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Received: 04.04.2015
Published: 19.10.2015

ISSN: 2149-1402

Year: 2015, Number: 7, Pages: 64-78


Original Article**

EXTENDED HAUSDORFF DISTANCE AND SIMILARITY MEASURES FOR


NEUTROSOPHIC REFINED SETS AND THEIR APPLICATION IN MEDICAL
DIAGNOSIS
Said Broumi1,* <broumisaid78@gmail.com>
Florentin Smarandache2 <fsmarandache@gmail.com>

Faculty of Letters and Humanities, Hay El Baraka Ben M'sik Casablanca B.P. 7951, University of Hassan II Casablanca, Morocco
2
Department of Mathematics, University of New Mexico,705 Gurley Avenue, Gallup, NM 87301, USA

Abstract - In this paper we present a new distance measure between neutrosophic refined sets on the basis of extended
Hausdorff distance of neutrosophic set and we study some of their basic properties. Finally, using the extended Hausdorff
distance and/or similarity measures, an application to medical diagnosis is presented.
Keywords - Neutrosophic sets, similarity measure, neutrosophic refined sets, extended Hausdorff distance.

1. Introduction
The neutrosophic set theory (NS) proposed in 1995 by Smarandache [6] was the generalization of the
(FS for short) [21], intuituionitic fuzzy set ( IFS for short) [20] and so on. In fuzzy set, the object,
partially belong to a set with a membership degree (T) between 0 and 1 whereas in the IFS represent
the uncertainty with respect to both membership (T [0, 1]) and non membership (F [0, 1]) such that
0 T + F 1. Here, the number I = 1 T F is called the hesitation degree or intuitionistic index. In
neutrosophic set, indeterminacy is quantified explicitly and truth-membership, indeterminacymembership and falsity-membership are independent. From scientific or engineering point of view, the
**

Edited by Naimaman (Editor-in- Chief) and Irfan Deli (Area Editor).


Corresponding Author.

Journal of New Theory 7 (2015) 64-78

65

neutrosophic set and set- theoretic view, operators need to be specified. Otherwise, it will be difficult
to apply in the real applications. Therefore, H. Wang et al [8] defined a single valued neutrosophic set
(SVNS) and then provided the set theoretic operations and various properties of single valued
neutrosophic sets. Many researches on neutrosophic set on neutrosophic set theory and its applications
in various fields are progressing rapidly [e.g., 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 22, 23, 25,
31, 32, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39].
The study of distance and similarity measure of NSs gives lots of measures, each representing specific
properties and behavior in real-life decision making and pattern recognition works. For measuring the
degree of similarity between neutrosophic sets, Broumi et al. [33] proposed several similarity measures
and investigated some of their basic properties. Ye [16] presented the Hamming, Euclidean distance
and similarity measures between interval neutrosophic sets. The generalized weighted distance and
similarity measures between neutrosophic sets were given by J.Ye [15]. Also, the same author
proposed three vector similarity measures for simplified neutrosophic sets (SNSs for short), including
the Jaccard, Dice, and cosine similarity measures for SVNS and applied them to multicriteria decisionmaking problems with simplified neutrosophic information. Therefore, S.Broumi et al. [42] extended
generalized weighted distance between neutrosophic sets (NSs) to the case of interval neutrosophic
sets. Hanafy et al. [13, 14] presented the correlation measure neutrosophic sets.
The multi set introduced by Yager [30] allows the repeated occurrences of any element and hence the
fuzzy multi set (FMS for short) can occur more than once with the possibly of the same or the different
membership values.
Recently, based on [8], the new concept neutrosophic refined set(neutrosophic multisets) NRS was
proposed by Broumi et al. [40] which allows the repeated occurrences of different truth membership,
indeterminacy and non membership functions. Later on, Broumi et al. [40] studied correlation measure
for neutrosophic refined sets and gave an application in decision making. The same author [41] defined
the similarity measure between neutrosophic refined sets based on cosine function. The concept of
NRS is a generalization of fuzzy multisets [42] and intuitionistic fuzzy multisets [43].
In this paper we extend the Hausdorff distance between neutrosophic sets to the case of neutrosophic
refined sets (NRSs).
The organization of this paper is as follows: In section 2, the neutrosophic sets, neutrosophic refined
sets and extended Hausdorff distance of neutrosophic sets are presented. The section 3 deals with the
proposed extended Hausdorff distance and similarity measure for neutrosophic refined sets. Section 4,
present an application of extended Hausdorff distance and similarity measure to medical diagnosis.

