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Introduction to linguistics

Core linguistics
Phonetics
Human speech sounds
Phonology:
Morphology: word structure
Syntax: sentences structure
Semantics; language meaning

Applied linguistics
Neurolinguistics: applying linguistics on neurology
Psycholinguistics ; applying linguistics on psychology
Sociolinguistics: applying linguistics on sociology
Pragmatics: how to understand the meaning of language from context
Stylistics: applying linguistics analyses on literature

, As we studied with Pr, Essafi we dealt with Two chapters, one concerning language and
the second is linguistics,
First, where did language comes from? This question with lead us to some theories,
The first theory is BOW BOW theory, which denotes that human imitate animals (nature
language), like birds and wild animals,
Divine theory: language is a gift from God to human beings,
DONDON theory: humans start by naming things in the external world,
Natural evolution theory; means that we are human and we are different from other
creatures, this can be confused with RATIONALIZM, and we will deal with it later.
Now we will move to deal with the features of language, which means what does make
language unique,
Human languages are:
Arbitrary, it has no organized method while learning it
Flexible: we can find that words in language have more than one meaning,

it has no location. a capacity to learn language. so it was harshly excluded because it neglected the illiterate people who are not able to write. For linguist. and this device differentiate us from other creatures (Rationalism). it’s always changeable. so that we can include all human categories Linguist: the person who’s his main domain is linguistics Linguistican who is just interested in linguistics Historical linguistics: the studies of the state of languages during history (comparative linguistics) Diachronic: it deals with the change of languages during time Synchrony: it deals with the state of language in the time of studying it. all languages are the same The Old trends of linguistics Medieval LX Roman LX Indian LX Traditional linguistics: this movement deals only with the written languages. no one is excluded. and it is not stable. however. Language is TACIT: we can understand it without knowing that Language is power: it gives you the power to debate and to converse with people and to convince them LAD: Language acquisition device: it’s a faculty that we are born with. Trend of linguistics (schools of linguistics): . Language is learnable: we acquire it and learn it. Language is interchangeable: we can give it and take it (conversations) Language is displaced: we live with it.Productive: we can produce it to communicate Universalism: we all humans have the capacity to learn language. Language is imaginable: we can imagine with it. they remain human with languages Modern linguistics: this movement was established first By Ferdinand de Saussure who come with the idea that we must examine the written and the spoken languages.

Here the sentence is grammatically correct. and the person who produce language. Swedish) . the main use of language is just for social communication. pronounced To write a speech sound you have to put it in a square brackets like . here we will ask a question that I’m sure you all have in your brain. the Empiricist school argued that we are born with empty brains like all creatures. and that what this school is studying. the human. we mean her that language is a behaviorist method to respond to others . we dealt only with 2 subfield in Core linguistics. Language families : Romance language( French. yet the it has no meaning (nonsense) Functionalism: it endorse that language is a tool that have a function. what is the difference between a speech sound and letter? To answer briefly. the main point that this school deals with is that language is an innate thing. Here we will close the chapter that deals with language and start the other chapter that concerns Linguistics Linguistics: Core linguistics. Phonetics and phonology. we deal only with the structure of language (form) and we neglect the meaning and the producer. in other words. and these realms subject matter is as we mentioned before. your language can represent you behavior . in our society. and speech sound is spoken. for example: The fish can fly in the sun. German. Germanic languages( English. these languages derived from Latin language and we call them . As we all know. Russian).Structuralism: it makes language as an object that we need to study without giving importance to the content. Comparative philology: this approach deals with language in a historical process. Italian. a letter is written. Slavic languages( polish. we are born with the capacity to learn language (LAD) and that capacity differentiate us from other creatures Empiricism: in contrary. yet we learn language due experience. Rationalism / Mentalist: this school is the most influenced one in linguistics history. Spanish ). is human speech sounds. Behaviorism: language is a series of reaction and responses that human being act in the world. proto European languages.

