
of thermal energy results in a phase transition.
An instrument for measuring and indicating temperature
typically one consisting of a narrow hermetically sealed glass
tube marked with graduations and having at one end a bulb
containing mercury or alcohol that expands and contracts in
the tube with heating and cooling.
Work is the transfer of energy. Otherwise work is defined (in
calculus terms) as the integral of the force over a distance of
displacement. The SI units for work are the joule (J) or Newtonmeter (N m), from the function.

W = F s Where, W=Is work. F=Is force. s = Is the

Power is the time rate at which work is done or energy is
transferred. In calculus terms, power is the derivative of work
with respect to time. The SI unit of power is the watt (W) or
joule per second (J/s). Horsepower is a unit of power in the
British system of measurement. The dimension of power is
energy divided by time.
Energy is the capacity of a physical system to perform work.
Energy exists in several

forms such as heat, kinetic or

mechanical energy, light, potential energy, electrical, or other

forms. The SI unit of energy is the joule (J).
Saturation temperature:
The temperature and pressure of the atmosphere must be at
that point or in an interval of values for the substance to be
Superheated vapour:
The present invention involves a system and method for
superheating the refrigerant gas in a motor vehicle water
conditioning system in order to minimize the amount of work
required to be performed by the compressor. In an embodiment
of the present invention, the refrigerant gas is diverted through
the exhaust manifold immediately after passing

through the

compressor. As the refrigerant gas passes through the exhaust


14The surrounding hot exhaust gases thereby

increasing the refrigerant gas pressure to reduce the amount

of work done by the compressor superheat it. Refrigerant
vapour at a temperature that is higher than its boiling point at
a given pressure.
Sub cooled liquid:
A compressed fluid (also called a sub cooled fluid or sub cooled
liquid) is a fluid under thermodynamic conditions that force it to
be a liquid. It is a liquid at a temperature lower than the
saturation temperature at a given pressure. In a plot comparing
absolute pressure and specific volume (commonly called a P-v
diagram), of a real gas, a compressed fluid is to the left of the
liquid-vapour phase boundary; that is, it will be to the left of the
vapour dome.
Vaporization is the transition of matter from a solid or liquid
phase into a gaseous phase. Water boiling into steam is an
example of vaporization.
Evaporation is the process by which water is converted from its
liquid form to its vapour form and thus transferred from land
and water masses to the atmosphere. Evaporation from the
oceans accounts for 80% of the water delivered as precipitation
with the

balance occurring on land, inland waters and plant

The cooling effect of evaporation:

Evaporation is the removal of water molecules from the surface
of a liquid. If alcohol is splashed on the back of the hand, it
produces a cooling effect. When a liquid evaporates, this
involves a change of state from liquid to gas. This change
requires heat energy called latent heat/ hidden heat. As plants
transpire, water is evaporated from the leaves. Evaporation has
a cooling effect in this situation as well. Plants are cooled

transpiration. Evapouration is used by the body to

regulate its temperature. When the temperature of the body

rises we begin to perspire more. Sweat glands in the skin will
produce more sweat. This sweat evaporates and the result is a
cooling effect on the skin. The rate at which the evapouration
takes place depends on the rate of water over the skin and this
is why we fan ourselves to speed up the process. When the
surroundings are cold, the blood vessels contract, to prevent
heat loss. In these circumstances the subcutaneous fat serves
as insulation and is sometimes burnt to provide heat. H waters
may also become erect to trap water as further insulation. In
circumstances where the temperature is high, our metabolic
rate falls so that less heat is generated by our body. In cold
temperatures extra

heat is produced by an increase of the

metabolic rate, mainly of the liver and muscles. This sometimes

causes rhythmical involuntary contractions of the skeletal
muscles (shivering).

It is the change of the physical state of matter from gaseous

phase into liquid phase, and is the reverse of evaporation.
15When the transition happens from the gaseous phase into
the solid phase directly, the change is called deposition. Upon
the slowing-down of the molecules of the material, the overall
attraction forces between these prevail and bring them
together at distances comparable to their sizes. Since the
condensing molecules suffer from reduced degrees of freedom
and ranges of motion, their prior kinetic energy must be
transferred to an absorbing colder entity either a center of
condensation within the gas volume or some contact surface.
Critical temperature:
The temperature at which some phase change occurs in a
metal during heating or cooling, i.e. the temperature at which
an arrest or critical point is shown on heating or cooling curves.
Critical pressure:
Critical pressure is the lowest pressure at which a substance
can exist in the liquid sate at
its critical temperature. It is the saturation pressure at the
critical temperature.
Enthalpy is a measure of the total energy of a thermodynamic
system. It includes the internal energy, which is the energy
required to create a system, and the amount of energy required
to make room for it by displacing its environment and
establishing its volume and pressure.

So that, H = U + p V
Where, H = Is the enthalpy of the system. U = Is the internal
energy of the system. p = Is










V = Is the volume of the system.
A thermodynamic quantity representing the unavailability of a
system's thermal energy for conversion into mechanical work
often interpreted as the degree of disorder or randomness in
the system.
Refrigeration history:
In Prehistoric times, man found that his game would last during
times when food was not available if stored in the coolness of a
cave or packed in snow. In China, before the first millennium,
ice was harvested and stored. Hebrews, Greeks, and Romans
placed largeamounts of snow into storage pits dug into the
ground and insulated with wood and straw. The ancient
Egyptians filled earthen jars with boiled water and put them on
their roofs, thus exposing the jars to the nights cool water. In
India, evapourative cooling was employed. When a liquid
vapourizes rapidly, it expands quickly. The rising molecules of
vapour abruptly increase their kinetic energy and this increase
is drawn from the immediate surroundings of the vapour. These
surroundings are therefore cooled. The intermediate stage in
the history of cooling foods was to add chemicals like sodium

nitrate or potassium nitrate to water causing the temperature

to fall. Cooling wine via this method was recorded in 1550, as
were the words "to refrigerate. Cooling drinks came into vogue
by 1600 in France. Instead of cooling water at night people
rotated long necked bottles in water in which saltpeter had
been dissolved. This solution could be used to produce very low
temperatures and to make ice. By the end of the 17th century,
iced liquors and frozen juices were popular in French society.
The first known artificial refrigeration was demonstrated by
William Cullen at the University of Glasgow in 1748.Cullen let
ethyl ether boil into a partial vacuum he did not however, use
the result to any practical purpose. Ice was first shipped
commercially out of Canal Street in New York City to Charleston,
South Carolina in 1799. Unfortunately, there was not much ice
left when the shipment arrived. New Englanders Frederick Tudor
and Nathaniel Wyeth saw the potential for the ice business and
revolutionized the industry through their efforts in the first half
of the 1800s. Tudor, who became known as the Ice King,
focused on shipping ice to tropical climates. He experimented
with insulating materials and built icehouses that decreased
melting losses from 66 percent to less than 8 percent.
Wyethdevised a method of quickly and cheaply cutting uniform
blocks of ice that transformed the ice industry, making it
possible to speed handling techniques in storage,transportation
and distribution with less waste.
In 1805, an American inventor, Oliver Evans, designed the first
refrigeration machine that used vapour instead of liquid.
Evansnever constructed his machine, but one similar to it was

