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The job of a refrigeration plant is to cool articles or substances down to, and
maintain them at a temperature lower than the ambient temperature.
Refrigeration can be defined as a process that removes heat. The oldest and
most well-known among refrigerants are ice, water, and water. In the beginning,
the sole purpose was to conserve food. The Chinese were the first to find out
that ice increased the life and improved the taste of drinks and for centuries
Eskimos have conserved food by freezing it. All we are using Refrigeration
system now a days because of this high heat as well as global warming.
Refrigeration is a process in which work is done to move heat from one location
to another. Refrigeration has many applications, including, but not limited to:
household refrigerators, industrial freezers, cryogenics, and water conditioning.

Refrigeration is a process of producing low temperatures as
compared to the surrounding temperatures. It will be possible
only if heat is transferred from the low temperature region to a
high temperature region. Obviously it is not possible in the
natural manner because heat flows from high temperature to
low temperature like fluid flows from high pressure to low
pressure/ current flows from high voltage to low voltage/ gas
flows from high concentration to the region of low
concentration. It means in refrigeration one is trying to go
against the natural process as well as against the second law of
thermodynamics which states that heat cannot flow from low
temperature region to a high temperature region without the
use of an external agent. The external agent in refrigeration is
the compressor which introduces the most common method of
The most commonly used closed vapour compression
refrigeration system consists of six main parts namely
compressor, condenser, expansion device, evaporator, piping
and circulating working substance called the refrigerant.


• To build a low cost but effective vapour compression type
refrigeration system.
• To make it available for commercial use.

1.4 Methodology:
• Collection of data and technical information from the manuals

• Purchase of the discrete components from local market.

Pressure is the force on an object that is spread over a surface area. The
equation for pressure is P = F/A. Pressure can be measured for a solid is pushing
on a solid, but the case of a solid pushing on a liquid or gas requires that the fluid
be confined in a container. The force can also be created by the weight of an
object. So that,
P=F/A Where,
P=Pressure is new tons per square meter (N/m²) or Pascal’s (Pa).
F=The force in new tons (N).
A=The area in square meters (m²).
Another common unit of pressure measure is the bar.
One bar is equal to 100000 pa or N/m².

2 Pascal’s Law:
To honour the scientist Pascal, the SI metric system uses the
term "Pascal" as a unit of pressure. A Pascal is a Newton per
square meter (N/ m²).A Newton is the metric unit offorce. One
Newton is equal to the mass of 1 kilogram being accelerated at
rate of 1 meterper second per second. Pascal low states that
pressure applied upon a confined fluid is transmitted equally in
all directions. It is the basis of operation of most hydraulic and
pneumatic system.
Pressure gage:
A pressure gage is an instrument, which used to measure fluid
(Gaseous or liquid) pressure in a closed vessel. Pressure gages

Since water has mass and is subject to the actions of gravity. So that . Atmospheric pressure: The earth is surrounded by an envelope of atmosphere or water extends upward from the surface of the earth to a distance of some 50 miles or more. All other transfers occur as work.commonly used in the refrigeration industry are of two principle types. dT = Change in temperature. Q = Heat added.Q = c m dT Where. It exerts a pressure that is known as the atmospheric pressure. m = Mass. Specific heat: Specific heat is the amount of heat per unit mass required to raise the temperature by one degree Celsius. Absolute pressure: Absolute Pressure is the sum of the available atmospheric pressure and the gage pressure in the pumping system. Such as manometer and bourdon tube. The specific heat of water is 1 calorie / gram °C. c = Specific heat. Heat: 12Heat is a from of energy. This is evident from the fact that heat can be converted in to other forms of energy and that other forms of energy can be converted in to heat. Thermodynamically heat is the defined as energy in transit from one body to another as the result temperature difference between the two bodies. .

Sensible heat can be sensed or measured with a thermometer and the addition or removal of sensible heat will always cause a change in the temperature of the substance. The heat added to a vapour after vaporization is the sensible heat of the vapour. In other words. the temperature of the resulting vapour can be further increased by the additional of heat. Superheat: Once a liquid has been vaporized. The heat absorbed or given off does not cause a temperature change in the substance the heat is latent or hidden. sensible heat is the heat that affects the temperature of things latent heat is the heat that affects the physical state of things. more commonly called super heat. Absolute temperature: .Sensible heat: Sensible heat is the heat absorbed or given off by a substance that is not in the process of changing its physical state. Temperature: Temperature is a measurement of the average kinetic energy of the molecules in an object or system and can be measured with a thermometer or a calorimeter. It is a means of determining the internal energy contained within the system. Latent heat: Latent heat is the heat absorbed or given off by a substance while it is changing its physical state.

The temperature value relative to absolute zero. Thermometer: An instrument for measuring and indicating temperature typically one consisting of a narrow hermetically sealed glass tube marked with graduations and having at one end a bulb containing mercury or alcohol that expands and contracts in the tube with heating and cooling. Otherwise work is defined (in calculus terms) as the integral of the force over a distance of displacement. Saturation temperature: 13Saturation temperature means boiling point. from the function. The liquid can be said to be saturated with thermal energy. Any addition of thermal energy results in a phase transition. . that would render 100% efficient. The saturation temperature is the temperature for a corresponding saturation pressure at which a liquid boils into its vapour phase. The SI units for work are the joule (J) or Newtonmeter (N × m). Work: Work is the transfer of energy. The absolute zero is the theoretical temperature at which molecular motion vanishes and a body would have no heat energy the zero point of the Kelvin and Rankin temperature scales. Absolute zero may be interpreted as the temperature at which the volume of a perfect gas vanishes or more generally as the temperature of the cold source.

The SI unit of power is the watt (W) or joule per second (J/s). In an embodiment of the present invention. potential energy. The dimension of power is energy divided by time. The SI unit of energy is the joule (J). Energy: Energy is the capacity of a physical system to perform work. F=Is force. Power: Power is the time rate at which work is done or energy is transferred. Energy exists in several forms such as heat. Saturation temperature: The temperature and pressure of the atmosphere must be at that point or in an interval of values for the substance to be saturated. In calculus terms. or other forms. light. kinetic or mechanical energy.W = F × s Where. s = Is the displacement. Horsepower is a unit of power in the British system of measurement. W=Is work. the refrigerant gas is diverted through the exhaust manifold immediately after passing through the . power is the derivative of work with respect to time. electrical. Superheated vapour: The present invention involves a system and method for superheating the refrigerant gas in a motor vehicle water conditioning system in order to minimize the amount of work required to be performed by the compressor.

inland waters and plant . 14The surrounding hot exhaust gases thereby increasing the refrigerant gas pressure to reduce the amount of work done by the compressor superheat it.compressor. that is. Refrigerant vapour at a temperature that is higher than its boiling point at a given pressure. As the refrigerant gas passes through the exhaust manifold. a compressed fluid is to the left of the liquid-vapour phase boundary. balance occurring on land. it will be to the left of the vapour dome. Sub cooled liquid: A compressed fluid (also called a sub cooled fluid or sub cooled liquid) is a fluid under thermodynamic conditions that force it to be a liquid. Vaporization: Vaporization is the transition of matter from a solid or liquid phase into a gaseous phase. It is a liquid at a temperature lower than the saturation temperature at a given pressure. Evaporation: Evaporation is the process by which water is converted from its liquid form to its vapour form and thus transferred from land and water masses to the atmosphere. of a real gas. Water boiling into steam is an example of vaporization. In a plot comparing absolute pressure and specific volume (commonly called a P-v diagram). Evaporation from the oceans accounts for 80% of the water delivered as precipitation with the surfaces.

