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# Ion Patrascu | Florentin Smarandache

## Complements to Classic Topics

of Circles Geometry

Pons Editions
Brussels | 2016

## Complements to Classic Topics

of Circles Geometry

## In the memory of the first author's father

Mihail Patrascu and the second author's
mother Maria (Marioara) Smarandache,
recently passed to eternity...

## Complements to Classic Topics

of Circles Geometry

Pons Editions
Brussels | 2016
3

## 2016 Ion Patrascu & Florentin Smarandache

copyright. No part of this book may be
reproduced in any form or by any means,
including photocopying or using any
information storage and retrieval system
without written permission from the

ISBN 978-1-59973-465-1

## Complements to Classic Topics of Circles Geometry

Contents
Introduction ....................................................... 15
Lemoines Circles ............................................... 17
1st Theorem. ...........................................................17
Proof. .................................................................17
nd
2 Theorem.......................................................... 19
Proof. ................................................................ 19
Remark. ............................................................ 21
References. ........................................................... 22
Lemoines Circles Radius Calculus ..................... 23
1st Theorem ........................................................... 23
Proof. ................................................................ 23
Consequences. ................................................... 25
st
1 Proposition....................................................... 25
Proof. ................................................................ 25
nd
2 Proposition. .................................................... 26
Proof. ................................................................ 27
Remarks. ........................................................... 28
3rd Proposition. ..................................................... 28
Proof. ................................................................ 28
Remark. ............................................................ 29
References. ........................................................... 29
Radical Axis of Lemoines Circles ........................ 31
1st Theorem. ...........................................................31
2nd Theorem...........................................................31
1st Remark. .........................................................31
1st Proposition....................................................... 32
Proof. ................................................................ 32

## Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache

Comment........................................................... 34
2nd Remark. ....................................................... 34
nd
2 Proposition. .................................................... 34
References. ........................................................... 34
Generating Lemoines circles ............................. 35
1st Definition. ........................................................ 35
1st Proposition....................................................... 35
2nd Definition. ....................................................... 35
1st Theorem. .......................................................... 36
3rd Definition. ....................................................... 36
1st Lemma. ............................................................ 36
Proof. ................................................................ 36
Remark. ............................................................ 38
2nd Theorem.......................................................... 38
Proof. ................................................................ 38
Further Remarks. .............................................. 40
References. ........................................................... 40
The Radical Circle of Ex-Inscribed Circles of a
Triangle .............................................................41
1st Theorem. .......................................................... 41
Proof. ................................................................ 41
nd
2 Theorem.......................................................... 43
Proof. ................................................................ 43
Remark. ............................................................ 44
rd
3 Theorem. ......................................................... 44
Proof. ................................................................ 45
References. ........................................................... 48
The Polars of a Radical Center ........................... 49
1st Theorem. .......................................................... 49
Proof. ................................................................ 50

## Complements to Classic Topics of Circles Geometry

2nd Theorem...........................................................51
Proof. ................................................................ 52
Remarks. ........................................................... 52
References. ........................................................... 53
Regarding the First Droz-Farnys Circle ............. 55
1st Theorem. .......................................................... 55
Proof. ................................................................ 55
Remarks. ........................................................... 57
nd
2 Theorem.......................................................... 57
Remark. ............................................................ 58
Definition. ............................................................ 58
Remark. ............................................................ 58
rd
3 Theorem. ......................................................... 58
Proof. ................................................................ 59
Remark. ............................................................ 60
th
4 Theorem. ......................................................... 60
Proof. ................................................................ 60
Reciprocally. ..................................................... 61
Remark. ............................................................ 62
References. ........................................................... 62
Regarding the Second Droz-Farnys Circle.......... 63
1st Theorem. .......................................................... 63
Proof. ................................................................ 63
1st Proposition....................................................... 65
Proof. ................................................................ 65
Remarks. ........................................................... 66
2nd Theorem.......................................................... 66
Proof. ................................................................ 67
Reciprocally. ..................................................... 67
Remarks. ........................................................... 68

## 2nd Proposition. .................................................... 68

Proof. ................................................................ 69
References. ........................................................... 70
Neubergs Orthogonal Circles ............................. 71
1st Definition. .........................................................71
2nd Definition. ....................................................... 72
3rd Definition. ....................................................... 72
1st Proposition....................................................... 72
Proof. ................................................................ 73
Consequence. .................................................... 74
nd
2 Proposition. .................................................... 74
Proof. ................................................................ 74
th
4 Definition. ....................................................... 75
3rd Proposition. ..................................................... 75
Proof. ................................................................ 75
Reciprocally. ..................................................... 76
4th Proposition. ..................................................... 76
Proof. ................................................................ 77
References. ........................................................... 78
Lucass Inner Circles.......................................... 79
1. Definition of the Lucass Inner Circles .......... 79
Definition. ............................................................ 80
2. Calculation of the Radius of the A-Lucas Inner
Circle .................................................................... 80
Note. ................................................................. 81
1st Remark. ........................................................ 81
3. Properties of the Lucass Inner Circles .......... 81
1st Theorem. .......................................................... 81
Proof. ................................................................ 81
nd
2 Definition. ....................................................... 83

## Complements to Classic Topics of Circles Geometry

Remark. ............................................................ 83
2 Theorem.......................................................... 84
3rd Definition. ....................................................... 84
3rd Theorem. ......................................................... 84
Proof. ................................................................ 85
Remarks. ........................................................... 86
4th Definition. ....................................................... 87
1st Property. .......................................................... 87
Proof. ................................................................ 87
2nd Property. ......................................................... 88
Proof. ................................................................ 88
References. ........................................................... 88
Theorems with Parallels Taken through a
Triangles Vertices and Constructions Performed
only with the Ruler ............................................ 89
1st Problem. ........................................................... 89
2nd Problem........................................................... 89
3rd Problem. .......................................................... 90
1st Lemma. ............................................................ 90
Proof. ................................................................ 91
Remark. ............................................................ 92
nd
2 Lemma. ........................................................... 92
Proof. ................................................................ 92
3rd Lemma. ........................................................... 93
Solution. ............................................................ 93
Constructions Proof. ........................................ 93
Remark. ............................................................ 94
1st Theorem. ......................................................... 95
Proof. ................................................................ 96
2nd Theorem. ....................................................... 97
nd

## Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache

Proof. ................................................................ 98
Remark. ............................................................ 99
3rd Theorem. ......................................................... 99
Proof. ................................................................ 99
Reciprocally. ................................................... 100
Solution to the 1st problem. ................................. 101
Solution to the 2nd problem. ................................ 101
Solution to the 3rd problem. ............................... 102
References. ......................................................... 102
Apolloniuss Circles of kth Rank ......................... 103
1st Definition. ...................................................... 103
2nd Definition. ..................................................... 103
1st Theorem. ........................................................ 103
Proof. .............................................................. 104
rd
3 Definition. ..................................................... 105
2nd Theorem........................................................ 105
Proof. .............................................................. 106
rd
3 Theorem. ....................................................... 107
Proof. .............................................................. 107
th
4 Theorem. ....................................................... 108
Proof. .............................................................. 108
1st Remark. ...................................................... 108
5th Theorem. ....................................................... 108
Proof. .............................................................. 109
th
6 Theorem. ....................................................... 109
Proof. .............................................................. 109
4th Definition. ...................................................... 110
1st Property. ......................................................... 110
2nd Remark. ...................................................... 110
7th Theorem. ........................................................ 111

10

## Proof. ............................................................... 111

References. .......................................................... 112
Apolloniuss Circle of Second Rank ................... 113
1st Definition. ....................................................... 113
1st Theorem. ......................................................... 113
1st Proposition...................................................... 114
Proof. ............................................................... 114
Remarks. .......................................................... 115
nd
2 Definition. ...................................................... 115
3rd Definition. ...................................................... 116
2nd Proposition. ................................................... 116
Proof. ............................................................... 116
Remarks. .......................................................... 118
Open Problem. ..................................................... 119
References. ......................................................... 120
A Sufficient Condition for the Circle of the 6 Points
to Become Eulers Circle ................................... 121
1st Definition. ....................................................... 121
1st Remark. .......................................................122
nd
2 Definition. ......................................................122
2nd Remark. ......................................................122
1st Proposition......................................................122
Proof. ...............................................................122
3rd Remark. ......................................................123
3rd Definition. ......................................................123
4th Remark. ..................................................... 124
st
1 Theorem. ........................................................ 124
Proof. .............................................................. 124
th
4 Definition. ..................................................... 126
2nd Proposition. .................................................. 126

11

## 1st Proof. .......................................................... 126

2nd Proof. .......................................................... 127
5th Remark. ..................................................... 128
References. ......................................................... 128
An Extension of a Problem of Fixed Point ......... 129
Proof. .............................................................. 130
1st Remark. .......................................................132
2nd Remark. ......................................................132
3rd Remark. ...................................................... 133
References. .......................................................... 133
Some Properties of the Harmonic Quadrilateral 135
1st Definition. ....................................................... 135
2nd Definition. ...................................................... 135
1st Proposition...................................................... 135
2nd Proposition. .................................................. 136
Proof. .............................................................. 136
Remark 1. ......................................................... 137
rd
3 Proposition. .................................................... 137
Remark 2......................................................... 138
Proposition 4. ..................................................... 138
Proof. .............................................................. 139
3rd Remark. ..................................................... 140
5th Proposition. ................................................... 140
6th Proposition. ................................................... 140
Proof. .............................................................. 140
rd
3 Definition. ..................................................... 142
4th Remark. ..................................................... 142
7th Proposition. ................................................... 143
Proof. .............................................................. 143
5th Remark. ..................................................... 144

12

## 8th Proposition. ................................................... 145

Proof. .............................................................. 145
4th Definition. ..................................................... 146
6th Remark. ..................................................... 146
9th Proposition. ................................................... 146
Proof. .............................................................. 146
10th Proposition. ..................................................147
Proof. ...............................................................147
7th Remark....................................................... 148
th
11 Proposition. .................................................. 148
Proof. .............................................................. 149
References. ......................................................... 149
Triangulation of a Triangle with Triangles having
Equal Inscribed Circles ..................................... 151
Solution. .............................................................. 151
Building the point D. ........................................... 153
Proof. .............................................................. 154
Discussion. ....................................................... 155
Remark. .......................................................... 156
Open problem. .................................................... 156
An Application of a Theorem of Orthology ........ 157
Proposition. ......................................................... 157
Proof. .............................................................. 158
Remark. .......................................................... 160
Note. ............................................................... 160
References. ......................................................... 162
The Dual of a Theorem Relative to the Orthocenter
of a Triangle ..................................................... 163
1st Theorem. ........................................................ 163
Proof. .............................................................. 164

13

## Note. ............................................................... 165

2 Theorem........................................................ 165
Proof. .............................................................. 166
References. ......................................................... 168
The Dual Theorem Concerning Auberts Line ....169
1st Theorem. ........................................................ 169
Proof. .............................................................. 169
Note. ................................................................ 171
st
1 Definition. ....................................................... 171
Note. ................................................................ 171
nd
2 Definition. ...................................................... 172
2nd Theorem......................................................... 172
Note. ................................................................ 172
3rd Theorem. ........................................................ 172
Proof. ............................................................... 173
Notes. ...............................................................174
4th Theorem. ........................................................174
Proof. ...............................................................174
References. ..........................................................176
Bibliography..................................................... 177
nd

14

## Complements to Classic Topics of Circles Geometry

Introductory Note

## We approach several themes of classical

geometry of the circle and complete them
with some original results, showing that not
everything in traditional math is revealed,
and that it still has an open character.
The topics were chosen according to
authors aspiration and attraction, as a poet
writes lyrics about spring according to his
emotions.

15

16

## Complements to Classic Topics of Circles Geometry

Lemoines Circles
in a different manner than the known one.

1st Theorem.
Let a triangle and its simedian center. We
take through K the parallel 1 2 to , 1 (), 2
(); through 2 we take the antiparallels 2 1 to
in relation to and , 1 () ; through 1 we
take the parallel 1 2 to , 2 ; through 2 we
take the antiparallels 1 1 to , 1 () , and
through 1 we take the parallel 1 2 to , 1 ().
Then:
i.
2 1 is an antiparallel of ;
ii.
1 2 1 2 = { };
iii.
The points 1 , 2 , 1 , 2 , 1 , 2 are
concyclical (the first Lemoines circle).
Proof.
i.

The
2
is
a
parallelogram, and its center, i.e. the
middle of the segment (2 1 ), belongs to
the simedian ; it follows that 2 2 is
an antiparallel to (see Figure 1).

17

ii.

iii.

## Let {} = 1 2 1 2 , because the

quadrilateral 1 2 is a parallelogram;
it follows that is a simedian; also,
is a simedian, and since , 1 2 , it
follows that we have = .
2 1 being an antiparallel to and
1 2 , it means that 2 1 is an
antiparallel to 1 2 , so the points
2 , 1 , 2 , 1 are concyclical. From 1 2
, 2 1 , 1 2 we
get that the quadrilateral 2 1 2 1 is an
isosceles trapezoid, so the points
2 , 1 , 2 , 1 are concyclical. Analogously,
it can be shown that the quadrilateral
2 1 2 1 is an isosceles trapezoid,
therefore the points 2 , 1 , 2 , 1 are
concyclical.

Figure 1

18

## From the previous three quartets of concyclical

points, it results the concyclicity of the points
belonging to the first Lemoines circle.

2nd Theorem.
In the scalene triangle , let K be the simedian
center. We take from the antiparallel 1 2 to ;
1 , 2 ; through 2 we build 2 1 ; 1
(), then through 1 we build 1 2 the antiparallel
to , 2 (), and through 2 we build 2 1 ,
1 , and, finally, through 1 we take the
antiparallel 1 2 to , 2 ().
Then:
i.
2 1 ;
ii.
1 2 1 2 = { };
iii.
The
points
1 , 2 , 1 , 2 , 1 , 2
are
concyclical (the second Lemoines circle).
Proof.
i.

Let {} = 1 2 1 2 , having 1 2 =
and 1 2 because 1 2
i 1 2 are antiparallels to , ,
respectively, it follows that 1 2
2 1 , so 1 = 2 ; having 1 2
1 2 as well, it follows that also 2 =
1 , so 1 2 = 1 2 . Because 1 2 and
1 2 are antiparallels to and , we

19

## have "2 = "1 ; we noted {"} = 1 2

1 2 ; since 1 2 1 2 , we have that the
triangle "1 2 is also isosceles, therefore
"1 = 1 2 , and we get that 1 2 = 1 2 .
Let {} = 1 2 1 2 ; since 1 2 and
1 2 are antiparallels to and , we
get that the triangle 2 1 is isosceles,
so 2 = 1 , but 1 2 = 1 2 implies
that 2 = 1 , then 1 2
2 1 and, accordingly, 2 1 .