built by an American physician,John Gorrie. In 1842, the

American physician John Gorrie, to cool sickrooms in a
Floridahospital designed and built an water-cooling apparatus
for treating yellow fever patients.His basic principle that of








radiatingcoils, and then expanding it to lower the temperature

further is the one most often used inrefrigerators today. Giving








consumingexperimentation with ice making, he was granted

the first U.S. patent for mechanicalrefrigeration in 1851.
Commercial refrigeration is believed to have been initiated by
an American businessperson, Alexander C. Twinning, in 1856.
Shortly afterward an Australian, James Harrison examined the
refrigerators used by Gorrie and Twinning and introduced






meatpacking industries. Ferdinand Carr of France developed a

somewhat more complex system in 1859.17Unlike earlier
compression machines, which used water as a coolant, Carr's
equipment contained rapidly expanding ammonia (Ammonia
liquefies at a much lower temperature than water and is thus
able to absorb more heat.) Carr's refrigerators were widely
used, and vapour compression refrigeration became and still is,
the most widely used method of cooling. However, the cost,
size and complexity of refrigeration systems of the time,
coupled with the toxicity of their ammonia coolants prevented
the general use of mechanical refrigerators in the home. Most
households used iceboxes that were supplied almost daily with
blocks of ice from a local refrigeration plant. Beginning in the

1840s,refrigerated cars were used to transport milk and butter.

By 1860, refrigerated transportwas limited to mostly seafood
and dwatery products. The refrigerated railroad car was
patented by J.B. Sutherland of Detroit, Michigan in 1867. He
designed an insulated car with ice bunkers in each end. Water
came in on the top passed through the bunkers and circulated
through the car by gravity controlled by the use of hanging
flaps that created differences in water temperature. The first
refrigerated car to carry fresh fruit was built in 1867 by Parker
Earle of Illinois, who shipped strawberries on the Illinois Central
Railroad. Each chest contained 100 pounds of ice and 200
quarts of strawberries. It wasnot until 1949 that a refrigeration
system made its way into the trucking industry by way of a
roof-mounted cooling device, patented by Fred Jones. Brewing
was the first activity in the northern states to use mechanical
refrigeration extensively, beginning with an absorption machine
used by S. Liebmanns Sons Brewing Company in Brooklyn, New
York in 1870. Commercial refrigeration was primarily directed at
breweries in the 1870s and by 1891, nearly every brewery was
equipped with refrigerating machines. Natural ice supply
became an industry unto itself. More companies entered the
business, prices decreased and refrigeration using ice became
more accessible. By 1879, there were 35 commercial ice plants
in America, more than 200 a decade later, and 2,000 by 1909.
No pond was safe from scraping for ice production not even
Thoreaus Walden Pond, where 1,000 tons of ice was extracted
each day in 1847. However, as time went on ice, as a
refrigeration agent, became a health problem. Says Bern

Nagengast, co-author of Heat and Cold Mastering the Great

Indoors (published by the American Society of Heating,
Refrigeration and Water-conditioning Engineers), Good sources
were harder and harder to find. By the 1890s, natural ice
became a problem because of pollution and sewagedumping.
Signs of a problem were first evident in the brewing industry.
Soon the meatpacking and dwatery industries followed with
their complaints. Refrigeration technology provided the solution
ice, mechanically manufactured giving birth to mechanical
refrigeration. Carl (Paul Gottfried) von Linde in 1895 set up a
large-scale plant for the production of liquid water. Six years
later he developed a method for separating pure liquid oxygen
from liquid water that resulted in widespread industrial








manufacture). Though meatpackers were slower to adopt








refrigeration pervasively. By 1914, the machinery installed in









compression system, which had a refrigeration capacity of well








refrigeration had its problems. Refrigerants like sulfur dioxide

and methyl chloride were causing people to die. Ammonia had
an equally serious toxic effect if it leaked. Refrigeration
engineers searched for acceptable substitutes until the 1920s,
when a number of synthetic refrigerants called halocarbons or
CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons) were developed by Frigidwatere.
The best known of these substances was patented under the
brand name of Freon. Chemically Freon was created by the

substitution of two chlorine and two fluorine atoms for the four







dichlorodifluoromethane (CCl2F2) is odorless and is toxic only in

extremely large doses.18Though ice, brewing, and meatpacking
industries were refrigerations major beneficiaries, many other
industries found refrigeration a boon to their business. In metal
working, for instance mechanically produced cold helped
temper cutlery and tools.Iron production got a boost, as
refrigeration removed moisture from the water delivered to
blast furnaces, increasing production.Allied fighting ships held
carbon-dioxide machines to keep ammunition well below
temperatures at which high explosives became unstable.In
1973, Prof. James Lovelock reported finding trace amounts of
refrigerant gases in the atmosphere. In 1974, Sherwood
Rowland and Mario Molina predicted that chlorofluorocarbon
refrigerant gases would reach the high stratosphere and there
damage the protective mantle of the oxygen allotrope, ozone.
In 1985 the "ozone hole" over the Antarctic had been
discovered and by 1990 Rowland and Molina's prediction was
provedcorrect. The basic components of todays modern
vapour-compression refrigeration system are a compressor, a
condenser, an expansion device, which can be a valve, a
capillary tube, an engine, or a turbine; and an evapourator. The
gas coolant is first compressed, usually by a piston, and then
pushed through a tube into the condenser. In the condenser,
the winding tube containing the vapour is passed through
either circulating water or a bath of water, which removes some
of the heat energy of the compressed gas.The cooled vapour is

passed through an expansion device to an area of much lower

pressure as the vapour expands, it draws the energy of its
expansion from its surroundings or the medium in contact with
it. Evaporators may directly cool a space by letting the vapour
come into contact with the area to be chilled or they may act
indirectly-i.e. by cooling a secondary medium such as water. In
most domestic refrigerators, the coil containing the evaporator
directly contacts the water in the food compartment. At the end
of the process,

the warmed gas is drawn

toward the

We can classification seven types of refrigeration systen from principle and
1) Dry-ICE Refrigeration system.
2) Steam-Jet Refrigeration system.
3) Water cycle refrigeration system.
4) Vapour compression refrigeration system.
5) Vapour absorption refrigeration system.
6) Thermo-Electric Refrigeration system.
7) Cryogenics refrigeration system.