2. Preliminaries
This section gives a brief overview of concepts of neutrosophic set [6], and neutrosophic refined sets
[8], Hausdorff distance and extended Hausdorff distance between NSs [33].

Journal of New Theory 7 (2015) 64-78

66

2.1 Neutrosophic Sets


Definition 2.1[6] Let X be an universe of discourse, with a generic element in X denoted by x, the
neutrosophic (NS) set is an object having the form
( ),

A = {< x:

( ),

( )>,x X}

where the functions T, I, F : X ]0, 1+[ define respectively the degree of membership (or Truth), the
degree of indeterminacy, and the degree of non-membership (or Falsehood) of the element x X to the
set A with the condition.

( )+

( )+

( ) 3+

(1)

From philosophical point of view, the neutrosophic set takes the value from real standard or nonstandard subsets of ]0, 1+[. So instead of ] 0, 1+[ we need to take the interval [0, 1] for technical
applications, because ]0, 1+[ will be difficult to apply in the real applications such as in scientific and
engineering problems. For two NS,
( ),

={ <x ,
And

={<x,

(1)
(2)

( )

( ),

( )> |

( )

if and only if

( )> |
( )
( )=

(2)
} the two relations are defined as follows:

( ), ( )
( ), ( )
( ) , ( ) = ( ), ( ) =

( )
( )

2.2 Neutrosophic Refined Sets


In 2013, Smarandache [8] extended the neutrosophic set to n-valued refined neutrosophic set.
Definition 2.2 [8] Let E be a universe, a neutrosophic sets on E can be defined as follows:
A = {<x,(

( ),

( ),...,

( )), ( ( ), ( ),..., ( )),(

( ),

( ),,

( ))>: x

X}

( ),,

( ))

Where
( ), ( ),..., ( ): E [0 ,1],
( ), ( ),..., ( ): E [0 ,1], and
( ), ( ),..., ( ): E [0 ,1]
( )+ ( )+

such that 0
(

( ),

( ),,

( )

3 for i=1 ,2,,p for any x X ,

( )), ( ( ), ( ),, ( )) and (

( ),

is the truth-membership sequence, indeterminacy-membership sequence and falsity-membership


sequence of the element x, respectively. Also, P is called the dimension of neutrosophic refined sets
(NRS) A.

Journal of New Theory 7 (2015) 64-78

67

2.3 Hausdorff distance


Definition 2.3 The Hausdorff distance defined as follows
| ,|

(A, B) =H(A, B)= max{|


For the two intervals A=[

|}

] and B=[

Definition 2.4: The Hausdorff distance


(D1-D4):

,
(

(3)
] in areal space R.
) between A and B satisfies the following properties

(D1) 1
(
) 1.
(
) =0 if and only if A = B; for all A, B
(D2)
(D3)
(
)=
(
).
(D4) If A B C, for A, B, C, then
(
)
(

and

2.4 Extended Hausdorff distance between neutrosophic sets


Definition2.5 [33] Based on the Hausdorff metric, Szmidt and Kacprzykdefined new distance
between intuitionistic fuzzy sets and/or interval-valued fuzzy sets in [5], taking into account three
parameter representation (membership, non-membership values, and the hesitation margins) of AIFSs which fulfill the properties of the Hausdorff distances. Their denition is defined by
(