we are going to deal in speech sounds in general. those speech sounds have no importance as soon as they mean nothing. The second type is the impressive=IN the air comes from outside to enter to the person lungs. as soon as they are both speech sounds? To produce a consonant.The speech sounds should be meaningful and functional. if you sneezes . Types of airstream mechanism: There are two types: the first one we called the Egrissive. and are not produced to communicate. in phonetics. we mean here that the air while producing a speech sound . we must use TWO organs of speech to produce it. they must have meaning to be examined in linguistics. yet we need to know the type of speech sounds that we are going to study in this chapter in linguistics. and what are the organs which we use to produce them . yet the vowels need only one organ (the movement of the tongue) to produce a vowel. The first is the place of articulation: where this speech sounds was produced. Acoustic phonetics: how speech sounds are transmitted Auditory phonetics: how speech sounds are perceived But in our chapter. we will illustrate more in the coming sections. we are going to deal with only (articulatory phonetics). Airstream mechanism: is a system by which the air flows and generated Pulmunic: the air is in the lung Glottalic: the air is in the glottal Velaric: the air is in the velum In phonetics we have three main branches: Articulatory phonetics: how speech sounds are produced. however. you will produced a speech sounds like (atcho) . For example. Speech sounds generally are lateralized/ divided: into two Groups: Consonants/ vowels The first one that we are dealing with is the consonants. As we mentioned before. To describe a consonant you need 3 descriptions to adapt the correct answer in the exam. and get out (OUT=EGRISSIVE) . but what differentiate consonants from vowels. build in the level of the lungs.

we have 10 places and each place denotes that organ that we use to produce it. like in word (new ) N here become( ɳ ) try to say. Our mouth is divided into two areas. The last one is “Voicing”: consonants can be voiced and voiceless. lips and teeth. in alveopalatal we can notice that the word contain two organs: the palate and the alveolar ridge. (s) and (Z) and (L) and (R ). try to produce (V) and (f) Dental: here the tip of the tongue touches the teeth. and that by examining the vibration in the vocal cords. neuro . we produce consonants like (k) and (g) and (x)= kHz in words like khadija. and that include in the first place the way the air flows. you will immediately figure out that the blade of the tongue touches the palate Velars: just after the palate we have a soft place that we call the velum(soft palate) and when the blade of the tongue reach the velum. and when the front of the tongue rich that place we produce consonants like: ʃ= sh: shoes.To produce a speech sound we need organs and those organs. (it took place above the oral cavity) The second is the Manner of articulation. Uvulars: uvula is that small flesh that we can see when we face a mirror. (m) and (w) Labiodentals: here from the first sight labiodentals contains two words (labio) = lips and dental (teeth). how the speech sounds is produced. we call this place the alveolar ridge. try to produce (b) and (p) you will find that B is more powerful and take more energy than the soft P. it’s a bony organ and hard. Alveopalatals: just after the alveolar ridge. the oral cavity: (the place where the tongue and the teeth and the palate till the glottis exist) and the nasal cavity. and these organ exist in our mouth. when the tip of the tongue reach the alveolar ridge. here we can notice that the tip of the tongue reach the back of the teeth Alveolars : immediately after the teeth you will find a small bone like a step after the teeth. we produce consonants like( T) and (d) . it has a function in producing consonants like the Arabic ( q) in qalb (‫)قلب‬ Pharyngeal’s : at the level of the pharynx (‫ )البلعوم‬we produce consonants like (h) and (ħ)= (‫)ح‬ Glottals : the glottis is the last back part in the oral cavity. like in( θ) like bo(th) and (δ ) in (Th)ese. we have a place that we call the hard palate. the upper teeth with the lower lip. whenre we produce a consonant like (ʔ)=(‫)ء‬ . and Ȝ = j : jeans and (ʧ ) like in the word (change) and (ʤ) like in the word (generation) Palatals: we produce palatal consonants by an interaction between the palate and the blade of the tongue. (b). In place of articulation. so we produce a certain consonant by using here two organs. specifically. or new. Bilabials: here we use the lips to produce a consonant like (p).