our metabolic rate falls so that less heat is generated by our body. When a liquid evaporates. In cold temperatures extra heat is produced by an increase of the metabolic rate. water is evaporated from the leaves. mainly of the liver and muscles. Evaporation has a cooling effect in this situation as well. This change requires heat energy called latent heat/ hidden heat. it produces a cooling effect. Condensation: . Sweat glands in the skin will produce more sweat. to prevent heat loss. If alcohol is splashed on the back of the hand. this involves a change of state from liquid to gas. Evapouration is used by the body to regulate its temperature. This sweat evaporates and the result is a cooling effect on the skin. The rate at which the evapouration takes place depends on the rate of water over the skin and this is why we fan ourselves to speed up the process. This sometimes causes rhythmical involuntary contractions of the skeletal muscles (shivering). In these circumstances the subcutaneous fat serves as insulation and is sometimes burnt to provide heat. As plants transpire. the blood vessels contract. Plants are cooled during transpiration. When the temperature of the body rises we begin to perspire more.The cooling effect of evaporation: Evaporation is the removal of water molecules from the surface of a liquid. When the surroundings are cold. H waters may also become erect to trap water as further insulation. In circumstances where the temperature is high.

e. and the amount of energy required to make room for it by displacing its environment and establishing its volume and pressure. Critical pressure: Critical pressure is the lowest pressure at which a substance can exist in the liquid sate at its critical temperature. It is the saturation pressure at the critical temperature. 15When the transition happens from the gaseous phase into the solid phase directly. their prior kinetic energy must be transferred to an absorbing colder entity either a center of condensation within the gas volume or some contact surface. . the change is called deposition. i. the overall attraction forces between these prevail and bring them together at distances comparable to their sizes. which is the energy required to create a system.It is the change of the physical state of matter from gaseous phase into liquid phase. Since the condensing molecules suffer from reduced degrees of freedom and ranges of motion. Enthalpy: Enthalpy is a measure of the total energy of a thermodynamic system. the temperature at which an arrest or critical point is shown on heating or cooling curves. Critical temperature: The temperature at which some phase change occurs in a metal during heating or cooling. and is the reverse of evaporation. It includes the internal energy. Upon the slowing-down of the molecules of the material.

Greeks. H = U + p V Where.So that. evapourative cooling was employed. V = Is the volume of the system. and Romans placed largeamounts of snow into storage pits dug into the ground and insulated with wood and straw. Hebrews. U = Is the internal energy of the system. p = Is the pressure at the boundary of the system and its environment. In India. When a liquid vapourizes rapidly. man found that his game would last during times when food was not available if stored in the coolness of a cave or packed in snow. Refrigeration history: In Prehistoric times. before the first millennium. The rising molecules of vapour abruptly increase their kinetic energy and this increase is drawn from the immediate surroundings of the vapour. These surroundings are therefore cooled. thus exposing the jars to the night’s cool water. ice was harvested and stored. H = Is the enthalpy of the system. it expands quickly. Entropy: A thermodynamic quantity representing the unavailability of a system's thermal energy for conversion into mechanical work often interpreted as the degree of disorder or randomness in the system. In China. The ancient Egyptians filled earthen jars with boiled water and put them on their roofs. The intermediate stage in the history of cooling foods was to add chemicals like sodium .

Ice was first shipped commercially out of Canal Street in New York City to Charleston. New Englanders Frederick Tudor and Nathaniel Wyeth saw the potential for the ice business and revolutionized the industry through their efforts in the first half of the 1800s. making it possible to speed handling techniques in storage. but one similar to it was . focused on shipping ice to tropical climates. Cooling drinks came into vogue by 1600 in France. South Carolina in 1799. Cooling wine via this method was recorded in 1550. use the result to any practical purpose. He experimented with insulating materials and built icehouses that decreased melting losses from 66 percent to less than 8 percent.nitrate or potassium nitrate to water causing the temperature to fall. In 1805. iced liquors and frozen juices were popular in French society. The first known artificial refrigeration was demonstrated by William Cullen at the University of Glasgow in 1748. Unfortunately.transportation and distribution with less waste. Evansnever constructed his machine. This solution could be used to produce very low temperatures and to make ice. Wyethdevised a method of quickly and cheaply cutting uniform blocks of ice that transformed the ice industry. who became known as the “Ice King”. there was not much ice left when the shipment arrived. designed the first refrigeration machine that used vapour instead of liquid.Cullen let ethyl ether boil into a partial vacuum he did not however. Oliver Evans. an American inventor. as were the words "to refrigerate”. By the end of the 17th century. Tudor. Instead of cooling water at night people rotated long necked bottles in water in which saltpeter had been dissolved.

Carré's equipment contained rapidly expanding ammonia (Ammonia liquefies at a much lower temperature than water and is thus able to absorb more heat.) Carré's refrigerators were widely used. Shortly afterward an Australian. the American physician John Gorrie.His basic principle that of compressing a gas. coupled with the toxicity of their ammonia coolants prevented the general use of mechanical refrigerators in the home. and vapour compression refrigeration became and still is. Ferdinand Carré of France developed a somewhat more complex system in 1859. which used water as a coolant. in 1856. James Harrison examined the refrigerators used by Gorrie and Twinning and introduced vapour-compression refrigeration to the brewing and meatpacking industries.17Unlike earlier compression machines. Beginning in the . cooling it by sending it through radiatingcoils.John Gorrie. he was granted the first U. size and complexity of refrigeration systems of the time. In 1842. However. Most households used iceboxes that were supplied almost daily with blocks of ice from a local refrigeration plant. Commercial refrigeration is believed to have been initiated by an American businessperson. the most widely used method of cooling.built by an American physician. Twinning.S. Alexander C. the cost. patent for mechanicalrefrigeration in 1851. and then expanding it to lower the temperature further is the one most often used inrefrigerators today. Giving up his medical practice to engage in time consumingexperimentation with ice making. to cool sickrooms in a Floridahospital designed and built an water-cooling apparatus for treating yellow fever patients.

New York in 1870. prices decreased and refrigeration using ice became more accessible.refrigerated cars were used to transport milk and butter. Liebmann’s Sons Brewing Company in Brooklyn. By 1860. Natural ice supply became an industry unto itself. became a health problem. By 1879. and 2. more than 200 a decade later. Sutherland of Detroit. He designed an insulated car with ice bunkers in each end. as a refrigeration agent. Commercial refrigeration was primarily directed at breweries in the 1870s and by 1891.1840s. as time went on ice.000 by 1909. Each chest contained 100 pounds of ice and 200 quarts of strawberries. Brewing was the first activity in the northern states to use mechanical refrigeration extensively. The refrigerated railroad car was patented by J. It wasnot until 1949 that a refrigeration system made its way into the trucking industry by way of a roof-mounted cooling device. beginning with an absorption machine used by S. Says Bern . More companies entered the business. Water came in on the top passed through the bunkers and circulated through the car by gravity controlled by the use of hanging flaps that created differences in water temperature.000 tons of ice was extracted each day in 1847. there were 35 commercial ice plants in America. refrigerated transportwas limited to mostly seafood and dwatery products. patented by Fred Jones.B. where 1. nearly every brewery was equipped with refrigerating machines. Michigan in 1867. No pond was safe from scraping for ice production not even Thoreau’s Walden Pond. However. The first refrigerated car to carry fresh fruit was built in 1867 by Parker Earle of Illinois. who shipped strawberries on the Illinois Central Railroad.

