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NDEJJE UNIVERSITY

FACULTY OF ENGINEERING

CIV 1201: FLUID MECHANICS I


Chapter 6: Behaviour of Real Fluids

Tutor:
Mr. Solomon Mutebi

6.1
Introduction
In the previous chapters, the basic equations of continuity, energy and
momentum, were introduced and applied to fluid flow cases where the
assumption of frictionless flow was made (i.e. fluid being treated as being ideal).
This chapter introduces the concept of real fluid flow in which viscosity will be
accepted, leading to situations where frictional effects can not be ignored.
Two cases are considered; Bounded flow and Flow around a solid body
(External flow). In this particular section, only Bounded flow, will be considered,
where the fluid moves inside a pipe or duct or in a channel so that it is guided
by a boundary surrounding the fluid. Examples of External flow include flow of
wind around a house, or an object moving through a stationary or moving fluid
e.g. an aeroplane in flight, or a sailing ship.
Note: In all the above cases, there is a velocity gradient and, thus shear
stresses in the fluid. In order to maintain flow, the shear stress must be
maintained and this can only be achieved by additional force doing work on the
fluid; in other words, there must be a continuous supply of energy for the flow
to exist.
This energy supplied, solely to maintain flow in a bounded system, is usually
expressed per unit weight of the fluid flowing and, thus is in units of fluid head.

Energy supplied per unit time


Weight of the fluid flowing

(Force) x (Distance)/time
=
=

(Specific weight) x (Discharge)

pa s t
pav
pQ

gQ
gQ gQ
p
h
g

This head (or energy) is considered as lost because it cannot be used for any
other purpose than to maintain flow, and hence is called Head Loss.

6.2

Incompressible steady and uniform Turbulent flow in bounded


conduits
Consider a small element of fluid with in a conduit (Fig 6.1). The flow is
assumed to be uniform and steady, so that the fluid acceleration in the flow
direction is zero.

Datum

Fig. 6.1: Turbulent flow in bounded conduits

Applying the momentum equation to the fluid element, in the flow direction
yields

p1 A p 2 A 0 lp w sin 0
where p is the wetted perimeter of the element defined as that part of the
conduit circumference in contact with the fluid.
Note: Including the area under which the shear stress 0 acts in the form of
l p effectively renders the derivation applicable to both open and closed
conduits.
Substituting for
and sin

w g Al ,

dz
(negative because z reduces as l increases), gives
l

A p1 p 2 0 lp g Az 0
where p1 and p2 are the static pressures in the flow at sections 1 and 2

thus,

1
p1 p 2 gz 0 p 0 .(6.1)
l
A

Note: The first term represent a drop in piezometric head over a length l of the
conduit, and the ratio

A
is known as Hydraulic mean depth, normally denoted
p

by m
Thus,

dp
1
0 0 .(6.2)
dx
m

In order to express 0 in equation (6.2), the concept of flow friction factor f is


introduced, which is a non-dimensional experimentally measured factor
normally introduced in the form

fv 2
0
..(6.3)
2
where v is the mean flow velocity

thus, from equation (6.2),

dp fv 2

..(6.4)
dx
2m

if the friction head loss down a length l of the conduit is denoted by hf, then
the rate of loss of piezometric pressure may be expressed as

dp fv 2

dx
2m

Or

But,

gh f
l

fv 2 l
hf
(6.5)
2 gm
dp d

p gz ; where z is the elevation of the conduit above some


dx
dx

datum.
For open channels, the static pressure p may be assumed to remain constant
along the channel. Thus, it follows that

dp
dz
g
g sin (6.6)
dx
dx

And for uniform flow,


the hydraulic gradient,

hf

i.e.

hf
l

the slope of the channel.

sin i (the slope)

Therefore, from equations (6.4) and (6.5), it follows that

fv 2 l
gl ,
2m
If

such that v

2g
mi
f

2g
= C..(6.7)
f
Then,

v C mi ..(6.8)

Equation (6.8) above is known as Chezy formula, where C is the Chezy


constant.

Note: For pipes running full, the wetted perimeter becomes the internal
diameter d of the pipeline.

