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In this article, we review some properties of the harmonic quadrilateral related to triangle simedians and to Apollonius circles.

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Ion PATRAS

CU2 , Florentin SMARANDACHE

Abstract. In this article, we review some properties of the harmonic quadrilateral related to

triangle simedians and to Apollonius circles.

Keywords: harmonic quadrilateral, simedian, Apollonius circle.

MSC 2010: 51M04.

the property AB CD = BC AD is called a harmonic quadrilateral.

Denition 2. A triangle simedian is the isogonal cevian of a triangle median.

Proposition 1. In the triangle ABC, the cevian AA1 , A1 (BC), is a simedian

BA1

AB 2

if and only if

=

.

A1 C

AC

Proposition 2. In an harmonic quadrilateral, the diagonals are simedians of the

triangles determined by two consecutive sides of a quadrilateral with its diagonal.

Proof. Let ABCD be an harmonic quadrilateral and {K} = AC BD (Fig. 1).

We prove that BK is simedian in the triangle ABC.

C

From the similarity of the triangles ABK and DCK, D

we nd that

(1)

AB

AK

BK

=

=

.

DC

DK

CK

K

A

conclude that

(2)

BC

CK

BK

=

=

.

AD

DK

AK

Fig. 1

(3)

AB AD

AK

=

.

BC DC

CK

AB

AD

=

;

BC

DC

1 See

also A. Reisner - Quadrange harmonique et nombres complexes, this journal, 1/2014, 35-39.

College ,,Fratii Buzesti, Craiova, Romania; e-mail: patrascu ion@yahoo.com

3 University of New Mexico, USA; e-mail: fsmarandache@gmail.com

2 National

99

AB

BC

AK

;

CK

be shown that AK is a simedian in the triangle ABD, that CK is a simedian in the

triangle BCD, and that DK is a simedian in the triangle ADC.

Remark 1. The converse of the Proposition 2 is proved similarly, i.e. we have:

Proposition 3. If in a convex quadrilateral admitting a circumcicle a diagonal

is a simedian in the triangle formed by the other diagonal with two consecutive sides

of the quadrilateral, then the quadrilateral is an harmonic quadrilateral.

Remark 2. From Propositions 2 and 3 above, it results a simple way to build an

harmonic quadrilateral. In a circle, let a triangle ABC be considered; we construct

the simedian of A, be it AK, and we denote by D the intersection of the simedian

AK with the circle. The quadrilateral ABCD is an harmonic quadrilateral.

Proposition 4. In a triangle ABC, the points of the simedian of A are situated

at proportional distances to the sides AB and AC.

Proof. We have the simedian AA1 in the triangle ABC (Fig. 2). We denote by

A

D and E the projections of A1 on AB, and AC

respectively. We get:

M2

M1

BA1

Area (ABA1 )

AB A1 D

M

=

=

.

E

CA1

Area (ACA1 )

AC A1 E

BA1

= D

A1 C

2

B

AB

. Substituting in the previous relation, we

AC

obtain that

A1 D

AB

=

.

A1 E

AC

Moreover, from Proposition 1, we know that

A1

C

Fig. 2

1 , hence

On the other hand, A1 D = AA1 sin BAA

(4)

1

AB

A1 D

sin BAA

=

=

.

A1 E

AC

1

sin CAA

1 , M M2 = AM sin CAA

1 ,

and AC respectively, we have: M M1 = AM sin BAA

hence:

1

sin BAA

M M1

=

.

M M2

1

sin CAA

100

M M1

AB

=

.

M M2

AC

Remark 3. The converse of the property in the statement above is valid, meaning

that, if M is a point inside a triangle, its distances to two sides are proportional to

the lengths of these sides, then M the point belongs to the simedian of the triangle

having the vertex joint to the two sides.

Proposition 5. In an harmonic quadrilateral, the point of intersection of the

diagonals is located towards the sides of the quadrilateral to proportional distances to

these sides.

The Proof of this statement relies on Propositions 2 and 4.

Proposition 6 (R. Tucker ). The point of intersection of the diagonals of an

harmonic quadrilateral minimizes the sum of squares of distances from a point inside

the quadrilateral to the quadrilateral sides.

Proof. Let ABCD be an harmonic quadrilateral and M any point within.

We denote by x, y, z, u the distances of M to the

AB, BC, CD, DA sides of lenghts a, b, c, and d (Fig.

3). Let S be the area of the quadrilateral ABCD. We A

d

D

have: ax + by + cz + du = 2S. Following Cauchyu

M

Buniakowski-Schwarz Inequality, we get:

a +b +c +d

x +y +z +u

K

2

(ax + by + cz + du) ,

y

B

b

C

x2 + y 2 + z 2 + u2

4S 2

.

