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INTRODUCTION

Performance Management
Employee Performance Management is a process for establishing a shared
workforce understanding about what is to be achieved at an organisation level.
It is about aligning the organisational objectives with the employees’ agreed
measures, skills, competency requirements, development plans and the delivery
of results. The emphasis is on improvement, learning and development in order
to achieve the overall business strategy and to create a high performance
workforce.
Performance management includes activities to ensure that goals are
consistently being met in an effective and efficient manner. Performance
management can focus on the performance of an organization, a department,
employee, or even the processes to build a product or service, as well as many
other areas.
The PM approach is used most often in the workplace but applies wherever
people interact—schools, churches, community meetings, sports teams, health
setting, governmental agencies, and even political settings. PM principles are
needed wherever in the world people interact with their environments to
produce desired effects. Cultures are different but the laws of behavior are the
same worldwide. Armstrong and baron (1998) defined it as “A strategic and
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integrated approach to increasing the effectiveness of organizations by
improving the performance of the people who work in them and by developing
the capabilities of teams and individual contributors”

FEATURES:1)

the fastest known method for career promotion;

2)

the quickest way for career advancement;

3)

the surest way for career progress;

4)

the best ingredient in career path planning;

5)

the only true and lasting virtue for career success;

6)

the most neglected part in teachings about management and leadership

principles;
7)

the most complete and sophisticated application of performance

management;
8)

the best integration of human behavior research findings, with the latest

management, leadership and organizational development principles;
9)

the best automated method for organizational change, development,

growth, performance and profit;

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OBJECTIVES OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL

To review the performance of the employees over a given period of time.

To judge the gap between the actual and the desired performance.

To help the management in exercising organizational control.

Helps to strengthen the relationship and communication between

superior

subordinates and management-employees.

To diagnose the strengths and weakness of individuals so as to identify

the training and development of the future.

To provide feedback to the employees regarding their past performance.

Provide information to assist in the other personal decisions in the

organization.

Provide clarity of the expectations and responsibilities of the functions to

be

performed by the employees.

To judge the effectiveness of the other resource functions of the

organization such as

recruitment, selection, training and development.

To reduce the grievances of the employees.

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Application of marketing concept in the banking sector was introduced to enhance the customer satisfaction the policy of privatization of banking services aims at encouraging the competition in banking sector and introduction of financial services. Metamorphic changes took place in the Indian financial system during the eighties and nineties consequent upon deregulation and liberalization of economic policies of the government. Internet banking. An important agenda for 4 | Page . includes payment of utility bills. credit cards. etc. services such as Demat. Venture capital. Corporate banking. on the other hand. came into existence to cater to the needs of public. a sea change in money and capital markets took place. Consequently. checking account and the like. consumer loans. India began shaping up its economy and earmarked ambitious plan for economic growth.INDUSTRY PROFILE The world of banking has assumed a new dimension at dawn of the 21st century with the advent of tech banking. thereby lending the industry a stamp of universality. managing cash. In general. opening letters of credit. etc. banking may be classified as retail and corporate banking. Retail banking. Portfolio Management. Consequently. caters to the need of corporate customers like bills discounting. which is designed to meet the requirement of individual customers and encourage their savings.

The mew watchword for the bank is pretty ambitious: customer delight. which it pays out.  DEFINITION OF BANK The Oxford dictionary defines the Bank as “An establishment for the custody of money.” According to Whitehead “A Bank is defined as an institution which collects surplus funds from the public. and makes them available to the true owner when required and also lends sums be their true owners to those who are in need of funds and can provide security. on a customer’s order. safeguards them. 5 | Page . Banks marketing can be defined as the part of management activity. The introduction to the marketing concept to banking sectors can be traced back to American Banking Association Conference of 1958. The marketing concept basically requires that there should be thorough understanding of customer need and to learn about market it operates in.every banker today is greater operational efficiency and customer satisfaction.” Banking Company in India has been defined in the Banking Companies act 1949. Further the market is segmented so as to understand the requirement of the customer at a profit to the banks. which seems to direct the flow of banking services profitability to the customers.

for the purpose of lending or investment of the deposits of money from the public. It represents an important channel of collecting small savings form the households and lending it to the corporate sector. It is also known as the Banker To All Other Banks. 6 | Page . They have been carrying on their age-old banking operations in different parts of the country under different names. EVOLUTION OF INDIAN BANKING Ancient banking system of India constituted of indigenous bankers. draft. It is the central Bank of India.“One which transacts the business of banking which means the accepting. or otherwise and withdraw able be cheque. order or otherwise.” The banking system is an integral subsystem of the financial system. The term Bank is being used since long time but there is no clear conception regarding its beginning. The modern age of banking constitutes the fundamental basis of economic growth. According to the viewpoint. repayable on demand. in good old days. The Indian banking system has Reserve Bank of India (RBI) as the apex body for all matters relating to the banking system. Italian money leaders were known as“B anchi” because they kept a special type of table to transact their business.

Banking system occupies an important place a nation's economy.IMPORTANCE OF BANKS Today banks have become a part and parcel of Kotak Bank's life. 7 | Page . Thus. Now banks offer access to even a common man and their activities extend to areas hitherto untouched. Chidambaram strongly believes that the country's banking sector has been one of the driving forces in the process of economic reforms. the banking constitutes the fundamental basis of economic growth. Chidam Baram Union Finance Minister P. In plays a pivotal role in the economic development of a country. P. they accelerate the economic growth of a country and steer the wheels of the economy towards its goals of “self reliance in all fields”. There was a time when dwellers of the city alone could enjoy their services. traders and to all the other sections of the society. A banking institution is indispensable in a modern society. In modern age. industrialists. Banks cater to the needs of agriculturalists. INDIAN BANKING SYSTEM "The success of the economic reforms is therefore all to see and the driving force of these reforms is the banking sector". It naturally arouses Kotak Bank's interest in knowing more about the ‘Bank’ and the various men and the activities connected with it.

•Exchange control. •Banker to other Bank. 8 | Page . The Indian banking system has The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) as the apex body from all matters relating to the banking system. •Framing of monetary policy. •Research and development in the banking sector.Thus.. •Custodian to foreign exchange and gold reserves. It represents an important channel of collecting small savings from the households and lending it to the corporate sector. Functions of RBI: •Currency issuing authority •Banker to the government. economic development of a country depends upon success of banking industry and success of banking Industry is determined to a large extent by now well then needs of its customers have been understood and satisfied. It is the “Central Bank” of India and act as the banker to all other banks. •Development activities. RESERVE BANK OF INDIA The Banking system is an integral sub-system of the financial system.