Refrigeration and Water-conditioning Engineers). which had a refrigeration capacity of well over 90. By 1914..” Signs of a problem were first evident in the brewing industry. mechanically manufactured giving birth to mechanical refrigeration. Carl (Paul Gottfried) von Linde in 1895 set up a large-scale plant for the production of liquid water. “Good sources were harder and harder to find. Despite the inherent advantages. they ultimately used refrigeration pervasively. in steel manufacture). Six years later he developed a method for separating pure liquid oxygen from liquid water that resulted in widespread industrial conversion to processes utilizing oxygen (e. Refrigeration technology provided the solution ice. By the 1890’s. the machinery installed in almost all American packing plants was the ammonia compression system.000 tons/day. when a number of synthetic refrigerants called halocarbons or CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons) were developed by Frigidwatere.g. Ammonia had an equally serious toxic effect if it leaked. Refrigeration engineers searched for acceptable substitutes until the 1920s. Soon the meatpacking and dwatery industries followed with their complaints.Nagengast. Chemically Freon was created by the . refrigeration had its problems. Refrigerants like sulfur dioxide and methyl chloride were causing people to die. The best known of these substances was patented under the brand name of Freon. co-author of Heat and Cold Mastering the Great Indoors (published by the American Society of Heating. natural ice became a problem because of pollution and sewagedumping. Though meatpackers were slower to adopt refrigeration than the breweries.

and an evapourator. which removes some of the heat energy of the compressed gas. In 1985 the "ozone hole" over the Antarctic had been discovered and by 1990 Rowland and Molina's prediction was provedcorrect. Sherwood Rowland and Mario Molina predicted that chlorofluorocarbon refrigerant gases would reach the high stratosphere and there damage the protective mantle of the oxygen allotrope. James Lovelock reported finding trace amounts of refrigerant gases in the atmosphere. increasing production. for instance mechanically produced cold helped temper cutlery and tools. In metal working.The cooled vapour is . as refrigeration removed moisture from the water delivered to blast furnaces. dichlorodifluoromethane (CCl2F2) is odorless and is toxic only in extremely large doses. a condenser.substitution of two chlorine and two fluorine atoms for the four hydrogen atoms in methane (CH4) the result. usually by a piston.18Though ice. In 1974. and meatpacking industries were refrigeration’s major beneficiaries. a capillary tube. an expansion device. In the condenser. many other industries found refrigeration a boon to their business. or a turbine. which can be a valve. ozone. The gas coolant is first compressed. brewing. an engine. and then pushed through a tube into the condenser.Allied fighting ships held carbon-dioxide machines to keep ammunition well below temperatures at which high explosives became unstable. The basic components of today’s modern vapour-compression refrigeration system are a compressor. the winding tube containing the vapour is passed through either circulating water or a bath of water.In 1973.Iron production got a boost. Prof.

passed through an expansion device to an area of much lower pressure as the vapour expands. 7) Cryogenics refrigeration system.e. 2) Steam-Jet Refrigeration system. When . by cooling a secondary medium such as water. 3) Water cycle refrigeration system. the coil containing the evaporator directly contacts the water in the food compartment. At the end of the process. 1) Dry-ICE Refrigeration system. the warmed gas is drawn toward the compressor. it draws the energy of its expansion from its surroundings or the medium in contact with it. Dry ice can be pressed into various sizes and shapes as blocks or slabs. 5) Vapour absorption refrigeration system. Dry-ICE Refrigeration system: Dry ice is the solid carbon dioxide having the temperature of -78 degree Celsius. In most domestic refrigerators. 6) Thermo-Electric Refrigeration system. REFRIGERATION SYSTEM We can classification seven types of refrigeration systen from principle and operation. Dry ice converts directly from solid state to gaseous this process is called as sublimation. Evaporators may directly cool a space by letting the vapour come into contact with the area to be chilled or they may act indirectly-i. Dry ice is usually packed in the frozen food cartons along with the food that has to be kept frozen for long intervals of time. 4) Vapour compression refrigeration system.

small old drink shops. Obviously lower temperature will require lower pressure. small hotels etc. Water freezes at 0oC . In fact the ordinary ice and dry ice used for the refrigeration purposed have to be manufactured by the cyclic methods of refrigeration which we shall see in the next article. The enthalpy of evapouration will cool the remaining water to its saturation temperature at the pressure in the chamber.the dry ice gets converted into vapour state it keeps the food frozen. water coolers. Dry-Ice refrigeration system. However. This methods of refrigeration system can be used only in places where small amount of refrigeration is required in places like laboratories. in the earlier days the ice used for the cooling purposes was usually harvested during the winter seasons from the ponds and lakes and stored in large insulated ice houses for the use throughout the year. workshops. The process of dry ice refrigeration is now a days being used for freezing the food in watercraft transportation. Steam jet refrigeration system: If water is sprayed into a chamber where a low pressure is maintained a part of the water will evapourate.

hence temperature lower than 4oC cannot be obtained with water. Around 1900. The high momentum of motive steam entrains or carries along with it the water vapour evapourating from the flash chamber. However. Maurice Leblanc who developed the system in 1907-08. the credit for constructing the steam jet refrigeration system goes to the French engineer. In this system. In 1838.4kPa 35-45oC.6 of to 7. ejectors were used to produce a high velocity steam jet . This system is driven by low. In this system.009 kPa corresponding to an evapourator temperature of 4oC. corresponding The motive to vapour condenser and the evapourated vapour both are condensed and recycled. Schematics diagram of steam jet refrigeration system. High-pressure motive steam passes through either convergent or convergent-divergent nozzle where it acquires both sonic or supersonic velocity and low pressure of the order of 0. Because of its high velocity it moves the vapours against the pressure gradient up to the condenser where the pressure is temperature 5. the Englishman Charles Parsons studied the possibility of reduction of pressure by an entrainment effect from a steam jet. It can be seen that this system requires a good vacuum to be maintained. Sometimes booster ejector is used for this purpose. the Frenchman Pelletan was granted a patent for the compression of steam by means of a jet of motive steam. high velocity steam is used to entrain the evapourating water vapour.grade energy that is process steam in chemical plants or a boiler.

Water cycle refrigeration system: Water cycle refrigeration systems belong to the general class of gas cycle refrigeration systems in which gas is used as the working fluid. Ingersoll Rand and Carrier started commercial production of these systems from 1930. the French engineer Fellahin improved the machine by introducing multiple stages of vaporization and condensation of the suction steam. Based on Leblanc’s design the first commercial system was made by Westinghouse in 1909 in Paris. ships and even railway wagons. Still. However. I. some east European countries such as Czechoslovakia and Russia manufactured these systems as late as 1960s. refrigerants such as CFC-11. From 1910 onwards.S. stem jet refrigeration systems were used mainly in breweries. Several companies such as Westinghouse. Between 1928-1930. there was much interest in this type of systems in USA. cinema theatres.. In 1926. i.(≈ 1200 m/s). warships etc. CFC-22. The gas does not under go any phase change . gradually these systems were replaced by more efficient vapour absorption systems using LiBrwater. chemical factories. In USA they were mainly used for water conditioning of factories. The ejector principle can also be used to provide refrigeration using fluids other than water. CFC-21. CFC-114 etc. The credit for first developing these closed vapour jet refrigeration systems goes to the Russian engineer. Even though the efficiency of the steam jet refrigeration system was low.e. CFC-113. it was still attractive as water is harmless and the system can run using exhaust steam from a steam engine. Badylkes around 1955.

