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# BA(H)Economics 2016

## Linear Algebra and Calculus

Assignment 4
Topic: Calculus of Several Variables

## Limit of two variables

Definition. n-Space Rn
The n-dimensional space Rn is the set of all n-tuples (x1 , x2 , x3 , ..., xn ) of real numbers.
1. Determine wheather the limit exit. If so, find its value.
(a)
x4 y 4
(x,y)(0,0) x2 + y 2
lim

(b)
x4 16y 4
(x,y)(0,0) x2 + 4y 2
lim

(c)
lim

(x,y)(0,0)

xy
3x2 + 2y 2

(d)
1 x2 y 2
x2 + y 2
(x,y)(0,0)
lim

## 2. Determine the limit :

(a)
xz 2

lim

(x,y,z)(2,1,2)

(b)
lim

(x,y,z)(2,0,1)

x2 + y 2 + z 2

ln {2x + y z}

(c)
sin(x2 + y 2 + z 2 )
p
(x,y,z)(0,0,0)
x2 + y 2 + z 2
lim

(d)

p
sin( x2 + y 2 + z 2 )
lim
x2 + y 2 + z 2
(x,y,z)(2,1,2)
3. Find
lim

(x,y)(0,1)

tan

x2 + 1
x2 + (y 2)2

tan

x2 1
x2 + (y 2)2

4. Find
lim

(x,y)(0,1)

Subspace

## Definition. Intersection of two Subspaces:

T
Let U and V be subspaces of the vectorTspace W. Their intersection U V is the set of all vectors
that are both in U and in V.
T Show that U V is a subspace of W. If U and V are two planes through
the origin in R3 , what is U V ?

## Definition. Sum of two Subspaces:

Let U and V be subspaces of the vector space W. Their sum U + V is the set of all vectors w of the
form
w =u+v

where u is in U and v is in V. Show that U + V is subspace of W. If U and V are lines through the origin
in R3 , what is U + V ?
1. Show that the set V = {(x, y, z)|x, y, z R and x + y = 11} is not a subspace of R3 .
2. Show that the set V = {(x, y, z)|x, y, z R and x.x = z.z} is not a subspace of R3 .
3. Show that the set V = {(x, y, z)|x, y, z R and x + 2y + z = 0} is a subspace of R3 .
4. Examine whether or not M = {(r, r + 2, 0)|r R} is a subspace of R3 .
5. Examine whether or not M = the set of all polynomials p(x), with p(3) = 0, is a vector space.
6. S = (2, 5, 3) and T = (2, 0, 5) The intersection of span(S) and span(T) is a vector space. Find this
space.
7. Show that {(1, 2, 3), (2, 3, 4), (3, 4, 5)} is not a basis of R3 .
8. Find a basis of R3 containing the vectors (1, 2, 5) and (0,1,2).
9. Assume that v and w are linear independent vectors. Prove that v , w and (v + w) are linear
dependent vectors.
10. Find the coordinates of the vector (3,2,1) relative to the basis ((1,0,2),(2,1,0),(0,3,5)) in R3 .
11. Find the solution space of the linear system:
3x + 2y + 6z = 0
x y + 2z = 0
2x + y + 8z = 0
12. All polynomials p(x) with degree not greater than 2 constitute a vector space V. Replace in (1, 1 +
x2 , b(x)) the polynomial b(x) such that it becomes an ordered basis for that vector space.
13. S = {(2, 5, 3), (1, 0, 2)} and T = {(2, 0, 5), (3, 5, 5)} The intersection of span(S) and span(T) is a
vector space. What is the dimension of that space.
14. Assume that v and w are linear independent vectors. Prove that v and (v + w) are linear independent vectors.
15. Find the condition for r and s such that the vectors (r, 2, s), (r + 1, 2, 1) and (3, s, 1) are linear
dependent.
16. Find, for each m, the solution space of the linear system
3x + 2y + mz = 0
mx y + 4z = 0
2x + y + 3z = 0
17. In the vector space V = R3 , we take a set S = (4, 5, 6), (r, 5, 1), (4, 3, 2) Find the values of r such
that the vector space spanned by S is not V.
Dharmendra Kumar, Department of Mathematics, SGTB Khalsa College

18. In R3 we have basis B = ((1, 0, 1), (0, 2, 0), (1, 2, 3)) and a basis C = ((1, 0, 0), (2, 0, 1), (0, 0, 3)) The
coordinates of a vector v relative to B are (x,y,z). The coordinates of a vector v relative to C are
(x,y,z). Write the relation between these coordinates in matrix notation.
19. Let M = span {(1 + m, 4, 2); (5, 6, 1 m)}, N = span {(5 + 2m, 10, 0)} Show that (1 + m, 4, 2)
and (5, 6, 1 m) are linear independent for all real m values. Calculate m such that M+N is not
a direct sum.

## MATHEMATICS FOR ECONOMISTS, Carl P. Simon Lawrence Blume

1. Which of the following are subspaces of R3 . Explain your answer.


(a) V0 = (x1 , x2 , 0) : x1 , x2 R3


(b) V1 = (x1 , x2 , 1) : x1 , x2 R3

(c) Let w be the vector (1, 1, 1) R3 and let V2 be the set of all scalar multiples of w.

(d) Let V4 be the set of all vectors in R3 whose components sum to zero:
(e) Consider the set V5 of vectors in R2 whose components sum to 1. This set can be considered
as the set of portfolios in a two asset market in which short sales are allowed. Is V5 a vector
space?
(f) Let V6 be the set of vectors in R4 whose second and third components are identical. Show
that subset V6 is a subspace of R4
2. Which of the following are subspaces of R3 . Explain your answer.
(a) W1 = {(x, y) : x = 0}
(b) W2 = {(x, y) : x = 1}
(c) W3 = {(x, y) : 3x + 4y = 0}


(d) W4 = (x, y) : x2 = y 2
(e) W5 = {(0, 1)}

(f) W6 = {(x, y) : x + y = 0, x y = 0}


3. Let W = (x1 , x2 ) R2 : x1 , x2 0 the nonnegative quadrant in R2 . Show that W is closed
underr addition but is not a subspace.


4. Let W = (x1 , x2 ) R2 : x1 = 0, x2 = 0 is the set of all points in R2 lying on either the x1 axis or
the x2 axis. Show that W is closed under scalar multiplication but is nonetheless not a subspace.

Basis

Linear Transformation

## Theorem 4.1 Let T be a Linear Transformation

Definition. Kernal of L: Let L : V W be a linear Transformation. The kernel of L, defined by
kerL, is the subset of V , consisting of all vectors v such that L(v) = 0w .
Definition. Range of L: If L : V W is a linear Transformation then the range of L, defined by range
L, is the set of all vectors in W, that are images, under L, of vectors in V.
Definition. If L : V W is a linear Transformation then ker L is a subspace of V
Definition. If L : V W is a linear Transformation then Range L is a subspace of V
Definition. A Linear Transformation L : V W is said to be one to one if for all v1 , v2 V if
v1 6= v2 L(v1 ) 6= L(v2 )