The following charts indicate the banking structure: Reserve Bank of Co-operative Banks Commercial Banks Nationalized Agricultural Credit Private Development Banks Short-term creditLong-term credit Urban Credit EXIM Industrial Agricultural CLASSIFICATION OF BANKS On the basis of Ownership PUBLIC SECTOR BANKS Nationalised banks or public banks dominate banking System in India. Despite the entry of many new domestic and foreign private banks 9 | Page . The nationalisation of banks in India took place in 1969 by Mrs.Organizational Structure of Banks in India: In India banks are classified in various categories according to differ rent criteria. Before 1969. State Bank of India (SBI) was the only public sector bank in India. Indira Gandhi the then prime minister. The major objective behind nationalisation was to spread banking infrastructure in rural areas and make available cheap finance to Indian farmers.

public sector banks continue to dominate the commercial banking industry. Private Banks have played a major role in the development of Indian banking industry. Each individual has an equal share in these banks. Housing Development Finance Corporation Limited (HDFC) was amongst the first to receive an 'in principle' approval from the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) to set up a bank in the private sector. India has a better banking system in place of other developing countries. They have made banking more efficient and customer friendly. 2. CO-OPERATIVE BANKS These are those banks that are jointly run by a group of individuals. In the process they have jolted public sector banks out of complacency and forced them to become more competitive.1) According to Function 10 | P a g e . PRIVATE SECTOR BANKS Private sector banking in India received a flip in 1994 when Reserve Bank of India encouraged setting up of private banks as part of its policy of liberalisation of the Indian Banking Industry. Its shareholders manage the affairs of the bank.since liberalization.

They have set up their branches in India. They give loan to the industries for the purchase of land and machinery. INDUSTRIAL BANKS Industrial banks are those banks that offer long term and medium term loan to the industries and also work for their development. These banks make loans for short to business and in the process create money. Their principle function is to make credit arrangement or the export and the import of the country and these banks deals in foreign exchange. AGRICULTURAL BANKS Agricultural banks are those banks that give credit to agricultural sector of the economy. SAVING BANKS 11 | P a g e . debentures and bonds.COMMERCIAL BANKS These are the banks that do banking business to earn profit. Credit creation is the main function of these banks. FOREIGN BANKS These are those banks that are incorporated by foreign company. These banks help industries in sale of their shares. These banks have their head offices in foreign countries.

These types are: (1) UNIT BANKING Unit Banking originated in the United State of America. It grew in the United States of America. RBI is the Central Bank of India. To understand the structure of banking system.The principle function of these banks is to collect small savings across the country and put them to the productive use. In India department of post office functions a savings banks. STRUCTURE OF BANKING SYSTEM Different countries of the world have different types of banking systems. commercial banking had grown under all these banking systems. “An independent unit bank is a corporation that operates one office and that is not related to other banks through either ownership or control. In short. It issues currency notes and acts a banker's bank. 12 | P a g e . CENTRAL BANK Central Bank is the apex bank of the banking system of the country. Economic stability is the principle function of this bank. it regulates and controls the banking system of the country. let us take up various types of banking systems one by one. However.

(2) BRANCH BANKING: This the most popular and important banking system. The system is inflexible.e. (4) GROUP BANKING: 13 | P a g e . In terms of branches. Subsequently most of the countries of the world adopted the system. Chain banking overcomes certain limitations of unit banking. Branch banking developed in England. But the system suffers from certain limitations of its own. The choice of securities and investments is larger. the State Bank of India has emerged as one of the largest banks in the world. In branch banking. a bank has a large network of branches scattered all over the country. (3) CHAIN BANKING: Under the system there is pooling of resources. With the growth of large scale business it is no wonder that the trend is almost every country towards the branch banking i. The Bank of America has now more than 500 branches in the state of California itself. big banks with a network of branches all over the country. proper control etc. Under the system branches can operate without keeping large idle cash reserves. Branch Banking tends to bring homogeneity in the prevailing Interest Rates. There may be a lack of co-ordination.

This kind of banking is prevalent in U. The banks are able to pool their resources in case of emergency or when large amount of cash is required to meet the loan requirements of the customer. 14 | P a g e . Both the systems aim at gaining the advantages of large scale operations. the difference being that under Group Banking two or more banks are brought under the control of the same management through a Holding Company. The correspondent banks perform two important services of outstation cheque clearing and loan participation for the respondent banks while they benefit for the deposit funds of respondent banks. small banks serving local communities hold deposits with joint banks serving in big cities.S. (5) CORRESPONDENT BANKING: Under Correspondent banking.A.It is similar to Chain Banking.

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It is called Fixed Deposit Receipt. he can withdraw the same after paying the discount to the bank. This receipt is not transferable. 16 | P a g e . The depositor gets receipts for the amount deposited. amount of deposit.PRIMARY FUNCTIONS: 1) Accepting of Deposits: A bank accepts deposits from the public. People can deposit their cash balances in either of the following accounts to their convenience:- a. rate of interest and the period of deposit. Fixed or Time Deposit Account: Cash is deposited in this account for a fixed period. If the depositor stands in need of the amount before the expiry of fixed period. The receipt indicates the name of the depositor.

Money at Call: It is the money lent for a very short period varying from 1 to 14 days. Current Account: This type of account is kept by the businessman who are required to withdraw money every new and then. Banks do not pay any interest on this account. Banks provide a certain rate of interest on the minimum balance kept by the depositor during the month. b. Overdrafts are allowed to provide temporary accommodation since the extra amount withdrawn is payable within a short period. a. 17 | P a g e . Such advances are usually made to other banks and financial institutions only. Overdraft Facilities: Customers of good trading are allowed to overdraw from their current account. Savings Account: This type of deposit suits to those who just want to keep their small savings in a bank and might need to withdraw them occasionally. But they have to pay interest on extra amount they have withdrawn. 2) Advancing of Loans: The bank advances money in any one of the following ways. Any sum or any number of withdrawals can be presented by such an account holder. Money at call ensures liquidity. c. In the Interbank market it enables bank to make adjustment according to their liquidity requirements.b.