Dry-ICE Refrigeration system:

Dry ice is the solid carbon dioxide having the temperature of
-78 degree Celsius. Dry ice converts directly from solid state to
gaseous this process is called as sublimation. Dry ice can be
pressed into various sizes and shapes as blocks or slabs. Dry
ice is usually packed in the frozen food cartons along with the
food that has to be kept frozen for long intervals of time. When

the dry ice gets converted into vapour state it keeps the food
frozen. The process of dry ice refrigeration is now a days being
used for freezing the food in watercraft transportation.
Dry-Ice refrigeration system.
This methods of refrigeration system can be used only in places
where small amount of refrigeration is required in places like
laboratories, workshops, water coolers, small old drink shops,
small hotels etc. In fact the ordinary ice and dry ice used for the
refrigeration purposed have to be manufactured by the cyclic
methods of refrigeration which we shall see in the next article.
However, in the earlier days the ice used for the cooling
purposes was usually harvested during the winter seasons from
the ponds and lakes and stored in large insulated ice houses for
the use throughout the year.

Steam jet refrigeration system:

If water is sprayed into a chamber where a low pressure is
maintained a part of the water will evapourate. The enthalpy of
evapouration will cool the remaining water to its saturation
temperature at the pressure in the chamber. Obviously lower
temperature will require lower pressure. Water freezes at 0oC

hence temperature lower than 4oC cannot be obtained with

water. In this system, high velocity steam is used to entrain the
evapourating water vapour. High-pressure motive steam passes
through either convergent or convergent-divergent nozzle
where it acquires both sonic or supersonic velocity and low
pressure of the order of 0.009 kPa corresponding to an
evapourator temperature of
4oC. The high momentum of motive steam entrains or carries
along with it the water vapour evapourating from the flash
chamber. Because of its high velocity it moves the vapours
against the pressure gradient up to the condenser where the














evapourated vapour both are condensed and recycled. It can be

seen that this system requires a good vacuum to be
maintained. Sometimes booster ejector is used for this purpose.
This system is driven by low- grade energy that is process
steam in chemical plants or a boiler.
Schematics diagram of steam jet refrigeration system.
In 1838, the Frenchman Pelletan was granted a patent for the
compression of steam by means of a jet of motive steam.
Around 1900, the Englishman Charles Parsons studied the
possibility of reduction of pressure by an entrainment effect
from a steam jet. However, the credit for constructing the
steam jet refrigeration system goes to the French engineer,
Maurice Leblanc who developed the system in 1907-08. In this
system, ejectors were used to produce a high velocity steam jet

( 1200 m/s). Based on Leblancs design the first commercial

system was made by Westinghouse in 1909 in Paris. Even
though the efficiency of the steam jet refrigeration system was
low, it was still attractive as water is harmless and the system
can run using exhaust steam from a steam engine. From 1910
onwards, stem jet refrigeration systems were used mainly in
breweries, chemical factories, warships etc. In 1926, the French
engineer Fellahin improved the machine by introducing multiple
stages of vaporization and condensation of the suction steam.
Between 1928-1930, there was much interest in this type of
systems in USA. In USA they were mainly used for water
conditioning of factories, cinema theatres, ships and even
railway wagons. Several companies such as Westinghouse,
Ingersoll Rand and Carrier started commercial production of
these systems from 1930. However, gradually these systems
were replaced by more efficient vapour absorption systems
using LiBrwater. Still, some east European countries such as
Czechoslovakia and Russia manufactured these systems as late
as 1960s. The ejector principle can also be used to provide
refrigeration using fluids other than water, i.e., refrigerants
such as CFC-11, CFC-21, CFC-22, CFC-113, CFC-114 etc. The
credit for first developing these closed vapour jet refrigeration
systems goes to the Russian engineer, I.S. Badylkes around
Water cycle refrigeration system:
Water cycle refrigeration systems belong to the general class of
gas cycle refrigeration systems in which gas is used as the
working fluid. The gas does not under go any phase change

during the cycle, consequently, all the internal heat transfer

processes are sensible heat transfer processes. It applications
in water craft cabin cooling and also in the liquefaction of
various gases. Water cycle refrigeration systems use water as
their refrigerant compressing it and expanding it to create
heating and cooling capacity. 22Water cycle is not a new
technology. Water cycle or cold water machines were available
from Companies such as J & E Hall in the early 1900s. These
were used on board ships and by food producers and retailers









development of vapour compression cycles based initially on

ethyl ether ammonia or sulphur-dioxide but superseded by
chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) led to the gradual replacement of
the majority of water cycle systems except in the field of
watercraft water conditioning. Environmental concerns about
CFCs, ozone depletion, global warming and the resulting
increasingly stringent legislation have renewed interest in
alternatives to the current standard of vapour-compression
refrigeration technologies. The use of water cycle is one of
these offering a benign substitute for CFC refrigerants as well
as reduced energy consumption and capital costs for targeted
applications. Water cycle refrigeration works on the reverse
Brayton or Joule cycle. Water is compressed and then heat
removed this water is then expanded to a lower temperature
than before it was compressed. Work must be taken out of the
water during the expansion otherwise the entropy would
increase. Work is taken out of the water by an expansion
turbine which removes energy as the blades are driven round

by the expanding water. This work can be usefully employed to

run other devices such as generators or fans. Often though it is
used to power a directly connected (bootstrap) compressor
which elevates the compressed (hot) side pressure further
without added external energy input essentially recycling the
energy removed from the expanding water to compress the
high pressure water further. The increase in pressure on the hot
side further elevates the temperature and makes the water
cycle system produce more useable heat (at a higher
temperature). The cold water after the turbine can be used as a
refrigerant either directly in an open system or indirectly by
means of a heat exchanger in a closed system.
The efficiency of such systems limited to a great extent by the
efficiencies of compression and expansion as well as those of







reciprocating compressors and expanders were used. The poor

efficiency and reliability of such machinery were major factors
in the replacement of such systems with vapour compression
equipment. However, the development of rotary compressors
and expanders (such as in car turbochargers) greatly improved
the isentropic efficiency and reliability of the water cycle.
Advances in turbine technology together with the development
of water bearings and ceramic components offer further
efficiency improvements. Combining these advances with
newly available compact heat exchangers which have greatly
improved heat transfer characteristics makes competition with
many existing vapour compression quite feasible

