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FACULTY OF ENGINEERING

Chapter 6: Behaviour of Real Fluids

Tutor:

Mr. Solomon Mutebi

6.1

Introduction

In the previous chapters, the basic equations of continuity, energy and

momentum, were introduced and applied to fluid flow cases where the

assumption of frictionless flow was made (i.e. fluid being treated as being ideal).

This chapter introduces the concept of real fluid flow in which viscosity will be

accepted, leading to situations where frictional effects can not be ignored.

Two cases are considered; Bounded flow and Flow around a solid body

(External flow). In this particular section, only Bounded flow, will be considered,

where the fluid moves inside a pipe or duct or in a channel so that it is guided

by a boundary surrounding the fluid. Examples of External flow include flow of

wind around a house, or an object moving through a stationary or moving fluid

e.g. an aeroplane in flight, or a sailing ship.

Note: In all the above cases, there is a velocity gradient and, thus shear

stresses in the fluid. In order to maintain flow, the shear stress must be

maintained and this can only be achieved by additional force doing work on the

fluid; in other words, there must be a continuous supply of energy for the flow

to exist.

This energy supplied, solely to maintain flow in a bounded system, is usually

expressed per unit weight of the fluid flowing and, thus is in units of fluid head.

Weight of the fluid flowing

(Force) x (Distance)/time

=

=

pa s t

pav

pQ

gQ

gQ gQ

p

h

g

This head (or energy) is considered as lost because it cannot be used for any

other purpose than to maintain flow, and hence is called Head Loss.

6.2

conduits

Consider a small element of fluid with in a conduit (Fig 6.1). The flow is

assumed to be uniform and steady, so that the fluid acceleration in the flow

direction is zero.

Datum

Applying the momentum equation to the fluid element, in the flow direction

yields

p1 A p 2 A 0 lp w sin 0

where p is the wetted perimeter of the element defined as that part of the

conduit circumference in contact with the fluid.

Note: Including the area under which the shear stress 0 acts in the form of

l p effectively renders the derivation applicable to both open and closed

conduits.

Substituting for

and sin

w g Al ,

dz

(negative because z reduces as l increases), gives

l

A p1 p 2 0 lp g Az 0

where p1 and p2 are the static pressures in the flow at sections 1 and 2

thus,

1

p1 p 2 gz 0 p 0 .(6.1)

l

A

Note: The first term represent a drop in piezometric head over a length l of the

conduit, and the ratio

A

is known as Hydraulic mean depth, normally denoted

p

by m

Thus,

dp

1

0 0 .(6.2)

dx

m

introduced, which is a non-dimensional experimentally measured factor

normally introduced in the form

fv 2

0

..(6.3)

2

where v is the mean flow velocity

dp fv 2

..(6.4)

dx

2m

if the friction head loss down a length l of the conduit is denoted by hf, then

the rate of loss of piezometric pressure may be expressed as

dp fv 2

dx

2m

Or

But,

gh f

l

fv 2 l

hf

(6.5)

2 gm

dp d

dx

dx

datum.

For open channels, the static pressure p may be assumed to remain constant

along the channel. Thus, it follows that

dp

dz

g

g sin (6.6)

dx

dx

the hydraulic gradient,

hf

i.e.

hf

l

fv 2 l

gl ,

2m

If

such that v

2g

mi

f

2g

= C..(6.7)

f

Then,

v C mi ..(6.8)

constant.

Note: For pipes running full, the wetted perimeter becomes the internal

diameter d of the pipeline.

Hence,

A

d 2 d

m

p

4d 4

4 f l v2

hf

...(6.9)

d

2g

This is known as the Darcy equation, which gives the head loss in circular pipes

6.3

inclusion of a pipe fitting such as a valve, bend, junction or flow measurement

device, then a pressure losses will occur. These losses are referred to as

'Separation losses'.

Generally, the flow separates from the pipe walls as it passes through the

obstructing pipe fitting, resulting in the generation of eddies in the flow, with

consequent pressure loss (Fig 6.2), for the case of sudden enlargement.

Note: For small complex pipe networks such as those found in some chemical

process plants, air crafts fuel and hydraulic systems, and in ventilation

systems, the total effect of separation losses may be the predominant factor in

the system pressure loss calculation, exceeding the contributions of the pipe

friction at the design flow rate. Conversely, in large pipe systems, such as water

distribution networks, the losses due to pipe fitting may be negligible compared

with the frictional losses and may often be ignored.