Banks prefer to buy government securities as these are considered to be the safest investment. Banks are able to create credit because the demand deposits i. For example : Indira Vikas Patra : It enables the banks to meet requirement of statutory liquidity ratio (SLR) 3) Credit Creation: One of the main functions of banks these days is to create credit. When the bank has satisfied itself regarding the soundness of the party. Cash Credit: The Debtor is allowed to withdraw a certain amount on a given security. Banks create credit by giving more loans than their cash reserves. e. The debtor withdraws the amount within this limit.e. Loans: Loans are granted by the banks on securities which can be easily disposed off in the market. interest is charged by the bank on the amount actually withdrawn. Investment in Government Securities: Purchasing of government securities by the banks tantamount to advancing loans by them to the Government. f. Under this method. a loan is advanced.c. a claim against the 18 | P a g e . d. Discounting Bill of Exchange: It is another method of making advances by the banks. bank give advance to their clients on the basis of their bills of exchange before the maturity of such bills.

interest etc. general utility and social functions. SECONDARY FUNCTIONS: Besides the above primary functions. bills of exchange. rent.” 4) Cheque system of Payment of Funds :A cheque. A) Agency Functions Banks act as agents to their customers in different ways :i) Collection and Payment of Credit and Other Instruments: The Commercial banks collect and pay cheques. banks also perform many secondary functions such as agency functions. In this process the bank creates money. drawn upon a banker. fees. Cheque system is the main credit instrument in the banking world. they serves as a medium of exchange in a limited way as it is a negotiable instrument. which in fact is a bill of exchange. hundies. on behalf of the customers 19 | P a g e . For this reason Prof. is the most popular credit instrument used by the client to make payments. Sayers has called bank “the manufactures of money. Although a cheque is not a legal tender money.bank is accepted by the public in settlement of their debts. On behalf of their customers and also make payments of income tax. a negotiable instrument. promissory notes. insurance premium etc.

Canara Bank and Allahabad Bank have been allowed import of gold which has been put under open general licensed category. stocks. the commercial banks trade is billions like gold and silver. mail transfers etc. plots etc. v) Representation and Correspondence : Sometimes commercial banks acts as representatives or correspondents of the clients especially in handling various applications. bonds units and debentures etc.ii) Purchase and Sale of Securities : The modern commercial banks also undertake the purchase and sale of various securities like shares. vi) Billion Trading : In many countries. In Oct 1997. 20 | P a g e . iv) Remittance of Funds : The Commercial banks remit funds on behalf of clients from one place to another through cheques. Sometimes banks also undertake income tax services on behalf of the customers. 8 banks including SBI. On behalf of the customers. For instance. booking of vehicles. banks do not give any advice regarding the suitability or otherwise of a security but simply perform the functions of a broker. drafts. iii) Trustee and Executor : Banks also acts as trustees and executors of the property of their customers on their advice. passports and travel tickets. IOB.

This function is mainly discharged by foreign Exchange Banks. 21 | P a g e .vii) Purchase and Sale of Foreign Exchange : Banks buy and sell foreign exchange. The name of bank as an underwriter encouraged investors to have faith in the security. promoting international trade. iii) Acting as Underwriters : Banks also underwrite the securities issued by the Government and Corporate bodies for a commission. People can keep their valuables or important documents in these lockers. Their annual rent is very nominal ii) Issuing letters of credit : Bankers in a way by issuing letters of credit certify the credit worthiness of the customers. banks render many more utility services to the public. viii) Letter of References : Banks also give information about economic position of their customers to domestic and foreign traders and vice versa B) GENERAL UTILITY SERVICES In addition to agency services. Letters of credit are very popular in foreign trade. These services are :i)Locker Facilities : Banks provide locker facilities to their customers.

They are generally issued free of charge. 31.iv) Help in Transportation of Goods: Big businessmen or industrialists after consigning goods to their retailers send the Railway Receipt (Consignment Note) to the bank. PUBLIC SECTOR BANKS  Reserve Bank of India . 51 and 101 etc. vi) Dealing in Foreign Exchange: Major branches of commercial banks also transact business of foreign exchange. Some Indian banks issue gift cheques f the denominations of Rs. Commercial banks are the main authorized dealers of foreign exchange in India.g. e. They help in availing loans from nonbanking financial institutions.Central Bank  Bank of India  Dena Bank 22 | P a g e . 21. v) Issuing of gift cheques: Certain banks issue gift cheques of various denominations. vii) Merchant banking Services: Commercial banks also render merchant banking services to the customers.

 IDBI Bank  Indian Bank  Oriental Bank of Commerce  Punjab National Bank  United Bank of India  Allahabad Bank  Andhra Bank  Bank of Baroda  Bank of Maharashtra  Canara Bank  Central Bank of India  Corporation Bank  Indian Overseas Bank  Syndicate Bank  Union Bank of India  Vijaya Bank  Punjab & Sind Bank PRIVATE BANKS  Axis Bank  Bank of Rajasthan 23 | P a g e .

one is charged interest. The card holder 24 | P a g e . If the amount is not paid full by the end of the period.2) PRODUCTS/SERVICES OFFERED BY BANK Some of common available banking products are explained below: 1) Credit Card: Credit Card is “post paid” or “pay later” card that draws from a credit line-money made available by the card issuer (bank) and gives one a grace period to pay. These bills are assembled in the bank and the amount is paid to the bank by the card holder totally or by installments. Catholic Syrian Bank  City Union Bank  Dhanalakshmi Bank  Federal Bank  Jammu & Kashmir Bank  Tamil Nadu Mercantile Bank  Yes Bank  ICICI Bank  HDFC Bank  PB BANK  HSBC BANK  ABN AMRO  DEUTSCHE BANK 2.

There is no grace period for a debit card purchase. for the debit card to work. The major players in the Credit Card market are the foreign banks and some big public sector banks like SBI and Bank of Baroda. So. India at present has about 3 million credit cards in circulation. or if one were taking out cash. he enters this number on the shop’s PIN pad. When the card is swiped through the electronic terminal. When A CUSTOMER makes a purchase. Credit cards are joining popularity for online payments. The major limitation of Debit Card is that currently only some 3000-4000 shops country wide accepts it. The customer never overspread because the amount spent is debited immediately from the customers account. it dials the acquiring bank system – either Master Card or Visa that validates the PIN and finds out from the issuing bank whether to accept or decline the transaction.need not have to carry money/cash with him when he travels or goes for purchasing. one must already have the money in the account to cover the transaction. 3) Automatic Teller Machine: The introduction of ATM’s has given the customers the facility of round the clock banking. ATM card is a device that 25 | P a g e . Debit Cards quickly debit or subtract money from one’s savings account. Credit cards have found wide spread acceptance in the ‘metros’ and big cities. 2) Debit Cards: Debit Card is a “prepaid” or “pay now” card with some storedvalue.