Figure 2

ii.

We noted {} = 1 2 1 2 ; let {} =
2 1 1 2 ; obviously, 1 2 is a
parallelogram; if 0 is the middle of
(1 2 ), then 0 is a simedian, since 1 2
is an antiparallel to , and the middle of
the antiparallels of are situated on the

20

## Complements to Classic Topics of Circles Geometry

iii.

simedian . If 0 K, then 0 1 2
(because 1 2 = 1 2 and 1 2 1 2 ),
on the other hand, , 0 , K are collinear
(they belong to the simedian ),
therefore 0 intersects in , which is
absurd, so 0 =K, and, accordingly, 1 2
1 2 = { } . Analogously, we prove that
1 2 1 2 = { }, so 1 2 1 2 = { }.
K is the middle of the congruent
antiparalells 1 2 , 1 2 , 1 2 , so 1 =
2 = 1 = 2 = 1 = 2
.
The
simedian center is the center of the
second Lemoines circle.

Remark.
The center of the first Lemoines circle is the
middle of the segment [ ], where is the center of
the circle circumscribed to the triangle . Indeed,
the perpendiculars taken from , , on the
antiparallels 2 1 , 1 2 , 1 2 respectively pass
through O, the center of the circumscribed circle (the
antiparallels have the directions of the tangents taken
to the circumscribed circle in , , ). The mediatrix of
the segment 2 1 pass though the middle of 2 1 ,
which coincides with the middle of , so is the
middle line in the triangle passing through the
middle of () . Analogously, it follows that the
mediatrix of 1 2 pass through the middle 1 of [ ].

21

## Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache

References.
 D. Efremov: Noua geometrie a triunghiului [The
New Geometry of the Triangle], translation
from Russian into Romanian by Mihai Miculia,
Cril Publishing House, Zalau, 2010.
 Gh. Mihalescu: Geometria elementelor remarcabile
[The Geometry of the Outstanding Elements],
Tehnica Publishing House, Bucharest, 1957.
 Ion Patrascu, Gh. Margineanu: Cercul lui Tucker
[Tuckers Circle], in Alpha journal, year XV, no.
2/2009.

22

## Complements to Classic Topics of Circles Geometry

Calculus
For the calculus of the first Lemoines
circle, we will first prove:

1st Theorem
(E. Lemoine 1873)

## The first Lemoines circle divides the sides of a

triangle in segments proportional to the squares of the
triangles sides.
Each extreme segment is proportional to the
corresponding adjacent side, and the chord-segment
in the Lemoines circle is proportional to the square of
the side that contains it.
Proof.
We will prove that

2
2

2 1
2

1
2

## In figure 1, represents the symmedian center

of the triangle , and 1 2 ; 1 2 ; 1 2 represent
Lemoine parallels.
The triangles 2 1 ; 1 2 and 2 1 have
heights relative to the sides 2 ; 1 and 2 1 equal
(1 2 ).

23

Hence:
1 2

2 1
2 1

1 2
1

(1)

Figure 1

## On the other hand: 1 2 and 1 2 being

antiparallels with respect to and , it follows that
2 1 ~ and 1 2 ~ , likewise 2
implies: 2 1 ~.
We obtain:
2 1

2 1

1 2

22

2
2 12

2
12
2

(2)

## If we denote = , we obtain from the

relations (1) and (2) that:
2
2

2 1
2

1
2

24

## Complements to Classic Topics of Circles Geometry

Consequences.
1. According to the 1st Theorem, we find that:
2 =

2
2 + 2 + 2

; 1 =

2
2 + 2 + 2

; 1 2 =

3
2 + 2 + 2

## 2. We also find that:

1 2
3

2 1
3

1 2
3

meaning that:
The chords determined by the first Lemoines
circle on the triangles sides are proportional to
the cubes of the sides.
Due to this property, the first Lemoines circle is
known in England by the name of triplicate ratio circle.

1st Proposition.
The radius of the first Lemoines circle, 1 is
given by the formula:
1 2 (2 + 2 + 2 )+ 2 2 2
,
(2 + 2 + 2 )2
4

21 =

(3)

## where represents the radius of the circle inscribed

in the triangle .
Proof.
Let be the center of the first Lemoines circle
that is known to represent the middle of the segment
() being the center of the circle inscribed in the
triangle .

25

( 2 +2 )
2 + 2 + 2

## Taking into account the power of point in

relation to the first Lemoines circle, we have:
2 1 = 2 2 ,
( is the tangent traced from to the first Lemoines
circle, see Figure 1).
Hence: 21 = 2 2 1 .
(4)
The median theorem in triangle implies
that:
2 =

2( 2 +2 ) 2
4

It is known that =

(2 + 2 )
2 + 2 + 2

; =

2
2 + 2

## where and are the lengths of the symmedian

and the median from , and 2 = 2

32 2 2
(2 + 2 + 2 )

, see

(3).
Consequently: 2 =
42 = 2 +

22 2 (2 + 2 )2 2 2
(2 + 2 + 2 )2

42 2 (2 + 2 )+2 2 2

As: 2 1 =

(2 + 2 + 2 )2
2 2 (2 + 2 )
(2 + 2 + 2 )2

, and

, by replacing in (4),

## we obtain formula (3).

2nd Proposition.
The radius of the second Lemoines circle, 2 , is
given by the formula:
2 =

2 + 2 + 2

(5)

26

Proof.

Figure 2

## In Figure 2 above, 1 2 ; 1 2 ; 1 2 are Lemoine

antiparallels traced through symmedian center that
is the center of the second Lemoines circle, thence:
2 = 1 = 2 .
If we note with and the feet of the
symmedian and the median from , it is known that:

2 + 2
2

## From the similarity of triangles 2 1 and ,

we have:

1 2

But:

2 + 2
2 + 2 + 2

and =

2
2 + 2

1 2 = 22 , = , therefore:
2 =

2
2

and as =

2 + 2 + 2

27

Remarks.
1. If we use =

4
2 + 2 + 2

## angle (see ), we obtain: 2 = .

2. If, in Figure 1, we denote with 1 the middle
of the antiparallel 2 1 , which is equal to 2 (due to
their similarity), we thus find from the rectangular
triangle 1 1 that:
1

12 = 12 + 1 12 , but 12 = 2 and 1 2 =
4

1
2

2 ; it follows that:
1

21 = (2 + 22 ) =

(1 + 2 ).

We obtain:
1 =

1 + 2 .

3rd Proposition.
The chords determined by the sides of the
triangle in the second Lemoines circle are
respectively proportional to the opposing angles
cosines.
Proof.
2 1

is

an

isosceles

triangle,

2 1 =

deci

2 1
cos

= 22 , similary:

2 1
cos

28

2 1
cos

= 22 .

2 1
2

## Complements to Classic Topics of Circles Geometry

Remark.
Due to this property of the Lemoines second
circle, in England this circle is known as the cosine
circle.

References.
 D. Efremov, Noua geometrie a triunghiului [The
New Geometry of the Triangle], translation
from Russian into Romanian by Mihai Miculia,
Cril Publishing House, Zalau, 2010.
 F. Smarandache and I. Patrascu, The Geometry of
Homological Triangles, The Education Publisher,
Ohio, USA, 2012.
 I. Patrascu and F. Smarandache, Variance on
Topics of Plane Geometry, Educational
Publisher, Ohio, USA, 2013.

29

30

## Complements to Classic Topics of Circles Geometry

Circles
axis of the Lemoines circles.
For the start, let us remind:

1st Theorem.
The parallels taken through the simmedian
center of a triangle to the sides of the triangle
determine on them six concyclic points (the first
Lemoines circle).

2nd Theorem.
The antiparallels taken through the triangles
simmedian center to the sides of a triangle determine
six concyclic points (the second Lemoines circle).
1st Remark.
If is a scalene triangle and is its
simmedian center, then , the center of the first
Lemoines circle, is the middle of the segment [ ],
where is the center of the circumscribed circle, and

31

## the center of the second Lemoines circle is . It

follows that the radical axis of Lemoines circles is
perpendicular on the line of the centers , therefore
on the line .

1st Proposition.
The radical axis of Lemoines circles is perpendicular on the line raised in the simmedian center .
Proof.
Let 1 2 be the antiparallel to taken through
, then 1 is the radius 2 of the second Lemoines
circle; we have:
2 =

2 + 2 + 2

Figure 1

32

## Let 1 2 be the Lemoines parallel taken to ;

we evaluate the power of towards the first
Lemoines circle. We have:

= 2 2 .

(1)
1

that:
1

We obtain:
1 =
but

2
2

and

and 2 =
=

2 + 2
2 + 2 + 2

Therefore:
2
2 2 2

1
2 = ( ) = 2
;
( + 2 )2

( 2 + 2 )

(2 + 2 + 2 )2

= 22 .

(2)

## We draw the perpendicular in on the line

and denote by and its intersection to the first
Lemoines circle.
= 2 ; by the other hand,
We have

2

## = ( is a chord which is perpendicular to the

diameter passing through ).
It follows that = = 2 , so and are
situated on the second Lemoines circle.
Because is a chord which is common to the
Lemoines circles, it obviously follows that is the

33

## Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache

Comment.
Equalizing (1) and (2), or by the Pythagorean
theorem in the triangle , we can calculate 1 .
32 2 2

It is known that: 2 = 2 (2

+ 2 + 2 )2

, and

## since = , we find that:

21

2
1

2 2 2

+ 2 + 2 )2

= [2 + (2

].

2nd Remark.
The 1st Proposition, ref. the radical axis of the
Lemoines circles, is a particular case of the following
Proposition, which we leave to the reader to prove.

2nd Proposition.
If (1 , 1 ) i (2 , 2 ) are two circles such as
the power of center 1 towards (2 , 2 ) is 12 , then
the radical axis of the circles is the perpendicular in
1 on the line of centers 1 2 .

References.
 F. Smarandache, Ion Patrascu: The Geometry of
Homological Triangles, Education Publisher,
Ohio, USA, 2012.
 Ion Patrascu, F. Smarandache: Variance on Topics
of Plane Geometry, Education Publisher, Ohio,
USA, 2013.

34

## Generating Lemoines circles

In this paper, we generalize the theorem
relative to the first Lemoines circle and
thereby

highlight

method

to

build

Lemoines circles.
Firstly, we review some notions and results.

1st Definition.
It is called a simedian of a triangle the symmetric
of a median of the triangle with respect to the internal
bisector of the triangle that has in common with the
median the peak of the triangle.

1st Proposition.
In the triangle , the cevian , (), is a
simedian if and only if

## = ( ) . For Proof, see .

2nd Definition.
It is called a simedian center of a triangle (or
Lemoines point) the intersection of triangles
simedians.

35

## Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache

1st Theorem.
The parallels to the sides of a triangle taken
through the simedian center intersect the triangles
sides in six concyclic points (the first Lemoines circle
- 1873).
A Proof of this theorem can be found in .

3rd Definition.
We assert that in a scalene triangle the line
, where and , is an antiparallel to
if .

1st Lemma.
In the triangle , let be a simedian,
(). If is the middle of the segment (), having
() and (), belonging to the simedian ,
then and are antiparallels.
Proof.
We draw through and , and ,
, () , see Figure 1. Let {} = ; since
= and is a parallelogram, it follows that
.

36

Figure 1.

(1)

(2)

(3)

=
=

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

or

37

## Therefore, and are antiparallels in

relation to and .
Remark.
1. The reciprocal of Lemma 1 is also valid,
meaning that if is the middle of the antiparallel
to , then belongs to the simedian from .

2nd Theorem.
(Generalization of the 1st Theorem)

## Let be a scalene triangle and its simedian

center. We take and draw , ,
where , . Then:
i.
;
ii.
, and intersect the sides of
triangle in six concyclic points.
Proof.
In triangle , let 1 , 1 , 1 the simedians
concurrent in (see Figure 2).
We have from Thales' Theorem that:

=
=

(1)

(2)

(3)

38

## Let , , , , , be the intersection points of

the parallels , , of the sides of the triangles to
the other sides.
; ; are parallelograms.
The middle of the diagonal falls on , so on
the simedian , and from 1st Lemma we get that
is an antiparallel to .
Since , it follows that and are
antiparallels, therefore the points , , , are
concyclic (4).

Figure 2.

## Analogously, we show that the points , , ,

are concyclic (5). From and antiparallels,
and antiparallels, we have that and
, therefore: , and since

39

## , it follows that the trapeze is isosceles,

therefore the points , , , are concyclic (6).
The relations (4), (5), (6) drive to the
concyclicality of the points , , , , , , and the
theorem is proved.
Further Remarks.
2. For any point found on the simedian 1 , by
performing the constructions from hypothesis, we get
a circumscribed circle of the 6 points of intersection
of the parallels taken to the sides of triangle.
3. The 2nd Theorem generalizes the 1st Theorem
because we get the second in the case the parallels are
taken to the sides through the simedian center .
4. We get a circle built as in 2nd Theorem from
the first Lemoines circle by homothety of pole and
of ratio .
5. The centers of Lemoines circles built as above
belong to the line , where is the center of the
circle circumscribed to the triangle .

References.
 Exercices de Gomtrie, par F.G.M., Huitime
dition, Paris VIe, Librairie Gnrale, 77, Rue Le
Vaugirard.
 Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache: Variance on
topics of Plane Geometry, Educational
Publishing, Columbus, Ohio, 2013.

40

## The Radical Circle of ExInscribed Circles of a Triangle

circle of ex-inscribed circles of a triangle
and calculate the radius of the circle from
vectorial considerations.

1st Theorem.
The radical center of the ex-inscribed circles of
the triangle is the Spieckers point of the triangle
(the center of the circle inscribed in the median
triangle of the triangle ).
Proof.
We refer in the following to the notation in
Figure 1. Let , , be the centers of the ex-inscribed
circles of a triangle (the intersections of two external
bisectors with the internal bisector of the other angle).
Using tangents property taken from a point to a circle
to be congruent, we calculate and find that:
= = = = = = ,
= = = = ,

41

## Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache

= = = = ,
= = = = .
If 1 is the middle of segment , it follows
that 1 has equal powers to the ex-inscribed circles
( ) and ( ). Of the previously set, we obtain that 1
is the middle of the side .

Figure 1.

## Also, the middles of the segments and ,

which we denote and , have equal powers to the
circles ( ) and ( ).
The radical axis of the circles ( ), ( ) will
include the points 1 , , .
Because = and = , it follows that
1

2

42

## radical axis of the ex-inscribed circles ( ) and ( ) is

the parallel taken through the middle 1 of the side
to the bisector of the angle .
Denoting 1 and 1 the middles of the sides ,
, respectively, we find that the radical center of the
ex-inscribed circles is the center of the circle inscribed
in the median triangle 1 1 1 of the triangle .
This point, denoted , is the Spieckers point of
the triangle ABC.

