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BA(H)Economics 2016
Linear Algebra and Calculus
Assignment 4
Topic: Limit

Limit

Definition 1.1 Limit


Let f (x) be defined on an open interval about x0 , except possibly at x0 itself. We say that the limit of
f (x) as x approaches to x0 is the number L, and write
lim f (x) = L
xx0

if, for every number > 0, there exists a corresponding number such that for all x,
0 < |x x0 | <

|f (x) L| <

Definition 1.2 Continuous Functions


Let A R, let f : A R, and let c A. We say that f is continuous at c if, given any number
> 0, there exists > 0 such that if x is any point of A satisfying
|x x0 | <

|f (x) f (c)| < .

If f fails to be continuous at c, then we say that f is discontinuous at c.


Definition 1.3 f is continuous on set B
Let A R and let f : A R. If B is a subset of A, we say that f is continuous on the set B if f is
continuous at every point of B.

Questions on Limit of f (x) at x0


1. Apply definition of limit, to prove the following:
(a) limxc b = b
(b) limxc x = c
(c) limxc x2 = c2
2. Show that limxc

1
x

does not exist in R.

3. Check the following functions:


(a) The constant function f (x) = b is continuous on R.
(b) g(x) = x is continuous in R.
(c) h(x) = x2 is continuous in R.
(d) (x) =
(e) (x) =

1
x
1
x

is continuous on A = {x R : x > 0}.


is not continuous at x = 0.

(f) The signum function sgn is not continuous at 0.


4. Evaluate the following limits, or show that they do not exist.
(a) limx1+

x
x1

Dharmendra Kumar, Department of Mathematics, SGTB Khalsa College

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5. Define F : [0, 1] R such that


F (x) =

1
2
3
2

x if 0 < x 21
x if 12 < x 1

Determine limx 21 F (x).


6. Show that

Definition 1.4 A matrix is


Questions on Continuous functions
1. Use definition to prove that the following function is continuous at x = 0

x cos x1 if x 6= 0
f (x) =
0
if x = 0
2.
3. Show that
is continuous at x = 0 and x = 1.

F (x) = |x| + |x 1|

4. Show that
F (x) = |x| + |x 1| + |x 2|

is continuous at x = 0, x = 1 and x = 2.

5. Determine the points of continuity of the following functions and state which theorems are used in
each case.
x2 +2x+1
x2 +1

(x R)

(b) g(x) = x + x (x 0)

1+|sin(x)|
(c) h(x) =
(x 6= 0)
x
2
(x R)
(d) k(x) = cos 1 + x
(a) f (x) =

6. If x R, we define JxK to be the greatest integer n Z such that n x. (Thus, for example, J8.3K
= 8, JK = 3, JK = -4.) The function x 7 JxK is called the greatest integer function. Determine
the points of continuity of the following functions:
(a) f(x) = JxK
(b) g(x) = xJxK
(c) h(x) = Jsin(x)K
(d) k(x) = J x1 K (x 6= 0)
7. Determine the points of discontinuity of the following function:
f (x) = |x| + JxK, x R

Questions on Intermediate Value Theorem


1. State Intermediate Value Theorem. Let f : [0, 1] R be a function defined by:
1
2 x, if 0 x 12
3
x, if 12 < x < 1
f (x) =
2
2,
x=1

Does f possesses Intermediate value property? Is the function f continuous at x = 21 ?

Dharmendra Kumar, Department of Mathematics, SGTB Khalsa College

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2. Let
f (x) =

sin x
ax + b

if x c
if x > c

Find the values of a and b(in terms of c) such that f (c).


3. Discuss the validity of intermediate value theorem for the function

x 1 if 1 x < 0
f (x) =
2x + 1 if 0 x 1
4. State Lagranges mean value theorem and verify it for
p
f (x) = x2 4 in [2, 4]
5. State Lagranges Mean Value Theorem. Use it to prove the following inequality:
1

tan x tan1 y < |x y| x, y R

6. State Lagranges Mean Value Theorem. Use it to prove the following inequality:
|sin x sin y| |x y| x, y R
7. State and check the validity of Intermediate value theorem for the function:

1x
if 0 x 1
f (x) =
1 x if 1 x < 0
8. Let f be a continuous function on [a, b] and x1 , x2 , ..., xn be points of [a, b]. Show that there exit a
point c [a, b] such that:
f (x1 ) + f (x2 ) + ... + f (xn )
f (c) =
n

Dharmendra Kumar, Department of Mathematics, SGTB Khalsa College