Most major banks accept e-cheques. These banks are dispensing with the use of paper cheques. Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT): Many modern banks have computerised their cheque handling process with computer networks and other electronic equipments. The system called electronic fund transfer (EFT) automatically transfers money from one account to another. transfer funds and check statement information. It provides the customers with the ability to withdraw or deposit funds. This chequring system uses the network services to issue and process payment that emulates real world chequing. They are the consumers. check account balances. The payer issue a digital cheques to the payee ant the entire transactions are done through internet. This system facilitates speedier transfer of funds 26 | P a g e . transferring value and managing cash flows. consumer’s bank the merchant’s bank and the e-mint and the clearing process. 4) E-Cheques: The e-cheques consists five primary facts. This can be done by inserting the card in the ATM and entering the Personal Identification Number and secret Password. the merchant. Electronic version of cheques are issued. received and processed The e-chequing is a great boon to big corporate as well as small retailers. Thus this system offers secure means of collecting payments. ATM’s are currently becoming popular in India that enables the customer to withdraw their money 24 hours a day and 365 days.allows customer who has an ATM card to perform routine banking transaction at any time without interacting with human teller.

On-line banking is now moving to the mobile world. Funds transfer within the same city is also permitted. Already ICICI and HDFC banks have tied up cellular service provides such as Airtel. etc. which will allow user to surf the net on their mobiles to access anything and everything. The scheme has been in operation since February 7. The wireless application protocol (WAP) technology. 6) Telebanking: Telebanking refers to banking on phone services. Sky Cell. 1996. 27 | P a g e . Orange. regardless of their location. giving everybody with a mobile phone access to real-time banking services. Telebanking is extensively user friendly and effective in nature. in Delhi and Mumbai to offer these mobile banking services to their customers.. 5) Mobile Banking: A new revolution in the realm of e-banking is the emergence of mobile banking. This is a very flexible way of transacting banking business. In this system the sender and the receiver of funds may be located in different cities and may even bank with different banks. customer can access account details on mobile using the Short Messaging System (SMS) technology where select data is pushed to the mobile device. The potential of mobile banking is limitless and is expected to be a big success. a customer can access information about his/her account through a telephone call and by giving the coded Personal Identification Number (PIN) to the bank.electronically from any branch to any other branch. in India. According to this system.

highway tolls. 28 | P a g e . Point of Sale transactions: Acceptance of ATM/Cheque at retail stores and restaurants for payment of goods and services. saving time. any inquiry or transaction is processed online without any reference to the branch (anywhere banking) at any time. laundry service. transit fares. In internet banking. This system has made functioning of the stock Market very smooth and efficient. With internet banking is now no longer confirmed to the branches where one has to approach the branch in person. Direct Deposits: Earnings (or Government payments) automatically deposited into bank accounts. ICICI bank was the first one to offer Internet Banking in India. effort and money. credit cards and coins. loans payments. Automatic Payments: Utility companies. • Financial Transaction on the Internet: Electronic Cash: Companies are developing electronic replicas of all existing payment system: cash. to withdraw cash or deposits a cheque or request a statement of accounts. and other businesses use on automatic payment system with bills paid through direct withdrawal from a bank account. cheque.6) Internet Banking: Internet banking involves use of internet for delivery of banking products and services. Stored Value Cards: Prepaid cards for telephone service. library fees and school lunches.

it failed miserably. The gap between justification of pay and the development of skills and knowledge became a huge problem in the use of Performance Management. INTRODUCTION TO THE TOPIC HISTORY OF PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Performance Management began around 60 years ago as a source of income justification and was used to determine an employees wage based on performance. This approach of managing performance was developed in the United Kingdom and the United States much earlier than it was developed in Australia. However. 29 | P a g e . where employees were driven by learning and development of their skills. and apply for loans on the Internet. 8) Demat: Demat is short for de-materialisation of shares. the realisation that a more comprehensive approach to manage and reward performance was needed.7) Cyber Banking: It refers to banking through online services. Demat is a process where at the customer’s request the physical stock is converted into electronic entries in the depository system. In practice this worked well for certain employees who were solely driven by financial rewards. transfer funds. Organisations used Performance Management to drive behaviours from the employees to get specific outcomes. In short. pay bills. Banks with web site “Cyber” branches allowed customers to check balances. This became evident in the late 1980s.

however. which aims to be a more extensive and comprehensive process of management. Many of the old performance appraisal methods have been absorbed into the concept of Performance Management. Some of the developments that have shaped Performance Management in recent years are the differentiation of employees or talent management. the process of managing people has become more formalised and specialised.In recent decades. 2) The understanding that the process of Performance Management is something that’s completed by line managers throughout the year – it is not a once off annual event coordinated by the personnel department. PROCESS OF PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT IN ORGANISATION ESTABLISH PERFORMANCE STANDARDS COMMUNICATING THE STANDARDS MEASURING THE ACTUAL PERFORMANCE COMPARING THE ACTUAL WITH DESIRED 30 | P a g e . management by objectives and constant monitoring and review. Its development was accelerated by the following factors: 1) The introduction of human resource management as a strategic driver and integrated approach to the management and development of employees.

KPAs are set for each employee and they are prioritized. 70% weightage is given to technical skills and 30% weightage is given to behavioural skills. Behavioural skills expected from employees are same for all employees.) COMMUNICATING THE STANDARDS Once set. 2.) ESTABLISH PERFORMANCE STANDARDS The first step in the process is the setting up of the standards which will be used to as the base to compare the actual performance of the employees. In case the performance of the employee cannot be measured. it’s the responsibility of the management to communicate the standards to all the employees of the organization. great care should be taken to describe the standards. easily understandable and in measurable terms.DISCUSS RESULTS DECISION MAKING 1. This step requires setting the criteria to judge the performance of the employees as successful or unsuccessful and the degrees of their contribution to the organizational goals and objectives. The standards set should be clear. Assessment is done by the head of the department. The employees are informed 31 | P a g e .

