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# TWO DEGREE OF FREEDOM SYSTEMS

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

TWO DEGREE OF FREEDOM SYSTEMS

DANIEL Bernoulli (1700-1782):
Swiss mathematician who proposed
principal of super position

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

TWO DEGREE OF FREEDOM SYSTEMS
• Requires two independent coordinates to describe their motion
• Assumption:
• Mass is considered as rigid body with two possible motions.
• Vibration in vertical plane

• Idealised as a bar of mass, m and MI, J0 supported on two springs of stiffness k1
and k2
• Displacements given by x(t) and θ(t)
• Displacements can also be given by x1 (t) and x2 (t)

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

K K Birla Goa Campus . of masses in the system) X ( No. the amplitudes of the 2 DOFs (coordinates) are related in a specific manner & the configuration is called normal / principal/natural mode of vibration BITS Pilani.TWO DEGREE OF FREEDOM SYSTEMS INTRODUCTION • Packaging of instrument of mass . of possible types of motion of each mass) • If a 2 DOF system is vibrating at one of the natural frequency. m supported on springs from all 4 sides • Here there is one point mass but two displacements x and y and two DOF • DOF = (No.

angle or some other physical parameters. • The EOMs are generally coupled but we can find some generalized coordinates which will give uncoupled equations.TWO DEGREE OF FREEDOM SYSTEMS • If an arbitrary initial excitation is given to the system. • Generalized co-ordinates: The configuration of the system can be specified by a set of independent coordinates such as displacement. BITS Pilani. K K Birla Goa Campus . the resulting free vibration will be a superposition of two normal modes of vibration.

?2 ?1ሶ + ?2 + ?3 ?2 − ?2?1 = ?2 (1) Coupled 2nd Order Differential Equation BITS Pilani.TWO DEGREE OF FREEDOM SYSTEMS Equation of Motion for Forced Vibration By Newton’s Law ?1 ?1ሷ + (?1 + ?2 ) ?1ሶ . K K Birla Goa Campus .?2 ?2ሶ + ?1 + ?2 ?1 − ?2?2 = ?1 ?2 ?2ሷ + (?2 + ?3 ) ?2ሶ .

[k]T =[k] Equation (1) becomes uncoupled when c2 and k2 are zero BITS Pilani. [c]T =[c].[c] and [k] are symmetric matrices [m]T =[m].TWO DEGREE OF FREEDOM SYSTEMS Equation of Motion for Forced Vibration Equation (1) can be written in matrix form as [m] ?ሷ (t) + [c] ?ሶ (t) + [k] ? ? = F (t) ?1 [m] = 0 0 ?2 ?1 + ?2 −?2 [c] = −? ?2 + ?3 2 ?1 + ?2 [k] = −?2 −?2 ?2 + ?3 (2) ?1 (?) ? ? ={ } ?2 (?) ?1 (?) F ? ={ } ?2 (?) [m]. K K Birla Goa Campus .

TWO DEGREE OF FREEDOM SYSTEMS Free Vibration of an undamped system For undamped free vibrations By Newton’s Law ?1 ?1ሷ + ?1 + ?2 ?1 − ?2?2 = 0 ?2 ?2ሷ + ?2 + ?3 ?2 − ?2?1 = 0 (3) (4) We are interested in knowing whether m1 and m2 can oscillate harmonically with the same frequency and phase angle but with different amplitudes. K K Birla Goa Campus . Take the solution as ?1 = ?1??? (?? + ?) (5) ?2 = ?2??? (?? + ?) BITS Pilani.

determinants of coefficients must be zero ?1 ?2 ?4 -{ ?1 + ?2 ?2 + ?2 + ?3 ?1 } ?2 +{ ?1 + ?2 ?2 + ?3 .Free Vibration of an undamped system Substituting (5) in (3 & 4) [{-m1 ?2 + ?1 + ?2 }?1 − ?2 ?2 ] ??? (?? + ?) = 0 [-?2 ?1+ {-m2 ?2 + ?2 + ?3 }?2] ??? (?? + ?) = 0 Equation (6) must be satisfied for all values of time t. K K Birla Goa Campus . ∴ {-m1 ?2 + ?1 + ?2 }?? − ?2 ??= 0 -?2 ?1+ {-m2 ?2 + ?2 + ?3 }?? = 0 Trivial solution is ?1= ?2 = 0 No Vibration (6) (7) For Non-trivial solution.?22 } = 0 This is quadratic equation in ?2 with solutions ?12 and ?22 (8) BITS Pilani.