Water cycle refrigeration systems use water as their refrigerant compressing it and expanding it to create heating and cooling capacity.during the cycle. ozone depletion. It applications in water craft cabin cooling and also in the liquefaction of various gases. the development of vapour compression cycles based initially on ethyl ether ammonia or sulphur-dioxide but superseded by chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) led to the gradual replacement of the majority of water cycle systems except in the field of watercraft water conditioning. Work is taken out of the water by an expansion turbine which removes energy as the blades are driven round . all the internal heat transfer processes are sensible heat transfer processes. Environmental concerns about CFCs. Water is compressed and then heat removed this water is then expanded to a lower temperature than before it was compressed. Water cycle or ‘cold water machines’ were available from Companies such as J & E Hall in the early 1900s. Water cycle refrigeration works on the reverse Brayton or Joule cycle. Work must be taken out of the water during the expansion otherwise the entropy would increase. However. These were used on board ships and by food producers and retailers to provide cooling for their food stores. The use of water cycle is one of these offering a benign substitute for CFC refrigerants as well as reduced energy consumption and capital costs for targeted applications. consequently. global warming and the resulting increasingly stringent legislation have renewed interest in alternatives to the current standard of vapour-compression refrigeration technologies. 22Water cycle is not a new technology.

by the expanding water. However. The efficiency of such systems limited to a great extent by the efficiencies of compression and expansion as well as those of the heat exchangers employed. Originally slow speed reciprocating compressors and expanders were used. Advances in turbine technology together with the development of water bearings and ceramic components offer further efficiency improvements. Often though it is used to power a directly connected (bootstrap) compressor which elevates the compressed (hot) side pressure further without added external energy input essentially recycling the energy removed from the expanding water to compress the high pressure water further. This work can be usefully employed to run other devices such as generators or fans. the development of rotary compressors and expanders (such as in car turbochargers) greatly improved the isentropic efficiency and reliability of the water cycle. The poor efficiency and reliability of such machinery were major factors in the replacement of such systems with vapour compression equipment. Combining these advances with newly available compact heat exchangers which have greatly improved heat transfer characteristics makes competition with many existing vapour compression quite feasible . The cold water after the turbine can be used as a refrigerant either directly in an open system or indirectly by means of a heat exchanger in a closed system. The increase in pressure on the hot side further elevates the temperature and makes the water cycle system produce more useable heat (at a higher temperature).

The power output of the turbine is used to drive the fan which maintains the required water flow over the water cooler. New York for the storage of photographic films. An water conditioning system was installed in a printing press in 1902 and in a telephone exchange in Hamburg in 1904. Its pressure is reduced to cabin pressure in the turbine (state 5). as a result its temperature drops from 4 to 5. This water is compressed in the main compressor to state 3. During this process its temperature increases from 1 to 2. Eastman Kodak installed the first water conditioning system in 1891 in Rochester.23In figure shows the schematic of a simple watercraft refrigeration system and the operating cycle on T-s diagram. Many systems were installed in tobacco and textile factories around 1900.Figure: Schematic of a simple watercraft refrigeration cycle. and is cooled to state 4 in the water cooler. Vapour compression refrigeration system: Refrigeration systems are also used for providing cooling and dehumidification in summer or personal comfort (water conditioning). The cold water at state 5 is supplied to the cabin. As shown in the T-s diagram the outside low pressure and low temperature water (state 1) is compressed due to ram effect to ram pressure (state 2). This simple system is good for ground cooling (when the watercraft is not moving) as fan can continue to maintain water flow over the water cooler. The first domestic water conditioning system was . It picks up heat as it flows through the cabin providing useful cooling effect. The first water conditioning systems were used for industrial as well as comfort water conditioning. This is an open system.

A private library in St Louis. At present comfort water conditioning is widely used in residences. The capacities vary from few kilowatts to megawatts. chemical industries etc. responsible for Industrial the water growth conditioning of modern is largely electronic. watercrafts etc. Carrier studied the control of humidity in 1902 and designed a central water conditioning plant using water washer in 1904. USA was water conditioned in 1895. As shown in the figure the basic system consists of an evaporator.installed in a house in Frankfurt in 1894. Efforts have also been made to water condition passenger rail coaches using ice. hospitals and in mobile applications such as rail coaches. water ports. and a casino was water conditioned in Monte Carlo in 1901. automobiles. commercial buildings. Most of the present day water conditioning systems use either a vapour compression refrigeration system or a vapour absorption refrigeration system. offices. pharmaceutical. . compressor. Due to the pioneering efforts of Carrier and also due to simultaneous development of different components and controls water conditioning quickly became very popular especially after 1923. condenser and an expansion valve. The widespread development of water conditioning is attributed to the American scientist and industrialist Willis Carrier.

To complete the cycle the high pressure liquid is made to flow through an expansion valve. condensation of the vapour into liquid takes place by heat rejection to the heat sink. The refrigerant vapour from the evapourator is compressed in the compressor to a high pressure at which its saturation temperature is greater than the ambient or any other heat temperature sink. Hence refrigerant when flows the high through pressure the high condenser. In the expansion valve the pressure and temperature of the refrigerant decrease.24The refrigeration effect is obtained in the cold region as heat is extracted by the vapourization of refrigerant in the evapourator. This low pressure and low temperature refrigerant vapour evapourates in the evaporator taking heat .

then the compressed gas will be hotter than our source of cooling (outside water. Second. Alternatively a refrigeration system can be used for providing cooling in summer and heating in winter. and therefore a lot of heat can be removed from the water-conditioned space. Such systems have been built and are available now. It extracts heat from a cold space and rejects heat to a high temperature heat sink. This means that the heat transfer rate remains high.from the cold region. A refrigeration system can also be used as a heat pump. because the closer the working fluid . a large amount of thermal energy is required to change a liquid to a vapour. In this case. the isothermal nature of the vaporization allows extraction of heat without raising the temperature of the working fluid to the temperature of whatever is being cooled. fluid is used to cool a low temperature environment and reject the heat to a high temperature environment. Vapour-Compression Refrigeration Compression refrigeration cycles take advantage of the fact that highly compressed fluids at a certain temperature tend to get colder when they are allowed to expand. It should be observed that the system operates on a closed cycle. in which the useful output is the high temperature heat rejected at the condenser. If the pressure change is high enough. for instance) and the expand ed gas will be cooler than our desired cold temperature. First. The system requires input in the form of mechanical work. Vapour compression refrigeration cycles have two advantages.

. the lower the rate of heat transfer. Vapour-Compression Refrigeration Condenser Compressor Evaporator A diagram of a typical vapour-compression refrigeration cycle can be superimposed on a pressure-enthalpy (P-h) chart to demonstrate the function of each component in the system.temperature approaches that of the surroundings.

water. per pound [kg] of refrigerant. and this superheated refrigerant vapour is drawn to the compressor (B). This hot. low-pressure mixture of liquid and vapour refrigerant entering the evapourator (A) where it absorbs heat from the relatively warm water. This transfer of heat boils the liquid refrigerant in the evapourator.The pressure-enthalpy chart plots the properties of a refrigerant — refrigerant pressure (vertical axis) versus enthalpy (horizontal axis). Enthalpy is a measure of the heat content. or other fluid that is being cooled. both sensible and latent. highpressure refrigerant vapour then travels to the condenser. The compressor draws in the superheated refrigerant vapour (B) and compresses it to a pressure and temperature (C) high enough that it can reject heat to another fluid. . The cycle starts with a cool.