2nd Theorem.
The radical center of the inscribed circle () and
of the ex-inscribed and ex-inscribed circles of
the triangle is the center of the 1 ex-inscribed
circle of the median triangle 1 1 1 , corresponding to
the triangle ).
Proof.
If is the contact of the inscribed circle with
and is the contact of the ex-inscribed circle with
, it is known that these points are isotomic,
therefore the middle of the segment is the middle
of the side , which is 1 .
This point has equal powers to the inscribed
circle () and to the ex-inscribed circle ( ), so it

43

## Analogously, 1 is on the radical axis of the

circles () and ( ).
The radical axis of the circles ( ), ( ) is the
perpendicular taken from 1 to the bisector .
This bisector is parallel with the internal
bisector of the angle 1 1 1 , therefore the
perpendicular in 1 on is the external bisector of
the angle 1 1 1 from the median triangle.
Analogously, it follows that the radical axis of
the circles (), ( ) is the external bisector of the angle
1 1 1 from the median triangle.
Because the bisectors intersect in the center of
the circle 1 -ex-inscribed to the median triangle
1 1 1 , this point is the center of the radical center
of the circles (), ( ), ( ).
Remark.
The theorem for the circles (), ( ), ( ) and (),
( ), ( ) can be proved analogously, obtaining the
points and .

3rd Theorem.
The radical circles radius of the circles exinscribed to the triangle is given by the formula:
1
2

44

## Complements to Classic Topics of Circles Geometry

Proof.
The position vector of the circle of the
inscribed circle in the triangle ABC is:
+
).
= 1 (
+

## Spieckers point is the center of radical circle

of ex-inscribed circle and is the center of the inscribed
circle in the median triangle 1 1 1 , therefore:
1 1

1 + 1
1 ).
1 + 1
= (
2

Figure 2.

We denote by the contact point with the -exinscribed circle of the tangent taken from to this
circle (see Figure 2).

45

= 2 2
1

= (
1 + 1 + 1 ).
2

## We evaluate the product of the scales

;
we have:
1
2 = 2 (2 12 + 2 12 + 2 12 + 2
1
4

1 + 2
1 1 + 2 1 1 ).
From the law of cosines applied in the triangle
1 1 , we find that:
1 2
2
2

2
1 1 = 1 + 1 , therefore:
4

1
2
2
2

2
1 1 = ( 1 + 1 .
4

Analogously, we obtain:
1 2
2
2

2
1 1 = ( 1 + 1 ,

2
1 1 =
2 =

1
4

( 12

12

+ ( 2 + + ) 12

2 =

1
42
1
2

2 .
4

2
2
( 2 + +
2 [( + + ) 1 +

) 12

2 =

4
1

( + + )],

[2( 12 + 12 + 12 ) 2 ],
1

( 12 + 12 + 12 ) .
2

## From the right triangle 1 , we have that:

2

12 = 2 + 1 2 = 2 + [ ( )] =
2
= 2 +

()2
4

find:

46

## Complements to Classic Topics of Circles Geometry

12 = 2 + 1 2 = 2 + [ ( )] =
2
1
2
= + ( + )2 ,
4

12

+ ( + ) .
4

Evaluating 12 + 12 + 12 , we obtain:
12 + 12 + 12 =
1

= 22 + ( + + ) .
But:
+ + = 2 + 2 + 4.
It follows that:
1
2

[ 12 + 12 + 12 ] = 2 + ( 2 + 2 ) +

and
1

2 = 2 + ( 2 + 2 ).
4

Then, we obtain:
1

= 2 + 2 .
2

47

## Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache

References.
 C. Barbu: Teoreme fundamentale din geometria
triunghiului [Fundamental Theorems of
Triangle Geometry]. Bacau, Romania: Editura
Unique, 2008.
 I. Patrascu, F. Smarandache: Variance on topics of
plane geometry. Columbus: The Educational
Publisher, Ohio, USA, 2013.

48

In  ,

the

late

mathematician

Cezar

## Cosnita, using the barycenter coordinates,

proves two theorems which are the subject
In a remark made after proving the first
theorem,

C.

Cosnita

suggests

an

## elementary proof by employing the concept

of polar.
In the following, we prove the theorems
based on the indicated path, and state that
the second theorem is a particular case of
the

former.

Also,

we

highlight

other

## particular cases of these theorems.

1st Theorem.
Let be a given triangle; through the pairs of
points (, ) , (, ) and (, ) we take three circles
such that their radical center is on the outside.
The polar lines of the radical center of these
circles in relation to each of them cut the sides ,
and respectively in three collinear points.

49

## Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache

Proof.
We denote by , , the second point of
intersection of the pairs of circles passing through
(, ) and (, ) ; (, ) and (, ) , (, ) and (, )
respectively (see Figure 1).

Figure 1

## Let be the radical center of those circles. In

fact, {} = .
We take from the tangents 1 = 2 to the
circle (, ), 1 = 2 to the circle (, ) and 1 =
2 to the circle passing through (, ). Actually, we
build the radical circle (, 1 ) of the given circles.
The polar lines of to these circles are the lines
1 2 , 1 2 , 1 2 . These three lines cut , and
in the points , and , and these lines are
respectively the polar lines of in respect to the

50

## circles passing through (, ), (, ) and (, ) . The

with each of the circles passing through
(, ), (, ), (, ), respectively. The points belong to
the radical axis having equal powers to those circles,
thereby 1 2 = .
This relationship shows that the point has
equal powers relative to the radical circle and to the
circle circumscribed to the triangle ; analogically,
the point has equal powers relative to the radical
circle and to the circle circumscribed to the triangle
; and, likewise, the point has equal powers
relative to the radical circle and to the circle
circumscribed to the triangle .
Because the locus of the points having equal
powers to two circles is generally a line, i.e. their
radical axis, we get that the points , and are
circle and to the circle circumscribed to the given
triangle.

2nd Theorem.
If is a point in the plane of the triangle
and the tangents in this point to the circles
circumscribed to triangles , , , respectively,
cut , and , respectively, in the points , , ,
then these points are collinear.

51

## Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache

Proof.
The point is the radical center for the circles
(), (), and (), and the tangents in to
these circles are the polar lines to in relation to
these circles.
If , , are the intersections of these tangents
(polar lines) with , , , then they belong to the
radical axis of the circumscribed circle to the triangle
and to the circle reduced to the point (2 =
, etc.).
Being located on the radical axis of the two
circles, the points , , are collinear.
Remarks.
1. Another elementary proof of this theorem is
to be found in .
2. If the circles from the 1st theorem are adjoint
circles of the triangle , then they
intersect in (the Brocards point).
Therefore, we get that the tangents taken in
to the adjoin circles cut the sides ,
and in collinear points.

52

## Complements to Classic Topics of Circles Geometry

References.
 C. Coni: Coordones baricentrique [Barycentric
Coordinates], Bucarest Paris: Librairie
Vuibert, 1941.
 I. Ptracu: Axe i centre radicale ale cercului
of the adjoin circle of a triangle], in Recreaii
matematice, year XII, no. 1, 2010.
 C. Mihalescu: Geometria elementelor remarcabile
[The Geometry of Outstanding Elements],
Bucharest: Editura Tehnica, 1957.
 F. Smarandache, I. Patrascu: Geometry of
Homological
Triangle,
Columbus:
The
Educational Publisher Inc., 2012.

53

54

## Regarding the First DrozFarnys Circle

In this article, we define the first DrozFarnys circle, we establish a connection
between it and a concyclicity theorem,
then we generalize this theorem, leading to
the generalization of Droz-Farnys circle.
enunciated by J. Steiner and it was proven
by Droz-Farny (Mathsis, 1901).

1st Theorem.
Let be a triangle, its orthocenter and
1 , 1 , 1 the means of sides (), (), ().
If a circle, having its center , intersects 1 1 in
1 , 1 ; 1 1 in 2 , 2 and 1 1 in 3 , 3 , then 1 =
1 = 2 = 2 = 3 = 3 .
Proof.
Naturally, 1 = 1 , 1 1 , .
It follows that 1 1 .

55

Figure 1.

## Therefore, is the mediator of segment 1 1 ;

similarly, and are the mediators of segments
2 2 and 3 3 .
Let 1 be the intersection of lines and 1 1
(see Figure 1); we have 1 2 1 2 = 1 2 1 2 . We
2
denote = 1 . It follows that 1 2 =
+ (1 +
2
1 )(1 1 ) = + (1 1 ).
However, 1 = 1 1 , where 1 is the projection
2
of on ; we find that 1 2 =
+ 1 .
It is known that the symmetric of orthocenter
towards belongs to the circle of circumscribed
triangle .
Denoting this point by 1 , we have 1 =
2 2 (the power of point towards the
circumscribed circle).

56

therefore

12

+
2

(2

2
2)

, where is the

## center of the circumscribed triangle .

Similarly,

we

2
find 22 = 32 =
+ (2
2

2 ), therefore 1 = 2 = 3 .
Remarks.
a.
b.

## The proof adjusts analogously for the

obtuse triangle.
1st
Theorem
can
be
equivalently
formulated in this way:

2nd Theorem.
If we draw three congruent circles centered in a
given triangles vertices, the intersection points of
these circles with the sides of the median triangle of
given triangle (middle lines) are six points situated on
a circle having its center in triangles orthocenter.
If we denote by the radius of three congruent
circles having , , as their centers, we get:
1

= 2 + (2 2 ).
2

However, in a triangle, 2 = 92 (2 + 2 +

## being the radius of the circumscribed circle; it

follows that:
2 ),

= 2 + 42 (2 + 2 + 2 ).
2

57

## Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache

Remark.
A special case is the one in which = , where
1

2
we find that
= 12 = 5 2 (2 + 2 + 2 ) = (2 +

2 ).

Definition.
The circle (, 1 ), where:
1

1 = 52 (2 + 2 + 2 ),
2

## is called the first Droz-Farnys circle of the triangle

.
Remark.
Another way to build the first Droz-Farnys circle
is offered by the following theorem, which, according
to , was the subject of a problem proposed in 1910
by V. Thbault in the Journal de Mathmatiques
Elementaire.

3rd Theorem.
The circles centered on the feet of a triangles
altitudes passing through the center of the circle
circumscribed to the triangle cut the triangles sides
in six concyclical points.

58

## Complements to Classic Topics of Circles Geometry

Proof.
We consider an acute triangle and 1 , 2 , 3
the altitudes feet. We denote by 1 , 2 ; 1 , 2 ; 1 , 2
the intersection points of circles having their centers
1 , 2 , 3 to , , , respectively.
We calculate 2 of the right angled triangle
1 2 (see Figure 2). We have 22 = 12 + 1 22 .
Because 1 2 = 1 , it follows that 22 =
12 + 1 2 . We denote by 9 the mean of segment
; the median theorem in triangle 1 leads to
1

1 2 + 1 2 = 21 92 + 2 .
2

## It is known that 9 1 is the nine-points circles

1

2
1

radius, so 1 9 = ; we get: 12 = (2 + 2 ) ;
similarly, we find that 12 = 12 = (2 + 2 ) ,
2

## which shows that the points 1 , 2 ; 1 , 2 ; 1 , 2

belong to the first Droz-Farnys circle.

Figure 2.

59

## Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache

Remark.
The 2nd and the 3rd theorems show that the first
Droz-Farnys circle pass through 12 points, situated
two on each side of the triangle and two on each side
of the median triangle of the given triangle.
The following theorem generates the 3rd Theorem.

4th Theorem.
The circles centered on the feet of altitudes of a
given triangle intersect the sides in six concyclical
points if and only if their radical center is the center
of the circle circumscribed to the given triangle.
Proof.
Let 1 , 2 ; 1 , 2 ; 1 , 2 be the points of
intersection with the sides of triangle of circles
having their centers in altitudes feet 1 , 2 , 3 .
Suppose the points are concyclical; it follows
that their circles radical center and of circles centered
in 2 and 3 is the point (sides and are
radical axes), therefore the perpendicular from on
2 3 is radical axis of centers having their centers 2
and 3 .
Since 2 3 is antiparallel to , it is parallel to
tangent taken in to the circle circumscribed to
triangle .

60

## Consequently, the radical axis is the

perpendicular taken in on the tangent to the
circumscribed circle, therefore it is .
Similarly, the other radical axis of circles
centered in 1 , 2 and of circles centered in 1 , 3 pass
through , therefore is the radical center of these
circles.
Reciprocally.
Let be the radical center of the circles having
their centers in the feet of altitudes. Since is
perpendicular on 2 3 , it follows that is the
radical axis of circles having their centers in 2 , 3 ,
therefore 1 2 = 1 2 .
From this relationship, it follows that the points
1 , 2 ; 1 , 2 are concyclic; the circle on which these
points are located has its center in the orthocenter
of triangle .
Indeed, the mediators chords 1 2 and 1 2 in
the two circles are the altitudes from and of
triangle , therefore 1 = 2 = 1 = 2 .
This reasoning leads to the conclusion that is
the radical axis of circles having their centers 1 and
3 , and from here the concyclicality of the points
1 , 2 ; 1 , 2 on a circle having its center in ,
therefore 1 = 2 = 1 = 2 . We obtained that
1 = 2 = 1 = 2 = 1 = 2 , which shows
the concyclicality of points 1 , 2 , 1 , 2 , 1 , 2 .

61

## Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache

Remark.
The circles from the 3rd Theorem, passing
through and having noncollinear centers, admit
as radical center, and therefore the 3rd Theorem is a
particular case of the 4th Theorem.

References.
 N. Blaha: Asupra unor cercuri care au ca centre
dou puncte inverse [On some circles that have
as centers two inverse points], in Gazeta
Matematica, vol. XXXIII, 1927.
 R. Johnson: Advanced Euclidean Geometry. New
York: Dover Publication, Inc. Mineola, 2004
 Eric W. Weisstein: First Droz-Farnys circle. From
Math World A Wolfram WEB Resurse,
http://mathworld.wolfram.com/.
 F. Smarandache, I. Patrascu: Geometry of
Homological
Triangle.
Columbus:
The
Education Publisher Inc., Ohio, SUA, 2012.

62

## Regarding the Second DrozFarnys Circle

relative to the second Droz-Farnys circle,
and a sentence that generalizes it.
The paper  informs that the following
Theorem

is

attributed

to

J.

Neuberg

(Mathesis, 1911).