Figure: Schematic of a simple watercraft refrigeration cycle.23In

figure shows the schematic of a simple watercraft refrigeration
system and the operating cycle on T-s diagram. This is an open
system. As shown in the T-s diagram the outside low pressure
and low temperature water (state 1) is compressed due to ram
effect to ram pressure (state 2). During this process its
temperature increases from 1 to 2. This water is compressed in
the main compressor to state 3, and is cooled to state 4 in the
water cooler. Its pressure is reduced to cabin pressure in the
turbine (state 5), as a result its temperature drops from 4 to 5.
The cold water at state 5 is supplied to the cabin. It picks up
heat as it flows through the cabin providing useful cooling
effect. The power output of the turbine is used to drive the fan
which maintains the required water flow over the water cooler.
This simple system is good for ground cooling (when the
watercraft is not moving) as fan can continue to maintain water
flow over the water cooler.
Vapour compression refrigeration system:
Refrigeration systems are also used for providing cooling and







conditioning). The first water conditioning systems were used

for industrial as well as comfort water conditioning. Eastman
Kodak installed the first water conditioning system in 1891 in
Rochester, New York for the storage of photographic films. An
water conditioning system was installed in a printing press in
1902 and in a telephone exchange in Hamburg in 1904. Many
systems were installed in tobacco and textile factories around
1900. The first domestic water conditioning system was

installed in a house in Frankfurt in 1894. A private library in St

Louis, USA was water conditioned in 1895, and a casino was
water conditioned in Monte Carlo in 1901. Efforts have also
been made to water condition passenger rail coaches using ice.
The widespread development of water conditioning is attributed
to the American scientist and industrialist Willis Carrier. Carrier
studied the control of humidity in 1902 and designed a central
water conditioning plant using water washer in 1904. Due to
the pioneering efforts of Carrier and also due to simultaneous
development of different components and controls water
conditioning quickly became very popular especially after 1923.
At present comfort water conditioning is widely used in
residences, offices, commercial buildings, water ports, hospitals
and in mobile applications such as rail coaches, automobiles,












pharmaceutical, chemical industries etc. Most of the present








compression refrigeration system or a vapour absorption

refrigeration system. The capacities vary from few kilowatts to
megawatts. As shown in the figure the basic system consists of
an evaporator, compressor, condenser and an expansion valve.

24The refrigeration effect is obtained in the cold region as heat










evapourator. The refrigerant vapour from the evapourator is

compressed in the compressor to a high pressure at which its
saturation temperature is greater than the ambient or any













condensation of the vapour into liquid takes place by heat

rejection to the heat sink. To complete the cycle the high
pressure liquid is made to flow through an expansion valve. In
the expansion valve the pressure and temperature of the
refrigerant decrease. This low pressure and low temperature
refrigerant vapour evapourates in the evaporator taking heat

from the cold region. It should be observed that the system

operates on a closed cycle. The system requires input in the
form of mechanical work. It extracts heat from a cold space and
rejects heat to a high temperature heat sink. A refrigeration
system can also be used as a heat pump, in which the useful
output is the high temperature heat rejected at the condenser.
Alternatively a refrigeration system can be used for providing
cooling in summer and heating in winter. Such systems have
been built and are available now.
Vapour-Compression Refrigeration
Compression refrigeration cycles take advantage of the fact
that highly compressed fluids at a certain temperature tend to
get colder when they are allowed to expand. If the pressure
change is high enough, then the compressed gas will be hotter
than our source of cooling (outside water, for instance) and the
expand ed gas will be cooler than our desired cold temperature.
In this case, fluid is used to cool a low temperature
environment and reject the heat to a high temperature
Vapour compression refrigeration cycles have two advantages.
First, a large amount of thermal energy is required to change a
liquid to a vapour, and therefore a lot of heat can be removed
from the water-conditioned space. Second, the isothermal
nature of the vaporization allows extraction of heat without
raising the temperature of the working fluid to the temperature
of whatever is being cooled. This means that the heat transfer
rate remains high, because the closer the working fluid

temperature approaches that of the surroundings, the lower the

rate of heat transfer.

Vapour-Compression Refrigeration



A diagram of a typical vapour-compression refrigeration cycle
can be superimposed on a pressure-enthalpy (P-h) chart to
demonstrate the function of each component in the system.

The pressure-enthalpy chart plots the properties of a







enthalpy (horizontal axis). Enthalpy is a measure of the heat

content, both sensible and latent, per pound [kg] of refrigerant.
The cycle starts with a cool, low-pressure mixture of liquid and
vapour refrigerant entering the evapourator (A) where it
absorbs heat from the relatively warm water, water, or other
fluid that is being cooled. This transfer of heat boils the liquid
refrigerant in the evapourator, and this superheated refrigerant
vapour is drawn to the compressor (B).

The compressor draws in the superheated refrigerant vapour

(B) and compresses it to a pressure and temperature (C) high
enough that it can reject heat to another fluid. This hot, highpressure refrigerant vapour then travels to the condenser.

Within the condenser, heat is transferred from the hot

refrigerant vapour to relatively cool ambient water or cooling
water. This reduction in the heat content of the refrigerant
vapour causes it to de-superheated, condense into liquid, and
further sub cool before leaving the condenser (D) for the
expansion device.

Finally, the high-pressure liquid refrigerant (D) flows through

the expansion device, causing a large pressure drop that
reduces the pressure of the refrigerant to that of the
evapourator. This pressure reduction causes a small portion of
the liquid to boil off, or flash, cooling the remaining refrigerant
to the desired evapourator temperature.
The cooled mixture of liquid and vapour refrigerant then enters
the evapourator (A) to repeat the cycle.

Refrigeration System Components

The first major component to be discussed is the condenser. The condenser is a
heat exchanger that rejects heat from the refrigerant to water, water, or some other

The three common types of condensers are water-cooled, water-cooled, and


Water-Cooled Condensers

A typical water-cooled condenser uses propeller-type fans to

draw outdoor water over a finned tube heat transfer surface.
The temperature difference between the hot refrigerant vapour
that is flowing through the tubes and the cooler outdoor water
induces heat transfer. The resulting reduction in the heat
content of the refrigerant vapour causes it to condense into
liquid. Within the final few lengths of condenser tubing (the sub
cooler), the liquid refrigerant is further cooled below the
temperature at which it was condensed.
The water-cooled condenser is very popular in both residential
and commercial applications because of its convenience. It
requires very little maintenance and does not require the freeze

protection and water treatment that is necessary with a watercooled condenser.

Additionally, it is favoured in areas that have an inadequate or
costly water supply, or where the use of water for water
conditioning is restricted.

The benefit of sub cooling on system performance can be

demonstrated by comparing the performance of a system with
and without sub cooling.
The change in enthalpy (the line from A to B) that occurs in the
evapourator is called the refrigeration effect. This is the
amount of heat that each pound [kg] of liquid refrigerant will
absorb when it evapourates.

In comparison, the same system without sub cooling produces

less refrigeration effect (the line from AI to B). The system
without sub cooling must evapourate substantially more
refrigerant within a larger coil to produce the same capacity as
the system with sub cooling.
Instead of sub cooling in the condenser, some packaged
refrigeration equipment, such as water chillers, may use an







refrigeration effect.

An alternative water-cooled condenser uses a centrifugal fan to

draw or blow water over the condensing coil. The principal
advantage of this design is that the centrifugal fan is capable of
overcoming the higher static-pressure losses associated with
Therefore, if the condenser is to be located indoors and uses a
duct system to deliver water to and from the condenser coil,

the centrifugal fan water-cooled condenser is probably

best suited for this application.

