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Babylonian Talmud: Shabbath

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S H A B B A T H
T R A N S L AT E D

INTO

EN GLISH
WITH

N OTES ,
A ND

GLO SSARY

INDICE S

C HA PT E R S I - IV
BY

RABBI DR. H. FREEDMAN, B.A.,
Ph.D.
U N DE R T H E E D ITOR SH IP O F

RABBI DR I. EPSTEIN
B. A ., Ph. D. , D. L i t .

CONTENTS

F OREWARD BY T HE C HIEF R ABBI
I NTRODUCTION TO S EDER M O‘ED BY
THE E DITOR

PAGE

xiii
xxi

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html#intro I NTRODUCTION TO S HABBATH BY THE T RANSLATOR C HAPTER I C HAPTER II C HAPTER III C HAPTER IV C HAPTER V C HAPTER VI C HAPTER VII C HAPTER VIII C HAPTER IX C HAPTER X C HAPTER XI C HAPTER XII C HAPTER XIII C HAPTER XIV C HAPTER XV C HAPTER XVI C HAPTER XVII C HAPTER XVIII C HAPTER XIX C HAPTER XX C HAPTER XXI C HAPTER XXII C HAPTER XXIII C HAPTER XXIV G LOSSARY I NDEX OF S CRIPTURAL R EFERENCES G ENERAL I NDEX T RANSLITERATION OF H EBREW L ETTERS A BBREVIATIONS xxxiii 2 20 36 47 51 57 67 76 82 90 96 102 105 107 111 115 122 126 130 137 141 143 148 153 28/04/2016 17:14 .com/shabbath/index.Babylonian Talmud: Shabbath 2 de 8 http://halakhah.

being 28/04/2016 17:14 . and is the second longest Tractate of the Talmud.html#intro Directory of Sedarim and Tractates Folios: Intro 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 I NT RO DU CTI O N [page xxxiii] Shabbath is the first treatise of Mo‘ed. It contains 157 folios divided into 24 chapters.Babylonian Talmud: Shabbath 3 de 8 http://halakhah. the second Order of the Talmud.com/shabbath/index.

II.Babylonian Talmud: Shabbath 4 de 8 http://halakhah. 2-3. XXXV. XXXV.. 8-11 (the Fourth Commandment). 12-15 (the Fourth Commandment in the Deuteronomic revision). Num. 2-3. 12. 32 seq. It is obvious that an institution of such far-reaching importance. which runs to 176 folios.3 But of course. bearing burdens and carrying into a town (Jerusalem) or out from a private house. Jer. XXIII.2 The Biblical data are furnished by the following passages: Gen. There the instructions to build the 28/04/2016 17:14 .. mere chance references. 22 seq. XVII. XXXIV. 5: Neh. As its name implies. and a scientific investigation was necessary for the full understanding of its observance. V. gathering manna and bringing it in. XV. harvesting and ploughing (and perhaps the labours associated with these).1 had to be carefully defined. could not be regarded as exhausting the labours forbidden [page xxxiv] on the Sabbath. From an analysis and examination of these we learn that the following labours are forbidden: baking and seething. Ex. kindling. 15 seq. Deut. 32 and XIII. To this task the Rabbis devoted themselves in the present treatise. 21.com/shabbath/index. and the various categories of forbidden work which they distinguished. as many of these are. treading winepresses. The locus classicus for determining the meaning of 'work' was found by them in Ex. the Tractate deals with the laws and regulations of the Sabbath. Amos VIII. and lading asses. and its observance precisely determined. XX. XVI. It will help to an understanding of the Tractate to know the principles upon which the Rabbis based their definition of labour.. which is indeed one of the foundations of Judaism and for the violation of which Scripture prescribes the supreme penalty. X. buying and selling.html#intro exceeded only by Baba Bathra. 21 seq.