*|

( )

( )| |

( )

( )| |

( )

( )|+

(4)

Where A = {< x, A(x), A(x), A(x)>} and B = {< x, B(x), B(x), B(x)>}.
The terms and symbols used in [5] are changed so that they are consistent with those in this
section.
Let X= {x1, x2, , xn} be a discrete finite set. Consider a neutrosophic set A in X where
TA(xi), IA(xi), FA(xi) [0,1] for every xi X, represent its membership, indeterminacy, and nonmembership values respectively denoted by A = {< x, TA(xi), IA(xi), FA(xi)>}.
Then, the distance between A NSs and B NSs is defined as follows.
(

*|

( )

( )| | ( )

( )| |

( )

( )|+

(5)

(
)= H(A, B)denote the extended Hausdorff distance between two neutrosophic
Where
sets(NS) A and B.
Let A, B and C be three neutrosophic sets
(

) = H(A, B)=

*|

( )

( )| | ( )

( )|

( )

( )|+

(6)

Journal of New Theory 7 (2015) 64-78

68

The same between A and C is written as:


( )

*|

H(A, C)=

( )| | ( )

( )| |

( )

( )|+

(7)

( )| |

( )

( )|+

(8)

And between B and C is written as:


( )

*|

H(B, C)=

( )| | ( )

Hung and yang [45] presented their similarity measures based on Hausdorff distance as
follows
Definition2.6 The similarity measure based on the Hausdroff distance is
(

(A,B)= 1(A,B)= (
(A,B)= (
Where

).
(

) (
))(

).
)).

(A, B) was the Hausdorff distance

3. Extended Hausdorff Distance and Similarity Measures for Neutrosophic Refined


Sets
3.1 Extended Hausdorff Distance Measures for Neutrosophic Refined Sets
On the basis of the extended Hausdorff distance between two neutrosophic set defined by Broumi et al.
in [33], defined as follows:
(

Where
and B.

*|

( )

( )| | ( )

( )| |

( )

( )|+

(9)

) = H(A, B)denote the extended Hausdorff distance between two neutrosophic sets A

We extend the above equation (9) distance to the case of neutrosophic refined set between
follows:

and

as

when the sets A and B do not have the same number of subcomponents for T, I, F. If
A = {<x,(

( ),

( ),...,

( )), ( ( ), ( ),..., ( )), (

( ),

( ),,

( ))>: x

X}

B = {<x,(

( ),

( ),...,

( )), ( ( ), ( ),..., ( )), (

( ),

( ),,

( ))>: x

X}

and

then we take m = max{a, b, c, p, r, q} and transform A and B into refined neutrosophic sets where all
components T, I, F have each of them m subcomponents, i.e.

Journal of New Theory 7 (2015) 64-78

69

A = {<x,(

( ),

( ),...,

( )), ( ( ), ( ),...,

( )), (

( ),

( ),,

( ))>: x

X}

B = {<x,(

( ),

( ),...,

( )), ( ( ), ( ),...,

( )), (

( ),

( ),,

( ))>: x

X}.

and

{|

( )

( )| | ( )

Proposition 3.1 The defined distance


properties (D1-D4):

( )| |

( )

( )|}} (10)

) between NRSs A and B satisfies the following

(D1)
(
) 0.
(
) =0 if and only if A = B; for all A, B NRSs.
(D2)
(D3)
(
)=
(
).
(D4) If A B C, for A, B, C NRSs, then
(
)
(
)

) and

Proof: (D1)
(
) 0.
As truth-membership, indeterminacy-membership and falsity-membership functions of the NRSs lies
between 0 and 1, the distance measure based on these function also lies between 0 to 1.
(D2)
(i)

) =0 if and only if A = B.

Let the two NRS A and B be equal(i.e) A=B


( )=

This implies for any


|
Hence
( ) Let the

( )

( ),

( ) = ( ) and

( )|, | ( )

( )| and |

( )=
( )

( )which states that


( )|

) =0.
(

)=0.