Hence,

A
d 2 d
m

p
4d 4

Therefore, eequation (6.5) becomes

4 f l v2
hf

...(6.9)
d
2g

This is known as the Darcy equation, which gives the head loss in circular pipes

6.3

Separation Losses in pipe flow

Whenever the uniform cross-section of the pipeline is interrupted by the


inclusion of a pipe fitting such as a valve, bend, junction or flow measurement
device, then a pressure losses will occur. These losses are referred to as
'Separation losses'.
Generally, the flow separates from the pipe walls as it passes through the
obstructing pipe fitting, resulting in the generation of eddies in the flow, with
consequent pressure loss (Fig 6.2), for the case of sudden enlargement.

Fig 6.2: Separation losses in sudden enlargement

Note: For small complex pipe networks such as those found in some chemical
process plants, air crafts fuel and hydraulic systems, and in ventilation
systems, the total effect of separation losses may be the predominant factor in
the system pressure loss calculation, exceeding the contributions of the pipe
friction at the design flow rate. Conversely, in large pipe systems, such as water
distribution networks, the losses due to pipe fitting may be negligible compared
with the frictional losses and may often be ignored.

6.3.1 Losses in Sudden expansion and contraction


Fig (6.3) illustrates a sudden enlargement of the pipeline flow.

Fig 6.3 Sudden


enlargement

Considering a control volume ABCDEF, if p1 and p 2 are the pressures at


sections 1& 2 respectively, then
from continuity of flow,

A1 u1 A2 u 2

where u1 and u 2 are the respective mean

velocities.
Applying the momentum equation between points 1 and 2,
i.e. (Resultant force flow direction) = (Rate of change of momentum)

p1 A1 p ' A2 A1 p 2 A2 Q u 2 u 1

Where, Q u 2 A2 and p' is the pressure acting on the annulus represented by


AB and CD of the cross-section area A2 A1 .

Note: Since the radial acceleration at entry to the larger-diameter duct at


section ABCD is small, then p' p1 , giving

p1 p 2 A2

Q u 2 u 1

= A2 u 2 u 2 u 1

p1 p 2 u 2 u 2 u 1 ..(6.10)
Now, applying Bernoullis equation between points 1 and 2,

p1 u 12
p2 u 2 2

z1

z 2 h ; where h represents separation losses


g 2 g
g 2 g

Simplifying give,

p1 p 2 u 1 2 u 2 2

..(6.11)
g
2

Combining equations (6.10) and (6.11), gives

u 2 u1 u12 u 2 2

h u 2

g
2g

1
2
u 1 2u 2 u 1 u 2
=
2g

2
1

u2
2g

Thus, the loss due to sudden enlargement is given by;

u
h

u2
2g

..(6.12)

Alternatively, from the continuity equation,


2

u1
h
2g

A
1 1
A2

u2
2g

A2

1 (6.13)
A1

The above expression is sometimes referred to as Borda-carnot relationship, and


is usually within a few percent of the experimental results for the separation
loss incurred by sudden enlargement in coaxial pipelines.

Note: The losses into the reservoir may be obtained by considering equation
(6.13). As A2 (i.e. the reservoir is large), so u 2 0 .
2

Therefore,

u1
h
; i.e. the kinetic energy of the approaching flow
2g

Sudden Contraction

Fig 6.4: Sudden


contraction

It is not possible to apply the momentum equation between sections 1 and 2 for
the above figure owing to the uncertain pressure distribution across the face
ABCD.
However, experiments have shown that pressure losses occur as a result of
eddies formed as flow area expands from the vena contracta up to the full
cross-section of the downstream pipe.
If the area of the vena contracta is Ac , then the expression for sudden
enlargement may be applied between the vena contracta and section 2
2

Giving,

u2
h
2g

A2

1
Ac

u2
2g

1 ....(6.14)
Cc

Where C c is the coefficient of contraction for the junction based on the


smaller-pipe entry diameter BC.
In general, expression (6.14) may be written in the form:
2

2
1

u2
hK
; where K
1 is known as loss coefficient
2g
Cc

The table below shows some experimental values of C c and the corresponding
values of K obtained with sharp pipe edges.