1st Theorem.
The circles with its centers in the middles of
triangle passing through its orthocenter
intersect the sides , and respectively in the
points 1 , 2 , 1 , 2 and 1 , 2 , situated on a concentric
circle with the circle circumscribed to the triangle
(the second Droz-Farnys circle).
Proof.
We denote by 1 , 2 , 3 the middles of
triangles sides, see Figure 1. Because 2 3 and
belongs to the circles with centers in 2 and 3 , it
follows that is the radical axis of these circles,

63

## therefore we have 1 2 = 2 1 . This relation

shows that 1 , 2 , 1 , 2 are concyclic points, because
the center of the circle on which they are situated is ,
the center of the circle circumscribed to the triangle
, hence we have that:
1 = 1 = 2 = 2 .
(1)

Figure 1.

## Analogously, is the center of the circle on

which the points 1 , 2 , 1 , 2 are situated, hence:
1 = 1 = 2 = 2 .
(2)
Also, is the center of the circle on which the
points 1 , 2 , 1 , 2 are situated, and therefore:
1 = 1 = 2 = 2 .
(3)
The relations (1), (2), (3) show that the points
1 , 2 , 1 , 2 , 1 , 2 are situated on a circle having the
center in , called the second Droz-Farnys circle.

64

## Complements to Classic Topics of Circles Geometry

1st Proposition.
The radius of the second Droz-Farnys circle is
given by:
1
22 = 5 2 (2 + 2 + 2 ).
2
Proof.
From the right triangle 1 1 , using Pitagoras
theorem, it follows that:
12 = 12 + 1 12 = 12 + 1 2 .
From the triangle , using the median
theorem, we have:
1
12 = [2(2 + 2 ) 2 ].
4
But in a triangle,
= 21 , = 22 , = 23 ,
hence:
2
12 = 222 + 232 = .
4
But:
12 = 2
22 = 2
32 = 2

2
4
2
4
2
4

;
;
,

## where R is the radius of the circle circumscribed to the

triangle .
1

We find that 12 = 22 = 52 (2 + 2 + 2 ).
2

65

Remarks.
a.

## We can compute 12 + 1 2 using the

median theorem in the triangle 1 for
the median 1 9 (9 is the center of the
nine points circle, i.e. the middle of ()).
1

Because 9 1 = , we obtain: 22 =
2

1
2

b.

c.

d.

## the Theorem computing 12 and 12 .

The statement of the 1st Theorem was the
subject no. 1 of the 49th International
in 2008.
The 1st Theorem can be proved in the same
way for an obtuse triangle; it is obvious
that for a right triangle, the second DrozFarnys circle coincides with the circle
circumscribed to the triangle .
The 1st Theorem appears as proposed
problem in .

2nd Theorem.
The three pairs of points determined by the
intersections of each circle with the center in the
middle of triangles side with the respective side are
on a circle if and only these circles have as radical
center the triangles orthocenter.

66

## Complements to Classic Topics of Circles Geometry

Proof.
Let 1 , 2 , 3 the middles of the sides of triangle
and let 1 , 2 , 1 , 2 , 1 , 2 the intersections with
, , respectively of the circles with centers in
1 , 2 , 3 .
Let us suppose that 1 , 2 , 1 , 2 , 1 , 2 are
concyclic points. The circle on which they are situated
has evidently the center in , the center of the circle
circumscribed to the triangle .
The radical axis of the circles with centers 2 , 3
will be perpendicular on the line of centers 2 3 , and
because A has equal powers in relation to these circles,
since 1 2 = 1 2 , it follows that the radical
axis will be the perpendicular taken from A on 2 3 ,
i.e. the height from of triangle .
Furthermore, it ensues that the radical axis of
the circles with centers in 1 and 2 is the height
from of triangle and consequently the
intersection of the heights, hence the orthocenter of
the triangle is the radical center of the three
circles.
Reciprocally.
If the circles having the centers in 1 , 2 , 3
have the orthocenter with the radical center, it follows
that the point , being situated on the height from A
which is the radical axis of the circles of centers 2 , 3

67

## will have equal powers in relation to these circles and,

consequently, 1 2 = 1 2 , a relation that
implies that 1 , 2 , 1 , 2 are concyclic points, and the
circle on which these points are situated has as its
center.
Similarly, 1 2 = 1 2 , therefore
1 , 2 , 1 , 2 are concyclic points on a circle of center .
Having 1 = 2 = 1 = 2 and 1 2 = 1
2 , we get that the points 1 , 2 , 1 , 2 , 1 , 2 are
situated on a circle of center .
Remarks.
1.

2.

## The 1st Theorem is a particular case of the

2nd Theorem, because the three circles of
centers 1 , 2 , 3 pass through , which
means that is their radical center.
The Problem 525 from  leads us to the
following Proposition providing a way to
construct the circles of centers 1 , 2 , 3
intersecting the sides in points that
belong to a Droz-Farnys circle of type 2.

2nd Proposition.
1

The circles (1 , + 2 ),
2

(2 , + 2 ),
2

## (3 , + 2 ) intersect the sides , ,

2
respectively in six concyclic points; is a conveniently

68

## chosen constant, and , , are the lengths of the sides

of triangle .
Proof.
According to the 2nd Theorem, it is necessary to
prove that the orthocenter of triangle is the
radical center for the circles from hypothesis.

Figure 2.

The

power

of

in

(1 , + 2 ) is equal to
2
observed

that 12 = 4 2

2
2

2 + 2 + 2

12 ( + 2 ) = 42

relation
1

12
2
2

( +

4
2

.
4

2)

with
. We

therefore

We use the

## same expression for the power of H in relation to the

circles of centers 2 , 3 , hence H is the radical center
of these three circles.

69

## Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache

References.
 C. Mihalescu: Geometria elementelor remarcabile
[The Geometry of Outstanding Elements].
Bucharest: Editura Tehnic, 1957.
 I. Ptracu: Probleme de geometrie plan [Some
Problems of Plane Geometry], Craiova: Editura
Cardinal, 1996.
 C. Coni: Teoreme i probleme alese de
matematic
[Theorems
and
Problems],
Bucureti: Editura de Stat Didactic i
Pedagogic, 1958.
 I. Ptracu, F. Smarandache: Variance on Topics of
Plane Geometry, Educational Publishing,
Columbus, Ohio, SUA, 2013.

70

## Neubergs Orthogonal Circles

properties in connection with Neuberg's
circles and triangle.
We recall some results that are necessary.

1st Definition.
It's called Brocards point of the triangle the
point with the property: = = .
The measure of the angle is denoted by and it
is called Brocard's angle. It occurs the relationship:
ctg = ctg + ctg + ctg (see ).

Figure 1.

71

## Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache

2nd Definition.
Two triangles are called equibrocardian if they
have the same Brocards angle.

3rd Definition.
The locus of points from the plane of the
triangle located on the same side of the line as
and forming with an equibrocardian triangle with
, containing the vertex of the triangle, it's called
A-Neuberg circle of the triangle .
We denote by the center of A-Neuberg circle
by radius (analogously, we define B-Neuberg and
C-Neuberg circles).

## We get that ( ) = 2 and = ctg 2 3

2

(see ).
The triangle formed by the centers of
Neubergs circles is called Neubergs triangle.

1st Proposition.
The distances from the center circumscribed to
the triangle to the vertex of Neubergs triangle
are proportional to the cubes of triangles sides
lengths.

72

## Complements to Classic Topics of Circles Geometry

Proof.
Let be the center of the circle circumscribed to
the triangle (see Figure 2).

Figure 2.

## The law of cosines applied in the triangle

provides:

sin( )

sin

But ( ) = ( ) () = .
We have that

sin()

sin

But
sin()
sin

2sin
2sin

3
4

73

## Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache

It follows that =

3
4

## , and we get that

Consequence.
In a triangle ABC, we have:
1)
= 3 ;
2)

ctg =

2nd Proposition.
If is the Neubergs triangle of the
triangle , then:
(2 + 2 )(4 + 4 ) 2 2 2
2 = 2 2
.
2 + 2 2 2 + 2 2 2 4 4 4
(The formulas for and are obtained
from the previous one, by circular permutations.)
Proof.
We apply the law of cosines in the triangle
:
3
3
=
, =
, ( ) = 1800 .
4
4
6 + 6 23 3 cos(1800 )
2 =
16 2
6
+ 6 + 23 3 cos
=
.
16 2

74

## But the law of cosines in the triangle

provides
2 + 2 2
2cos =
2
and, from din Herons formula, we find that
16 2 = 22 2 + 2 2 2 + 2 2 2 4 4 4 .
Substituting the results above, we obtain, after a
few calculations, the stated formula.

4th Definition.
Two circles are called orthogonal if they are
secant and their tangents in the common points are
perpendicular.

3rd Proposition.
(Gaultier 18B)

## Two circles (1 , 1 ), (2 , 2 ) are orthogonal if

and only if
12 + 22 = 1 22 .
Proof.
Let (1 , 1 ), (2 , 2 ) be orthogonal (see Figure
3); then, if is one of the common points, the triangle
1 2 is a right triangle and the Pythagorean Theorem
applied to it, leads to 1 2 + 2 2 = 1 2 2 .

75

## Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache

Reciprocally.
If the metric relationship from the statement
occurs, it means that the triangle 1 2 is a right
triangle, therefore is their common point (the
relationship 1 2 + 2 2 = 1 2 2 implies 1 2 + 2 2 >
1 2 2 ), then 1 2 , so 1 is tangent to the circle
(2 , 2 ) because it is perpendicular in on radius 2 ,
and as well 2 is tangent to the circle (1 , 1 ) ,
therefore the circles are orthogonal.

Figure 3.

4th Proposition.
B-Neubergs and C-Neubergs circles associated
to the right triangle (in ) are orthogonal.

76

## Complements to Classic Topics of Circles Geometry

Proof.

If () = 900 , then 2 =

2
2 + 2

6 + 6

16

= ctg 2 3 ; = ctg 2 3.
But ctg

2 + 2 + 2
4

## It was taken into account that 2 = 2 + 2 and

2 = .
( 2 + 2 )2 3 2 2
4
ctg 2 3 = 2 2 3 =

2 2
4
4
+ 2 2
ctg 2 3 =
2 2
4
4
2 2
2
+ + 2
2 + 2 =
(
)
2 2
4
( 2 + 2 )( 4 + 4 2 2 ) 6 + 6
=
=
.
4 2 2
16 2
By 2 + 2 = 2 , it follows that B-Neubergs
and C-Neubergs circles are orthogonal.

77

## Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache

References.
 F. Smarandache, I. Patrascu: The Geometry of
Homological
Triangles.
Columbus:
The
Educational Publisher, Ohio, USA, 2012.
 T. Lalescu: Geometria triunghiului [The Geometry
of the Triangle]. Craiova: Editura Apollo, 1993.
 R. A. Johnson: Advanced Euclidian Geometry. New
York: Dover Publications, 2007.

78

## Lucass Inner Circles

circles and we highlight some of their
properties.

## 1. Definition of the Lucass Inner Circles

Let be a random triangle; we aim to
construct the square inscribed in the triangle ,
having one side on .

Figure 1.

## In order to do this, we construct a square , , , ,

with , (), , , , () (see Figure 1).
We trace the line , and we note with its
intersection with () ; through we trace the

79

## parallel to with () and we project

onto the points , in respectively .
We affirm that the quadrilateral is the
required square.
Indeed, is a square, because

, ,

, ,

## and, as , , = , , , it follows that =

Definition.
It is called A-Lucass inner circle of the triangle
the circle circumscribed to the triangle AAaDa.
We will note with the center of the A-Lucass
inner circle and with its radius.
Analogously, we define the B-Lucass inner circle
and the C-Lucass inner circle of the triangle .

## 2. Calculation of the Radius of

the A-Lucas Inner Circle
We note = , = ; let be the height
from of the triangle .
The similarity of the triangles and

From

, therefore =

we obtain =

80

+
.
+

.
.

(1)

## Complements to Classic Topics of Circles Geometry

Note.
Relation (1) and the analogues have been
deduced by Eduard Lucas (1842-1891) in 1879 and
they constitute the birth certificate of the Lucass
circles.
1st Remark.
If in (1) we replace =

## consideration the formula = 4, where is the

radius of the circumscribed circle of the triangle
and represents its area, we obtain:
=

1+

## 3. Properties of the Lucass Inner Circles

1st Theorem.
The Lucass inner circles of a triangle are inner
tangents of the circle circumscribed to the triangle and
they are exteriorly tangent pairwise.
Proof.
The triangles and are homothetic
through the homothetic center and the rapport:

81

Because

## circle and the circle circumscribed to the triangle

are inner tangents in .
Analogously, it follows that the B-Lucass and CLucass inner circles are inner tangents of the circle
circumscribed to .

Figure 2.

## We will prove that the A-Lucass and C-Lucass

circles are exterior tangents by verifying
= + .
(2)
We have:
= ;
=
and
) = 2
(0
) = 360 2).
(if () > 90 then (0

82

## The theorem of the cosine applied to the triangle

implies, keeping into consideration (2), that:
( )2 + ( )2 2( )( )2 =
= ( + )2 .
Because 2 = 1 22 , it is found that (2)
is equivalent to:
2 =

( )( )

But we have: =
+ = (

2+

(3)
2 2
(2+)(2+)

2+

).

2
42

sin =

2
42

## So, the exterior tangent of the A-Lucass and C-Lucass

circles is proven.
Analogously, we prove the other tangents.

2nd Definition.
It is called an A-Apolloniuss circle of the random
triangle the circle constructed on the segment
determined by the feet of the bisectors of angle as
diameter.
Remark.
Analogously, the B-Apolloniuss and CApolloniuss circles are defined. If is an isosceles
triangle with = then the A-Apolloniuss circle

83

## isnt defined for , and if is an equilateral

triangle, its Apolloniuss circle isnt defined.

2nd Theorem.
The A-Apolloniuss circle of the random triangle
is the geometrical point of the points from the plane
of the triangle with the property:

= .

3rd Definition.
We call a fascicle of circles the bunch of circles
that do not have the same radical axis.
a.
If the radical axis of the circles fascicle is
exterior to them, we say that the fascicle
is of the first type.
b.
If the radical axis of the circles fascicle is
secant to the circles, we say that the
fascicle is of the second type.
c.
If the radical axis of the circles fascicle is
tangent to the circles, we say that the
fascicle is of the third type.

3rd Theorem.
The A-Apolloniuss circle and the B-Lucass and
C-Lucass inner circles of the random triangle
form a fascicle of the third type.

