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Process Design
2. Design: “To design” refers to the
process of originating and
developing a plan for a product,
service or process.Process: Is
any part of an organization
which takes a set of input
resources which are then used
to transform something into
outputs of products or services.
3. Process Design Process design
thatDesign Products Produce
Products and Services and
Screening Layout and Flow
Preliminary Design Evaluation
and Improvement Process Job
and final design
4. Nature of the design activity:1)
Design is inevitable – products,
services and the processes
which produce them all have to
be designed.2) Product design
influences process design –
decisions taken during the
design of a product or service
will have an impact on the
decisions taken during the
design of the process which
produces those products or
services and vice versa.

Product & services design are
interrelated to its process
design Designing the Designing
the Product or Processes that
Service Produce the Product or
Service Processes should be
Products and services designed
so they can should be designed
in create all products such a
way that they and services

which can be created the
operation is likely effectively to
introduceDecisions taken during
the design of the product or
service will have an impact on
the process that produces them
and vice versa
6. Process
Interrelated• To commit to the
detailed design of a product or
service consideration must be
given to how it is to be
produced.• Design of process
can constrain the design of
products and services.• The
overlap is greater in the service
industry: • Service industry - it
service design and process
design – they are the same
thing. • Manufacturing industry
- it is possible to separate
product design and process
design but it is beneficial to
consider them together because
the design of products has a
major effect on the cost of
making them.
7. Process and product/service
design must satisfy customer•
customers satisfaction criteria •

Reliability • Meets expectation •
Inexpensive • Quality • Easy to
manufacture and deliver •
customers satisfaction achieved
through: • Layout • Location •
Process technology • Human
8. The design activity is itself a
process Finished designs which

Project Processes• One-off.Batch Processes• Higher volumes and lower variety than for jobbing• Standard products.• Critical analysis of process maps can improve the process. Process Types 14. or only a few required• Specially made. and work in process • Throughput – the time for a unit to move through the process • Work content – the total amount of work required to produce a unit of output (measured in time) • Cycle time – The average time between units of output emerging form the process • Work in process (WIP) –unfinished items in a production process waiting for further processing e.• Skill requirements are usually very broad• Skilled jobber. low repetition.Jobbing Processes• Very small quantities: “one-offs”. High variety.quality: Error-free designs RESOURCES which fulfil their purpose in a Technical information effective and creative way Market information Time information Speedily produced: Designs which have moved from concept to detailed THE DESIGN specification in a short time INPUTS OUTPUT ACTIVITY Dependably delivered: Designs which are delivered when promised Test and design equipment Produced flexibly: Design and technical which include the latest ideas staff to emerge during the process TRANSFORMING Low cost: Designs produced RESOURCES without consuming excessive resources 9. complex.Project Process 16.• Shows the flow of material. work content. Process mapping• Used to identify different types of activities. Throughput. narrower skills• Set-ups . repeating demand. Designing processes• Process mapping• Process mapping symbols• Improving processes• Process performance• Throughput. or team of jobbers complete whole product• Fixed position or process layout (routing decided by jobbers) 17. 11. high work content “products”• Specially made. when customers join a queue in a process they become WIP throughput = work in process x cycle time 13. cycle time. quality and cost objectives• Many different skills have to be coordinated• Fixed position layout 15. every one customized• Defined start and finish: time. But can make specials• Specialized.Process performance• Process performance can be judge against the five key performance objective:  Quality  Speed  Dependability  Flexibility  Cost 12.Jobbing Process 18. large scale. g. people or information. cycle time & work in process 10.

Mass Process 22.Batch Process 20. repeat products• Low and/or narrow skills• No set-ups.Mass (Line) Processes• Higher volumes than Batch• Standard.Manufacturing process Service process types types High High Project Professional service Jobbing Service shop Variety Variety Batch Mass Continuous Low Mass service Low Volume High Low Volume High .(changeovers) at each stage of production• Process or cellular layout 19. or almost instantaneous ones• Cell or product layout 21. Continuous Process• Extremely high volumes and low variety: often single product• Standard. repeat products• Highly capital- intensive and automated• Few changeovers required• Difficult and expensive to start and stop the process• Product layout: usually flow along conveyors or pipes 23. Continuous Process 24.