. and further sub cool before leaving the condenser (D) for the expansion device.Within the condenser. heat is transferred from the hot refrigerant vapour to relatively cool ambient water or cooling water. condense into liquid. This reduction in the heat content of the refrigerant vapour causes it to de-superheated.

Refrigeration System Components Condensers: The first major component to be discussed is the condenser. or some other fluid. The cooled mixture of liquid and vapour refrigerant then enters the evapourator (A) to repeat the cycle. . water. the high-pressure liquid refrigerant (D) flows through the expansion device. The condenser is a heat exchanger that rejects heat from the refrigerant to water. cooling the remaining refrigerant to the desired evapourator temperature.Finally. causing a large pressure drop that reduces the pressure of the refrigerant to that of the evapourator. or flash. This pressure reduction causes a small portion of the liquid to boil off.

It requires very little maintenance and does not require the freeze . and evaporative . Within the final few lengths of condenser tubing (the sub cooler). the liquid refrigerant is further cooled below the temperature at which it was condensed.The three common types of condensers are water-cooled. water-cooled. Water-Cooled Condensers A typical water-cooled condenser uses propeller-type fans to draw outdoor water over a finned tube heat transfer surface. The resulting reduction in the heat content of the refrigerant vapour causes it to condense into liquid. The temperature difference between the hot refrigerant vapour that is flowing through the tubes and the cooler outdoor water induces heat transfer. The water-cooled condenser is very popular in both residential and commercial applications because of its convenience.

or where the use of water for water conditioning is restricted. it is favoured in areas that have an inadequate or costly water supply. The benefit of sub cooling on system performance can be demonstrated by comparing the performance of a system with and without sub cooling. This is the amount of heat that each pound [kg] of liquid refrigerant will absorb when it and water treatment that is necessary with a watercooled condenser. The change in enthalpy (the line from A to B) that occurs in the evapourator is called the refrigeration effect. Additionally. .

the same system without sub cooling produces less refrigeration effect (the line from AI to B). such as water chillers. if the condenser is to be located indoors and uses a duct system to deliver water to and from the condenser coil. may use an economizer or liquid/vapour separator to increase this refrigeration effect. . The system without sub cooling must evapourate substantially more refrigerant within a larger coil to produce the same capacity as the system with sub cooling. An alternative water-cooled condenser uses a centrifugal fan to draw or blow water over the condensing coil. Instead of sub cooling in the condenser.In comparison. The principal advantage of this design is that the centrifugal fan is capable of overcoming the higher static-pressure losses associated with ductwork. Therefore. some packaged refrigeration equipment.

Evapourative Condensers A modification of the water-cooled condenser is the evapourative condenser.the centrifugal fan water-cooled condenser is probably best suited for this application. it causes a small portion of the water to evapourate. Within this device. causing the . As the water passes over the coil. This evaporation process absorbs heat from the coil. The difference is that water is sprayed on the tube surfaces. the refrigerant flows through tubes and water is drawn or blown over the tubes by a fan.

Sub cooling of the refrigerant can be accomplished by piping the condensed liquid back through another few rows of coil tubing. The remaining water then falls to the sump to be recalculated and used again. where additional heat transfer reduces the temperature of the liquid refrigerant. located either in the condenser water stream or in the water sump. Condenser Control Condenser capacity is influenced by: � Temperature difference between refrigerant and cooling media � Flow rate of cooling media through condenser � Flow rate of refrigerant through condenser .refrigerant vapour within the tubes to condense.

The evapourator is a heat exchanger that transfers heat from water.Condenser Control The heat rejection capacity of a condenser is influenced by (1) the temperature difference between the refrigerant and the cooling media (water. To balance the rate of heat rejection (in the condenser) with the changing system load. water. water. at least one of these variables may be controlled. Evapourators: The second major component to be discussed is the evapourator. Condenser Control Condenser capacity is influenced by: � Temperature difference between refrigerant and cooling media � Flow rate of cooling media through condenser � Flow rate of refrigerant through condenser Condenser Control . or other fluid). and (3) the flow rate of the refrigerant through the condenser. (2) the flow rate of the cooling media through the condenser. or some other fluid to the cool liquid refrigerant.

The heat rejection capacity of a condenser is influenced by (1)
the temperature difference between the refrigerant and the
cooling media (water, water, or other fluid), (2) the flow rate of
the cooling media through the condenser, and (3) the flow rate
of the refrigerant through the condenser.
To balance the rate of heat rejection (in the condenser) with the
changing system load, at least one of these variables may be










evapourator. The evapourator is a heat exchanger that
transfers heat from water, water, or some other fluid to the cool
liquid refrigerant.

Finned-Tube Evapourators

A finned-tube evapourator includes rows of tubes passing
through sheets of formed fins.
Cool, liquid refrigerant flows through the tubes, cooling the
tube and fin surfaces. As water passes through the coil and
comes into contact with the cold fin surfaces, heat is
transferred from the water to the refrigerant. This heat transfer
causes the refrigerant to boil and leave the evapourator as

To provide uniform heat transfer throughout the coil, the liquid
refrigerant is distributed to the coil tubes in several parallel
circuits. A distributor is used to ensure uniform refrigerant
distribution through these multiple coil circuits. It distributes
the liquid/vapour refrigerant mixture to the coil through several
tubes of equal length and diameter.

As the refrigerant passes through the tubes of the coil, the
liquid refrigerant absorbs heat from the water, causing it to boil
off into vapour. The refrigerant vapour leaves the coil tubes and
collects in a suction header.
Each distributor has an allowable range of refrigerant flow rates
that define its stable operating range. As the size of the
evaporator coil increases, it may be necessary to use more
than one distributor to feed liquid refrigerant to the coil.

Inside the final length of tubes—the location where the
temperature difference between the refrigerant and the water
is highest—this larger temperature difference accelerates the
rate of heat transfer and the refrigerant vapour absorbs even








evaporated, this additional heat gain to the vapour is called

In comfort-cooling applications.Superheating the refrigerant vapour (B to C) shifts it away from the liquid/vapour region and ensures that the refrigerant vapour is completely free of liquid prior to travelling to the compressor. The flow rate and temperature of the water or water being cooled are typically controlled to respond directly to the system load. to maintain the required space . it is necessary to balance the capacity of the system with the ever-changing load. and (3) the flow rate of the refrigerant through the evaporator. (2) the flow rate of the water or water through the evaporator. A constant-volume system delivers a constant quantity of water to the space and. Evapourator Control Evapourator capacity is influenced by: � Temperature difference between refrigerant and water or water being cooled � Flow rate of water or water through evaporator � Flow rate of refrigerant through evaporator Evapourator Control The rate of heat exchange within an evapourator is governed by (1) the temperature difference between the refrigerant and the water or water being cooled.

a variable water. In contrast. A compressor is the most important and often the costliest .volume (VAV) system delivers water at a constant temperature and varies the waterflow to maintain the required space temperature at all load conditions. The most common method of controlling the capacity of the evaporator at part load is to control the temperature and/or flow rate of the refrigerant through the system by unloading or cycling compressors. Compressors may be divided into two types positive displacement and dynamic as Positive displacement types compress discrete volumes of low pressure gas by physically reducing the volumes causing a pressure increase whereas dynamic types raise the velocity of the low-pressure gas and subsequently reduce it in a way which causes a pressure increase.temperature at all load conditions. To provide stable part-load operation and balance compressor unloading with the capacity of the evaporator. COMPRESSOR Introduction: The purpose of the compressor in the vapour compression cycle is to compress the low pressure dry gas from the evapourator and raise its pressure to that of the condenser. varies the temperature of this water. some direct form of evaporators capacity control may also be required. These are variables that the evaporator must respond to rather than directly control.