A2

A1

0.1

0.3

0.5

0.7

1.0

Cc

0.61

0.632

0.673

0.73

1.0

0.41

0.34

0.24

0.14

Table 6.1: Loss coefficients for sudden contraction

Questions
1. A pipe of 0.09m2 area is suddenly enlarged to an area of 0.36m2. The
discharge through the pipe is 0.27m3/sec, and the pressure at the smaller
pipe is 83.3kN/m2. Determine the following:
i. the head loss due to change of section
ii. pressure at the larger part of the pipe
iii. work done in forcing the water through the enlargement
2. The diameter of a pipe is suddenly reduced from 15cm to 10cm, with a
corresponding change in pressure from 1.2bar to 1bar. Assuming a
coefficient of contraction to be 0.62, find the discharge through the pipeline
in litres/sec.

6.4

Losses in Pipe fittings, Bends and Pipe entry


2

u
Losses in pipe fittings are usually expressed in the form, h K
; where K is
2g
the fitting loss coefficient. It is a non-dimensional constant whose value is
obtained experimentally for any pipe fitting. Table 6.2 show some typical values.
Note: The major advantage of expressing losses due to separation in the above
form is that it can easily be incorporated into the steady flow energy equation.

Fitting
900 elbow
450 elbow
Return bend
Large-radius 900 bend
Tee junction
Sharp pipe entry
Sharp pipe exit
Gate valve (open to 75% shut)
Globe valve

Loss coefficient K
0.9
0.4
2.2
0.6
1.8
0.5
0.5
0.25 25
10

Table 6.2: Head loss coefficients for a range of pipe fittings

A Globe valve is used for regulating flow in a pipeline and consists of a movable
disk-type element and a stationary ring seat in a generally spherical body

A Gate Valve, or Sluice Valve, as it is sometimes known, opens by lifting a


round or rectangular gate/wedge out of the path of the fluid

Figure (6.5) illustrates the flow in a pipe bend, demonstrating the area of flow
separation which results in the loss coefficients for bens listed in Table 6.2. As
the bend becomes sharper, so the areas of separation become extensive and the
loss coefficient increases.

Fig 6.5. Separation at pipe


bends

Losses at entry to a pipe from a reservoir are a special case of sudden


contraction, in which the velocity in the reservoir is considered to be zero.
Owing to the fact that the fluid enters the pipe from all directions, a vena
contracta is formed downstream of the pipe inlet and, consequently, the loss is
associated with enlargement from the vena contracta to the full-bore pipe.

Fig 6.6. Pipe entry losses


Note: considering the above illustration for pipe entry losses, it can be seen
that the sharper the entry Conner, the smaller is the vena contracta, and,
hence, the greater the flow separation and the higher the value of K

6.5

Incompressible, steady and uniform turbulent flow in circular crosssection pipes

The head loss in turbulent flow in a closed section pipe is given by the Darcy
equation (6.9),
i.e. h f

4 f l v2

d
2g

From the equation, all other parameters are measurable apart from the friction
factor f . Thus the following are noted:
1.

h f l;

2.

hf v2;

3.

hf 1 d ;

4.

h f depends on the surface roughness of the pipe walls;

h f depends on the fluid density and viscosity;

h f is independent of pressure.

Thus, the value of f which depends on the above factors listed,

must be

selected to determine the correct value of h f . Expressed in a form suitable for


dimensional analysis, implies that

f v, d , , , k .(6.15)
where k is a measure of the size of wall roughness
In general rough pipe case, dimensional analysis yields an expression

f 2 vd , k d
Or in terms of Reynolds Number,

f 2 Re , k d

Hence f is a function of Re and k/d. This relationship has been found


experimentally for turbulent flow conditions, and the values of f have been
plotted on a chart for different values of Re and k/d. This chart is known as the
Moody Chart (Fig 6.7

Fig 6.7 The Moody Chart


This chart allows the calculation of f provided the values for Re and k/d are
known.
Laminar flow
When laminar flow is present, the friction factor may be computed analytically
for both smooth and rough walls as

16
.(6.16)
R2

Turbulent flow
For turbulent flow in a smooth pipe, the equation for friction factor developed
by Blasius is given by

0.079
.(6.17)
0.25
R2

Otherwise the Moody chart should always be used to determine the value of f
given Re and k/d. Colebrook expressed the information provided by the Moody
chart for the turbulent regime in form of an equation known as Colebrook-White
equation, i.e.