Fig (6.3) illustrates a sudden enlargement of the pipeline flow.

enlargement

sections 1& 2 respectively, then

from continuity of flow,

A1 u1 A2 u 2

velocities.

Applying the momentum equation between points 1 and 2,

i.e. (Resultant force flow direction) = (Rate of change of momentum)

p1 A1 p ' A2 A1 p 2 A2 Q u 2 u 1

AB and CD of the cross-section area A2 A1 .

section ABCD is small, then p' p1 , giving

p1 p 2 A2

Q u 2 u 1

= A2 u 2 u 2 u 1

p1 p 2 u 2 u 2 u 1 ..(6.10)

Now, applying Bernoullis equation between points 1 and 2,

p1 u 12

p2 u 2 2

z1

g 2 g

g 2 g

Simplifying give,

p1 p 2 u 1 2 u 2 2

..(6.11)

g

2

u 2 u1 u12 u 2 2

h u 2

g

2g

1

2

u 1 2u 2 u 1 u 2

=

2g

2

1

u2

2g

u

h

u2

2g

..(6.12)

2

u1

h

2g

A

1 1

A2

u2

2g

A2

1 (6.13)

A1

is usually within a few percent of the experimental results for the separation

loss incurred by sudden enlargement in coaxial pipelines.

Note: The losses into the reservoir may be obtained by considering equation

(6.13). As A2 (i.e. the reservoir is large), so u 2 0 .

2

Therefore,

u1

h

; i.e. the kinetic energy of the approaching flow

2g

Sudden Contraction

contraction

It is not possible to apply the momentum equation between sections 1 and 2 for

the above figure owing to the uncertain pressure distribution across the face

ABCD.

However, experiments have shown that pressure losses occur as a result of

eddies formed as flow area expands from the vena contracta up to the full

cross-section of the downstream pipe.

If the area of the vena contracta is Ac , then the expression for sudden

enlargement may be applied between the vena contracta and section 2

2

Giving,

u2

h

2g

A2

1

Ac

u2

2g

1 ....(6.14)

Cc

smaller-pipe entry diameter BC.

In general, expression (6.14) may be written in the form:

2

2

1

u2

hK

; where K

1 is known as loss coefficient

2g

Cc

The table below shows some experimental values of C c and the corresponding

values of K obtained with sharp pipe edges.

A2

A1

0.1

0.3

0.5

0.7

1.0

Cc

0.61

0.632

0.673

0.73

1.0

0.41

0.34

0.24

0.14

Questions

1. A pipe of 0.09m2 area is suddenly enlarged to an area of 0.36m2. The

discharge through the pipe is 0.27m3/sec, and the pressure at the smaller

pipe is 83.3kN/m2. Determine the following:

i. the head loss due to change of section

ii. pressure at the larger part of the pipe

iii. work done in forcing the water through the enlargement

2. The diameter of a pipe is suddenly reduced from 15cm to 10cm, with a

corresponding change in pressure from 1.2bar to 1bar. Assuming a

coefficient of contraction to be 0.62, find the discharge through the pipeline

in litres/sec.

6.4

2

u

Losses in pipe fittings are usually expressed in the form, h K

; where K is

2g

the fitting loss coefficient. It is a non-dimensional constant whose value is

obtained experimentally for any pipe fitting. Table 6.2 show some typical values.

Note: The major advantage of expressing losses due to separation in the above

form is that it can easily be incorporated into the steady flow energy equation.

Fitting

900 elbow

450 elbow

Return bend

Large-radius 900 bend

Tee junction

Sharp pipe entry

Sharp pipe exit

Gate valve (open to 75% shut)

Globe valve

Loss coefficient K

0.9

0.4

2.2

0.6

1.8

0.5

0.5

0.25 25

10

A Globe valve is used for regulating flow in a pipeline and consists of a movable

disk-type element and a stationary ring seat in a generally spherical body

round or rectangular gate/wedge out of the path of the fluid

Figure (6.5) illustrates the flow in a pipe bend, demonstrating the area of flow

separation which results in the loss coefficients for bens listed in Table 6.2. As

the bend becomes sharper, so the areas of separation become extensive and the

loss coefficient increases.

bends

contraction, in which the velocity in the reservoir is considered to be zero.

Owing to the fact that the fluid enters the pipe from all directions, a vena

contracta is formed downstream of the pipe inlet and, consequently, the loss is

associated with enlargement from the vena contracta to the full-bore pipe.