2

2

a + b + c2 + d2

Fig. 3

4S 2

= const.

a2 + b2 + c2 + d2

In Cauchy-Buniakowski-Schwarz Inequality, the equality occurs if

We note that the minimum sum of squared distances is

x

y

z

u

= = = .

a

b

c

d

Since {K} = AC BD is the only point with this property, it ensues that M = K,

so K has the property of the minimum in the statement.

ponding to the vertex A, where A is the harmonic conjugate of the point A1

101

A

external simedian.

A1 B

A1 B

= . In view of Proposition 1,

We have

A1 C

A1 C

we get that

A1 B

AB 2

.

=

A1 C

AC

A1

A1

Fig. 4

circumscribed to the harmonic quadrilateral intersect on the other diagonal.

Proof. Let P be the intersection of a tangent taken in D to the circle

circumscribed to the harmonic quadrilateral

D

ABCD with AC (Fig. 5). Since triangles

P DC and P AD are alike, we conclude that:

(5)

PD

PC

DC

=

=

.

PA

PD

AD

PA

=

PC

AD

DC

(6)

O

..

K

Fig. 5

This relationship indicates that P is the harmonic conjugate of K with respect to A and

C, so DP is an external simedian from D of

Q

the triangle ADC.

circle circumscribed with AC, we get:

(7)

P A

=

P C

BA

BC

From (6) and (7), as well as from the properties of the harmonic quadrilateral, we

AB

AD

PA

P A

know that

=

, which means that

= , hence P = P .

BC

DC

PC

P C

Similarly, it is shown that the tangents taken to A and C intersect at point Q

located on the diagonal BD.

Remark 5. 1) The points P and Q are the diagonal poles of BD and AC in

relation to the circle circumscribed to the quadrilateral.

2) From the previous proposition, it follows that in a triangle the internal simedian

of an angle is consecutive to the external simedians of the other two angles.

Proposition 8. Let ABCD be an harmonic quadrilateral inscribed in the circle

of center O and let P and Q be the intersections of the tangents taken in B and D,

respectively in A and C to the circle circumscribed to the quadrilateral. If {K} =

AC BD, then the orthocenter of triangle P KQ is O.

102

Proof. From the properties of tangents taken from a point to a circle, we conclude

that P O BD and QO AC. These relations show that in the triangle P KQ, P O

and QO are heights, so O is the orthocenter of this triangle.

Denition 4. The Apollonius circle related to the vertex A of the triangle ABC

is the circle built on the segment [DE] in diameter, where D and E are the feet of

the internal, respectively, external bisectors taken from A to the triangle ABC.

If the triangle ABC is isosceles with AB = AC, the Apollonius circle corresponding to vertex A is not dened.

Proposition 9. The Apollonius circle relative to the vertex A of the triangle

ABC has as center the feet of the external simedian taken from A.

Proof. Let Oa be the intersection of the exA

ternal simedian of the triangle ABC with BC

Oa

D

= 1 m B

+m C

. Oa A E

nd that m EAB

C

2

B

=

a AB

a = 1 m B

m C

. From, m EAO

m C

2

Fig. 6

a = 1 m B

it results that Oa E = Oa A; onward, EAD

m C

and m AEO

2

being a right angled triangle, we obtain Oa A = Oa D, hence Oa is the center of

Apollonius circle corresponding to the vertex A.

Proposition 10. Apollonius circle relative to the vertex A of the triangle ABC

cuts the circle circumscribed to the triangle following the internal simedian taken

from A.

Proof. Let S be the second point of intersection of Apollonius circles relative to

vertex A and the circle circumscribe the triangle ABC. Because Oa A is tangent in

A to the circle circumscribed, it results, for reasons of symmetry, that Oa S will be

tangent in S to the circumscribed circle.

For triangle ACS, Oa A and Oa S are external simedians; it results that COa a is

internal simedian in the triangle ACS, furthermore, it results that the quadrilateral

ABSC is an harmonic quadrilateral. Consequently, AS is the internal simedian of

the triangle ABC and the property is proven.

Remark 6. From this, in view of Fig. 5, it results that the circle of center

Q passing through A and C is an Apollonius circle relative to the vertex A for the

triangle ABD. This circle (of center Q and radius QC) is also an Apollonius circle

relative to the vertex C of the triangle BCD.

Similarly, the Apollonius circles corresponding to vertexes B and D and to the

triangles ABC, and ADC respectively, coincide.