2k
1
9.3
3.48 1.74 ln
f
d Re f

..(6.18)

Note: This equation is transcendental, and therefore iteration is always needed


to calculate f

Question
1

Calculate the loss of head due to friction and the power required to
maintain flow in a horizontal circular pipe of 40mm diameter and 750m
long when water (coefficient of dynamic viscosity 1.14 x 10 -3 Nsm-2) flows
at a rate of: (a) 4.0 litres/min, (b) 30 litres/min. Assume that for the
pipe the absolute roughness is 0.00008m.

A hydraulic plant consists of a reservoir which supplies a turbine via a


1.5m diameter, commercial steel pipe which is 7km long. The turbine is
situated 260m below the water level in the reservoir and flow is
controlled by a butterfly valve just upstream of the turbine. With the
valve half open, its loss coefficient is 8.5 and the volumetric flow rate is
4.5m3/s. If the turbine is 88% efficient, determine the output power
generated.

(Assume that flow, after passing through the turbine, discharges to atmosphere
and that all other specific loses may be neglected. Take the kinematic viscosity
of water as 1.3 x 10-6 m2/s )
3. A pump is to transport 0.02 m3/s of water from a tank to another tank 30m
above. The commercial steel pipe with a diameter of 100mm, and 62m long
is used. If the specific losses amount to 8.3 times the kinetic energy head of
water in the pipe, calculate
a. The pipe friction factor
b. The specific work input to the water
c. The input power to the pump which has an efficiency of 68%

Take 1.01 *10 3 kg / ms


4. A 300 mm diameter pipe connects a water reservoir to a turbine 275m below
the reservoir. The head loss (frictional + specific) in the pipeline amounts to
56 times the kinetic energy head of water in the pipe. The combined
mechanical and electrical efficiency of the turbine/alternator is 78%. For a
water velocity of 4.9 m/s in the pipe, calculate
a. The mass flow rate of water
b. The efficiency of transmission of hydraulic power to the turbine
c. The electrical power developed

6.6

STEADY INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOW IN PIPE AND DUCT SYSTEMS

This section is concerned with the analysis of the steady flow of a liquid in
closed or open conduits.

A Closed conduit; is a pipe or duct through which the fluid flows while completely
filling the x-section. Since the fluid has no free surface, it can be either a liquid
or a gas, its pressure may be above or below atmospheric pressure, and this
pressure may vary from x-section to x-section along its length.

An Open conduit is a duct or open channel along which a liquid flows with the
free surface. At all points along its length, the pressure at the free surface will
be the same, usually atmospheric. An open conduit may be covered provided
that it is not running full and the liquid retains a free surface; a partly filled
pipe would, for example, be treated as an open channel.

In either case as the fluid flows over a solid boundary, a shear stress will be
developed at the surface of contact and will oppose fluid motion. This is called
frictional resistance which results in energy transfer with in the systems,
experienced as a loss measurable in a fluid flow by changes in the fluid
pressure or head. In addition to these losses attributable to friction, separation
losses due to the flow disruption at changes in section, direction or around

values and other flow obstructions also contributes to the overall energy
transfers to be accounted for.

Consider the fig below showing energy changes in a flowing fluid.

Applying the energy equation yields the steady flow energy equation as. (i.e.
between A and B)
2
2
p A 1 2 v A gz A p pump p B 1 2 v B gz B 1 2 ku 2

defined in terms of pressure, e.g. for steady flow in air duct systems

The Pressure losses due to friction and separation being represented as

1 ku 2 ;
2

u = local flow velocity


k = Constant dependent upon the pipe or conduit parameters

i.e. length, diameter, Roughness or fitting type.

Expressed in energy per unit weight (energy head), gives

hA

vA

2g

z A h pump hB

vB

2g

z B ku

2g

the head term being measured in meters of flowing fluid.

The continuity of flow equation is given by

Volume per unit time


Entering a control volume at A

Volume per unit time


leaving the control volume
At B

Analysis of all steady flow problems in pipes and channels with based on the
application of these equations (stead flow energy eqn.) and the continuity of
volumetric flow equation applied between suitable points in the system.