{-m1 ?2 + ?1 + ?2 }?1 − ?2 ?2= 0 -?2 ?1+ {-m2 ?2 + ?2 + ?3 }?2 = 0 Free Vibration of an undamped system Determination of X1 and X2 • Depends of ?1 and ?2 • ?11 and ?21 are values of X1 and X2 for ? = ?1 • ?12 and ?22 are values of X1 and X2 for ? = ?2 • Since equation (7) is homogeneous. only ratios ?1 = ?21 ൗ? 1 and ?2 = 1 ?22 ൗ? 2 can be found 1 • Substituting ?2 = ?12 and ?2 = ?22 equation (7) gives −m1 ?12 + ?1+?2 ?2 ?21 ?1 = ൗ? 1 = = ?2 −m2 ?12 + ?3+?2 1 −m1 ?22 + ?1+?2 ?2 ?22 ?2 = ൗ? 2 = = ?2 −m2 ?22 + ?3+?2 1 (9) BITS Pilani. K K Birla Goa Campus .

Free Vibration of an undamped system The two ratios given for each ri (i = 1.2) in equation (9) are identical. The normal modes of vibration corresponding to ?1 and ?2 can be expressed as ?1 ?1 ?11 ?11 = 1 = ?2 ?1 ?11 ?2 ?12 ?12 = 2 = ?2 ?2 ?12 and ?2 (10) denotes normal modes of vibration and are called modal vectors of the system BITS Pilani. K K Birla Goa Campus .

Free vibration solution / motion in time 1 = {?11 (t) ?21 (t)}T = {?11 cos(?1 t + ?1) ? (?) 2 = {?12 (t) ?22 (t)}T = {?12 cos(?2 t + ?2) ? (?) ?11 . ?2 are constants to be determined from initial conditions. K K Birla Goa Campus . • Resulting motion • ? (?) = c1 ?1 (?) + c2 ?2 (?) (12) BITS Pilani. Initial Conditions: • At time t =0. x1 (t=0) and ?1ሶ (t=0) . x2 (t=0) and ?2ሶ (t=0) ??? • For any general initial conditions both modes will get excited. ?1 . ?12 r1 ?11 cos(?1 t + ?1) }T First Mode r2 ?12 cos(?2 t + ?2) }T Second Mode (11) .

choose c1 = c2 =1 with no loss of generality ?1 ? = ?11 (t) + ?12 (t) = ?11 cos(?1 t + ?1) + ?12 cos(?2 t + ?2) ?2 ? = ?21 (t) + ?22 (t) = ?1 ?11 cos(?1 t + ?1) + r2?12 cos(?2 t + ?2) (13) Constants ?11 .. ?1. ?12 . ?2 are to be determined from initial conditions x1 (t=0)= x1(0) . ?2(t=0) ሶ = ?2ሶ (0) (14) BITS Pilani. K K Birla Goa Campus .Free Vibration of an undamped system ?1 (?) ??? ?2 (?) involves unknown constants ?11 . ?1(t=0) ሶ = ?1ሶ (0) x2 (t=0) = x2(0) . ?12 (see 11) .

?2 ?12 sin ?2 x2(0) = r1 ?11 cos ?1 + r2 ?12 cos ?2 ?2ሶ (0) = -?1 r1?11 sin ?1 .?2 r2?12 sin ?2 These four equations in four unknowns can be solved. (15) BITS Pilani.Free Vibration of an undamped system Substituting (14) in (13) x1(0)= ?11 cos ?1 + ?12 cos ?2 ?1ሶ (0) = -?1 ?11 sin ?1 . K K Birla Goa Campus .

Problem 1 Find the natural frequencies and mode shapes of spring – mass system shown in figure which is constrained to move in the vertical direction only. Take n = 1. K K Birla Goa Campus . BITS Pilani.

K K Birla Goa Campus .Mode Shapes In phase mode 180 degree out of phase mode BITS Pilani.

?1) + Mt1 J2 ?2ሷ = -kt2(?2 .Torsional Systems The EOM of the system is J1 ?1ሷ = -kt1 ?1 + kt2(?2 .kt3?2+ Mt2 Rearranging J1 ?1ሷ + (kt1 + kt2 )?1 .kt2?2 = Mt1 J2 ?2ሷ -kt2?1 + (kt2 +kt3 ) ?2 = Mt2 (16) BITS Pilani. K K Birla Goa Campus .?1) .