it may seems hard to have a standard reference to refer to. it’s not stopped. a vowel need 4 levels to be described. (d) Nasal stops. (g) (t) . the front? Or the central. like in (s) and (z) and (x) (ʃ) and (h) Affricates : it combination between the stops and the fricatives like the consonant (tʃ) = (t) is a stop and (ʃ) is fricative . The Vertical position of the tongue: is the tongue get high or take a meddle place or low. the air stops then explodes. like (w) and (j)= ‫ي‬ The last feature in the consonants description is the voicing. so (L) is a lateral liquid . we call them semivowels because they are near from being vowel. The horizontal position of the tongue: when the tongue get high or low .In manner of articulation. yet (R ) is a non lateral liquid because the air flows from the tongue’s surface. because vowels differs from one to another. or unleashed. we are examining HOW we produce consonants Oral Stops or plosives: in this level while producing a consonant. like in (p) you stop for a short period. The last manner of articulation is the glide or semivowels or approximants. it may seem an easy task to distinguish voiceless from voiced consonants. the consonant produced from your nose. Examples: (p) Is a bilabial oral stop voiceless (t) is an alveolar oral stop voiceless (r ) is an alveolar non lateral liquid voiced (z) is an alveolar fricative voiced For vowels. which part of it moves. Or the back? . (k) . then you the air explodes. nevertheless. Liquids : in this level we have only two consonants: (L) and (R ) but we can distinguish between them by lateralization/ division In (L) we can notice that the air flow from the tongue’s sides which mean divided . the air get out from the nasal cavity not the oral cavity . like (p) (b) . these we call them. like in (n) and (m) and (ɳ) Fricatives: the air stream is free. yet cardinal vowels were established t o make a reference for all vowels As we mentioned before in consonants we need 3 levels to describe a certain consonant. stops or plosive . either consonants.

the pattern of sounds that we have about our language . for example: The lips get spread/ unrounded in some vowels like: (i) and (a) and (æ) The lips get rounded in vowels such as (o) and (u) Now if you are asked to give a description of a vowel. Here we will close the chapter of phonetics. yet. some of them need more energy like (æ) in ( cat) which is pronounced as (kæt). it refers to the knowledge that we have about our native language. each language has its own phonology. and phonology in specific because in phonetics we deals with all languages in a genanral way of analyses. Phonology In phonology we study the pattern of speech sounds in each language. vowels are not the same in their production. however. phonetics deals with speech sounds in general . as we said before. we will explain it later.Vowels need Energy to be produced. like the vowel (ʌ) in (Cut) = Kʌt So for the long vowels we called them tense like (æ) And the short vowels we called the LAX like (ʌ) The last level is the shape of the lips: how the lips becomes while producing thee vowel. your answer shall be like: (i): high front unrounded The tongue get a high position bilabial Labio-dental Stop P b Nasal M fricative Φ β F Affricate Liquid gilde w the front part of the tongue the lips are spread dental Alveolar Alveo-palatal palatal velar T V tense Θ S d N z ʃ ʧ Lr Ȝ ʤ C Ɉ K Ç ɉ x it needs more energy uvular g Q ɳ ɣ X pharyngeal glottal G ʁ ʔ xħ ʕ h ɦ j To understand the vowels more try to access to the internet and look for in youtube website about Cardinal vowels. or less energy. for example: English phonology is different from the french phonology and the Arabic phonology.

1-/ ku:zi/ : girl 4./ malen/ : clear 3-/maden/ : kill 6-/ kufa/ : here The question here is: are (t) and (d) and (l) separate phonemes or. for example: Examine the following Data. we have 3 phonological rules to apply on. why because they have the same environment / position and they don’t have the same meaning. but in phonology . A phoneme is the abstract speech sound that we have in our brain( not represented) in the external world. we use slaches /x/ to refer to what we call a phoneme. Phonology is practical. are allophones of the same phoneme./ maten/ : frog 2-/kate/ : sleep 5. the first one is the minimal pair/ minimal set: in this level. we must look in the Data and look for the Speech sounds that we are asked to examine. so we have here a minimal set in the cases number 3 and 4 and 5 See the Data again. it is probably easy to look for the free variation as soon as you are asked to examine a data and look for phonemes inside words that have the same position and the same meaning. The answer here is (t) And (d) are separate phonemes. without giving importance to the meaning. or how they can be changed with the change of the meaning. and search for the position of these speech sounds. we mean here that we apply analyses in a certain DATA./fa:sin/ : boy 2-/ ku:si / : girl 5. When we are giving a certain Data. that can be a mother tongue./ bo:zan:/ murder . I will provide a data with analyses solved. and analyze how a certain speech sounds can be changed without changing the meaning. or how they can be completely different in term of position and the meaning. example: Examine the following Data: 1-/Kade/ : dog 4. or a foreign language. To illustrate more. you will find out that we have a minimal pair there.When we use a particular speech sound between brackets. in the cases number 1 and 2 They have the same position and the meaning differs. the meaning is not important in the cases of the minimal pair and set The rule is the free variation. we represent a speech sounds in the surface .