84

## Complements to Classic Topics of Circles Geometry

Proof.
Let { } = (see Figure 3).
Menelauss theorem applied to the triangle
implies that:

= 1,

so:

=1

2
2

## This relation shows that the point is the foot

of the exterior symmedian from of the triangle
(so the tangent in to the circumscribed circle),
namely the center of the A-Apolloniuss circle.
Let 1 be the contact point of the B-Lucass and
C-Lucass circles. The radical center of the B-Lucass,
C-Lucass circles and the circle circumscribed to the
triangle is the intersection of the tangents
traced in and in to the circle circumscribed to the
triangle .
It follows that = = 1 , so 1 belongs to
the circle that has the center in and orthogonally
cuts the circle circumscribed in and . The radical
axis of the B-Lucass and C-Lucass circles is 1 , and
1 is tangent in 1 to the circle . Considering the
power of the point in relation to , we have:
1 2 = . .

85

Figure 3.

## Also, 2 = ; it thus follows that

= 1 , which proves that 1 belongs to the AApolloniuss circle and is the radical center of the AApolloniuss, B-Lucass and C-Lucass circles.
Remarks.
1.

## If the triangle is right in then

||, the radius of the A-Apolloniuss

| 2 2 |

. The point 1 is

that 1 =

| 2 2 |

true.

86

2.

## The A-Apolloniuss and A-Lucass circles

are orthogonal. Indeed, the radius of the
A-Apolloniuss circle is perpendicular to
the radius of the circumscribed circle, ,
so, to the radius of the A-Lucass circle
also.

4th Definition.
The triangle determined by the tangents
traced in , , to the circle circumscribed to the
triangle is called the tangential triangle of the
triangle .

1st Property.
The triangle and the Lucass triangle
are homological.
Proof.
Obviously, , , are concurrent in ,
therefore , the center of the circle circumscribed to
the triangle , is the homology center.
We have seen that { } = and is the
center of the A-Apolloniuss circle, therefore the
homology axis is the Apolloniuss line (the line
determined by the centers of the Apolloniuss circle).

87

## Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache

2nd Property.
The tangential triangle and the Lucass triangle
of the triangle are orthogonal triangles.
Proof.
The line 1 is the radical axis of the B-Lucass
inner circle and the C-Lucass inner circle, therefore it
is perpendicular on the line of the centers .
Analogously, 2 is perpendicular on , because
the radical axes of the Lucass circles are concurrent
in , which is the radical center of the Lucass circles;
it follows that and are orthological and
is the center of orthology. The other center of
orthology is the center of the circle circumscribed to
.

References.
 D. Brnzei, M. Miculia. Lucas circles and spheres.
In The Didactics of Mathematics, volume
9/1994, Cluj-Napoca (Romania), p. 73-80.
 P. Yiu, A. P. Hatzipolakis. The Lucas Circles of a
Triangle. In Amer. Math. Monthly, no.
108/2001, pp. 444-446. http://www.math.fau.
edu/yiu/monthly437-448.pdf.
 F. Smarandache, I. Patrascu. The Geometry of
Homological Triangles. Educational Publisher,
Columbus, Ohio, U.S.A., 2013.

88

## Theorems with Parallels Taken

through a Triangles Vertices
and Constructions Performed
only with the Ruler
In

this

article,

geometric

we

solve

constructions

problems

only

with

of
the

## ruler, using known theorems.

1st Problem.
Being given a triangle , its circumscribed
circle (its center known) and a point fixed on the
circle, construct, using only the ruler, a transversal
line 1 , 1 , 1 , with 1 , 1 , 1 , such that
1 1 1 (the lines taken though
to generate congruent angles with the sides ,
and , respectively).

2nd Problem.
Being given a triangle , its circumscribed
circle (its center known) and 1 , 1 , 1 , such that 1

89

## , 1 , 1 and 1 , 1 , 1 collinear, construct,

using only the ruler, a point on the circle
circumscribing the triangle, such that the lines
1 , 1 , 1 to generate congruent angles with ,
and , respectively.

3rd Problem.
Being given a triangle inscribed in a circle
of given center and a given cevian, a point on
the circle, construct, using only the ruler, the isogonal
cevian 1 to the cevian .
To solve these problems and to prove the
theorems for problems solving, we need the following
Lemma:

1st Lemma.
(Generalized Simpson's Line)

## If is a point on the circle circumscribed to the

triangle and we take the lines 1 , 1 , 1
which generate congruent angles ( 1 , 1
, 1 ) with , and respectively, then the
points 1 , 1 , 1 are collinear.

90

## Complements to Classic Topics of Circles Geometry

Proof.
Let on the circle circumscribed to the triangle
(see Figure 1), such that:
1 1 1 = .
(1)

Figure 1.

## From the relation (1), we obtain that the

quadrilateral 1 1 is inscriptible and, therefore:
1 1 .
(2).
Also from (1), we have that 1 1 is
inscriptible, and so
1 1 1 .
(3)

91

## The quadrilateral MABC is inscribed, hence:

1 .
(4)
On the other hand,
+ ),
1 = 1800 (

1 = 1800 (
1 + ).
The relation (4) drives us, together with the
above relations, to:
1 1 .
(5)
Finally, using the relations (5), (2) and (3), we
conclude that: 1 1 1 1 , which justifies the
collinearity of the points 1 , 1 , 1 .
Remark.
The Simsons Line is obtained in the case when
= 900 .

2nd Lemma.
If is a point on the circle circumscribed to the
triangle and 1 , 1 , 1 are points on , and
, respectively, such that 1 = 1 =
1 = , and 1 intersects the circle a second
time in , then 1 1 .
Proof.
The quadrilateral 1 1 is inscriptible (see
Figure 1); it follows that:

92

## Complements to Classic Topics of Circles Geometry

1 1 .
(6)
On the other hand, the quadrilateral is
also inscriptible, hence:
.
(7)

## The relations (6) and (7) imply: ,

which gives 1 1 .

3rd Lemma.
(The construction of a parallel with a given diameter
using a ruler)

## In a circle of given center, construct, using only

the ruler, a parallel taken through a point of the circle
at a given diameter.
Solution.
In the given circle (, ) , let be a diameter
()] and let (, ). We construct the line
(see Figure 2). We consider on this line the point (
between and ). We join with , with and
denote = {}.
We take and let {} = . The line
is parallel to .
Constructions Proof.
In the triangle , the cevians , and
are concurrent.
Cevas Theorem provides:

93

## Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache

= 1.

(8)

But is a median, = = .
From (8), we get

, which, by Thales

reciprocal, gives .

Figure 2.

Remark.
If we have a circle with given center and a
certain line , we can construct though a given point
a parallel to that line in such way: we take two
diameters [] and [ ] through the center of the
given circle (see Figure 3).

94

Figure 3.

## We denote = {}; because [] [], we

can construct, applying the 3rd Lemma, the parallels
through and to which intersect in and ,
respectively. Since we have on the line the points
, , , such that [] [] , we can construct the
parallel through to based on the construction
from 3rd Lemma.

1st Theorem.
(P. Aubert 1899)

## If, through the vertices of the triangle , we

take three lines parallel to each other, which intersect
the circumscribed circle in , and , and is a

95

## point on the circumscribed circle, as well =

{1 } , = {1 } , = {1 } , then 1 , 1 , 1
are collinear and their line is parallel to .
Proof.
The point of the proof is to show that 1 , 1 ,
1 generate congruent angles with , and ,
respectively.
1

(
(9)
1 ) = [( ) + ( )]
2

(
1 ) = [( ) + ( )]
2

(10)

) = (
) , hence,
But implies (
from (9) and (10), it follows that:
1 1 ,
1

(
1 ) = [( ) ( )].
2

(11)
(12)

); by
) = (
But implies that (

## returning to (12), we have that:

1

(
1 ) = [( ) ( )] =
2
1
) + (
)].
= [(
2

(13)

## The relations (9) and (13) show that:

1 1 .
(14)
From (11) and (14), we obtain: 1
1 1 , which, by 1st Lemma, verifies the
collinearity of points 1 , 1 , 1 . Now, applying the 2nd
Lemma, we obtain the parallelism of lines and
1 1 .

96

Figure 4.

2nd Theorem.
(MKensie 1887)

## If 1 1 1 is a transversal line in the triangle

(1 , 1 , 1 ), and through the triangles
vertices we take the chords , , of a circle
circumscribed to the triangle, parallels with the
transversal line, then the lines , , are
concurrent on the circumscribed circle.

97

## Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache

Proof.
We denote by the intersection of the line 1
with the circumscribed circle (see Figure 5) and with
1 , respectively 1 the intersection of the line
with and of the line with .

Figure 5.

## According to the P. Auberts theorem, we have

that the points 1 , 1 , 1 are collinear and that the line
1 1 is parallel to .
From hypothesis, we have that 1 1 ; from
the uniqueness of the parallel taken through 1 to ,
it follows that 1 1 1 1 , therefore 1 = 1 , and
analogously 1 = 1 .

98

## Complements to Classic Topics of Circles Geometry

Remark.
We have that: 1 , 1 , 1 generate congruent
angles with , and , respectively.

3rd Theorem.
(Beltrami 1862)

## If three parallels are taken through the three

vertices of a given triangle, then their isogonals
intersect each other on the circle circumscribed to the
triangle, and vice versa.
Proof.
Let , , the three parallel lines with a
certain direction (see Figure 6).

99

Figure 6.

## To construct the isogonal of the cevian , we

take , belonging to the circle circumscribed

, it follows that
to the triangle, having
will be the isogonal of the cevian . (Indeed, from

it follows that .)

On the other hand, A implies

, and since
we have that
,

## which shows that the isogonal of the parallel is

. From , it follows that , having
, therefore the isogonal of the parallel
is .
Reciprocally.
If , , are concurrent cevians in , the
point on the circle circumscribed to the triangle ,
let us prove that their isogonals are parallel lines. To
construct an isogonal of , we take ,

belonging to the circumscribed circle. We have

## . Constructing the isogonal of , with on

, it

the circumscribed circle, we will have

and, consequently,
follows that
, which shows that . Analogously, we
show that .
We are now able to solve the proposed problems.

100

## Solution to the 1st problem.

Using the 3rd Lemma, we construct the parallels
, , with a certain directions of a diameter of
the circle circumscribed to the given triangle.
We join with , , and denote the
intersection between and , 1 ; = {1 }
and = {1 }.
According to the Auberts Theorem, the points
1 , 1 , 1 will be collinear, and , , generate
congruent angles with , and , respectively.

## Solution to the 2nd problem.

Using the 3rd Lemma and the remark that follows
it, we construct through , , the parallels to 1 1 ;
we denote by , , their intersections with the
circle circumscribed to the triangle . (It is enough
to build a single parallel to the transversal line 1 1 1 ,
for example ).
We join with 1 and denote by the
intersection with the circle. The point will be the
point we searched for. The constructions proof
follows from the MKensie Theorem.

101

## Solution to the 3rd problem.

We suppose that belongs to the little arc
in the circle
determined by the chord
circumscribed to the triangle .
In this case, in order to find the isogonal 1 , we
construct (by help of the 3rd Lemma and of the remark
that follows it) the parallel 1 to , 1 being on the
circumscribed circle, it is obvious that and 1
will be isogonal cevians.
We suppose that belongs to the high arc
; we consider
(the
determined by the chord
does not contain the point ). In this situation,
arc
we firstly construct the parallel to , belongs
to the circumscribed circle, and then through we
construct the parallel 1 to , 1 belongs to the
circumscribed circle. The isogonal of the line will
be 1 . The constructions proof follows from 3rd
Lemma and from the proof of Beltramis Theorem.

References.
 F. G. M.: Exercices de Gometrie. VIII-e ed., Paris,
VI-e Librairie Vuibert, Rue de Vaugirard,77.
 T. Lalesco: La Gomtrie du Triangle. 13-e ed.,
Bucarest, 1937; Paris, Librairie Vuibert, Bd.
Saint Germain, 63.
 C. Mihalescu: Geometria elementelor remarcabile
[The Geometry of remarkable elements].
Bucharest: Editura Tehnic, 1957.

102

## Complements to Classic Topics of Circles Geometry

Apolloniuss Circles
of kth Rank
the notion of Apolloniuss circle of k t h rank.

1st Definition.
It is called an internal cevian of kth rank the line
where (), such that

= ( ) ( ).

If
is the harmonic conjugate of the point in
relation to and , we call the line an external
cevian of kth rank.

2nd Definition.
We call Apolloniuss circle of kth rank with
respect to the side of triangle the circle which
has as diameter the segment line .

1st Theorem.
Apolloniuss circle of kth rank is the locus of
points from triangle's plan, satisfying the
relation:

=( ) .

103

## Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache

Proof.
Let the center of the Apolloniuss circle of kth
rank relative to the side of triangle (see
Figure 1) and , the points of intersection of this
circle with the circle circumscribed to the triangle .
We denote by the middle of arc , and we extend
to intersect the circle circumscribed in .
In triangle, is bisector; it follows that

## , which is the foot of the triangle's outer

bisector, so the harmonic conjugate of in relation

to and , thus
= .
Therefore, is on the Apolloniuss circle of rank
relative to the side , hence = .

Figure 3

104

statement; thus

## reciprocal of bisector's theorem that is the

internal bisector of angle . Now let us proceed as
before, taking the external bisector; it follows that
belongs to the Apolloniuss circle of center . We
consider now a point on this circle, and we
construct such that (thus ( is
). Because
the internal bisector of the angle
, it follows that and are harmonically
conjugated with respect to and . On the other
hand, the same points are harmonically conjugated
with respect to and ; from here, it follows that =
, and we have

=( ) .

3rd Definition.
It is called a complete quadrilateral the
geometric figure obtained from a convex quadrilateral
by extending the opposite sides until they intersect. A
complete quadrilateral has 6 vertices, 4 sides and 3
diagonals.

2nd Theorem.
In a complete quadrilateral, the three diagonals'
middles are collinear (Gauss - 1810).

105

## Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache

Proof.
Let a given complete quadrilateral (see
Figure 2). We denote by 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 respectively the
orthocenters of , , , triangles, and
let 1 , 1 , 1 the feet of the heights of triangle.

Figure 4

## As previously shown, the following relations

occur: 1 . 1 1 1 . 1 1 = 1 . 1 1 ; they express
that the point 1 has equal powers to the circles of
diameters , , , because those circles contain
respectively the points 1 , 1 , 1 , and 1 is an internal
point.
It is shown analogously that the points 2 , 3 , 4
have equal powers to the same circles, so those points
are situated on the radical axis (common to the
circles), therefore the circles are part of a fascicle, as

106

## such their centers which are the middles of the

The line formed by the middles of a complete
quadrilateral's diagonals is called Gausss line or
Gauss-Newtons line.

3rd Theorem.
The Apolloniuss circle of kth rank of a triangle
are part of a fascicle.
Proof.
Let , , be concurrent cevians of kth
rank and , , be the external cevians of kth
rank (see Figure 3). The figure is a
complete quadrilateral and 2nd theorem is applied.