J2 = 2J0 and kt1= kt2 = kt BITS Pilani. K K Birla Goa Campus .problem Find the natural frequency and mode shapes for the torsional system shown in Figure for J1 = J0.

inertia). headstock & tailstock-lumped masses.Coordinate Coupling and Principal Coordinates • There can be n different coordinate systems defining coniguration of the system called generalised coordinates. K K Birla Goa Campus . BITS Pilani. • Lathe bed-rigid body (mass.

(x. K K Birla Goa Campus .?). • Bed supported on springs • (x1.generalised co-ordinates BITS Pilani.?). (x1.Coordinate Coupling and Principal Coordinates Assumptions: • Lathe bed-rigid body (mass.?). x2). headstock & tailstock-lumped masses. (y.inertia).

k1(x – l1 ?) – k2(x + l2 ?) • σ ??? = 0 J0?ሷ = k1(x – l1 ?) l1 – k2(x + l2 ?) l2 (17) (18) (k1 + k2) −(k1l1 − k2 l2) x 0 + = 0 −(k1l1 − k2 l2) (k1l12 + k2l22) ? (19) These equations become independent when (k1l1 − k2 l2) = 0 Static /elastic Coupling ? 0 0 J0 ?ሷ ?ሷ BITS Pilani. K K Birla Goa Campus .Coordinate Coupling and Principal Coordinates Equation of Motion using (x(t). • σ? = 0 m?ሷ = .?(?)) • Positive values of motion as per figure.

k1(y – l’1 ?) – k2(x + l’2 ?) .me?ሷ (21) ? ?? ?ሷ (k1 + k2) −(k1l’1 − k2 l’2) y 0 + = 0 ?? Jp ?ሷ −(k1l’1 − k2 l’2) (k1l’12 + k2l’22) ? Static /Elastic and Dynamic / Mass Coupling (22) BITS Pilani.?(?)) • Positive values of motion as per figure. • σ? = 0 m?ሷ = .Coordinate Coupling and Principal Coordinates Equation of Motion using (y(t).me?ሷ (20) • σ ?? = 0 Jp?ሷ = k1(y – l’1 ?) l’1 – k2(y + l’2 ?) l’2. K K Birla Goa Campus .

choice of coordinates are for convenience. • Principal coordinates: No static/dynamic coupling BITS Pilani. • (19) and (22) nature of coupling depends on choice of coordinates.Coordinate Coupling and Principal Coordinates Equation of motion of viscously damped 2 dof system ?11 ?21 ?12 ?22 ?1ሷ ?2ሷ ?11 ?12 + ?21 ?22 ?1ሶ ?2ሶ ?11 + ?21 ?12 ?22 ?1 ?2 Nondiagonal stiffness matrix Static / elastic Coupling Nondiagonal mass matrix Dynamic / mass Coupling Nondiagonal damping matrix Velocity / damping Coupling = 0 0 (23) Dynamic coupling • System vibrates in its own natural way regardless of coordinates used. K K Birla Goa Campus .

Problem 3 Determine the principal coordinates for the spring mass system shown below BITS Pilani. K K Birla Goa Campus .

K K Birla Goa Campus .9m Distance between front axle and CG (l1 ) = 1 m Distance between rear axle and CG (l2 ) = 2 m Front spring stiffness (kf) = 18 kN/m Rear spring stiffness (kr) = 22 kN/m BITS Pilani.Problem 4 Determine the pitch (angular motion) and bounce ( up and down motion) frequencies and the location of oscillation centers (nodes) of an automobile with following data: Mass (m) =1000 kg Radius of gyration ( r) =0.

MODE SHAPES BITS Pilani. K K Birla Goa Campus .

in general complex quantities depends on ? and system parameters.2 (24) Assume steady state solution as xj(t) = Xj ? ??? .2 (25) X1and X2. Substituting (24) and (25) in (23) (−?2?11 + ???11 + ?11) (−?2?12 + ???12 + ?12) (−?2?12 + ???12 + ?12) (−?2?22 + ???22 + ?22) ?1 ?2 = ?10 ?20 (26) BITS Pilani.Forced Vibration Analysis Equation of motion of viscously damped 2 dof system under external force ?11 ?21 ?12 ?22 ?1ሷ ?2ሷ ?11 ?12 + ?21 ?22 ?1ሶ ?2ሶ + ?11 ?21 ?12 ?22 ?1 ?2 = ?1 ?2 (23) Assume Fj(t) = Fj0 ? ??? . K K Birla Goa Campus . j = 1. j = 1.