3-/Bo:san/ : kill 6-/ fa:zin/ the sea Here the question will be : Are ( s) and (z) separate phonemes? Is there any free variation in the following data? or are they allophones of the same phoneme? Here we have a free variation in the case 1 and 2 because they have the same meaning and the same position and also in the case number 3 and 5 . so (T) is the phoneme and then we put a tree like that: . yet in number 4 and 6 we don’t have a free variation because the meaning changes ( boy) and ( the sea) here we have a minimal pair. 1-/Deutsch/: German language man 5. be careful The last phonological rule here is what we called Complementory distribution . The fisrt thing that we do here is to look for a minimal pair. Examine the following Data. because they occur in the same place and have the same meaning But you have always to look at the phonemes that your asked to examine . then is there any free variation? Awfully no. so the last step here is to start analyzing the data follow this method: Create a small chart like this: T V-C ≠-V-C ≠ -V-V V-C : between a Vowel and Consonant D ≠-≠-V-C V-V between two vowels ≠-./Volk/ : people 3-/tun/ : kill 7. So the answer here will be like that: free variation .= in the beginning of the word So here we found that (T) has more cases than( D) ./Deutsher/ : German 2-/Bite/ : sorry 6./medchen/ : girl 4-/Traurig/ : Bad 8-/Gut/ : Good The question here is : are (t) and (d) separate phonemes? Is there any free variation? Or are they allophones of the same phoneme? State the phonological rule. but we don’t have here.

yet in French for example. so the consonant F is labialized by the consonant W which affects it when we try to converse . The second one is labilasation. Nasalization : here we don’t have this process in the English language. the word ( bon) is produced with the (n) like (bo) but the nasal ( n) affect it a little./T/ (D) (T) Initially and V-C elsewhere We put elsewhere under (T) because it has more cases then (D) . as we mentioned above . we must know first what are the palatal consonant that we have in this process . we need palatals to affect consonants. so we produced it with some of the nasal influence on the vowel (o) . how does the consonant (t) becomes (tch) Here the answer is that the palatal (y)=(j) affect the ( t) to become tch in our casual speech So the process here is palatalazation Another example in palatalazation is loose you When we pronounce it becomes (luȜ ju) so how the (s) becomes (Ȝ) ? The process is palatalisation because we palatalized the s to became Ȝ in our casual speech. but in this process we need the bilabial (w) to labialize a certain consonant for example: The word (few) is produced like (fu: ) however it becomes ( fw) in our informal conversation. it becomes I hatch you ( I hitʃ ju) So the question here . look at the chart above. the palatal consonant is (j) like in Arabic ‫ ي‬for example: I hate you ======= when we pronounce it. So the answer her is that (D) and (T) are allophones of the phoneme /T/ The secondary articulation : In this chapter we are going to talk about how some consonant affect other when we try to communicate with each other(casual speech) They are 5 secondary articulation which are: Palatalzation / pharyngealazation/ nasalization/ labilazation/ aspiration If we want to palatalize a certain consonant.

Pharyngealazation. we have it only in the voiceless stops like(p) and (t) and (k) for example: Paul is a name . however in the English language. This is all folks . but in (P) we can find that it can be affected by the consonant ( h) and produced like Pᴴaul . is the process in which the pharyngeal consonant (H) affects a certain consonant like aspiration. Good luck .