The standards can also be modified at this stage itself according to the relevant feedback from the employees or the evaluator 3. The result can show the actual performance being more than the desired performance or. The standards are also communicated to the appraisers or the evaluators and if required. This will help them to understand their roles and to know what exactly is expected from them. This stage requires the careful selection of the appropriate techniques of measurement. The comparison tells the deviations in the performance of the employees from the standards set. taking care that personal bias does not affect the outcome of the process and providing assistance rather than interfering in an employees work.) MEASURE THE ACTUAL PERFORMANCE The most difficult of the performance appraisal process is measuring the actual performance of the employees that is work done by the employees during the specified period of time. the actual performance being less than the desired performance depicting a negative deviation in the 32 | P a g e .) COMPARING THE ACTUAL WITH DESIRED PERFORMANCE The actual performance is compared with the desired or the standard performance. Is is a continuous process which involves monitoring the performance throughout the year. 4.and the standards are clearly explained to them.

take the required corrective actions. transfers etc. The results. the problems and the possible solutions are discussed with the aim of problem solving and reaching consensus. METHODS OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL 33 | P a g e . demotions. It includes recalling. evaluation and analysis of data related to the employee’s performance.) DECISION MAKING The last step of the process is to take decisions which can be taken either to improve the performance of the employees. The purpose of the meeting should be to solve the problems faced and motivate the employees to perform better 6. or the related HR decisions like rewards.organizational performance.) DISCUSSING RESULTS The result of the appraisal is communicated and discussed with the employees on one-to-one basis. If the employee’s performance is below desired level then proper training is provided to them. promotions. The feedback should be given with a positive attitude as this can have an effect on the employees’ future performance. The focus of this discussion is on communication and listening. 5.

even considering the available battery of appraisal techniques. Before relating the specific techniques to the goals of performance appraisal stated at the outset of the article. The best-known techniques will be treated most briefly. The more logical task is to identify those appraisal practices that are (a) most likely to achieve a particular objective and (b) least vulnerable to the obstacles already discussed. Broadly. But attempting to avoid these pitfalls by doing away with appraisals themselves is like trying to solve the problems of life by committing suicide. all the methods of performance appraisal can be classified into following two categories:  Traditional Methods  Modern Methods Method of performance appraisal TRADITIONAL METHODS Essay appraisal 34 | P a g e .The foregoing list of major program pitfalls represents a formidable challenge. taking them more or less in an order of increasing complexity. I shall briefly review each.

It may also include specific performance items like oral and written communication. particularly those involving professional. sales.In its simplest form. average. above average. Typically. or unsatisfactory?) and on a variety of other factors that vary with the job but usually include personal traits like reliability and cooperation. this technique asks the rater to write a paragraph or more covering an individual's strengths. but it is more consistent and reliable. or managerial positions. In most selection situations. and so on. essay appraisals from former employers. weaknesses. Field review 35 | P a g e . Graphic rating scale Traditional Methods Modern Methods  Essay Method  Management by Objectives  Graphic Rating Scale  Assessment Centre Method  Field Review Method  360 Degree Appraisal  Forced Choice Method  Ranking Method  Checklist Method This technique may not yield the depth of an essay appraisal. potential. a graphic scale assesses a person on the quality and quantity of his work (is he outstanding. or associates carry significant weight. teachers.

and (c) determine that each rater conceives the standards similarly. (b) help the group arrive at a consensus. The two most effective methods are alternation ranking and paired comparison ranking. particularly when it is necessary to compare people who work for different supervisors. this technique was developed to reduce bias and establish objective standards of comparison between individuals. ratings.The field review is one of several techniques for doing this. The best approach appears to be a ranking technique involving pooled judgment. it is necessary to recognize that comparisons involve an overall subjective judgment to which a host of additional facts and impressions must somehow be added. 36 | P a g e . or appraisal forms are not particularly useful. but it does not involve the intervention of a third party. Instead. individual statements. Ranking methods For comparative purposes. There is no single form or way to do this. . A member of the personnel or central administrative staff meets with small groups of raters from each supervisory unit and goes over each employee's rating with them to (a) identify areas of inter-rater disagreement. Forced-choice rating Like the field review.

1. Then on a form as shown below. an alternation ranking method is most popular. the employee who is highest on the characteristic being measured and the one who is the lowest are indicated. Then chose the next highest and the next lowest.e. Since it is usually easier to distinguish between the worst and the best employees than to rank them. particularly when combined with multiple rankings (i. 2. But with large numbers of employees it becomes extremely time consuming and cumbersome. when two or more people are asked to make independent rankings of the 37 | P a g e . “Paired-comparison ranking”: This technique is probably just as accurate as alternation ranking and might be more so. Here subordinates to be rated are listed and the names of those not well enough to rank are crossed. Both ranking techniques. “Alternation ranking ”:Ranking of employees from best to worst on a trait or traits is another method for evaluating employees.. alternating between highest and lowest until all the employees to be rated have been ranked.

Assessment centers So far.or help set their own performance goals. Within the past five or six years. or to deal with.same work group and their lists are averaged). are among the best available for generating valid order-of-merit rankings for salary administration purposes. we have been talking about assessing past performance. MBO has become something of a fad and is so familiar to most managers that I will not dwell on it here. What about the assessment of future performance or potential? In any placement decision and even more so in promotion decisions. MODERN METHODS Management by objectives To avoid. some prediction of future performance is necessary. How can this kind of prediction be made most validly and most fairly? 360 Degree Feedback 38 | P a g e . the feeling that they are being judged by unfairly high standards. employees in some organizations are being asked to set .

subordinates and customers. whereby ratings are not given just by the next manager up in the organizational hierarchy.Many firms have expanded the idea of upward feedback into what the call 360degree feedback. of course. rather than for pay increases. along with the element of self appraisal. Like the critical incident method. 360 degree feedback is also known as the multi-rater feedback. but also by peers and subordinates. The feedback is generally used for training and development. for instance – complete survey. it focuses on actual behavior and actual results. Once gathered in. Another technique that is useful for coaching purposes is. Most 360 Degree Feedback system contains several common features. questionnaires on an individual. Appropriate parties – peers. the assessment from the various quarters are compared with one another and the results communicated to the manager concerned. supervisors. Appropriates customer ratings are also included. 39 | P a g e . MBO.