Figure 5

107

## Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache

4th Theorem.
The Apolloniuss circle of kth rank of a triangle
are the orthogonals of the circle circumscribed to the
triangle.
Proof.
We unite to and (see Figure 1),

and (
) = 90 , it follows that = =

The congruence
shows that
is tangent to the Apolloniuss circle of center .

## Analogously, it can be demonstrated for the

other Apolloniuss Circle.
1st Remark.
The previous theorem indicates that the radical
axis of Apolloniuss circle of kth rank is the perpendicular taken from to the line .

5th Theorem.
The centers of Apolloniuss Circle of kth rank of a
triangle are situated on the trilinear polar associated
to the intersection point of the cevians of 2kth rank.

108

## Complements to Classic Topics of Circles Geometry

Proof.
From the previous theorem, it results that
, so is an external cevian of rank 2 for
triangle, thus an external symmedian. Henceforth,

=(

) =(

## belong to the Apolloniuss circle of rank associated

to the vertex ).

6th Theorem.
The Apolloniuss circle of kth rank of a triangle
intersects the circle circumscribed to the triangle in
two points that belong to the internal and external
cevians of k+1th rank.
Proof.
Let and points of intersection of the
Apolloniuss circle of center with the circle
circumscribed to the (see Figure 1). We take from
and the perpendiculars 1 , 2 and 1 , 2 on
are inscribed, it follows the similarity of
triangles 1 , 2 and 1 , 2 , from where we
get the relations:
1
1
=
,
=
.
2
2

109

But

=(

) ,

=( ) ,

= ( ) and

## respectively to the internal cevian and the external

cevian of rank + 1.

4th Definition.
If the Apolloniuss circle of kth rank associated
with a triangle has two common points, then we call
these points isodynamic points of kth rank (and we
denote them , ).

1st Property.
If , are isodynamic centers of kth rank,
then:
. = . = . ;
. = . = . .
The proof of this property follows immediately
from 1st Theorem.
2nd Remark.
The Apolloniuss circle of 1st rank is the
investigated Apolloniuss circle (the bisectors are
cevians of 1st rank). If = 2, the internal cevians of 2nd
rank are the symmedians, and the external cevians of
2nd rank are the external symmedians, i.e. the tangents

110

## in triangles vertices to the circumscribed circle. In

this case, for the Apolloniuss circle of 2nd rank, the 3rd
Theorem becomes:

7th Theorem.
The Apolloniuss circle of 2nd rank intersects the
circumscribed circle to the triangle in two points
belonging respectively to the antibisector's isogonal
and to the cevian outside of it.
Proof.
It follows from the proof of the 6th theorem. We
mention that the antibisector is isotomic to the
bisector, and a cevian of 3rd rank is isogonic to the
antibisector.

111

## Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache

References.
 N. N. Mihileanu: Lecii complementare de
geometrie
[Complementary
Lessons
of
Geometry], Editura Didactic i Pedagogic,
Bucureti, 1976.
 C. Mihalescu: Geometria elementelor remarcabile
[The Geometry of Outstanding Elements],
Editura Tehnic, Bucureti, 1957.
 V. Gh. Vod: Triunghiul ringul cu trei coluri [The
Triangle-The Ring with Three Corners], Editura
Albatros, Bucureti, 1979.
 F. Smarandache, I. Ptracu: Geometry of
Homological Triangle, The Education Publisher
Inc., Columbus, Ohio, SUA, 2012.

112

Rank
Apolloniuss

circle

of

second

rank

in

## connection with the adjoint circles and the

second Brocards triangle.

1st Definition.
It is called Apolloniuss circle of second rank
relative to the vertex of the triangle the circle
constructed on the segment determined on the
simedians feet from on as diameter.

1st Theorem.
The Apolloniuss circle of second rank relative to
the vertex of the triangle intersect the
circumscribed circle of the triangle in two points
belonging respectively to the cevian of third rank
(antibisectors isogonal) and to its external cevian.
The theorems proof follows from the theorem
relative to the Apolloniuss circle of kth rank (see ).

113

## Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache

1st Proposition.
The Apolloniuss circle of second rank relative to
the vertex of the triangle intersects the
circumscribed circle in two points and ( on the
same side of as ). Then, ( is a bisector in the
triangle , S is the simedians foot from of the
triangle .
Proof.
belongs to the Apolloniuss circle of second
rank, therefore:

=(

) .

(1)

Figure 1.

we have:

114

=( ) .

(2)

.
Remarks.
1.

2.

## The Apolloniuss circle of second relative

to the vertex of the triangle (see
Figure 1) is an Apolloniuss circle for the
triangle . Indeed, we proved that
is an internal bisector in the triangle ,
and since , the external simedians foot
of the triangle , belongs to the
Apolloniuss Circle of second rank, we
have () = 900 , therefore is an
external bisector in the triangle .
is a simedian in . Indeed, the
Apolloniuss circle of second rank, being
an Apolloniuss circle for , intersects
the circle circum-scribed to after ,
which is simedian in this triangle.

2nd Definition.
It is called adjoint circle of a triangle the circle
that passes through two vertices of the triangle and in

115

## one of them is tangent to the triangles side. We denote

() the adjoint circle that passes through and ,
and is tangent to the side in .
About the circles () and (), we say that they
are adjoint to the vertex of the triangle .

3rd Definition.
It is called the second Brocards triangle the
triangle 2 2 2 whose vertices are the projections of
the center of the circle circumscribed to the triangle
on triangles simedians.

2nd Proposition.
The Apolloniuss circle of second rank relative to
the vertex of triangle and the adjoint circles
relative to the same vertex intersect in vertex 2 of
the second Brocards triangle.
Proof.
It is known that the adjoint circles () and ()
intersect in a point belonging to the simedian ; we
denote this point 2 (see ).
We have:
2 = 2 + 2 ,
but:
2 2 = 2 + 2 = .

116

## Analogously, 2 = , therefore (2 is the

bisector of the angle 2 . The bisectors theorem in

2
2

but:

=( ) ,

consequently:
2
2

=( ) ,

of second rank.

Figure 2.

## We prove that 2 is a vertex in the second

Brocards triangle, i.e. 2 , O the center of the
circle circumscribed to the triangle .

117

## We pointed (see Figure 2) that (

2 ) = 2, if
) = 2 ,
is an acute angle, then also (
therefore the quadrilateral 2 is inscriptible.
) = 900 () , it follows that
Because (
0

(
2 ) = 90 + ().
0

## On the other hand, (

2 ) = 180 (), so
0

(
2 ) + (2 ) = 270 and, consequently, 2

.
Remarks.
1.

2.

3.

## If () < 900 , then four remarkable

circles pass through 2 : the two circles
adjoint to the vertex of the triangle ,
the circle circumscribed to the triangle
(where is the center of the
circumscribed circle) and the Apolloniuss
circle of second rank corresponding to the
vertex .
The vertex 2 of the second Brocards
triangle is the middle of the chord of the
circle circumscribed to the triangle
containing the simedian .
The points , 2 and (the foot of the
external simedian to ) are collinear.
Indeed, we proved that 2 ; on the
other hand, we proved that (2 is an
internal bisector in the triangle 2 , and

118

## since 2 , the outlined collinearity

follows from the uniqueness of the
perpendicular in 2 on .

Open Problem.
The Apolloniuss circle of second rank relative to
the vertex of the triangle intersects the circle
circumscribed to the triangle in two points and
( and apart of ).
We denote by the second point of intersection
between the line and the Apolloniuss circle of
second rank.
What can we say about ?
Is a remarkable point in triangles geometry?

119

## Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache

References.
 I. Patrascu, F. Smarandache: Cercurile Apollonius
de rangul k [The Apolloniuss Circle of kth rank].
In: Recreaii matematice, Anul XVIII, nr.
1/2016, Iai, Romnia, p. 20-23.
 I. Patrascu: Axe i centre radicale ale cercurilor
Centers of Adjoint Circles of a Triangle]. In:
Recreaii matematice, Anul XVII, nr. 1/2010,
Iai, Romnia.
 R. Johnson: Advanced Euclidean Geometry. New
York: Dover Publications, Inc. Mineola, 2007.
 I. Patrascu, F. Smarandache: Variance on topics of
plane geometry. Columbus: The Educational
Publisher, Ohio, USA, 2013.

120

## A Sufficient Condition for

the Circle of the 6 Points
to Become Eulers Circle
relative to the circle of the 6 points and,
requiring on this circle to have three other
remarkable triangles points, we obtain the
circle of 9 points (the Eulers Circle).

1st Definition.
It is called cevian of a triangle the line that
passes through the vertex of a triangle and an opposite
sides point, other than the two left vertices.

Figure 1.

121

## Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache

1st Remark.
The name cevian was given in honor of the
italian geometrician Giovanni Ceva (1647 - 1734).

2nd Definition.
Two cevians of the same triangles vertex are
called isogonal cevians if they create congruent angles
with triangles bisector taken through the same vertex.
2nd Remark.
In the Figure 1 we represented the bisector
and the isogonal cevians 1 and 2 . The following
relations take place:

1 2 ;
1
2 .

1st Proposition.
In a triangle, the height and the radius of the
circumscribed circle corresponding to a vertex are
isogonal cevians.
Proof.
Let an acute-angled triangle with the height
and the radius (see Figure 2).

122

Figure 2.

## The angle is a central angle, and the angle

= 2
. It follows
is an inscribed angle, so
= 900 .
that
= 900 , so and
On the other hand,
are isogonal cevians.
The theorem can be analogously proved for the
obtuse triangle.
3rd Remark.
One can easily prove that in a triangle, if is
circumscribed circles radius, its isogonal cevian is the
triangles height from vertex .

3rd Definition.
Two points 1 , 2 in the plane of triangle are
called isogonals (isogonal conjugated) if the cevians
pairs (1 , 2 ), (1 , 2 ), (1 , 2 ), are composed
of isogonal cevians.

123

## Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache

4th Remark.
In a triangle, the orthocenter and circumscribed
circles center are isogonal points.

1st Theorem.
(The 6 points circle)

## If 1 and 2 are two isogonal points in

triangle , and 1 , 1 , 1 respectively 2 , 2 , 2
their projections on the sides , and of
triangle, then the points 1 , 2 , 1 , 2 , 1 , 2
concyclical.

the
are
the
are

Proof.
The mediator of segment [1 2 ] passes through
the middle of segment [1 , 2 ] because the trapezoid
1 1 2 2 is rectangular and the mediator of [ 1 2 ]
contains its middle line, therefore (see Figure 3), we
have: 1 = 2 (1). Analogously, it follows that the
mediators of segments [1 2 ] and [1 2 ] pass through
, so 1 = 2 (2) and 1 = 2 (3). We denote by
3 and 4 respectively the middles of segments [1 ]
and [ 2 ]. We prove that the triangles 3 1 and
1

2

## line), and 2 4 = 2 , because it is a median in the

2

rectangular triangle 2 2 , so 3 = 2 4 ;
analogously, we obtain that 4 = 3 1 .

124

## Complements to Classic Topics of Circles Geometry

Figure 3.

We have that:

3 1 = 3 1 + 1 3 1 = 1 2 + 21 1 =
= +
1 ;

2 4
2 4 2
4 2
1 2 + 22 2 =
= +
2 .

But
1 = 2 , because the cevians 1 and

## 2 are isogonal and therefore

3 1 = 2 4 . Since
3 1 = 2 4 , it follows that 2 = 1 (4).
Repeating the previous reasoning for triangles
3 1 and 2 4 , where 3 and 4 are respectively
the middles of segments (1 ) and (2 ), we find that
they are congruent and it follows that 1 = 2 (5).
The relations (1) - (5) lead to 1 = 2 = 1 =
2 = 1 = 2 , which shows that the points
1 , 2 , 1 , 2 , 1 , 2 are located on a circle centered in ,

125

## the middle of the segment determined by isogonal

points given by 1 and 2 .

4th Definition.
It is called the 9 points circle or Eulers circle of
the triangle the circle that contains the middles
of triangles sides, the triangle heights feet and the
middles of the segments determined by the
orthocenter with triangles vertex.

2nd Proposition.
If 1 , 2 are isogonal points in the triangle
and if on the circle of their corresponding 6 points
there also are the middles of the segments (1 ), (1 ),
( 1 ), then the 6 points circle coincides with the
Eulers circle of the triangle .
1st Proof.
We keep notations from Figure 3; we proved that
the points 1 , 2 , 1 , 2 , 1 , 2 are on the 6 points circle
of the triangle , having its center in , the middle
of segment [1 2 ].
If on this circle are also situated the middles
3 , 3 , 3 of segments (1 ), (1 ), (1 ), then we have
3 = 3 = 3 .

126

1

2

## 3 = 2 and 3 = 2 , and we obtain that 2 =

2 = 2 , consequently is the center of the circle
circumscribed to the triangle , so 2 = .
Because 1 is the isogonal of , it follows that
1 = , therefore the circle of 6 points of the isogonal
points and is the circle of 9 points.
2nd Proof.
Because 3 3 is middle line in the triangle 1 ,
it follows that
1 1 2 3 .
(1)
Also, 3 3 is middle line in the triangle 1 , and
3 3 is middle line in the triangle 1 2 , therefore we
get
3 3 2 .
(2)
The relations (1), (2) and the fact that 1 and
2 are isogonal cevians lead to:
1 2 3 3 3 .
(3)
The point is the center of the circle
circumscribed to 3 3 3 ; then, from (3) and from
isogonal cevians properties, one of which is
circumscribed circle radius, it follows that in the
triangle 3 3 3 the line 1 3 is a height, as 3 3 ,
we get that 1 is a height in the triangle ABC and,
therefore, 1 will be the orthocenter of the triangle

127

## , and 2 will be the center of the circle

circumscribed to the triangle .
5th Remark.
Of those shown, we get that the center of the
circle of 9 points is the middle of the line determined
by triangles orthocenter and by the circumscribed
circles center, and the fact that Eulers circle radius is
half the radius of the circumscribed circle.

References.
 Roger A. Johnson: Advanced Euclidean Geometry.
New York: Dover Publications, 2007.
 Ctlin Barbu: Teoreme fundamentale din
geometria triunghiului [Fundamental theorems
of triangles geometry]. Bacu: Editura Unique,
2008.