Evapourative Condensers








evapourative condenser. Within this device, the refrigerant

flows through tubes and water is drawn or blown over the tubes
by a fan.
The difference is that water is sprayed on the tube surfaces. As
the water passes over the coil, it causes a small portion of the
water to evapourate. This evaporation process absorbs heat




refrigerant vapour within the tubes to condense. The remaining

water then falls to the sump to be recalculated and used again.
Sub cooling of the refrigerant can be accomplished by piping
the condensed liquid back through another few rows of coil
tubing, located either in the condenser water stream or in the
water sump, where additional heat transfer reduces the
temperature of the liquid refrigerant.

Condenser Control
Condenser capacity is influenced by:

Temperature difference between refrigerant and cooling media

Flow rate of cooling media through condenser

Flow rate of refrigerant through condenser

Condenser Control
The heat rejection capacity of a condenser is influenced by (1) the temperature
difference between the refrigerant and the cooling media (water, water, or other
fluid), (2) the flow rate of the cooling media through the condenser, and (3) the flow
rate of the refrigerant through the condenser.
To balance the rate of heat rejection (in the condenser) with the changing system
load, at least one of these variables may be controlled.

The second major component to be discussed is the evapourator. The evapourator
is a heat exchanger that transfers heat from water, water, or some other fluid to the
cool liquid refrigerant.

Condenser Control
Condenser capacity is influenced by:
Temperature difference between refrigerant and cooling
Flow rate of cooling media through condenser
Flow rate of refrigerant through condenser

Condenser Control

The heat rejection capacity of a condenser is influenced by (1)

the temperature difference between the refrigerant and the
cooling media (water, water, or other fluid), (2) the flow rate of
the cooling media through the condenser, and (3) the flow rate
of the refrigerant through the condenser.
To balance the rate of heat rejection (in the condenser) with the
changing system load, at least one of these variables may be










evapourator. The evapourator is a heat exchanger that

transfers heat from water, water, or some other fluid to the cool
liquid refrigerant.

Finned-Tube Evapourators

A finned-tube evapourator includes rows of tubes passing

through sheets of formed fins.
Cool, liquid refrigerant flows through the tubes, cooling the
tube and fin surfaces. As water passes through the coil and
comes into contact with the cold fin surfaces, heat is
transferred from the water to the refrigerant. This heat transfer
causes the refrigerant to boil and leave the evapourator as

To provide uniform heat transfer throughout the coil, the liquid

refrigerant is distributed to the coil tubes in several parallel
circuits. A distributor is used to ensure uniform refrigerant
distribution through these multiple coil circuits. It distributes
the liquid/vapour refrigerant mixture to the coil through several
tubes of equal length and diameter.

As the refrigerant passes through the tubes of the coil, the

liquid refrigerant absorbs heat from the water, causing it to boil
off into vapour. The refrigerant vapour leaves the coil tubes and
collects in a suction header.
Each distributor has an allowable range of refrigerant flow rates
that define its stable operating range. As the size of the
evaporator coil increases, it may be necessary to use more
than one distributor to feed liquid refrigerant to the coil.

Inside the final length of tubesthe location where the

temperature difference between the refrigerant and the water
is highestthis larger temperature difference accelerates the
rate of heat transfer and the refrigerant vapour absorbs even








evaporated, this additional heat gain to the vapour is called


Superheating the refrigerant vapour (B to C) shifts it away from

the liquid/vapour region and ensures that the refrigerant
vapour is completely free of liquid prior to travelling to the
Evapourator Control
Evapourator capacity is influenced by:
Temperature difference between refrigerant and water or
water being cooled
Flow rate of water or water through evaporator
Flow rate of refrigerant through evaporator
Evapourator Control

The rate of heat exchange within an evapourator is governed

by (1) the temperature
difference between the refrigerant and the water or water
being cooled, (2) the flow rate of the water or water through
the evaporator, and (3) the flow rate of the refrigerant through
the evaporator. In comfort-cooling applications, it is necessary
to balance the capacity of the system with the ever-changing
load. The flow rate and temperature of the water or water being
cooled are typically controlled to respond directly to the system
load. A constant-volume system delivers a constant quantity of
water to the space and, to maintain the required space

temperature at all load conditions, varies the temperature of

this water. In contrast, a variable water- volume (VAV) system
delivers water at a constant temperature and varies the
waterflow to maintain the required space temperature at all
load conditions.

These are variables that the evaporator must respond to rather

than directly control. The most common method of controlling
the capacity of the evaporator at part load is to control the
temperature and/or flow rate of the refrigerant through the
system by unloading or cycling compressors. To provide stable
part-load operation and balance compressor unloading with the
capacity of the evaporator, some direct form of evaporators
capacity control may also be required.
The purpose of the compressor in the vapour compression cycle
is to compress the low pressure dry gas from the evapourator
and raise its pressure to that of the condenser. Compressors
may be divided into two types positive displacement and
dynamic as Positive displacement types compress discrete
volumes of low pressure gas by physically reducing the
volumes causing a pressure increase whereas dynamic types
raise the velocity of the low-pressure gas and subsequently
reduce it in a way which causes a pressure increase. A
compressor is the most important and often the costliest

component (Typically 30 to 40 percent of total cost) of any

vapour compression refrigeration system (VCRS). The function
of a compressor in a VCRS is to continuously draw the
refrigerant vapour from the evapourator so that a low pressure
and low temperature can be maintained in the evapourator at
which the refrigerant can boil extracting heat from the
refrigerated space. The compressor then has to raise the
pressure of the refrigerant to a level at which it can condense
by rejecting heat to the cooling medium in the condenser. A







components such as compressors, condensers, expansion

devices, evapourators, in addition to several accessories such
as controls, filters, driers, oil separators etc. For efficient
operation of the refrigeration system it is essential that there
be a proper matching between various components. Before
analyzing the balanced performance of the complete system it
is essential to study the design and performance characteristics
of individual components. Except in special applications the
refrigeration system components are standard components






components. Generally for large systems depending upon the

design specifications

components are selected from the

manufacturers catalogs and are assembled at site. Even

though most of the components are standard off the shelf items
sometimes components such as evapourator may be made to
order. Small capacity refrigeration systems such as refrigerators
room and package water conditioners water coolers are
available as complete systems.

Double acting ammonia compressor and steam engine.