Employees are judged according to real outcomes. but to put all the parts together and the performance may be directly observed and measured." Advantages Instead of assuming traits.which can be discussed objectively and constructively. then he or she has demonstrated an acceptable level of job performance. or on someone's subjective opinion of their abilities. the MBO method concentrates on actual outcomes. Supervisors and subordinates must have very good "reality checking" skills to use MBO appraisal methods. with little or no need for a supervisor to "play God. If the employee meets or exceeds the set objectives. MBO advocates claim that the performance of employees cannot be broken up into so many constituent parts. The guiding principle of the MBO approach is that direct results can be observed easily. The MBO method recognizes the fact that it is difficult to neatly dissect all the complex and varied elements that go to make up employee performance. They will need these 40 | P a g e . and not on their potential for success. Disadvantages This approach can lead to unrealistic expectations about what can and cannot be reasonably accomplished.

41 | P a g e .  Improves understanding and relationship between the employee and the reporting manager and also helps in resolving confusions and misunderstandings.  Helps in counseling and feedback. etc among its employees. redefining priorities and objectives.  Helps in clarifying. It is also possible that fluid objectives may be distorted to disguise or justify failures in performance.  Facilitates assessment and agreement of training needs. aims. priorities. defining.  Plays an important role in Personal career and succession planning.  Motivates the employee through achievement and feedback.  Plays an important tool for communicating the organization’s philosophies.  Helps in identification of personal strengths and weaknesses. and for the purposes of selfauditing and self-monitoring. values. BENEFITS OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISALS  Measures an employee’s performance.skills during the initial stage of objective setting. strategies. Variable objectives may cause employee confusion.  Clarifies team roles and facilitates team building.  Plays major role in organizational training needs assessment and analysis.

Ratings are lenient for the following reasons: 1. Subjective assessment defeats the very purpose of performance appraisal. These errors can seriously affect assessment results. 3. He/She may feel that a derogatory rating will be revealed to the rate to detriment the relations between the rater and the ratee.RATING ERRORS IN PERFORMANCE APPRAISALS Performance appraisals are subject to a wide variety of inaccuracies and biases referred to as 'rating errors'. Some of the most common rating errors are: - Leniency or severity: Leniency or severity on the part of the rater makes the assessment subjective. 2. indirectly increase his/her hold over him. He/She may rate leniently in order to win promotions for the subordinates and therefore. Central tendency: - 42 | P a g e . The rater may feel that anyone under his or her jurisdiction who is rated unfavorably will reflect poorly on his or her own worthiness.

stereotyping. race and friendship biases are examples of this type of error. Rating employees separately on each of the performance measures and encouraging raters to guard against the halo effect are the two ways to reduce the halo effect. Similarly. sex. which the raters have been assessing the rates.This occurs when employees are incorrectly rated near the average or middle of the scale. age. an attractive or popular personality might be given a high overall rating. The halo error occurs when an employee who works late constantly might be rated high on productivity and quality of output as well ax on motivation. This safe playing attitude stems from certain doubts and anxieties. and hostility. Extensively high or low score are given only to certain individuals or groups based on the rater's attitude towards them and not on actual outcomes or behaviors. Rater effect: This includes favoritism. The attitude of the rater is to play safe. Halo error:A halo error takes place when one aspect of an individual's performance influences the evaluation of the entire performance of the individual. Primacy and Regency effects: - 43 | P a g e .

the ratings might have been different. good or bad. if a salesperson captures an important contract/sale just before the completion of the appraisal. One way of guarding against such an error is to ask the rater to consider the composite performance of the rate and not to be influenced by one incident or an achievement. The rater rates the first dimensions accurately and then rates the second dimension to the first because of the proximity. 44 | P a g e . If the dimensions had been arranged in a significantly different order.The rater's rating is heavily influenced either by behavior exhibited by the ratee during his early stage of the review period (primacy) or by the outcomes. or behavior exhibited by the ratee near the end of the review period (regency). the timing of the incident may inflate his or her standing. even though the overall performance of the sales person may not have been encouraging. Performance dimension order: Two or more dimensions on a performance instrument follow each other and both describe or rotate to a similar quality. result in similar rating for current period although the demonstrated behavior docs not deserve the rating. Spillover effect: This refers lo allowing past performance appraisal rating lo unjustifiably influence current ratings. Past ratings. For example. good or bad.

Research is an art of scientific investigation.RESEARCH METHODOLOGY OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The main objective of this study was to know performance management system in the organization.The sub objectives that we wanted to achieve are as follows:1) To know whether the employees are aware of the appraisal system followed by the company. 3) To know that whether there is any biasness in the performance appraisal system of the organization. 6) To invite suggestions for the welfare of the employees of the company. 45 | P a g e . In other word research is a scientific and systematic search for pertinent information on a specific topic. 4) To find out the satisfaction level of employees regarding companies appraisal system. 5) To analyze the various factors that can motivate employees in their work. 2) To ascertain that what the factors are those are considered while appraising the performance of employees.

Secondary data has been collected through the various magazines and newspapers and by surfing on Internet. And the guide in the organization was consulted at many times. So keeping in view the nature of requirements of the study to collect all the relevant information regarding the comparison of saving account of state bank of India with other banks. SAMPLE DESIGN:A sample design is a definite plan for obtaining a sample from a given population. With the adoption of this others can evaluate the results also. Here we select the 46 | P a g e .The logic behind taking research methodology into consideration is that one can have knowledge about the method and procedure adopted for achievement of objectives of the project. the size of the sample. Sample design may as well lay down the number of items to be included in the sample i. The methodology adopted for studying the objectives was surveying the saving account holders of Agra District.e. direct personal interview method with structured questionnaire was adopted for the collection of primary data. Its main aim is to keep the researchers on the right track. It refers to the techniques or the procedure the researcher would adopt in selecting items for the sample. Sample design is determined before data are collected.

SECONDARY DATA 47 | P a g e . There are number of sources of primary data from which the information can be collected.The persons holding saving account related to business class of Agra District were taken into consideration. QUESTIONNAIRE:-This method of data collection is quite popular. RESPONDENTS:-Respondents helps in creation of more accurate idea about our research. Here in our research we set 27 simple questions and request the respondents to answer these questions with correct information. DATA COLLECTION Data was collected by using main two methods i.e primary data and secondary data PRIMARY DATA Primary data is the data which is used or collected for first time and it is not used by anyone in the past. We personally meet the respondents inside and outside the banks. The selected respondents should be as representatives of the total population. POPULATION:.population as sample in our sample design.