e. and then the enumeration of the thirty nine 'principal' labours. The following nine chapters consist of definitions of these labours. 'set apart'). they prohibited the handling of certain articles under the term 'mukzeh' (lit. the ornaments which may be worn. which they extended by adding 'derivatives'. such as partook of the nature of the 'principal' labours.. A special chapter (XIX) is devoted to circumcision on the Sabbath. Acting on this principle they drew up a list of thirty-nine 'principal' labours.Babylonian Talmud: Shabbath 5 de 8 http://halakhah. goes on to discuss the oils and wicks which may be used in kindling the Sabbath lights. Thus the Tractate commences with the things which may not be done on Friday. in the seventh chapter.html#intro Tabernacle are preceded by a short passage dealing with the prohibition of labour on the Sabbath which is apparently superfluous.. i. In addition to the foregoing they forbade other actions (shebuth) on the Sabbath which while not falling into the categories of either 'principal' labours or 'derivatives' were nevertheless felt not to harmonize with the sacred and restful nature of the Sabbath. It would be too wearisome to give a detailed summary of each of the twenty-four chapters [see list above]. including those things which are forbidden as a 'shebuth' or under the heading of 'mukzeh'. The Rabbis accordingly interpreted it as intimating that whatever work was required in the building of the Tabernacle constituted 'work' which is forbidden on the Sabbath. And finally.com/shabbath/index. the things in which food may be stored for the Sabbath. while from Chapter XVII until the end a number of miscellaneous subjects are dealt with. Suffice it to say that with the exception of the first Mishnah a definite order of sequence may be discerned. [page xxxv] A considerable portion of the Tractate consists of 28/04/2016 17:14 .

the judge who judges truthfully becomes a partner with God in the Creation. FREEDMAN Footnotes 1.html#intro Aggaduh. 28/04/2016 17:14 . H. the story of Hanukkah (the Feast of Lights). the attempt to exclude Ecclesiastes and Ezekiel from the Canon. Simeon b. Israel's joy in accepting it and Moses' fight to obtain it — an appreciation of the fact that God's kingdom on earth can be established only after struggle. God's stipulation that the world was to return to chaos unless Israel accepted the Torah. sentence. It is difficult to make a selection from the rich store of Rabbinic legend. the Sabbath is God's gift to Israel. the Torah is the cause of the nations' hatred of Israel. the heathens who wished to embrace Judaism on certain conditions and Hillel's famous epitome of Judaism — 'What is hateful to thee do not do to thy neighbour'. In that desire to be at harmony with God. and finally. 'Repent one day before thy death' and the necessity to be ready at all times to appear before God illustrated by the parable of the wise and the foolish men invited to the king's feast. 'truth' is God's seal. which is the core and essence of Judaism. R. why Jerusalem was destroyed. schoolchildren are God's anointed.Babylonian Talmud: Shabbath 6 de 8 http://halakhah. In actual practice this was hedged about with so many restrictions as to make its application virtually impossible. the Rabbis found the spiritual significance of the sacredness of the Sabbath. Rome was founded when Solomon married Pharaoh's daughter. Yohai's criticism of the Roman Government and his flight. but perhaps special attention might be drawn to the following: Prayer must be preceded by preparation.com/shabbath/index. apologue and aphorism in which the Tractate abounds.

Thus the Sabbath emphasizes God's Creation of the world on the one hand. A. M.com/shabbath/index. In connection with the last it may be mentioned that while Gen. XX. the persons who benefit by this day of rest. 8-11 state God's resting after the Creation as the reason. 3. PREFATORY NOTE BY THE EDITOR The Editor desires to state that the translation of the several Tractates. are the work of the individual contributors and that he has not attempted to secure general uniformity in style or mode of rendering. Halevi. 2-3 and Ex. in Deut. The Indices of this Tractate have been compiled by Judah J. On the relationship between 'Shabbath' and 'Bezah' (or Yom Tob) v. He has.html#intro 2. V. In these texts too the sanctity of the Sabbath is stressed. ISIDORE EPSTEIN 28/04/2016 17:14 . 3. their interpretation and elucidation of the original text. nevertheless. and freedom as an essential right of man on the other. II. Doroth Harishonim I. and has himself added the notes in square brackets containing alternative explanations and matter of historical and geographical interest. 253.Babylonian Talmud: Shabbath 7 de 8 http://halakhah. at his own discretion. Slotki. and the reasons for same. p. 12-15 the Sabbath is based on Israel's bondage in Egypt and their eventual liberation. revised and supplemented. and the notes thereon.

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