A typical refrigeration system consists of several basic components such as compressors. Generally for large systems depending upon the design specifications components are selected from the manufacturers’ catalogs and are assembled at site. oil separators etc. Before analyzing the balanced performance of the complete system it is essential to study the design and performance characteristics of individual components. filters.component (Typically 30 to 40 percent of total cost) of any vapour compression refrigeration system (VCRS). The compressor then has to raise the pressure of the refrigerant to a level at which it can condense by rejecting heat to the cooling medium in the condenser. driers. Even though most of the components are standard off the shelf items sometimes components such as evapourator may be made to order. condensers. For efficient operation of the refrigeration system it is essential that there be a proper matching between various components. The function of a compressor in a VCRS is to continuously draw the refrigerant vapour from the evapourator so that a low pressure and low temperature can be maintained in the evapourator at which the refrigerant can boil extracting heat from the refrigerated space. . Except in special applications the refrigeration system components are standard components manufactured by industries specializing in individual components. in addition to several accessories such as controls. expansion devices. evapourators. Small capacity refrigeration systems such as refrigerators room and package water conditioners water coolers are available as complete systems.

Today. Since a fixed amount of . Based on the working principle: 1. the majority of compressors are completely sealed with the motor enclosed. The first refrigeration piston compressors were built in the middle of the 19th century and evolved from the steam engines which provided the prime mover. In this case the manufacturer himself designs or selects the system components. Classification of compressors: Compressors used in refrigeration systems can be classified in several ways: A. tests them for performance and then sells the complete 38system as a unit. Construction at first was double acting but there was difficulty in maintaining gas tightness at the piston rod so the design evolved further into a single acting machine with the crankcase at suction inlet pressure leaving only the rotating shaft as a possible source of leakage and this was sealed with a packed gland. Rotor dynamic type. assembles them at the factory. 2. Positive displacement type.Double acting ammonia compressor and steam engine. In positive displacement type compressors compression is achieved by trapping a refrigerant vapour into an enclosed space and then reducing its volume.

Depending upon the construction positive displacement type compressors used in refrigeration and water conditioning can be classified into: a. Reciprocating type. Unlike positive displacement type the rotor dynamic type compressors are steady flow devices hence are subjected to less wear and vibration. Orbital compressors. Acoustic compressors. . since the operating speeds are normally very high the flow appears to be almost steady on macroscopic time scale. Since the flow is pulsating on a microscopic time scale positive displacement type compressors are prone to high wear vibration and noise level. Rotary type with sliding vanes (Rolling piston type or multiple vane type).refrigerant is trapped each time its pressure rises as its volume is reduced. Rotary screw type (Single screw or twin-screw type). e. b. c. In Rotor dynamic compressors the pressure rise of refrigerant is achieved by imparting kinetic energy to a steadily flowing stream of refrigerant by a rotating mechanical element and then converting into pressure as the refrigerant flows through a diverging passage. d. However. When the pressure rises to a level that is slightly higher than the condensing pressure then it is expelled from the enclosed space and a fresh charge of low-pressure refrigerant is drawn in and the cycle continues.

These compressors are widely used in large capacity refrigeration 39and water conditioning systems. B. Open type. Axial flow type. Open type compressors are normally used in medium to large capacity refrigeration system for all refrigerants and for ammonia (Due to its incompatibility with hermetic motor materials). Axial flow compressors are normally used in gas liquefaction applications. Open type compressors are characterized by high efficiency flexibility better compressor cooling and . Hermetic (or sealed) type. Centrifugal compressors (Also known as turbo-compressors) are radial flow type rotor dynamic compressors.g. Radial flow type. 2. diesel engine). ii. Based on arrangement of compressor motor or external drive: 1. The external drive may be an electrical motor or an engine (e.Depending upon the construction rotor dynamic type compressors can be classified into: i. Semi-hermetic (or semi-sealed) type. 3. In open type compressors the rotating shaft of the compressor extends through a seal in the crankcase for an external drive. The compressor may be belt driven or gear driven.

Tecumseh hermetic compressors have a lowpressure shell or housing. E. A. Welding seals the container. B. It is not subject to the discharge created by the piston stroke. However. Crankshaft. F. This point is emphasized to stress the hazard of introducing high pressure gas into the compressor shell at pressures above 150 psig. Compressor cylinder. Motor stator. It is designed to pump low-pressure refrigerant gas to a higher pressure. . C. Hence refrigeration systems using open type compressors require a refrigerant reservoir to take care of the refrigerant leakage for some time and then regular maintenance for charging the system with refrigerant changing of seals gaskets etc. Compressor piston. A hermetic container is one that is tightly sealed so no gas or liquid can enter or escape.serviceability. Motor rotor. This means that the interior of the compressor housing is subject only to suction pressure. Hermetic compressors: A hermetic compressor is a direct compressor a directconnected motor compressor assembly enclosed within a steel housing. D. since the shaft has to extend through the seal refrigerant leakage from the system cannot be eliminated completely. Connecting rod.

Since no coupling. The suction is drawing into the compressor shell then to and through the electric motor that provides power to the crankshaft. Glass sealed electrical connection. Its location can be changed easily. The lubrication system of the hermetically sealed compressor is inherent and no external lubrication is required unless the fresh gas charging is done. The crankshaft revolves in its bearings. Refrigerant gas surrounds the compressor crankcase and the motor as it is drawn through the compressor shell and into the cylinder or cylinders through the suction muffler and suction valves. driving the piston or pistons in the cylinder or cylinders. The crankshaft is designed to carry oil from the oil pump in the bottom of the compressor to all bearing surfaces. The gas is compressed by the moving piston and is released through the discharge valves discharge muffler and compressor discharge tube. H. Crank throw. the maintenance is lesser. belt and pulley arrangement is involved. The installation of the hermetically sealed compressor is very . The whole condenser unit of the refrigeration or the water conditioning unit comprising of the condenser and the compressor can be moved easily from one place to the other. . The hermetically compressors can be moved easily from one place to the other place they are highly portable. belt or pulley is involved. One does not have to disassemble the compressor from the motor and no coupling. Compressor shell.G.

including expansion valves (thermostatic or electronic).easy. capillary tubes. . Other expansion devices perform essentially the same function. while also allowing the refrigerant to be at a high enough temperature in the condenser to reject heat to water or water at normally available temperatures. and orifices. This pressure difference allows the evapourator temperature to be low enough to absorb heat from the water or water to be cooled. This clinic will limit its discussion to thermostatic expansion valves (TXVs). There are several types of expansion devices. The suction and discharge connections and the electrical connections are available externally An expansion device is used to maintain a pressure difference between the high-pressure (condenser) and lowpressure (evapourator) sides of the system established by the compressor.