In this case the manufacturer himself designs or selects the
system components, assembles them at the factory, tests them
for performance and then sells the complete 38system as a
unit. The first refrigeration piston compressors were built in the
middle of the 19th century and evolved from the steam engines
which provided the prime mover. Construction at first was
double acting but there was difficulty in maintaining gas
tightness at the piston rod so the design evolved further into a
single acting machine with the crankcase at suction inlet
pressure leaving only the rotating shaft as a possible source of
leakage and this was sealed with a packed gland. Today, the
majority of compressors are completely sealed with the motor

Classification of compressors:
Compressors used in refrigeration systems can be classified in
several ways:
A. Based on the working principle:
1. Positive displacement type.
2. Rotor dynamic type.
In positive displacement type compressors compression is
achieved by trapping a refrigerant vapour into an enclosed
space and then reducing its volume. Since a fixed amount of

refrigerant is trapped each time its pressure rises as its volume

is reduced. When the pressure rises to a level that is slightly
higher than the condensing pressure then it is expelled from
the enclosed space and a fresh charge of low-pressure
refrigerant is drawn in and the cycle continues. However, since
the operating speeds are normally very high the flow appears
to be almost steady on macroscopic time scale. Since the flow
is pulsating on a microscopic time scale positive displacement
type compressors are prone to high wear vibration and noise
level. Depending upon the construction positive displacement
type compressors used in refrigeration and water conditioning
can be classified into:
a. Reciprocating type.
b. Rotary type with sliding vanes (Rolling piston type or multiple
vane type).
c. Rotary screw type (Single screw or twin-screw type).
d. Orbital compressors.
e. Acoustic compressors.
In Rotor dynamic compressors the pressure rise of refrigerant is
achieved by imparting kinetic energy to a steadily flowing
stream of refrigerant by a rotating mechanical element and
then converting into pressure as the refrigerant flows through a
diverging passage. Unlike positive displacement type the rotor
dynamic type compressors are steady flow devices hence are
subjected to less wear and vibration.








compressors can be classified into:

i. Radial flow type.
ii. Axial flow type.
Centrifugal compressors (Also known as turbo-compressors) are
radial flow type rotor dynamic compressors. These compressors
are widely used in large capacity refrigeration 39and water
conditioning systems. Axial flow compressors are normally used
in gas liquefaction applications.
B. Based on arrangement of compressor motor or external
1. Open type.
2. Hermetic (or sealed) type.
3. Semi-hermetic (or semi-sealed) type.

In open type compressors the rotating shaft of the compressor

extends through a seal in the crankcase for an external drive.
The external drive may be an electrical motor or an engine (e.g.
diesel engine). The compressor may be belt driven or gear
driven. Open type compressors are normally used in medium to
large capacity refrigeration system for all refrigerants and for
ammonia (Due to its incompatibility with hermetic motor
materials). Open type compressors are characterized by high






serviceability. However, since the shaft has to extend through

the seal refrigerant leakage from the system cannot be
eliminated completely. Hence refrigeration systems using open
type compressors require a refrigerant reservoir to take care of
the refrigerant leakage for some time and then regular
maintenance for charging the system with refrigerant changing
of seals gaskets etc.
Hermetic compressors:
A hermetic compressor is a direct compressor a directconnected motor compressor assembly enclosed within a steel
housing. It is designed to pump low-pressure refrigerant gas to
a higher pressure. A hermetic container is one that is tightly
sealed so no gas or liquid can enter or escape. Welding seals
the container. Tecumseh hermetic compressors have a lowpressure shell or housing. This means that the interior of the
compressor housing is subject only to suction pressure. It is not
subject to the discharge created by the piston stroke. This point
is emphasized to stress the hazard of introducing high pressure
gas into the compressor shell at pressures above 150 psig.
A. Motor rotor.
B. Motor stator.
C. Compressor cylinder.
D. Compressor piston.
E. Connecting rod.
F. Crankshaft.

G. Crank throw.
H. Compressor shell.
. Glass sealed electrical connection.
The suction is drawing into the compressor shell then to and
through the electric motor that provides power to the
crankshaft. The crankshaft revolves in its bearings, driving the
piston or pistons in the cylinder or cylinders. The crankshaft is
designed to carry oil from the oil pump in the bottom of the
compressor to all bearing surfaces. Refrigerant gas surrounds
the compressor crankcase and the motor as it is drawn through
the compressor shell and into the cylinder or cylinders through
the suction muffler and suction valves. The gas is compressed
by the moving piston and is released through the discharge
valves discharge muffler and compressor discharge tube. The
hermetically compressors can be moved easily from one place
to the other place they are highly portable. One does not have
to disassemble the compressor from the motor and no coupling,
belt and pulley arrangement is involved. The whole condenser
unit of the refrigeration or the water conditioning unit
comprising of the condenser and the compressor can be moved
easily from one place to the other. Its location can be changed
easily. Since no coupling, belt or pulley is involved, the








hermetically sealed compressor is inherent and no external

lubrication is required unless the fresh gas charging is done.
The installation of the hermetically sealed compressor is very

easy. The suction and discharge connections and the electrical

connections are available externally

An expansion


is used to maintain a pressure

difference between the high-pressure (condenser) and lowpressure (evapourator) sides of the system established by the
compressor. This pressure difference allows the evapourator
temperature to be low enough to absorb heat from the water or
water to be cooled, while also allowing the refrigerant to be at a
high enough temperature in the condenser to reject heat to
water or water at normally available temperatures. There are
several types of expansion devices, including expansion valves
(thermostatic or electronic), capillary tubes, and orifices. This
clinic will limit its discussion to thermostatic expansion valves
(TXVs). Other expansion devices perform essentially the same








thermostatic expansion valve controls the quantity of liquid

refrigerant entering the evapourator. It ensures that the







evapourator (A) and maintains the proper amount of superheat

in the system.
A solenoid valve is used to stop the flow of refrigerant within the system. These
valves are magnetically operated, and an electric winding controls the opening and
closing of the valve. The valve is typically a normally-closed type of valve so that it is
closed when it is

One common use of a solenoid valve is to control the flow of

liquid refrigerant to multiple sections of the evaporators. In this
application, a valve is installed in the liquid line, upstream of
the expansion valve for each individually controlled section of
the evaporators coil.

Using the example of a face-split evaporators coil, at lower

loads a solenoid valve may be used to shut off the flow of liquid
refrigerant to the top section of the coil. A portion of the water
passes through the active lower section and is cooled, while the
rest of the water passes through the inactive top section and







downstream of the coil. At higher loads, both sections of the

coil are activated.

Another common use of a solenoid valve is to enable system

pump-down and prevent the refrigerant from migrating through
the system when the compressor is shut off. In this application,
a single solenoid valve is installed in the liquid line, upstream of
all expansion valves.
When the compressor is shut off, the evapourator contains a
large quantity of liquid refrigerant. This can present a problem
if some of the refrigerant drains into the suction line and slugs
the compressor when it starts up again. To prevent this from
occurring, many systems pump the refrigerant out of the
evapourator and suction line before shutting the compressor
off. This is called a pump-down cycle. Instead of shutting the
compressor off right away, the solenoid valve is closed to stop
the flow of liquid refrigerant into the evapourator, and the

compressor is allowed to run for a short period of time. The

compressor pumps the refrigerant from the low-pressure side of
the system (evapourator and suction line) to the high-pressure
side of the system (discharge line, condenser, and liquid line.)
As the low-pressure side of the system is pumped free of
refrigerant, the pressure in that part of the system drops. To
end the pump-down cycle, a pressure sensor is used to shut the
compressor off when this pressure reaches a predetermined set
point. Prior to starting the compressor again, the solenoid valve
is opened, allowing the pressure on the low pressure side of the
system to increase again.
The solenoid valve should be installed as close to the expansion
valve as possible. This will minimize the pump-down time and
allow the liquid line to be used for storing refrigerant when the
system is off.