Forced Vibration Analysis Let Zrs(??) = (−?2??? + ????? + ???).2 Mechanical Impedence (27) Substituting (27) in (26) [Z(??)] X = F0 (28) (−?2?11 + ???11 + ?11) [Z(??)]= (−?2?12 + ???12 + ?12) X= ?1 ?2 . K K Birla Goa Campus . r. [Z(??)] = ?21 ?22 Solving X = [Z(??)]-1F0 (29) Substituting (29) in (25) we get solution x1(t) and x2(t) BITS Pilani.s = 1. F0 = ?10 ?20 (−?2?12 + ???12 + ?12) IMPEDENCE MATRIX (−?2?22 + ???22 + ?22) ?11 ?12 .

Problem 4 Find the steady state response of the system shown in Figure. K K Birla Goa Campus . Plot the frequency response curve At a particular frequency ω. vibration of mass m1 is zero forming basis of vibration absorber BITS Pilani.

K K Birla Goa Campus . BITS Pilani. vibrations can be reduced by another spring mass system which acts as vibration neutralizer / dynamic vibration absorber. Assumption: Machine to be single degree of freedom system.Vibration Absorber Use: If a machine is operating a frequency near its natural frequency. Principal: Natural frequency of resulting system is away from excitation frequency.

Equation of Motion ?1 ?1ሷ + ?1 ?1 + ?2(?1 − ?2) =F0 sin ωt ?2 ?2ሷ + ?2(?1 − ?2) = 0 Assume harmonic solution xj(t) = Xj sin ωt . j = 1.2 Steady state solution is X1 = X2 = ?2 −?2 ω2 ?0 ?1 +?2 −?1 ω2 ?2 −?2 ω2 −?22 ?2 ?1 +?2 −?1 ω2 ?0 ?2 −?2 ω2 −?22 (30) (31) (32) (33) BITS Pilani. K K Birla Goa Campus .

before addition of the dynamic vibration absorber. ? operates near its resonance. while operating at its original resonant frequency. ?2 − ?2 ω2 = 0 ω2 = ?2 ?2 (34) If the machine .To make X1 = 0 (aim of absorber) . ω2 ≅ ω12 = 1 ?1 2 If ω = ?2 ?2 = ?1 ?1 (35) Amplitude of vibration of machine. will be zero. K K Birla Goa Campus . ∴ ?2 2 ω2 = ?2 ???= F0 ?1 (36) (37) BITS Pilani.

• X1 = 0 at ω = ω1 ?1 F0 • X2 = . (33) becomes (38) (39) • Two peaks for two natural frequencies. K K Birla Goa Campus .Equation (32).F0) and neutralizes it making X1 = 0 BITS Pilani.???= (40) ?2 ?2 Force exerted by the auxiliary spring is opposite to impressed force (?2 X2 = .

F0= ?2 ω2 X2 (41) Two new resonant frequencies Ω1 and Ω2 are introduced in the system at which amplitude is infinite. K K Birla Goa Campus . Hence operating frequency ω should be away from Ω1 and Ω2. Setting denominator of (38) to zero. leads +1 = 0 BITS Pilani.Size of dynamic vibration absorber can be found from (40) and (35): ?2 X2 = .

the steady state amplitude of the machine will be zero only at that frequency. The difference between Ω1 and Ω2 ? increases with increasing values of 2 ?1 BITS Pilani. • As dynamic absorber is tuned to one excitation frequency ω . K K Birla Goa Campus .The values of Ω1 and Ω2 are (42) • Machine must pass through Ω1 during startup and stopping resulting in large amplitude.

K K Birla Goa Campus . weighing 3000 N.Problem 5 A diesel engine. is supported on a pedestal mount. The magnitude of the exciting force is 250 N. Determine the parameters of the vibration absorber that will reduce the vibration when mounted on pedestal. It has been observed that the engine induces vibration into surrounding area through its pedestal mount at an operating speed of 6000 rpm. and the amplitude of motion of the auxiliary mass is limited to 2 mm. BITS Pilani.

Design the absorber to be attached by specifying its mass and stiffness so that the natural frequencies of the total system fall outside the operating speed range of the motor generator set. K K Birla Goa Campus . BITS Pilani. the resulting natural frequencies of the system are found to be 2500 rpm and 3500 rpm.Problem 6 A motor generator set shown in figure is designed to operate in the speed range of 2000 to 4000 rpm. When the cantilever carrying a trial mass of 2kg tuned to 3000 rpm is attached to the set. the set is found to vibrate violently at a speed of 3000 rpm due to a slight unbalance in the rotor. It is proposed to attach a cantilever mounted lumped mass absorber system to eliminate the problem. However.