It ensures that the refrigerant will be completely vapourized within the evapourator (A) and maintains the proper amount of superheat in the system.In addition to maintaining a pressure difference. . These valves are magnetically operated. and an electric winding controls the opening and closing of the valve. Accessories: A solenoid valve is used to stop the flow of refrigerant within the system. The valve is typically a normally-closed type of valve so that it is closed when it is denergized. the thermostatic expansion valve controls the quantity of liquid refrigerant entering the evapourator.

In this application. both sections of the coil are activated. A portion of the water passes through the active lower section and is cooled. . Using the example of a face-split evaporators coil. at lower loads a solenoid valve may be used to shut off the flow of liquid refrigerant to the top section of the coil. while the rest of the water passes through the inactive top section and remains unconditioned. a valve is installed in the liquid line.One common use of a solenoid valve is to control the flow of liquid refrigerant to multiple sections of the evaporators. At higher loads. The two water streams mix downstream of the coil. upstream of the expansion valve for each individually controlled section of the evaporators coil.

the evapourator contains a large quantity of liquid refrigerant. When the compressor is shut off. Instead of shutting the compressor off right away. This is called a pump-down cycle. upstream of all expansion valves. the solenoid valve is closed to stop the flow of liquid refrigerant into the evapourator.Another common use of a solenoid valve is to enable system pump-down and prevent the refrigerant from migrating through the system when the compressor is shut off. a single solenoid valve is installed in the liquid line. In this application. This can present a problem if some of the refrigerant drains into the suction line and slugs the compressor when it starts up again. and the . many systems pump the refrigerant out of the evapourator and suction line before shutting the compressor off. To prevent this from occurring.

condenser. The solenoid valve should be installed as close to the expansion valve as possible. .compressor is allowed to run for a short period of time. the solenoid valve is opened.) As the low-pressure side of the system is pumped free of refrigerant. The compressor pumps the refrigerant from the low-pressure side of the system (evapourator and suction line) to the high-pressure side of the system (discharge line. This will minimize the pump-down time and allow the liquid line to be used for storing refrigerant when the system is off. a pressure sensor is used to shut the compressor off when this pressure reaches a predetermined set point. Prior to starting the compressor again. the pressure in that part of the system drops. allowing the pressure on the low pressure side of the system to increase again. and liquid line. To end the pump-down cycle.

introduced during the installation process. and heat is added by the compressor. is installed upstream of the solenoid valve and the expansion valve. acids are formed that can damage the valves or compressor. however. that there is no substitute for cleanliness during system installation. the liquid-line filter drier. Realize. When water is mixed with refrigerant and oil. It prevents moisture (water) and foreign matter. These acids can corrode system components and cause the oil to sludge. The filter drier should be installed close to the solenoid valve to provide the most protection for the solenoid and expansion valves. from entering the expansion valve and the solenoid valve. certain foreign materials such as copper and brass particles can act as a catalyst in chemical reactions that result in the formation of acids. Moisture and foreign matter can cause problems in any refrigeration system. Additionally. Moisture-Indicating Sight Glass .Liquid-Line Filter Drier The next accessory to be discussed.

and permits the operator to observe the condition of the refrigerant prior to entering the expansion valve. With the sight glass installed directly ahead of the expansion valve. The value of the sight glass is in its moisture indication ability—the sight glass should not be used to determine system refrigerant charge or sub cooling. Actual temperature and pressure measurements are required to determine proper charge and subcooling. upstream of the expansion valve. Since the expansion valve is designed to control the flow of liquid refrigerant only.A moisture-indicating sight glass is installed in the liquid line. it can also be used to detect the presence of bubbles in the liquid line. This would indicate that some of the liquid refrigerant has flashed into vapour upstream of the expansion valve. the presence of refrigerant vapour results in a reduction in the quantity of liquid refrigerant being .

It is installed in the suction line.fed to the evapourator. It protects the compressor parts from the abrasive action that could result if these materials enter the . and other foreign matter that may have been introduced during the installation process or as the result of a compressor failure. The suction filter contains filter media to remove copper filings. Suction Line Filter Similar to the liquid-line filter drier. just upstream of the compressor. the suction line filter performs the task of removing foreign matter from the refrigeration system. The sight glass can alert the operator to the condition. dirt. flux. There are many potential causes of liquid refrigerant flashing.

The sealed type is completely closed. robbing the compressor bearings of lubrication. reducing the chances of refrigerant leaks.compressor. Replaceable core suction filters are commonly installed after a compressor failure has occurred. Similar to the liquid-line filter drier. The core is replaced after the foreign matter or acid has been removed from the system. . The replaceable core type allows the core to be easily changed. the two common types of suction line filters are replaceable core and sealed. Dirt can obstruct oil passages.

the condenser for example. .Additionally. to permit service or repeater to another part of the system. they can be used to trap the refrigerant charge in one component of the system. suction filters should be installed in all fieldassembled systems. Additionally. Shutoff valves are used to isolate one part of the refrigeration system from the rest.

Access Port An access port is used to add refrigerant to the system or for measurement. The other is located near the external equalizer line connection for the expansion valve. It is also used to measure the amount of sub cooling in the system. One access port is typically installed in the liquid line in a convenient location and is used to charge the system with liquid refrigerant. The suction line typically includes two access ports. . and is used to measure superheat when checking or adjusting the expansion valve setting. One is installed near the compressor and is used to measure suction pressure.

A cool. .Period One reviewed the vapour-compression refrigeration cycle using the P-h chart. high-pressure refrigerant vapour then travels to the condenser where heat is transferred to relatively cool ambient water or cooling water. This transfer of heat boils the liquid refrigerant in the evapourator and superheated refrigerant vapour (B) is drawn to the compressor. This hot. low-pressure mixture of liquid and vapour refrigerant enters the evapourator (A) and absorbs heat from the relatively warm water or water that is being cooled.The compressor raises the pressure and temperature (C) high enough that the refrigerant vapour can reject heat to another fluid.

. and further sub cool before leaving the condenser (D) for the expansion device.This reduction in the heat content of the refrigerant vapour causes it to de superheat. Finally. causing a large pressure drop (the line from D to A) that reduces the pressure of the refrigerant to that of the evapourator. the high-pressure liquid refrigerant flows through the expansion device. or flash. cooling the remaining refrigerant to the desired evapourator temperature. This cooled refrigerant then enters the evapourator (A) to repeat the cycle. condense into liquid. This pressure reduction causes a small portion of the liquid to boil off.

water-cooled. and evaporative Period Three presented the different types of evapourators and methods of evapourator control. The evapourator transfers heat from water. or some other fluid to the cool liquid refrigerant. . The three common types of condensers are water-cooled.Period Two discussed the different types of condensers and methods of condenser control. The condenser rejects heat from the refrigerant to water. The two common types of evapourators are finnedtube and shell-and-tube. or some other fluid. water. water.

Period Four reviewed the operation of the expansion device. . The expansion device is used to maintain the pressure difference between the high-pressure (condenser) and low-pressure (evaporator) sides of the system established by the compressor. specifically the thermostatic expansion valve.