The zero distance measure is possible only if both


|

( )

( )|, | ( )

( )| and| ( )

( )|=0

as the extended Hausdorff distance measure concerns with maximum truth-membership,


indeterminacy-membership and falsity-membership differences.This refers that
( )
for all i, j values. Hence A=B

( ),

( )

( ) and

( )

( )

Journal of New Theory 7 (2015) 64-78

(D3)

)=

70

It is obvious that
( )

( )

( )

( ), ( )

( )

( )

( )

and
( )

( )

( )

( )

But
( )

( )| =|

( )

( )| ,| ( )

( )|=| ( )

( )|,

and
( )

( )|=|

( )

( )|

Hence
(

)=
=
=

{|

( )

( )| | ( )

( )| |

( )

( )|}}

{
(
).

{|

( )

( )| | ( )

( )| |

( )

( )|}}

Remark: Let A, B
( )

NRSs , A B if and only if

( ), ( )

( ),

(D4) If A B C, for A, B, C
(
)
Let A

( )

- if|

NRSs, then

B C,then the assumption is


( )
( )
( )
(

Case (i) we prove that

( ) for i=1,2,,p, for every x i X .

( )

( )

(
( )|

( )

( )

(i)

( )

| ( )

| ( )

( )|

( )|but we have for all xi X


( )|

| ( )

( )

( )

then
H(A,C)=|

) and

( )|for all xi X
| ( )
( )|

( )

( )|

( )

Journal of New Theory 7 (2015) 64-78

And |

(ii)

71

( )

( )|

( )

( )| for all xi X
| ( )
( )|

| ( )

( )|

| ( )

( )| for all xi X
| ( )
( )|

And | ( )
( )| |
| ( )
( )|for all xi

( )
X

( )| for all xi

On the other hand we have


(iii)

( )

and|

( )

( )|
( )|

( )

( )

( )|
( )|

for all xi

Combining (i) and (iii) we obtain therefore


{

{|

( )

( )| | ( )

{
{

{|

( )

( )

{|

( )| | ( )

( )| |

( )|}}

( )| | ( )
( )| |

( )

{|

( )

( )| |

( )

( )

( )|}}

( )

( )|}}

( )|}}

( )| | ( )

( )| |

That is

- If |

( )

( )|

( )

(
( )|

)AND
| ( )

(
( )|

Then
H(A,C)=| ( )
(a)

( )

( )| But we have for all xi X


( )|

( )

( )|for all xi X
| ( )

And

( )

( )|

( )

( )|

( )|for all xi X

Journal of New Theory 7 (2015) 64-78

72

| ( )
(b)

( )

( )

and|

( )|

( )|

( )

( )|

( )|for all xi X
| ( )
( )|

( )

( )|for all xi X
( )|
| ( )

On the other hand we have


(c)

| ( )

| ( )

( )|

( )|

| ( )

| ( )

( )|and

( )| for all xi X.

Combining (a) and (c) we obtain, therefore


{

{|

( )

( )| | ( )

{
{

{|

( )

{|

( )| |

( )

( )| | ( )

{|

( )

( )

( )|}}

( )| | ( )
( )| |

( )| |

( )

( )

( )|}}

( )

( )|}}

( )|}}

( )| | ( )

( )| |

That is
(

. If |

( )

( )|

) AND
| ( )

(
( )|

)
|

( )

(
( )|

Then
H(A,C)=|

(a) |

And

(b) |

( )

| ( )

( )

( )|

|
|

( )|

( )|

( )

( )
( )
| ( )
| ( )
( )

( )| But

we have for all xi X

( )|for all xi X
( )|
( )| for all xi X
( )|
( )|for all xi X

Journal of New Theory 7 (2015) 64-78

|
And| ( )

( )

( )|

73

( )|

| ( )
| ( )

( )|for all xi
( )|

( )| and |

( )

On the other hand we have


(c) | ( )
xi X

( )|

( )

( )|

( )

( )| for all

Combining (a) and (c) we obtain


{

{|

( )

( )| | ( )

{|

( )

{|

( )

( )| | ( )

{|

( )

( )| |

( )

( )| | ( )

( )| |

( )

( )| | ( )

( )|}}
( )| |

( )

( )|}}

( )| |

( )

( )|}}

).