Note: considering the above illustration for pipe entry losses, it can be seen

that the sharper the entry Conner, the smaller is the vena contracta, and,

hence, the greater the flow separation and the higher the value of K

6.5

The head loss in turbulent flow in a closed section pipe is given by the Darcy

equation (6.9),

i.e. h f

4 f l v2

d

2g

From the equation, all other parameters are measurable apart from the friction

factor f . Thus the following are noted:

1.

h f l;

2.

hf v2;

3.

hf 1 d ;

4.

h f is independent of pressure.

must be

dimensional analysis, implies that

f v, d , , , k .(6.15)

where k is a measure of the size of wall roughness

In general rough pipe case, dimensional analysis yields an expression

f 2 vd , k d

Or in terms of Reynolds Number,

f 2 Re , k d

experimentally for turbulent flow conditions, and the values of f have been

plotted on a chart for different values of Re and k/d. This chart is known as the

Moody Chart (Fig 6.7

This chart allows the calculation of f provided the values for Re and k/d are

known.

Laminar flow

When laminar flow is present, the friction factor may be computed analytically

for both smooth and rough walls as

16

.(6.16)

R2

Turbulent flow

For turbulent flow in a smooth pipe, the equation for friction factor developed

by Blasius is given by

0.079

.(6.17)

0.25

R2

Otherwise the Moody chart should always be used to determine the value of f

given Re and k/d. Colebrook expressed the information provided by the Moody

chart for the turbulent regime in form of an equation known as Colebrook-White

equation, i.e.

2k

1

9.3

3.48 1.74 ln

f

d Re f

..(6.18)

to calculate f

Question

1

Calculate the loss of head due to friction and the power required to

maintain flow in a horizontal circular pipe of 40mm diameter and 750m

long when water (coefficient of dynamic viscosity 1.14 x 10 -3 Nsm-2) flows

at a rate of: (a) 4.0 litres/min, (b) 30 litres/min. Assume that for the

pipe the absolute roughness is 0.00008m.

1.5m diameter, commercial steel pipe which is 7km long. The turbine is

situated 260m below the water level in the reservoir and flow is

controlled by a butterfly valve just upstream of the turbine. With the

valve half open, its loss coefficient is 8.5 and the volumetric flow rate is

4.5m3/s. If the turbine is 88% efficient, determine the output power

generated.

(Assume that flow, after passing through the turbine, discharges to atmosphere

and that all other specific loses may be neglected. Take the kinematic viscosity

of water as 1.3 x 10-6 m2/s )

3. A pump is to transport 0.02 m3/s of water from a tank to another tank 30m

above. The commercial steel pipe with a diameter of 100mm, and 62m long

is used. If the specific losses amount to 8.3 times the kinetic energy head of

water in the pipe, calculate

a. The pipe friction factor

b. The specific work input to the water

c. The input power to the pump which has an efficiency of 68%

4. A 300 mm diameter pipe connects a water reservoir to a turbine 275m below

the reservoir. The head loss (frictional + specific) in the pipeline amounts to

56 times the kinetic energy head of water in the pipe. The combined

mechanical and electrical efficiency of the turbine/alternator is 78%. For a

water velocity of 4.9 m/s in the pipe, calculate

a. The mass flow rate of water

b. The efficiency of transmission of hydraulic power to the turbine

c. The electrical power developed

6.6

This section is concerned with the analysis of the steady flow of a liquid in

closed or open conduits.

A Closed conduit; is a pipe or duct through which the fluid flows while completely

filling the x-section. Since the fluid has no free surface, it can be either a liquid

or a gas, its pressure may be above or below atmospheric pressure, and this

pressure may vary from x-section to x-section along its length.

An Open conduit is a duct or open channel along which a liquid flows with the

free surface. At all points along its length, the pressure at the free surface will

be the same, usually atmospheric. An open conduit may be covered provided

that it is not running full and the liquid retains a free surface; a partly filled

pipe would, for example, be treated as an open channel.

In either case as the fluid flows over a solid boundary, a shear stress will be

developed at the surface of contact and will oppose fluid motion. This is called

frictional resistance which results in energy transfer with in the systems,

experienced as a loss measurable in a fluid flow by changes in the fluid

pressure or head. In addition to these losses attributable to friction, separation

losses due to the flow disruption at changes in section, direction or around

values and other flow obstructions also contributes to the overall energy

transfers to be accounted for.