It tells us about the increase or decrease in profits and other facilities. we come to know about the Branches. SAMPLE PLAN: 48 | P a g e . magazines. locations and other useful information. BANKS ANNUAL REPORTS:-Banks issues there annual reports to get the people informed with the profitability and growth of the bank. MANUALS AND BROACHERS OF DIFFERENT BANKS:-We take the help of bank staff and other people who gives us deep information and data which may not be available at anywhere. journals. INTERNET:-We also take into consideration the internet facility with which we collect lot of latest information. They gives us there full co.operation. reports. documents and other published information. ATM. There may be various sources of secondary data such as-newspapers. These annual reports helps us a lot to get the latest data and other related information for our research. JOURNALS AND PUBLICATIONS OF DIFFERENT BANKS :-We also take into consideration the journals and publications issued by the bank at different times. books.Secondary data is the data which is available in readymade form and which is already used by people for some purposes.

STATE Bank of INDIA. Due to nature of study.Stratified convenient sampling. Branch in AGRA city. we also visited various different banks ICICI. 49 | P a g e .SAMPLING UNIT:. SAMPLING DESCRIPTION:. age marital status and monthly income. This description shows that respondents included in this survey belong to different backgrounds and this inturn increase the scope of the study. All the saving account holders were taken into consideration. of Agra District. PUNJAB NATIONAL BANK etc. Research was conducted on clear assumptions that the respondents would give frank and fair answers in a pragmatic way and without any bias. SAMPLING TECHNIQUE:. the information was collected and analyzed according to their socio economic background which included the characteristic of their respondents like education. HDFC.In order to understand the nature and characteristics of various respondents in this study.

DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION DATA ANALYSIS Q-1) Do you know the present Performance management system used in your organization? Response yes No Respondent 50 0 s 50 | P a g e .

Q-2) Are you satisfied with the present PMS used in your organization? Response yes Respondents 40 No 0 Some how 10 Can’t say 0 51 | P a g e .0% yes no 100% Interpretation We can say that 95% employees know the performance management system used in the organization 5% are unaware of that.

Interpretation We can say that 80% employees are satisfied with the performance management system used in the organization and no one is unsatisfied. Response Strongly agree neutral disagree agree Respondent 0 Strongly disagree 28 11 11 0 s 52 | P a g e . 10% employees are some how satisfied and 10% are not able to say anything. Q-3) The current process is too time consuming.

Interpretation We can say that 56% employees are agree. 22% are neutral and 22% are disagree with the above statement. Response Strongly agree agree neutral disagree Strongly disagree 53 | P a g e . Q-4) Do you think the assessment given by your HOD is on unbiased basis.

Q-5) Team objectives don’t exist. Response Strongly Agree neutral disagree Strongly 54 | P a g e . 10% are neutral. 6% are disagree and 4% are strongly disagree with the statement.Respondent 10 30 5 3 2 s Interpretation We can say that 20% employees are strongly agree. 60% are agree.

10% are neutral. 20% are agree. 30% are disagree and 20% are strongly disagree with the statement. 55 | P a g e .agree Respondent 10 disagree 10 5 15 10 s Interpretation We can say that 20% employees are strongly agree.

16% are neutral. 50% are agree. 56 | P a g e . Response Strongly Agree neutral disagree agree Respondent 10 Strongly disagree 25 8 5 2 s Interpretation We can say that 20% employees are strongly agree. 10%are disagree and 4% are strongly disagree with the statement.Q-6) The focus of performance management is developmental.

Response Strongly Agree neutral disagree agree Respondent 15 Strongly disagree 27 3 3 2 s Interpretation 57 | P a g e .Q-7) Regular feedback of the work is given.

Q-8) PMS of your company motivates you for work. 54% are agree. Response Strongly Agree Neutral Disagree agree Respondent 9 Strongly disagree 31 8 2 0 s Interpretation 58 | P a g e . 6% are neutral. 6%are disagree and 4% are strongly disagree with the statement.We can say that 30% employees are strongly agree.

16% are neutral. 62% are agree. Response Strongly Agree Neutral Disagree agree Respondent 13 Strongly disagree 27 6 2 2 s 59 | P a g e . Q-9) PMS is effective in your organization.We can say that 18% employees are strongly agree. 4%are disagree and 0% are strongly disagree with the statement.

4%are disagree and 4% are strongly disagree with the Q-10) Participation in the performance management process is up to the required level. 54% are agree. 12% are neutral. Response Strongly agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly disagree 60 | P a g e .Interpretation We can say that 26% employees are strongly agree.

10%are disagree and 4% are strongly disagree with the statement. Q-11) Personal development plans exist. 20% are neutral. 50% are agree.Respondent 8 25 10 5 2 s Interpretation We can say that 16% employees are strongly agree. Response Strongly Agree Neutral disagree Strongly 61 | P a g e .

60% are agree. 10% are neutral.agree Respondent 6 disagree 30 5 5 4 s Interpretation We can say that 12% employees are strongly agree. 10%are disagree and 8% are strongly disagree with the statement. Q-12) Feedback on good or poor progress is saved up to the end of the year. 62 | P a g e .

74% are agree.Response Strongly Agree Neutral disagree agree Respondent 9 Strongly disagree 37 2 2 0 s Interpretation We can say that 18% employees are strongly agree. 63 | P a g e . 4%are disagree and 0% are strongly disagree with the statement. 4% are neutral.

6% are neutral. 70% are agree. 4%are disagree and 2% are strongly disagree with the statement. 64 | P a g e .Q-13) Is unsatisfactory PMS directly relates to the employee turnover. Response Strongly Agree Neutral disagree agree Respondent 9 Strongly disagree 35 3 2 1 s Interpretation We can say that 18% employees are strongly agree.

Q-14) Self rating is very useful for PMS.

Response

Strongly

Agree

Neutral

disagree

agree
Respondent

8

Strongly
disagree

32

6

4

0

s

Interpretation
We can say that 16% employees are strongly agree, 64% are agree, 12% are
neutral, 8%are disagree and 0% are strongly disagree with the statement.

65 | P a g e

Q-15) what factors from the following are considered in your organization
while appraising the performance.