128

## Complements to Classic Topics of Circles Geometry

An Extension of a Problem
of Fixed Point
of the Problem 9.2 proposed at Varna 2015
Spring

Competition,

both

in

terms

of

## membership of the measure , and the case

for the problem for the ex-inscribed circle
. We also try to guide the student in the
search and identification of the fixed point,
for succeeding in solving any problem of
this type.
The statement of the problem is as follows:
We fix an angle (0, 900 ) and the line
which divides the plane in two half-planes
and . The point in the half-plane is situated
) = . The circle inscribed in the
such that (
triangle with the center is tangent to the
sides and in the points and ,
respectively. The point is located on the
segment line ( , the point between and
such that and = . The point is
situated on the segment line (, such that is
between and ; and = . Prove

129

## that the mediator of segment passes through

a fixed point. (Stanislav Chobanov)
Proof.
Firstly, it is useful to note that the point varies
in the half-plane on the arc capable of angle ; we
) = 900 + , so varies on the
know as well that (
2
0

## arc capable of angle of measure 90 + situated in the

2

half-plane .
Another useful remark is about the segments
and , which in a triangle have the lengths ,
respectively , where is the half-perimeter of
the triangle with = constant; therefore,
we have with the consequence = .
Considering the vertex of the triangle the
middle of the arc capable of angle built on , we
observe that is parallel to ; more than that,
is an isosceles trapezoid, and segment
mediator will be a symmetry axis of the trapezoid, so
it will coincide with the mediator of , which is a
fixed line, so we're looking for the fixed point on
mediator of .
Let be the intersection of the mediators of
segments and , see Figure 1, where we
considered () < () . The point is on the
mediator of , so we have = ; the point is
also on the mediator of , so we have = ; it

130

## follows that: , a relation from where we

get that = .

Figure 1

) = and (
) = , we
If we denote (
0
= + + ,
= 360 (900 ).
have
From + + = 3600 900 + , we find
that + + 2 = 2700 , and since + = 1800 , we
find that 2 = 900 , therefore the requested fixed
point is the vertex of triangle , situated in
) = 900 .
such that (

131

## Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache

1st Remark.
If = 900 , we propose to the reader to prove that
the quadrilateral is a parallelogram; in this case,
the requested fixed point does not exist (or is the point
at infinity of the perpendicular lines to ).
2nd Remark.
If (900 , 1800 ), the problem applies, and we
find that the fixed point is located in the half-plane
, such that the triangle is isosceles, having
) = 900 .
(
We suggest to the reader to solve the following
problem:
We fix an angle (00 , 1800 ) and the line
AB which divides the plane in two half-planes,
and . The point in the half-plane is located
) = . The circle exsuch that (
inscribed to the triangle with center is
tangent to the sides and in the points
and , respectively. The point is located on the
line segment ( , is between and such
that and = . The point is
located on the line segment ( such that is
between and , and = . Prove
that the mediator of the segment passes
through a fixed point.

132

## Complements to Classic Topics of Circles Geometry

3rd Remark.
As seen, this problem is also true in the case =
90 , more than that, in this case, the fixed point is the
middle of . Prove!
0

References.
 Ion Patrascu: Probleme de geometrie plan [Planar
Geometry Problems]. Craiova: Editura Cardinal,
1996.

133

134

## Some Properties of the

of the harmonic quadrilateral related to
triangle simedians and to

Apolloniuss

Circle.

1st Definition.
having the property = is called

2nd Definition.
A triangle simedian is the isogonal cevian of a
triangle median.

1st Proposition.
In the triangle , the cevian 1 , 1 () is
a simedian if and only if

1
1

135

## Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache

Figura 1.

2nd Proposition.
In an harmonic quadrilateral, the diagonals are
simedians of the triangles determined by two
consecutive sides of a quadrilateral with its diagonal.
Proof.
Let be an harmonic quadrilateral and
{ } = (see Figure 1). We prove that is
simedian in the triangle .
From the similarity of the triangles and
, we find that:

(1)

## From the similarity of the triangles i ,

we conclude that:

136

(2)

follows that:

(3)

## But is an harmonic quadrilateral;

consequently,

=
;

substituting this relation in (3), it follows that:
2
( ) =
;

## As shown by Proposition 1, is a simedian in

the triangle . Similarly, it can be shown that is
a simedian in the triangle , that is a simedian
in the triangle , and that is a simedian in the
triangle .
Remark 1.
The converse of the 2nd Proposition is proved
similarly, i.e.:

3rd Proposition.
If in a convex circumscribable quadrilateral, a
diagonal is a simedian in the triangle formed by the
other diagonal with two consecutive sides of the

137

## Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache

Remark 2.
From 2nd and 3rd Propositions above, it results a
simple way to build an harmonic quadrilateral.
In a circle, let a triangle be considered; we
construct the simedian of A, be it , and we denote
by D the intersection of the simedian with the
circle. The quadrilateral is an harmonic

Proposition 4.
In a triangle , the points of the simedian of A
are situated at proportional lengths to the sides
and .

Figura 2.

138

## Complements to Classic Topics of Circles Geometry

Proof.
We have the simedian 1 in the triangle
(see Figure 2). We denote by and the projections
of 1 on , and respectively.
We get:
1 (1 ) 1
=
=
.
1 (1 ) 1
Moreover, from 1st Proposition, we know that
1
2
=( ) .
1

## Substituting in the previous relation, we obtain

that:
1
=
.
1
On the other hand, 1 = 1 . From 1 and
1 , hence:
1 = 1
1
1

(4)

## If M is a point on the simedian and 1 and 2

are its projections on , and respectively, we
have:
1 ,
1 ,
1 =
2 =
hence:
1
1
=
.
1
2
Taking (4) into account, we obtain that:
1
=
.
2

139

## Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache

3rd Remark.
The converse of the property in the statement
above is valid, meaning that, if is a point inside a
triangle, its distances to two sides are proportional to
the lengths of these sides. The point belongs to the
simedian of the triangle having the vertex joint to the
two sides.

5th Proposition.
In an harmonic quadrilateral, the point of
intersection of the diagonals is located towards the
sides of the quadrilateral to proportional distances to
the length of these sides. The Proof of this Proposition
relies on 2nd and 4th Propositions.

6th Proposition.
(R. Tucker)

## The point of intersection of the diagonals of an

harmonic quadrilateral minimizes the sum of squares
of distances from a point inside the quadrilateral to
Proof.
Let be an harmonic quadrilateral and
any point within.

140

## We denote by , , , the distances of to the

, , , sides of lenghts , , , and (see
Figure 3).

Figure 3.

## Let be the quadrilateral area.

We have:
+ + + = 2.
This is true for , , , and , , , real numbers.
Following Cauchy-Buniakowski-Schwarz Inequality, we get:
(2 + 2 + 2 + 2 )( 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 )
( + + + )2 ,
and it is obvious that:
4 2
2 + 2 + 2 + 2 2
.
+ 2 + 2 + 2
We note that the minimum sum of squared
distances is:

141

## Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache

4 2
= .
2 + 2 + 2 + 2
In Cauchy-Buniakowski-Schwarz Inequality, the
equality occurs if:

= = = .

Since { } = is the only point with this
property, it ensues that = , so has the property
of the minimum in the statement.

3rd Definition.
We call external simedian of triangle a
cevian 1 corresponding to the vertex , where 1
is the harmonic conjugate of the point 1 simedians
foot from relative to points and .
4th Remark.
In Figure 4, the cevian 1 is an internal
simedian, and 1 is an external simedian.
We have:
1 1
=
.
1 1
In view of 1st Proposition, we get that:
1
2
=( ) .
1

142

## Complements to Classic Topics of Circles Geometry

7th Proposition.
The tangents taken to the extremes of a diagonal
of a circle circumscribed to the harmonic quadrilateral
intersect on the other diagonal.
Proof.
Let be the intersection of a tangent taken in
to the circle circumscribed to the harmonic

Figure 4.

conclude that:

(5)

=(

) .

(6)

143

## This relationship indicates that P is the harmonic

conjugate of K with respect to A and C, so is an
external simedian from D of the triangle .
Similarly, if we denote by the intersection of
the tangent taken in B to the circle circumscribed with
, we get:

=( ) .

(7)

## From (6) and (7), as well as from the properties

of the harmonic quadrilateral, we know that:

=
,

which means that:

=
,

hence = .
Similarly, it is shown that the tangents taken to
A and C intersect at point Q located on the diagonal .
5th Remark.
a. The points P and Q are the diagonal poles of
and in relation to the circle
b. From the previous Proposition, it follows that
in a triangle the internal simedian of an angle
is consecutive to the external simedians of
the other two angles.

144

## Complements to Classic Topics of Circles Geometry

Figure 5.

8th Proposition.
Let be an harmonic quadrilateral inscribed
in the circle of center O and let P and Q be the
intersections of the tangents taken in B and D,
respectively in A and C to the circle circumscribed to
If { } = , then the orthocenter of
triangle is O.
Proof.
From the properties of tangents taken from a
point to a circle, we conclude that and
. These relations show that in the triangle ,
and are heights, so is the orthocenter of this
triangle.

145

## Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache

4th Definition.
The Apolloniuss circle related to the vertex A of
the triangle is the circle built on the segment [ ]
in diameter, where D and E are the feet of the internal,
respectively external, bisectors taken from A to the
triangle .
6th Remark.
If the triangle is isosceles with = ,
the Apolloniuss circle corresponding to vertex A is not
defined.

9th Proposition.
The Apolloniuss circle relative to the vertex A of
the triangle has as center the feet of the external
simedian taken from A.
Proof.
Let Oa be the intersection of the external
simedian of the triangle with (see Figure 6).
Assuming that () > ( ), we find that:
) = 1 [() + ( )].
(
2

) = ( ).
Withal,
1
( ) = [() ( )]
2

146

and
1
( ) = [( ) ( )].
2

## It results that = ; onward, being a

right angled triangle, we obtain: = ; hence Oa
is the center of Apolloniuss circle corresponding to
the vertex .

Figura 6.

10th Proposition.
Apolloniuss circle relative to the vertex A of
triangle cuts the circle circumscribed to the
triangle following the internal simedian taken from A.
Proof.
Let S be the second point of intersection of
Apolloniuss Circle relative to vertex A and the circle
circumscribing the triangle .

147

## Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache

Because is tangent to the circle circumscribed in A, it results, for reasons of symmetry, that
will be tangent in S to the circumscribed circle.
For triangle , and are external
simedians; it results that is internal simedian in
the triangle , furthermore, it results that the
Consequently, is the internal simedian of the
triangle and the property is proven.
7th Remark.
From this, in view of Figure 5, it results that the
circle of center Q passing through A and C is an
Apolloniuss circle relative to the vertex A for the
triangle . This circle (of center Q and radius QC)
is also an Apolloniuss circle relative to the vertex C of
the triangle .
Similarly, the Apolloniuss circle corresponding
to vertexes B and D and to the triangles ABC, and ADC
respectively, coincide.
We can now formulate the following:

11th Proposition.
In an harmonic quadrilateral, the Apolloniuss
circle - associated with the vertexes of a diagonal and
to the triangles determined by those vertexes to the
other diagonal - coincide.

148

## Radical axis of the Apolloniuss circle is the right

determined by the center of the circle circumscribed
to the harmonic quadrilateral and by the intersection
of its diagonals.
Proof.
Referring to Fig. 5, we observe that the power of
O towards the Apolloniuss Circle relative to vertexes
B and C of triangles and is:
2 = 2 .
So O belongs to the radical axis of the circles.
We also have = , relatives
indicating that the point K has equal powers towards
the highlighted Apolloniuss circle.

References.
 Roger A. Johnson: Advanced Euclidean Geometry,
Dover Publications, Inc. Mineola, New York,
USA, 2007.
 F. Smarandache, I. Patrascu: The Geometry of
Homological Triangles, The Education Publisher,
Inc. Columbus, Ohio, USA, 2012.
 F. Smarandache, I. Patrascu: Variance on Topics of
plane Geometry, The Education Publisher, Inc.
Columbus, Ohio, USA, 2013.

149

150

## Complements to Classic Topics of Circles Geometry

Triangulation of a Triangle
with Triangles having Equal
Inscribed Circles
problem:
Any

triangle

cevian

in

can

two

be

divided

triangles

that

by

have

## congruent inscribed circles.

Solution.
We consider a given triangle and we show
that there is a point on the side () so that the
inscribed circles in the triangles , are
congruent. If is an isosceles triangle ( = ),
where is the middle of the base (), we assume
that is a non-isosceles triangle. We note 1 , 2 the
centers of the inscribed congruent circles; obviously,
1 2 is parallel to the .
(1)
We observe that:
1
(1 2 ) = ().
(2)
2

151

Figure

1.

## If 1 , 2 are contacts with the circles of the cevian

, we have 1 1 2 2 ; let be the
intersection of 1 2 with , see Figure 1.
From this congruence, it is obvious that:
(1 ) (2 ).
(3)
Let be the center of the circle inscribed in the
triangle ; we prove that: is a simedian in the
triangle 1 2 .
(4)
1 ) , it follows that
Indeed, noting = (
(1 ) = . From 1 2 = , it follows that
1 2 , therefore 1 2 , indicating
that and are isogonal cevians in the triangle
1 2 .
Since in this triangle is a median, it follows
that is a bimedian.

152

## Now, we show how we build the point , using

the conditions (1) (4), and then we prove that this
construction satisfies the enunciation requirements.

## Building the point D.

10: We build the circumscribed circle of the given
triangle ; we build the bisector of the
angle and denote by P its intersection
with the circumscribed circle (see Figure
2).
0
2 : We build the perpendicular on to and
() side mediator; we denote 1 the
intersection of these lines.
0
3 : We build the circle (1 ; 1 ) and denote
the intersection of this circle with the
bisector ( is on the same side of the
line as ).
0
4 : We build through the parallel to 1 and
we denote it 1 .
0
5 : We build the circle (1 ; 1 ) and we denote
1 , 2 its intersections with , and
respectively.
0
6 : We build the middle of the segment (1 2 )
and denote by the intersection of the
lines and .

153

## Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache

Figure 2.

Proof.
, then
The point is the middle of the arc
) = 1 ().
(
2

## The circle (1 ; 1 ) contains the arc from

which points the segment (BC) is shown under angle
1
measurement ().
2

## The circle (1 ; 1 ) is homothetical to the

circle (1 ; 1 ) by the homothety of center and by
the report

## parallel to the , and from the points of circle

(1 ; 1 ) of the same side of as , the segment

154

1
2

(). Since

## the tangents taken in and to the circle (1 ; 1 )

intersect in , on the bisector , as from a property
of simedians, we get that is a simedian in the
triangle .
Due to the homothetical properties, it follows
also that the tangents in the points 1 , 2 to the circle
(1 ; 1 ) intersect in a point located on , i.e.
contains the simedian () of the triangle 1 2 , noted
{} = 1 2 .
In the triangle 1 2 , is a median, and is
simedian, therefore 1 2 ; on the other hand,
1 2 ; it follows that 1 2 , and more:
1 1 , which shows that 1 is a bisector in the
triangle ; plus, 1 , being located on the bisector of
the angle , it follows that this point is the center of
the circle inscribed in the triangle .
Analogous considerations lead to the conclusion
that 2 is the center of the circle inscribed in the
triangle . Because 1 2 is parallel to , it follows
that the rays of the circles inscribed in the triangles
and are equal.
Discussion.
The circles (1 ; 1 ), (1 ; 1 ) are unique;
also, the triangle 1 2 is unique; therefore,
determined as before, the point is unique.