It ensures that the refrigerant will be completely vapourized within the evapourator and maintains the proper amount of superheat in the system. hot gas muffler. moisture-indicating sight glass. The solenoid valve is used to stop the flow of refrigerant within the system. . including: solenoid valve. suction line filter.In addition. Period Five discussed several accessories commonly used in comfort-cooling applications. shutoff valve. The moisture-indicating sight glass permits the operator to observe the condition of the . A liquid-line filter drier prevents moisture and foreign matter from damaging the valves and compressor. the thermostatic expansion valve (TXV) controls the quantity of liquid refrigerant entering the evapourator. liquidline filter drier. and access port.

refrigerant within the liquid line before it enters the expansion device. The refrigerant from . The refrigerant state at the outlet of the expansion device is in a two-phase condition. The hot gas muffler is used to reduce noise and vibration associated with reciprocating compressors. The idea behind the Flash Gas Bypass (FGB) concept is to bypass this vapor flow around the evaporator and by feeding the evaporator with liquid refrigerant. refrigerant under high pressure is expanded to a lower pressure before it enters the evaporator. wherein the refrigerant liquid and vapour are separated see fig. provided that the fluid crosses the saturated liquid line during the isenthalpic expansion process. Fig. 2. A flash tank is a pressure vessel. some fraction of the refrigerant flow enters the evaporator already in a vapor state without having a significant cooling effect. As a result. 1 shows the schematic of a flash tank. A suction line filter protects the compressor from foreign matter in the suction line. FLASH GAS CONCEPT In a conventional vapor compression system with direct expansion (DX). and access ports allow a technician to gain access to the system for charging or measurement. pressure drop is reduced and refrigerant distribution is improved. Shutoff valves are used to isolate one part of the refrigeration system. 2 and point 3.

In the flash tank. The separated liquid is fed to the evaporator (Process 5-4).condenser is first expanded to low pressure. the refrigerant liquid and vapour are separated (point 3). The vapour in the flash tank is bypassed to compressor (Process 36) and compressed to the condenser pressure.e wet vapour . the refrigerant condition at the inlet to the evaporator would have been point 3 i. In the absence of flash tank. .


. then the vessel is often referred to as a flash drum. liquid propane or liquid ammonia).[1][2] If the saturated liquid is a single-component liquid (for example. the flashed vapor is richer in the more volatile components than is the remaining liquid. a mixture of propane. If the saturated liquid is a multi-component liquid (for example. This is often referred to as "auto-refrigeration" and is the basis of most conventional vapor compression refrigeration systems. This process is one of the simplest unit operations. isobutane and normal butane). If the throttling valve or device is located at the entry into a pressure vessel so that the flash evaporation occurs within the vessel. Both the vapor and the residual liquid are cooled to the saturation temperature of the liquid at the reduced pressure. a part of the liquid immediately "flashes" into vapor.Flash (or partial) evaporation is the partial vapor that occurs when a saturated liquid stream undergoes a reduction in pressure by passing through a throttling valve or other throttling device.

Unlike the reversed Carnot cycle.THE IDEAL VAPOR-COMPRESSION REFRIGERATION CYCLE The vapor-compression refrigeration cycle is the ideal model for refrigeration systems. the refrigerant is vaporized completely before it is compressed and the turbine is replaced with a throttling device. .

a flash tank for flash gas removal and intercooling. As shown in the system schematic. the pressure in the high temperature evaporator (Evaporator-II) is same as that of flash tank. intercooling and flash gas removal multi-evaporator system which employs multiple compressors. For example one evaporator operating at say –40oC for quick freezing of food products and other evaporator operating at –25oC for storage of frozen food. Multi-evaporator system with multi-compression.. The low temperature evaporator operates efficiently as flash gas is . This system is good for low temperature lift applications with different refrigeration loads. Superheated vapour from the low-stage compressor is cooled to the saturation temperature in the flash tank.

sometimes even valuable ore in the case of auriferous. gold-bearing. Contrast with spray drying Spray drying is sometimes seen as a form of flash evaporation.removed in the flash tank. This results when blocks of rock are rapidly pulled and pushed away from each other by jog faults. . However. a slurry of very small solids is rapidly dried by suspension in a hot gas. it is quite different from flash evaporation. bag filters or electrostatic precipitators. The dry powder or solid granules are recovered from the exhaust air by using cyclones. The slurry is first atomized into very small liquid droplets which are then sprayed into a stream of hot dry air. In spray drying. although it is a form of liquid evaporation. The liquid rapidly evaporates leaving behind dry powder or dry solid granules. still the total power input to the system can be reduced substantially. Even though the high stage compressor has to handle higher mass flow rate due to de-superheating of refrigerant in the flash tank. especially with refrigerants such as ammonia. In addition the high-stage compressor (Compressor-II) operates efficiently as the suction vapour is saturated. Natural flash evaporation Natural flash vaporization or flash deposition may occur during earthquakes resulting in depositing of minerals held in supersaturated solutions. waters.

Chart-2: Comparison of theoretical COP in DX and FGB mode Above chart no.27% to 7.4kW.28% for the load change from 0. And COP in FGB mode is more than DX mode.2 shows that as the load on the evaporator increases the COPth in DX and FGB mode also increases.1 shows that as the load on the evaporator increases the COP also increases. Increase in theoretical .Chart-1: Comparison of actual COP in DX and FGB mode Above chart no. COP in FGB mode is more. Rise in actual COP in FGB mode is observed from 1.9kW to 2.

38% to 7. .93% for the load change from 0.3 shows that as the load on the evaporator increases the COP Carnot in DX and FGB mode also increases.4kW.42% for the load change from 0. And COP in FGB mode is more than DX mode.4kW. Chart-3: Comparison of Carnot COP in DX and FGB mode Above chart no.COP in FGB mode is observed from 2% to 5.9kW to 2. Increase in theoretical COP in FGB mode is observed from 2.9kW to 2.

44 and COP Carnot varies from 5.60 and COP Carnot varies from 5. COP Carnot is greater than COP actual and COPth. COPth and COP Carnot in FGB mode. COP actual varies from 1.64 to 7.57 to 5.03.22 to 6. COP theoretical varies from 4. . COP theoretical varies from 4. COP actual varies from 1.4 shows the comparison of COP actual. Chart-5: Comparison of actual. theoretical and Carnot COP in FGB mode Above chart no.15 to 2.5 shows the comparison of COP actual. It is because of losses through walls of calorimeter chamber etc. It is because of losses through walls of calorimeter chamber etc.52.78. theoretical and Carnot COP in DX mode Above chart no.Chart-4: Comparison of actual. COPth and COP Carnot in DX mode.07 to 2.43. COP Carnot is greater than COP actual and COPth.47 to 5.

Refrigerating effect in FGB mode is more as compared to DX mode. At lower load refrigerating effect is about 16% more but as load increase refrigerating effect decreases. Only liquid sent to the evaporator.Chart-6: Comparison of refrigerating effect in DX and FGB mode Above chart no. Because of it heat transfer coefficient increases and refrigerating effect. It is because of flash gas bypass.6 shows the comparison of refrigerating effect in DX and FGB mode. Chart-7: Comparison of compressor work in DX and FGB mode .

Compressor work is more in case of DX mode.67% more work required. Discharge temp is more in case of DX mode. At higher load upto 6.7 shows the comparison of compressor work in DX and FGB mode. .8 shows the comparison of discharge temp in DX and FGB mode. It because of more pressure drop across evaporator is more in case of DX mode so more compressor work required. It because of superheat at evaporator outlet and more pressure drop across evaporator.Above chart no. Chart-8: Comparison of discharge temp in DX and FGB mode Above chart no.

Pressure drop is more in case of DX mode.9 shows the comparison of pressure drop across evaporator in DX and FGB mode. It because of wet refrigerant entering is in evaporator in case of DX mode. And in case of FGB mode only liquid is sent to evaporator .Chart-9: Comparison of pressure drop across evaporator in DX and FGB mode Above chart no.