Applying the energy equation yields the steady flow energy equation as. (i.e.

between A and B)

2

2

p A 1 2 v A gz A p pump p B 1 2 v B gz B 1 2 ku 2

defined in terms of pressure, e.g. for steady flow in air duct systems

1 ku 2 ;

2

k = Constant dependent upon the pipe or conduit parameters

hA

vA

2g

z A h pump hB

vB

2g

z B ku

2g

Entering a control volume at A

leaving the control volume

At B

Analysis of all steady flow problems in pipes and channels with based on the

application of these equations (stead flow energy eqn.) and the continuity of

volumetric flow equation applied between suitable points in the system.

The pressure loss p or energy lost per unit volume due to friction may be

expressed via the Darcy equation.

p 4 flv

2D

And for circular x-section conduit flowing full, terms of head lost

h 4 flv

2 gD

16

and hence depends only on flow velocity.

Re

k. v

2g

or head term

Question

Water discharges from a reservoir (fig below) through a 100mm pipe 15m long,

which rises to its highest point at B, 1.5m above the free surface of the

reservoir, and discharges direct to the atmosphere at C, 4m below the free

surface at A. the length of pipe L1 from A to B is 5m and the length of pipe L2

from B and C is 10m. Both the entrance and exit of the pipe are sharp and the

value of f = 0.08.

Calculate,

a) the mean velocity of water leaving the pipe at C

b) the pressure in the pipe B.

When pipes of different diameters are connected end-to-end to form a

pipeline, so that the fluid flows through each pipe in turn, the pipes are said

to be in series. The total loss of energy, or pressure loss, over the whole

pipeline will be the sum of the losses for each pipe together with any

separation losses such as might occur at the junctions, entrance or exit.

i. Loss at entrance to pipe AC. This is a separation loss and is given as

2

v1

h1 0.5

2g

ii. Friction loss in AC. Given by the Darcy formula, as loss of head in friction in

AC h f1

4 fl f1 v 1

2 gd1

iii. Loss at change of section at C. There will be a separation loss at the sudden

change of section given as

Loss of head at sudden enlargement,

h2

v1 v2 2

2g

iv. Friction loss in CB. Given by Darcy formula as loss of head in friction in CB,

4 fl2 v 2

h f2

2 gd 2

2

h3

v2

2g

When two reservoirs are connected by two or more pipes in parallel (refer to fig

below), the fluid can flow from one to the other by a number of alternative

routes. The difference of head h available to produce flow will be the same for

each pipe. Thus each pipe can be considered separately, entirely independent of

any other pipes running in parallel.

For incompressible flow, the steady flow by each route and the total volume rate

of flow will be the sum of the volume rates of flow in each pipe.

If the flow from the upper reservoir passes through a single pipe which then

divides and the two branch pipes lead to two separate reservoirs with different

surface levels (refer to below), sometimes it is difficult to decide the direction of

flow in one of the pipes

However, if the hydraulic gradient lines are drawn as shown, flow will be from

D to B if the level of the hydraulic gradient at D is above the level of the free

surface at B. If below the level of B, then flow will be in the reverse direction

i.e. from B to D.

Unfortunately, the hydraulic gradient cannot be drawn until the problem has

been solved and so its value ( z D

pD

e.g. in DB, imagine that this branch is closed and calculate the value of

( zD

pD

pD

) is greater than

ZB for this condition, flow will initially be from D to B when the branch DB is

opened.

Q1 Q2 Q3

Question

Two sharp-ended pipes of diameters d1 = 50mm and d2 = 100mm, each of

length 100m, are connected in parallel between two reservoirs which have a

difference of level h = 10m. If the Darcy coefficient f = 0.008 for each pipe,

calculate,

i. The rate of flow in each pipe

ii. The diameter D of a single pipe 100m long that would give the same

flow if it was substituted for the original two pipes

Question

Water flows from reservoir A through a pipe of diameter d1 = 120mm and

length l1 = 120m to a junction at D, from which a pipe of diameter d2 = 75mm

and length l2 = 60m leads to reservoir B, in which the water level 16m below

that in reservoir A. A third pipe of diameter d3 = 60mm and length l3 = 40m

leads from D to reservoir C, in which the water level is 24m below that in

reservoir A. Taking f = 0.01 for all the pipes and neglecting all losses other than

those due to friction, determine the volume rate of flow in each pipe

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