Response

Technicality Team

Productivit

Waste

& behavior

y

managemen

work

other

t
Respondent

36

4

8

2

0

s

66 | P a g e

Interpretation
We can say that 72% employees says that technicality & behavior are
considered while appraising the performance, 8% think team work, 16% says
productivity, 4% says waste management and 0% says other.

Q-16) How often the appraisal should be done?

Response

Once during the Continuously

Never

Can’t say

0

0

service period
Respondents

9

41

67 | P a g e

would you like that the current procedure should be reviewed? Response Yes no Can’t say Respondent 30 20 0 s 68 | P a g e . Q-17) If given a chance or opportunity.Interpretation We can say that 18% employees think that appraisal should be done only once. 82% think that it should be done continuously.

how do you rank your own performance? Response Excellent Respondents 4 Very good Average Good 8 18 20 69 | P a g e . Q-18) Based on your qualification. current role.Interpretation 60% employees want that the current procedure should be reviewed and 40% says that it should not be reviewed. responsibility & achievement.

16% as very good. 36% as average and 40% as good. Q-19) What according to you is the best strategy for increasing the employee performance? Response Increase Negative benefits reinforcemen Freedom Positive Any reinforcemen 70 | P a g e .Interpretation We can say that 8% employees rank their performance as excellent.

0% says negative reinforcement. 12% says freedom for work.Respondent 12 t for work t other 0 6 32 0 s Interpretation We can say that 24 % employees think that increase in benefits can increase the employee’s performance. RESULT AND FINDINGS 71 | P a g e . 64% say positive reinforcement.

 64% of the employees are agreed that self rating is useful in PMS.  More than 50% of the employees are agreed that PMS in their organization is effective.  50% of the employees agreed that the focus of PMS is developmental. 72 | P a g e .  More than 50% employees agreed that the present system is time consuming.  60% of the employees are agreed that personal development plans exist.  30% of the employees are agreed that team objectives do exist.  70% of the employees are agreed that unsatisfactory PMS directly relates to the employee turnover.  60% of the employees agreed that assessment given by their HOD is on unbiassed basis.  Half of the employees agreed that participation in the PMS is upto the required level.RESULT AND FINDINGS 100% employees know the performance management system used in the organization.

I came to know that majority of the employees are satisfied with policies of the organization. some more steps can be taken by banking sector in Agra such as self rating by the employees and positive reinforcement system for increasing the performance of the employees. organization should work for them. To increase the level of satisfaction. On the basis of study which I gone through. I came to know that employee satisfaction level is high but there are chances of improvisation. The primary objective was to study satisfaction with regard to performance management system of the organization and from study. To increase the percentage of satisfied employees. 73 | P a g e .CONCLUSION Employee satisfaction is vital factor for the performance of organization because it provides the basis for the foundation of the organization.

74 | P a g e .  Positive reinforcement should be used for increasing the employee performance.  Organization need to ensure role clarity among the employees.  It is suggested that involvement of appraisal in performance management activities should be increased.RECOMMENDATIONS & SUGGESTIONS  Appraisal of the performance should be done continuously.  Employees should be given chance to give suggestions regarding performance management system.  Appraiser should have proper knowledge regarding the different rating scales in the appraisal report.

BIBLIOGRAPHY  Kevin .  Shashi K. Management Accounting.K.  Khan M. Tata McGraw Publishing Company Limited. Prentice hall India Pvt Limited. QUESTIONNAIRE 75 | P a g e . 10 th edition (2005). 4th edition (2004). Sharma R.S. Jain P.Y. Gupta. securities and portfolio management. Kalyani Publishers. First edition (May 2015 to July 2015).K. Financial Management.

[1] strongly agree [2] agree [3] neutral [4] disagree [5] strongly disagree Q-5) Team objectives don’t exist. [1] strongly agree [2] agree [3] neutral [4] disagree [5] strongly disagree Q-6) The focus of performance management is developmental. 76 | P a g e .EMPLOYEE INFORMATION NAME: DESIGNATION: GENDER: DEPARTMENT: AGE: SERVICE PERIOD: PLEASE TICK MARK THE PROPER ANSWER Q-1) Do you know the present Performance management system used in your organization? [1] Yes [2] No Q-2) Are you satisfied with the present PMS used in your organization? [1] yes [2] no [3] some how [4] can’t say Q-3) the current process is too time consuming. [1] strongly agree [2] agree [3] neutral [4] disagree [5] strongly disagree Q-4) Do you think the assessment given by your HOD is on unbiased basis.

[1] strongly agree [2] agree [3] neutral [4] disagree [5] strongly disagree Q-10) Participation in the performance management process is up to the required level. [1] strongly agree [2] agree [3] neutral [4] disagree [5] strongly disagree Q-12) Feedback on good or poor progress is saved up to the end of the year. [1] strongly agree [2] agree [3] neutral [4] disagree [5] strongly disagree Q-11) Personal development plans exist. [1] strongly agree [2] agree [3] neutral [4] disagree [5] strongly disagree Q-8) PMS of your company motivates you for work. [1] strongly agree [2] agree [3] neutral [4] disagree [5] strongly disagree Q-9) PMS is effective in your organization.[1] strongly agree [2] agree [3] neutral [4] disagree [5] strongly disagree Q-7) Regular feedback of the work is given. 77 | P a g e . [1] strongly agree [2] agree [3] neutral [4] disagree [5] strongly disagree Q-13) Is unsatisfactory PMS directly relates to the employee turnover [1] strongly agree [2] agree [3] neutral [4] disagree [5] strongly disagree Q-14) Self rating is very useful for PMS.

current role. how do you rank your own performance? [1] excellent [2] very good [3] average [4] good 78 | P a g e . [1] Technicality & behavior [2] team work [3] productivity [4] waste management [5] other Q-16) How often the appraisal should be done? [1]once during the service period [2] continuously [3] never [4] can’t say Q-17) If given a chance or opportunity. would you like that the current procedure should be reviewed? [1] yes [2] no [3] can’t say Q-18) Based on your qualification. responsibility & achievement.[1] strongly agree [2] agree [3] neutral [4] disagree [5] strongly disagree Q-15) What factors from the following are considered in your organization while appraising the performance.

Q-19) What according to you is the best strategy for increasing the employee performance? [1] Increase benefits [2] negative reinforcement [3] freedom for work [4] positive reinforcement [5] any other 79 | P a g e .