155

## Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache

Remark.
At the beginning of the Proof, we assumed that
is a non-isosceles triangle with the stated
property. There exist such triangles; we can construct
such a triangle starting "backwards". We consider two
given congruent external circles and, by tangent
constructions, we highlight the triangle.

Open problem.
Given a scalene triangle , could it be
triangulated by the cevians , , with ,
belonging to (), so that the inscribed circles in the
triangles , and the to be congruent?

156

## Complements to Classic Topics of Circles Geometry

An Application of a Theorem
of Orthology
In this short article, we make connections
between Problem 21 of  and the theory
of orthological triangles.
The enunciation of the competitional problem is:
Let ( ), ( ), ( ) be the tangents in the
peaks , , of the triangle to the circle
circumscribed to the triangle. Prove that the
perpendiculars drawn from the middles of the
opposite sides on ( ), ( ), ( ) are concurrent
and determine their concurrent point.
We formulate and we demonstrate below a
sentence containing in its proof the solution of the
competitional problem in this case.

Proposition.
The tangential triangle and the median triangle
of a given triangle are orthological. The
orthological centers are the center of the circle
circumscribed to the triangle , and 9 the center
of the circle of triangles 9 points.

157

## Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache

Figure 1.

Proof.
Let be the median triangle of triangle
and the tangential triangle of the triangle
. It is obvious that the triangle and the
triangle are orthological and that is the
orthological center.
Verily, the perpendiculars taken from , ,
on ; ; respectively are internal bisectors in
the triangle and consequently passing through
, which is center of the circle inscribed in triangle
. Moreover, is the mediator of () and
accordingly passing through , and is
perpendicular on , being a mediator, but also on
which is a median line.

158

## From orthological triangles theorem, it follows

that the perpendiculars taken from , , on ,
, respectively, are concurrent. The point of
concurrency is the second orthological center of
triangles and . We prove that this point
is 9 the center of Euler circle of triangle . We
take 1 and denote by {1 } = 1 ,
being the orthocenter of the triangle . We know
that = 2 ; we prove this relation vectorially.
From Sylvesters relation, we have that:
=
+
+
, but
+
= 2
; it follows that

, so
; changing to module,

= 2
= 2
we have = 2 . Uniting to , we have
, and because 1 and , it
follows that the quadrilateral 1 is a
parallelogram.
From 1 = and = 2 we get that 1
is the middle of (), so 1 is situated on the circle of
the 9 points of triangle . On this circle, we find as
well the points - the height foot from and ;
since = 900 , it follows that 1 is the
diameter of Euler circle, therefore the middle of
( 1 ), which we denote by 9 , is the center of Eulers
circle; we observe that the quadrilateral 1 is as
well a parallelogram; it follows that 9 is the middle
of segment [].
In conclusion, the perpendicular from on
pass through 9 .

159

## Analogously, we show that the perpendicular

taken from on pass through 9 and
consequently 9 is the enunciated orthological center.
Remark.
The triangles and are
homological as well, since , , are
concurrent in O, as we already observed, therefore the
triangles and are orthohomological of
rank I (see ).
From P. Sondat theorem (see ), it follows that
the Euler line 9 is perpendicular on the homological
axis of the median triangle and of the tangential
triangle corresponding to the given triangle .
Note.
(Regarding the triangles that are simultaneously
orthological and homological)

## In the article A Theorem about Simultaneous

Orthological and Homological Triangles, by Ion
Patrascu and Florentin Smarandache, we stated and
proved a theorem which was called by Mihai Dicu in
 and  The Smarandache-Patrascu Theorem of
Orthohomological Triangle; then, in , we used the
term ortohomological triangles for the triangles that
are simultaneously orthological and homological.
The term ortohomological triangles was used by
J. Neuberg in Nouvelles Annales de Mathematiques

160

## (1885) to name the triangles that are simultaneously

orthogonal (one has the sides perpendicular to the
sides of the other) and homological.
We suggest that the triangles that are
simultaneously orthogonal and homological to be
called ortohomological triangles of first rank, and
triangles that are simultaneously orthological and
homological to be called ortohomological triangles of
second rank.

161

## Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache

References.
 Titu Andreescu and Dorin Andrica: 360 de
probleme de matematic pentru concursuri [360
Competitional Math Problem], Editura GIL,
Zalau, Romania, 2002.
 Mihai Dicu, The Smarandache-Patrascu Theorem of
Orthohomological
Triangle,
http://www.scrib.com/ doc/28311880/, 2010
 Mihai Dicu, The Smarandache-Patrascu Theorem of
Orthohomological Triangle, in Revista de
matematic ALPHA, Year XVI, no. 1/2010,
Craiova, Romania.
 Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache: Variance on
topics of Plane Geometry, Educational
Publishing, Columbus, Ohio, 2013.
 Multispace and multistructure neutrosophic
transdisciplinarity (100 collected papers of
sciences), Vol IV, Edited by prof. Florentin
Smarandache, Dept. of Mathematics and
Sciences, University of New Mexico, USA North European Scientific Publishers, Hanco,
Finland, 2010.

162

## The Dual of a Theorem

Relative to the Orthocenter
of a Triangle
In



we

introduced

the

notion

of

## Bobilliers transversal relative to a point

in the plane of a triangle ; we use
this notion in what follows.
We transform by duality with respect to a
circle

(, )

the

following

theorem

## relative to the orthocenter of a triangle.

1st Theorem.
If is a nonisosceles triangle, its
orthocenter, and AA1 , BB1 , CC1 are cevians of a triangle
concurrent at point different from , and , , are
the intersections of the perpendiculars taken from
on given cevians respectively, with , , , then
the points , , are collinear.

163

## Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache

Proof.
We note with = (BAA1 ); = (CBB1 ), =
(ACC1 ), see Figure 1.
According to Cevas theorem, trigonometric form,
we have the relation:
sin

sin

sin

## sin() sin() sin()

= 1.

(1)

We notice that:

Area()
Area()

)
sin sin(

sin( )

Because:
1 ,
as angles of perpendicular sides, it follows that
() = () .
Therewith:
) = 1800 .
) + (
() = (
We thus get that:
sin( )
=

sin

=
=

sin()

sin

sin()
sin

;
.

## Applying the reciprocal of Menelaus' theorem,

we find, in view of (1), that:

= 1.

164

## Complements to Classic Topics of Circles Geometry

Figure 1.

Note.
1st Theorem is true even if is an obtuse,
nonisosceles triangle.

2nd Theorem.
(The Dual of the Theorem 1)

## If is a triangle, a certain point in his plan,

and 1 , 1 , 1 Bobilliers transversals relative to of

165

## triangle, as well as 2 2 2 a certain

transversal in , and the perpendiculars in , and
on 2 , 2 , 2 respectively, intersect the Bobilliers
transversals in the points 3 , 3 , 3 , then the ceviens
3 , 3 , 3 are concurrent.
Proof.
We convert by duality with respect to a circle
(, ) the figure indicated by the statement of this
theorem, i.e. Figure 2. Let , , be the polars of the
points , , with respect to the circle (, ). To the
lines , , will correspond their poles { 4 =
; { 4 = ; { 4 = .
To the points 1 , 1 , 1 will respectively
correspond their polars 1 , 1 , 1 concurrent in
transversals pole 1 1 1 .
Since 1 , it means that the polars and 1
are perpendicular, so 1 , but 1 pass through ,
which means that contains the height from of
triangle and similarly 1 contains the height
from and 1 contains the height from of
triangle.
Consequently,
the
pole
of 1 1 1

## transversal is the orthocenter of triangle. In

the same way, to the points 2 , 2 , 2 will correspond
the polars to 2 , 2 , 2 which pass respectively through
, , and are concurrent in a point , the pole of
the line 2 2 2 with respect to the circle (, ).

166

Figure 2.

## Given 2 3 , it means that the polar 2 and

3 are perpendicular, 2 correspond to the cevian
, also 3 passes through the the pole of the
transversal 1 1 1 , so through , in other words
3 is perpendicular taken from on ; similarly,
2 3 , 2 3 , so 3 is perpendicular taken from
on . To the cevian 3 will correspond by duality
considered to its pole, which is the intersection of the
polars of and 3 , i.e. the intersection of lines and
3 , namely the intersection of with the
perpendicular taken from on ; we denote this

167

## point by . Analogously, we get the points and .

Thereby, we got the configuration from 1st Theorem
and Figure 1, written for triangle of orthocenter
. Since from 1st Theorem we know that , , are
collinear, we get the the cevians 3 , 3 , 3 are
concurrent in the pole of transversal with
respect to the circle (, ), and 2nd Theorem is proved.

References.
 Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache: The Dual
Theorem concerning Auberts Line, below.
 Florentin Smarandache, Ion Patrascu: The
Geometry of Homological Triangles. The
Education Publisher Inc., Columbus, Ohio, USA
2012.

168

## The Dual Theorem Concerning

Auberts Line
Bobilliers transversal of a triangle with
respect to a point in its plan ; we prove the
Auberts Theorem about the collinearity of
the

orthocenters

in

the

triangles

## determined by the sides and the diagonals

of a complete quadrilateral, and we obtain
the Dual Theorem of this Theorem.

1st Theorem.
(E. Bobillier)

## Let be a triangle and a point in the plane

of the triangle so that the perpendiculars taken in ,
and , , respectively, intersect the sides
, and at , i . Then the points ,
and are collinear.
Proof.
We note that

aria ()
aria ()

169

## Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache

Figure 1.
1

).
Area () = sin(
2
1

).
Area () = sin(
2

Since
) = 3 (
),
(
2

it explains that
) = cos(
);
sin(

) = sin (
) = cos(
).
sin(
2
Therefore:
)
cos(
(1).
=
)
cos(
In the same way, we find that:

170

## Complements to Classic Topics of Circles Geometry

)
cos(
(2);
=

)
cos(
)
cos(
(3).
=

)
cos(
The relations (1), (2), (3), and the reciprocal
Theorem of Menelaus lead to the collinearity of points
, , .
Note.
Bobillier's Theorem can be obtained by
converting the duality with respect to a circle from
the theorem relative to the concurrency of the heights
of a triangle.

1st Definition.
It is called Bobilliers transversal of a triangle
with respect to the point the line containing
the intersections of the perpendiculars taken in on
, , and respectively, with sides , CA and
.
Note.
The Bobilliers transversal is not defined for any
point in the plane of the triangle , for example,
where is one of the vertices or the orthocenter of
the triangle.

171

## Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache

2nd Definition.
If is a convex quadrilateral and , are the
intersections of the lines and , and
respectively, we say that the figure is a
sides are , , , , and , and are
diagonals.

2nd Theorem.
(Newton-Gauss)

## The diagonals middles of a complete

quadrilateral are three collinear points. To prove 2nd
theorem, refer to .
Note.
It is called Newton-Gauss Line of a quadrilateral
the line to which the diagonals middles of a complete

3rd Theorem.
(Aubert)

## If is a complete quadrilateral, then the

orthocenters 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 of the traingles , ,
, and respectively, are collinear points.

172

## Complements to Classic Topics of Circles Geometry

Proof.
Let 1 , 1 , 1 be the feet of the heights of the
triangle and 1 its orthocenter (see Fig. 2).
Considering the power of the point 1 relative to the
circle circumscribed to the triangle ABF, and given the
triangle orthocenters property according to which its
symmetrics to the triangle sides belong to the
circumscribed circle, we find that:
1 1 1 = 1 1 1 = 1 1 1 .

Figure 2.

## This relationship shows that the orthocenter 1

has equal power with respect to the circles of
diameters [ ], [], [ ] . As well, we establish that
the orthocenters 2 , 3 , 4 have equal powers to these
circles. Since the circles of diameters [ ], [], [ ]
have collinear centers (belonging to the Newton-

173

## Gauss line of the quadrilateral), it follows

that the points 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 belong to the radical axis
of the circles, and they are, therefore, collinear points.
Notes.
1. It is called the Aubert Line or the line of the
complete quadrilaterals orthocenters the line to
which the orthocenters 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 belong.
2. The Aubert Line is perpendicular on the
two circles is perpendicular to their centers line).

4th Theorem.
(The Dual Theorem of the 3rd Theorem)

## If is a convex quadrilateral and is a

point in its plane for which there are the Bobilliers
transversals of triangles , , and ;
thereupon these transversals are concurrent.
Proof.
Let us transform the configuration in Fig. 2, by
duality with respect to a circle of center .
By the considered duality, the lines , , , , i
correspond to the points , , , , , (their polars).
It is known that polars of collinear points are
concurrent lines, therefore we have: = { },

174

## Complements to Classic Topics of Circles Geometry

= { } , = { } , = { } ,
= { }, = { }.
Consequently, by applicable duality, the points

, , , , and correspond to the straight lines
, , , , , .
To the orthocenter 1 of the triangle , it
corresponds, by duality, its polar, which we denote
1 1 1 , and which is the Bobilliers transversal of
the triangle in relation to the point . Indeed,
the point corresponds to the line by duality; to
the height from of the triangle , also by duality,
it corresponds its pole, which is the point 1 located
) = 900 .
on such that (
1

## To the height from of the triangle , it

) =
corresponds the point such that (
1

900 .
Also, to the height from , it corresponds 1
on C such that ( 1 ) = 900 . To the
orthocenter 2 of the triangle , it will correspond,
by applicable duality, the Bobilliers transversal 2
2 2 in the triangle relative to the point .
To the orthocenter 3 of the triangle , it will
correspond the Bobilliers transversal 3 3 3
in the triangle relative to the point , and to
the orthocenter 4 of the triangle , it will
correspond the transversal 4 4 4 in the triangle
relative to the point .

175

1,4

## correspond to the collinear points , = 1,4.

These transversals are concurrent in the pole of
the line of the orthocenters towards the considered
duality.
It results that, given the quadrilateral ,
the Bobilliers transversals of the triangles ,
, and relative to the point are
concurrent.

References.


## Florentin Smarandache, Ion Patrascu: The

Geometry of Homological Triangles. The
Education Publisher Inc., Columbus, Ohio, USA
2012.
 Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache: Variance on
Topics of Plane Geometry. The Education
Publisher Inc., Columbus, Ohio, USA 2013.

176

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180

## We approach several themes of classical geometry of the circle and complete

them with some original results, showing
that not everything in traditional math is
revealed, and that it still has an open
character.
The topics were chosen according to
authors aspiration and attraction, as a
poet writes lyrics about spring according to
his emotions.