Liquid-Line Filter Drier

The next accessory to be discussed, the liquid-line filter

drier, is installed upstream of the solenoid valve and the
expansion valve. It prevents moisture (water) and foreign







entering the expansion valve and the solenoid valve. Realize,

however, that there is no substitute for cleanliness during
system installation.
Moisture and foreign matter can cause problems in any
refrigeration system. When water is mixed with refrigerant and
oil, and heat is added by the compressor, acids are formed that
can damage the valves or compressor. Additionally, certain
foreign materials such as copper and brass particles can act as
a catalyst in chemical reactions that result in the formation of
acids. These acids can corrode system components and cause
the oil to sludge.
The filter drier should be installed close to the solenoid valve to
provide the most protection for the solenoid and expansion
Moisture-Indicating Sight Glass

A moisture-indicating sight glass is installed in the liquid

line, upstream of the expansion valve, and permits the operator
to observe the condition of the refrigerant prior to entering the
expansion valve. The value of the sight glass is in its moisture
indication abilitythe sight glass should not be used to
determine system refrigerant charge or sub cooling. Actual
temperature and pressure measurements are required to
determine proper charge and subcooling.
With the sight glass installed directly ahead of the expansion
valve, it can also be used to detect the presence of bubbles in
the liquid line. This would indicate that some of the liquid
refrigerant has flashed into vapour upstream of the expansion
valve. Since the expansion valve is designed to control the flow
of liquid refrigerant only, the presence of refrigerant vapour
results in a reduction in the quantity of liquid refrigerant being

fed to the evapourator. There are many potential causes of

liquid refrigerant flashing. The sight glass can alert the operator
to the condition.

Suction Line Filter

Similar to the liquid-line filter drier, the suction line filter

performs the task of removing foreign matter from the
refrigeration system. It is installed in the suction line, just
upstream of the compressor.
The suction filter contains filter media to remove copper filings,
flux, dirt, and other foreign matter that may have been
introduced during the installation process or as the result of a
compressor failure. It protects the compressor parts from the
abrasive action that could result if these materials enter the

compressor. Dirt can obstruct oil passages, robbing the

compressor bearings of lubrication.

Similar to the liquid-line filter drier, the two common types of

suction line filters are replaceable core and sealed. The
replaceable core type allows the core to be easily changed. The
sealed type is completely closed, reducing the chances of
refrigerant leaks.
Replaceable core suction filters are commonly installed after a
compressor failure has occurred. The core is replaced after the
foreign matter or acid has been removed from the system.

Additionally, suction filters should be installed in all fieldassembled systems.

Shutoff valves are used to isolate one part of the refrigeration

system from the rest. Additionally, they can be used to trap the
refrigerant charge in one component of the system, the
condenser for example, to permit service or repeater to another
part of the system.

Access Port
An access port is used to add refrigerant to the system or for
measurement. One access port is typically installed in the liquid
line in a convenient location and is used to charge the system
with liquid refrigerant. It is also used to measure the amount of
sub cooling in the system.
The suction line typically includes two access ports. One is
installed near the compressor and is used to measure suction
pressure. The other is located near the external equalizer line
connection for the expansion valve, and is used to measure
superheat when checking or adjusting the expansion valve

Period One reviewed the vapour-compression refrigeration cycle

using the P-h chart.
A cool, low-pressure mixture of liquid and vapour refrigerant
enters the evapourator (A) and absorbs heat from the relatively
warm water or water that is being cooled. This transfer of heat
boils the liquid refrigerant in the evapourator and superheated








compressor raises the pressure and temperature (C) high

enough that the refrigerant vapour can reject heat to another
fluid. This hot, high-pressure refrigerant vapour then travels to
the condenser where heat is transferred to relatively cool
ambient water or cooling water.

This reduction in the heat content of the refrigerant vapour

causes it to de superheat,
condense into liquid, and further sub cool before leaving the
condenser (D) for the expansion device.

Finally, the high-pressure liquid refrigerant flows through the

expansion device, causing a large pressure drop (the line from
D to A) that reduces the pressure of the refrigerant to that of
the evapourator. This pressure reduction causes a small portion
of the liquid to boil off, or flash, cooling the remaining
refrigerant to the desired evapourator temperature. This cooled
refrigerant then enters the evapourator (A) to repeat the cycle.

Period Two discussed the different types of condensers and

methods of condenser control.

The condenser rejects heat from the refrigerant to water, water,

or some other fluid. The three common types of condensers are
water-cooled, water-cooled, and evaporative

Period Three presented the different types of evapourators and

methods of evapourator control. The evapourator transfers heat
from water, water, or some other fluid to the cool liquid
refrigerant. The two common types of evapourators are finnedtube and shell-and-tube.

Period Four reviewed the operation of the expansion device,

specifically the thermostatic expansion valve. The expansion
device is used to maintain the pressure difference between the
high-pressure (condenser) and low-pressure (evaporator) sides
of the system established by the compressor.

In addition, the thermostatic expansion valve (TXV) controls the

quantity of liquid refrigerant entering the evapourator. It
ensures that the refrigerant will be completely vapourized
within the evapourator and maintains the proper amount of
superheat in the system.

Period Five discussed several accessories commonly used in

comfort-cooling applications, including: solenoid valve, liquidline filter drier, moisture-indicating sight glass, suction line
filter, hot gas muffler, shutoff valve, and access port.
The solenoid valve is used to stop the flow of refrigerant within
the system. A liquid-line filter drier prevents moisture and
foreign matter from damaging the valves and compressor. The
moisture-indicating sight glass permits the operator to observe

of the

refrigerant within the liquid line before it enters the expansion

device. A suction line filter protects the compressor from
foreign matter in the suction line.
The hot gas muffler is used to reduce noise and vibration
associated with reciprocating compressors. Shutoff valves are
used to isolate one part of the refrigeration system, and access
ports allow a technician to gain access to the system for
charging or measurement.