( )|}}

That is
(
From

) AND

, and , we can obtain the property (D4).

3.2 Weighted Extended Hausdorff Distance between Neutrosophic


Refined Sets
In many situation the weight of the element
X should be taken into account. Usually the elements
have different importance .We need to consider the weight of the element so that we have the following
weighted distance between NRSs. Assume that the weight of
X is
where X={ , ,.., },
[0, 1], i= 1, 2, 3, .., n and
1. Then the weighted extended hausdorff distance between NRSs A
and B is dened as:
(

It is easy to check that

( ( ) ( ))
(

) satisfies the four properties D1-D4 defined above.

(11)

Journal of New Theory 7 (2015) 64-78

74

It is well known that similarity measure can be generated from distance measure. Therefore we may use
the proposed distance measure to define similarity measures.
Based on the relationship of similarity measure and distance we can define some similarity measures
between NRSs A and B as follows.
Definition The similarity measure based on the extended Hausdorff distance is
(A, B)= 1(A, B)= (
(A, B)= (

(
(

)
)

) (
))(

)
(

))

(A, B) is said to be the similarity measure between A an B, where A ,B NRS, as


satisfies the following properties
(P1) S(A,B) = S(B, A).
(P2) S(A,B) = (1, 0, 0)= if A=B for all A,B NVNSs.
(P3) (
) [0, 1]
(P4) If A B C for all A, B, C NRSs then S(A, B) S(A, C) and S(B, C)

(A, B)

S(A, C)

4. Medical Diagnosis Using Extended Hausdorff Distance of NRS.


In what follows, let us consider an illustrative example adopted from [40].
"As Medical diagnosis contains lots of uncertainties and increased volume of information available to
physicians from new medical technologies, the process of classifying different set of symptoms under a
single name of disease becomes difficult. In some practical situations, there is the possibility of each
element having different truth membership, indeterminate and false membership functions. The
proposed correlation measure among the patients Vs symptoms and symptoms Vs diseases gives the
proper medical diagnosis. The unique feature of this proposed method is that it considers multi truth
membership, indeterminate and false membership. By taking one time inspection, there may be error in
diagnosis. Hence, this multi time inspection, by taking the samples of the same patient at different times
gives best diagnosis".
Now, an example of a medical diagnosis will be presented.
Example 1 Let P={P, P, P} be a set of patients, D={Viral Fever, Tuberculosis, Typhoid, Throat
disease} be a set of diseases and S={Temperature, cough, throat pain, headache, body pain} be a set of
symptoms. Our solution is to examine the patient at different time intervals (three times a day), which
in turn give arise to different truth membership, indeterminate and false membership function for each
patient

Journal of New Theory 7 (2015) 64-78

75

Table I -3-valued neutrosophic set: The Relation between Patient and Symptoms
Q

Temperature

Cough

Throat

Head Ache

Body Pain

(0.4, 0.3, 0.4)


(0.2, 0.5, 0.5)
(0.3, 0.4, 0.6)
(0.6, 0.3, 0.5)
(0.5, 0.5, 0.2)
(0.4, 0.4, 0.5)

(0.5, 0.4, 0.4)


(0.4, 0.1, 0.3)
(0.3, 0.4, 0.5)
(0.6, 0.3, 0.7)
(0.4, 0.4, 0.2)
(0.2, 0.4, 0.5)

(0.3, 0.5, 0.5)