Proposition 11. In an harmonic quadrilateral, the Apollonius circles - associated

with the vertexes of a diagonal and to the triangles determined by those vertexes to the

other diagonal - coincide. Radical axis of the Apollonius circles is the right determined

103

by the center of the circle circumscribed to the harmonic quadrilateral and by the

intersection of its diagonals.

Proof. Referring to Fig. 5, we observe that the power of O towards the Apollonius

circles relative to vertexes B and C of triangles ABC and BCU is OB 2 = OC 2 . So

O belongs to the radical axis of the circles.

We also have KA KC = KB KD, relatives indicating that the point K has

equal powers towards the highlighted Apollonius circles.

Bibliograe

1. R.A. Johnson Advanced Euclidean Geometry, Dover Publications, Inc. Mineola,

New York, USA, 2007.

2. F. Smarandache, I. P

atrascu The Geometry of Homological Triangles, The

Education Publisher, Inc. Columbus, Ohio, USA, 2012.

3. F. Smarandache, I. P

atrascu Variance on Topics of plane Geometry, The

Education Publisher, Inc. Columbus, Ohio, USA, 2013.

and 60 de ani. Redactia revistei foloseste acest prilej pentru a-i

ura ,,MULT

I ANI !, tr

aiti n s

an

atate, cu bucurii si noi si remarcabile succese. Dintr-un material

amplu primit de redactie, select

am un num

ar de aspecte care s

a dea contur personalit

atii sale atipice,

caracterizat

a prin energie exploziv

a, creativitate, diversitatatea domeniilor abordate, prolicitate.

Florentin Smarandache s-a n

ascut la 10 decembrie 1954 n B

alcesti, jud. V

alcea. Studiile,

de la clasele primare la cele superioare, le-a f

acut n Rom

ania. A absolvit n 1979 sectia informatic

a

a Facult

atii de S

tiinte a Universit

atii din Craiova, ca sef de promotie.

In 1988 emigreaz

a din motive politice. Din anul 2008 ocup

a o pozitie de profesor universitar

la University of New Mexico (Gallup). In 1997 obtine titlul de doctor n matematici, n domeniul

teoriei numerelor, la Universitatea de Stat din Chisin

au.

Are contributii n matematic

a (teoria numerelor, geometrie, logic

a), zic

a, lozoe, literatur

a

(poeme, nuvele, povestiri, un roman, piese de teatru, eseuri, traduceri, interviuri) si art

a (experimente

n desene, picturi, colaje, fotograi, art

a pe calculator).

In matematic

a a introdus gradul de negare al unei axiome ori teoreme (vezi geometriile smarandache, care pot partial euclidiene si partial neeuclidiene), multi-structurile (vezi n-structurile

smarandache, unde o structur

a mai slab

a contine insule de structuri mai puternice) si multi-spatiile

(combinatii de spatii heterogene). Lucr

arile sale de teoria numerelor s-au bucurat de o anumit

a

popularitate, ind preluate si dezvoltate de matematicieni rom

ani si str

aini din multe t

ari. A propus

extinderea probabilit

atilor clasice si imprecise la ,,probabilitate neutrosoc

a, ca un vector tridimensional ale c

arui componente sunt submultimi ale intervalului ne-standard ]-0,1+[. Impreun

a cu

Jean Dezert extinde Teoria Dempster-Shafer la o nou

a teorie de fuzionare a informatiei plauzibile si

paradoxiste (numit

a Teoria Dezert-Smarandache).

In zic

a a introdus paradoxuri cuantice si notiunea de ,,nematerie, format

a din combinatii de

materie si antimaterie, ca o a treia form

a posibil

a de materie. A emis ipoteza c

a ,,nu exist

a o barier

a

a vitezei n univers si se pot construi orice viteze, pe baza c

areia a propus o Teorie Absolut

a a

relativit

atii, care s

a nu produc

a dilatare a timpului sau contractare a spatiului.

In lozoe a introdus conceptul de ,,neutrosoe, ca o generalizare a dialecticii lui Hegel, care

st

a la baza cercet

arilor sale n matematic

a si economie, precum si ,,logica neutrosoc

a, ,,multime

neutrosoc

a, ,,probabilitate neutrosoc

a, ,,statistica neutrosoc

a.

In literatur

a si art

a a fondat n 1980 curentul de avangard

a numit paradoxism, care const

a n

folosirea excesiv

a n creatii a contradictiilor, antitezelor, antinomiilor, oximoronilor, paradoxurilor.

A fost nominalizat pentru premiul Nobel n literatur

a pe anul 2011.

104

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