In a conventional vapor compression system with direct

expansion (DX), refrigerant under high pressure is expanded to
a lower pressure before it enters the evaporator. The refrigerant
state at the outlet of the expansion device is in a two-phase
condition, provided that the fluid crosses the saturated liquid
line during the isenthalpic expansion process. As a result, some
fraction of the refrigerant flow enters the evaporator already in
a vapor state without having a significant cooling effect. The
idea behind the Flash Gas Bypass (FGB) concept is to bypass
this vapor flow around the evaporator and by feeding the
evaporator with liquid refrigerant, pressure drop is reduced and
refrigerant distribution is improved.
Fig. 1 shows the schematic of a flash tank. A flash tank is a
pressure vessel; wherein the refrigerant liquid and vapour are
separated see fig. 2 and point 3. The refrigerant from

condenser is first expanded to low pressure. In the flash tank,

the refrigerant liquid and vapour are separated (point 3). The
separated liquid is fed to the evaporator (Process 5-4). The
vapour in the flash tank is bypassed to compressor (Process 36) and compressed to the condenser pressure. In the absence
of flash tank, the refrigerant condition at the inlet to the
evaporator would have been point 3 i.e wet vapour .

Flash (or partial) evaporation

is the partial vapor that occurs when a saturated liquid stream
undergoes a reduction in pressure by passing through a
throttling valve or other throttling device. This process is one of
the simplest unit operations. If the throttling valve or device is
located at the entry into a pressure vessel so that the flash
evaporation occurs within the vessel, then the vessel is often
referred to as a flash drum.[1][2]
If the saturated liquid is a single-component liquid (for example,
liquid propane or liquid ammonia), a part of the liquid
immediately "flashes" into vapor. Both the vapor and the
residual liquid are cooled to the saturation temperature of the
liquid at the reduced pressure. This is often referred to as
"auto-refrigeration" and is the basis of most conventional vapor
compression refrigeration systems.
If the saturated liquid is a multi-component liquid (for example,
a mixture of propane, isobutane and normal butane), the
flashed vapor is richer in the more volatile components than is
the remaining liquid.


The vapor-compression refrigeration cycle is the ideal
model for refrigeration systems. Unlike the reversed Carnot
cycle, the refrigerant is vaporized completely before it is
compressed and the turbine is replaced with a throttling device.

Multi-evaporator system with multi-compression,

intercooling and flash gas removal
multi-evaporator system which employs multiple compressors,
a flash tank for flash gas removal and intercooling. This system
is good for low temperature lift applications with different
refrigeration loads. For example one evaporator operating at
say 40oC for quick freezing of food products and other
evaporator operating at 25oC for storage of frozen food. As
shown in the system schematic, the pressure in the high
temperature evaporator (Evaporator-II) is same as that of flash
tank. Superheated vapour from the low-stage compressor is
cooled to the saturation temperature in the flash tank. The low
temperature evaporator operates efficiently as flash gas is










compressor (Compressor-II) operates efficiently as the suction

vapour is saturated. Even though the high stage compressor
has to handle higher mass flow rate due to de-superheating of
refrigerant in the flash tank, still the total power input to the







refrigerants such as ammonia.

Contrast with spray drying

Spray drying is sometimes seen as a form of flash evaporation.
However, although it is a form of liquid evaporation, it is quite
different from flash evaporation.
In spray drying, a slurry of very small solids is rapidly dried by
suspension in a hot gas. The slurry is first atomized into very
small liquid droplets which are then sprayed into a stream of
hot dry air. The liquid rapidly evaporates leaving behind dry
powder or dry solid granules. The dry powder or solid granules
are recovered from the exhaust air by using cyclones, bag
filters or electrostatic precipitators.

Natural flash evaporation

Natural flash vaporization or flash deposition may occur during earthquakes
resulting in depositing of minerals held in supersaturated solutions, sometimes
even valuable ore in the case of auriferous, gold-bearing, waters. This results
when blocks of rock are rapidly pulled and pushed away from each other by jog

Chart-1: Comparison of actual COP in DX and FGB mode

Above chart no.1 shows that as the load on the evaporator
increases the COP also increases. COP in FGB mode is more.
Rise in actual COP in FGB mode is observed from 1.27% to
7.28% for the load change from 0.9kW to 2.4kW.

Chart-2: Comparison of theoretical COP in DX and FGB mode

Above chart no.2 shows that as the load on the evaporator
increases the COPth in DX and FGB mode also increases. And
COP in FGB mode is more than DX mode. Increase in theoretical

COP in FGB mode is observed from 2% to 5.93% for the load

change from 0.9kW to 2.4kW.

Chart-3: Comparison of Carnot COP in DX and FGB mode

Above chart no.3 shows that as the load on the evaporator
increases the COP Carnot in DX and FGB mode also increases.
And COP in FGB mode is more than DX mode. Increase in
theoretical COP in FGB mode is observed from 2.38% to 7.42%
for the load change from 0.9kW to 2.4kW.

Chart-4: Comparison of actual, theoretical and Carnot COP in

DX mode
Above chart no.4 shows the comparison of COP actual, COPth
and COP Carnot in DX mode. COP Carnot is greater than COP
actual and COPth. COP actual varies from 1.07 to 2.43, COP
theoretical varies from 4.47 to 5.44 and COP Carnot varies from
5.22 to 6.78. It is because of losses through walls of calorimeter
chamber etc.

Chart-5: Comparison of actual, theoretical and Carnot COP in

FGB mode
Above chart no.5 shows the comparison of COP actual, COPth
and COP Carnot in FGB mode. COP Carnot is greater than COP
actual and COPth. COP actual varies from 1.15 to 2.52, COP
theoretical varies from 4.57 to 5.60 and COP Carnot varies from
5.64 to 7.03. It is because of losses through walls of calorimeter
chamber etc.

Chart-6: Comparison of refrigerating effect in DX and FGB

Above chart no.6 shows the comparison of refrigerating effect
in DX and FGB mode. Refrigerating effect in FGB mode is more
as compared to DX mode. It is because of flash gas bypass.
Only liquid sent to the evaporator. Because of it heat transfer
coefficient increases and refrigerating effect. At lower load
refrigerating effect is about 16% more but as load increase
refrigerating effect decreases.

Chart-7: Comparison of compressor work in DX and FGB mode

Above chart no.7 shows the comparison of compressor work in

DX and FGB mode. Compressor work is more in case of DX
mode. It because of more pressure drop across evaporator is
more in case of DX mode so more compressor work required. At
higher load upto 6.67% more work required.

Chart-8: Comparison of discharge temp in DX and FGB mode

Above chart no.8 shows the comparison of discharge temp in
DX and FGB mode. Discharge temp is more in case of DX mode.
It because of superheat at evaporator outlet and more pressure
drop across evaporator.

Chart-9: Comparison of pressure drop across evaporator in DX

and FGB mode
Above chart no.9 shows the comparison of pressure drop across
evaporator in DX and FGB mode. Pressure drop is more in case
of DX mode. It because of wet refrigerant entering is in
evaporator in case of DX mode. And in case of FGB mode only
liquid is sent to evaporator