(0.2, 0.6, 0.4)
(0.1, 0.6, 0.3)
(0.6, 0.3, 0.3)
(0.3, 0.5, 0.4)
(0.1, 0.4, 0.5)

(0.5, 0.3, 0.4)


(0.5, 0.4, 0.7)
(0.3, 0.3, 0.6)
(0.6, 0.3, 0.1)
(0.4, 0.5, 0.8)
(0.2, 0.4, 0.3)

(0.5, 0.2, 0.4)


(0.2, 0.3, 0.5)
(0.1, 0.4, 0.3)
(0.4, 0.4, 0.5)
(0.3, 0.2, 0.7)
(0.1, 0.5, 0.5)

(0.8, 0.3, 0.5)


(0.7, 0.5, 0.4)
(0.6, 0.4, 0.4)

(0.5, 0.5, 0.3)


(0.1, 0.6, 0.4)
(0.3, 0.4, 0.3)

(0.3, 0.3, 0.6)


(0.2, 0.5, 0.7)
(0.1, 0.4, 0.5)

(0.6, 0.2, 0.5)


(0.5, 0.3, 0.6)
(0.2, 0.2, 0.6)

(0.6, 0.4, 0.5)


(0.3, 0.3, 0.4)
(0.2, 0.2, 0.6)

Let the samples be taken at three different timing in a day (morning, noon and night)
Table II neutrosophic refined set:The Relation between Patient and Symptoms
Q
Temperature

Viral Fever
(0.2, 0.5, 0.6)

Tuberculosis
(0.4, 0.6, 0.5)

Typhoid
(0.4, 0.3, 0.5)

Throat disease
(0.3, 0.7, 0.8)

Cough

(0.6, 0.4, 0.6)

(0.8, 0.2, 0.3)

(0.3, 0.2, 0.6)

(0.2, 0.4, 0.1)

Throat

(0.5, 0.2, 0.3)

(0.4, 0.5, 0.3)

(0.4, 0.5, 0.5)

(0.2, 0.6, 0.2)

Head Ache

(0.6, 0.8, 0.2)

(0.2, 0.3, 0.6)

(0.1, 0.6, 0.3)

(0.2, 0.5, 0.5)

Body Pain

(0.7, 0.5, 0.4)

(0.2, 0.3, 0.4)

(0.2, 0.3, 0.4)

(0.2, 0.2, 0.3)

Distance measure (d)


Proposed
distance
measure

Viral Fever

Tuberculosis Typhoid

Throat
disease

0.34667
0.366
0.426

0.2533
0.3
0.326

0.2733
0.346
0.34

0.22
0.266
0.3067

S=1-d
Proposed similarity
Viral
measure(
(A,B)) Fever
0.6534
0.634
0.574

Tuberculosis Typhoid Throat


disease
0.7467
0.7267
0.78
0.7
0.654
0.733
0.674
0.66
0.693

Proposed similarity
Viral
measure(
(A,B) Fever
0.4852
0.4641
0.4025

Tuberculosis Typhoid Throat


disease
0.5957
0.5707
0.6393
0.5384
0.4858
0.5797
0.5082
0.4925
0.5306

Journal of New Theory 7 (2015) 64-78

76

The highest similarity measure from table gives the proper medical diagnosis
Patient P1 suffers from Tuberculosis and Typhoid, Patient P2 suffers from Typhoid and
Patient P3 suffers Typhoid

5 Conclusions
In this paper we have presented a new distance measure between NRS on the basis of extended
Hausdorff distance of neutrosophic set, then we proved their properties. Finally we used this distance
measure in an application of medical diagnosis. Its hoped that our findings will help enhancing this
study on neutrosophic set for researchers. In future work, we will extended this distance to the case of
interval neutrosophic refined sets.

References
Q. Ansari, R. Biswas and S. Aggarwal, Neutrosophic classifier: An extension of Fuzzy
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