Incompressible Flow through Ducts and Pipes


The pressure loss p or energy lost per unit volume due to friction may be
expressed via the Darcy equation.

p 4 flv

2D

And for circular x-section conduit flowing full, terms of head lost

h 4 flv

2 gD

For laminar flow f

16
and hence depends only on flow velocity.
Re

Separation losses may be expressed as pressure term k . 1 v 2

k. v

2g

Where k depends on the type of fitting encountered

or head term

Question
Water discharges from a reservoir (fig below) through a 100mm pipe 15m long,
which rises to its highest point at B, 1.5m above the free surface of the
reservoir, and discharges direct to the atmosphere at C, 4m below the free
surface at A. the length of pipe L1 from A to B is 5m and the length of pipe L2
from B and C is 10m. Both the entrance and exit of the pipe are sharp and the
value of f = 0.08.
Calculate,
a) the mean velocity of water leaving the pipe at C
b) the pressure in the pipe B.

Incompressible flow through pipes in series


When pipes of different diameters are connected end-to-end to form a
pipeline, so that the fluid flows through each pipe in turn, the pipes are said
to be in series. The total loss of energy, or pressure loss, over the whole
pipeline will be the sum of the losses for each pipe together with any
separation losses such as might occur at the junctions, entrance or exit.

The losses encouraged are:


i. Loss at entrance to pipe AC. This is a separation loss and is given as
2

v1
h1 0.5
2g
ii. Friction loss in AC. Given by the Darcy formula, as loss of head in friction in

AC h f1

4 fl f1 v 1

2 gd1

iii. Loss at change of section at C. There will be a separation loss at the sudden
change of section given as
Loss of head at sudden enlargement,

h2

v1 v2 2
2g

iv. Friction loss in CB. Given by Darcy formula as loss of head in friction in CB,

4 fl2 v 2
h f2
2 gd 2

v. Loss of head at exit. Which is a separation loss given as


2

h3

v2
2g

Incompressible flow through pipes in parallel


When two reservoirs are connected by two or more pipes in parallel (refer to fig
below), the fluid can flow from one to the other by a number of alternative
routes. The difference of head h available to produce flow will be the same for
each pipe. Thus each pipe can be considered separately, entirely independent of
any other pipes running in parallel.

For incompressible flow, the steady flow by each route and the total volume rate
of flow will be the sum of the volume rates of flow in each pipe.

Incompressible flow through branching pipes; the three-reservoir problem


If the flow from the upper reservoir passes through a single pipe which then
divides and the two branch pipes lead to two separate reservoirs with different
surface levels (refer to below), sometimes it is difficult to decide the direction of
flow in one of the pipes

However, if the hydraulic gradient lines are drawn as shown, flow will be from
D to B if the level of the hydraulic gradient at D is above the level of the free
surface at B. If below the level of B, then flow will be in the reverse direction
i.e. from B to D.

Unfortunately, the hydraulic gradient cannot be drawn until the problem has
been solved and so its value ( z D

pD

), at D cannot be determined initially.

In many cases, the direction of flow is reasonably obvious, but if it is doubtful,


e.g. in DB, imagine that this branch is closed and calculate the value of
( zD

pD

) when there is flow from A to C only. If ( z D

pD

) is greater than

ZB for this condition, flow will initially be from D to B when the branch DB is
opened.

At point D, it follows from continuity of flow that

Q1 Q2 Q3
Question
Two sharp-ended pipes of diameters d1 = 50mm and d2 = 100mm, each of
length 100m, are connected in parallel between two reservoirs which have a
difference of level h = 10m. If the Darcy coefficient f = 0.008 for each pipe,
calculate,
i. The rate of flow in each pipe
ii. The diameter D of a single pipe 100m long that would give the same
flow if it was substituted for the original two pipes

Question
Water flows from reservoir A through a pipe of diameter d1 = 120mm and
length l1 = 120m to a junction at D, from which a pipe of diameter d2 = 75mm
and length l2 = 60m leads to reservoir B, in which the water level 16m below
that in reservoir A. A third pipe of diameter d3 = 60mm and length l3 = 40m
leads from D to reservoir C, in which the water level is 24m below that in
reservoir A. Taking f = 0.01 for all the pipes and neglecting all losses other than
those due to friction, determine the volume rate of flow in each pipe