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Babylonian Talmud:
Tractate Shabbath
Folio 36a
Then in the case of a community['s] too, it is fit for giving a
drink to a poor child?1 Moreover, as to what was taught:
'Just as a shofar may be moved, so may a trumpet be
moved': with whom does that agree? Rather [reply thus];
there is no difficulty: one agrees with R. Judah, one with R.
Simeon, and one with R. Nehemiah;2 and what indeed is
meant by 'shofar', a trumpet,3 in accordance with R. Hisda.
For R. Hisda said: The following three things reversed their
designations after the destruction of the Temple: [i] trumpet
[changed to] shofar, and shofar to trumpet. What is the
practical bearing thereof? in respect of the shofar [blown]
on New Year.4 [ii] 'Arabah [willow] [changed to] zafzafah
and zafzafah to 'Arabah. What is the practical bearing
thereof? In respect of the lulab5 [iii] Pathora6 [changed
to] pathorta7 and pathorta to Pathora. What is the practical
bearing thereof? In respect of buying and selling.8
Abaye observed: We too can state: Hoblila [changed to] be
kasse and be kasse to hoblila.9 What is the practical
bearing thereof? In respect of a needle which is found in
the thickness of the beth hakosoth,10 which if [found] on
one side, it [the animal] is fit [for food]; if through both
sides,11 it [the animal] is terefah.12 R. Ashi said, We too
will state: Babylon [changed to] Borsif and Borsif to
Babylon.13
To Part b
Original footnotes renumbered.
1. The community has to look after him, and therefore the
community's shofar may be used for this purpose.
2. (i) R. Judah holds that a shofar may be moved, since it can be
put to a permitted use, but not a trumpet. This can be used only
in a way that is forbidden on the Sabbath, sc. drawing a blast,
and is therefore mukzeh (q.v. Glos.), the handling of which R.
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Judah prohibits on the Sabbath, (ii) R. Simeon holds that


mukzeh may be handled, hence both may be moved. (iii) R.
Nehemiah holds that a utensil may be handled only for its
normal use: hence both are forbidden:
3. In the first Baraitha, once it is stated that a shofar may not be
moved, though it can be put to a permitted use, a trumpet need
not be mentioned. Hence it is stated that the language changed
in the course of time, 'shofar' and 'trumpet' reversing their
meaning. Thus the first Baraitha first states that a trumpet may
not be handled, and then adds that the same applies even to a
shofar.
4. V. Lev. XXIII, 24; Num. XXIX, 1. This must be blown on what
is popularly called a trumpet, which is really a shofar (ram's
horn).
5. The palm-branch; V. Lev. XXIII, 40. For the willow (Heb.
'arabah), what is now called zafzafah must be taken.
6. A small money-changer's table, counter.
7. A large table.
8. If one orders a pathora it now means a large table.
9. Hoblila is the second stomach in ruminants; be kasse the first.
But nowadays the terms have reversed their meanings.
10. I.e., the be kasse.
11. I.e., penetrating both sides of the wall.
12. Unfit for food. Abaye states that this law applies only to what is
now called hoblila.
13. The town Babylon is on the Euphrates, and Borsipha is on an
arm of the Euphrates. V. Obermeyer, P. 314 and map.

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Shabbath 36b
What is the practical difference? In respect of women's
bills of divorce.1

CHAPTER III
MISHNAH. IF A [DOUBLE]2 STOVE IS HEATED
WITH STUBBLE OR RAKINGS, A POT MAY BE
PLACED THEREON;3 WITH PEAT OR WOOD, ONE
MAY NOT PLACE [A POT THERE] UNTIL, HE
SWEEPS IT4 OR COVERS IT WITH ASHES.5 BETH
SHAMMAI MAINTAIN: HOT WATER, BUT NOT A
DISH;6 BUT BETH HILLEL RULE; BOTH HOT
WATER AND A DISH. BETH SHAMMAI MAINTAIN:
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ONE MAY REMOVE [IT], BUT NOT PUT [IT] BACK;


BUT BETH HILLEL RULE: ONE MAY PUT [IT] BACK
TOO.
GEMARA. The scholars propounded: Does this, ONE
MAY NOT PLACE, mean one must not put [it] back,7 yet
it is permitted to keep [it there],8 even if it [the stove] is
neither swept nor covered with ashes: and who is the
authority thereof? Hananiah. For it was taught, Hananiah
said: 'Whatever is as the food of the son of Derusai9 may
be kept on the stove, even if it is neither swept nor covered
with ashes'?10 Or perhaps we learnt about keeping [it
there], and that is [permitted] only if it is swept or covered
with ashes, but not otherwise: how much more so with
respect to putting it back!-Come and hear! For two clauses
are taught in our Mishnah: BETH SHAMMAI
MAINTAIN: HOT WATER, BUT NOT A DISH; BUT
BETH HILLEL RULE: BOTH HOT WATER AND A
DISH. BETH SHAMMAI MAINTAIN: ONE MAY
REMOVE [IT], BUT NOT PUT[IT] BACK; BUT BETH
HILLEL RULE: ONE MAY PUT [IT] BACK TOO. Now,
if you say that we learnt about keeping [it there], it is well,
for this is what he [the Tanna] teaches: IF A STOVE IS
HEATED WITH STUBBLE OR RAKINGS, a pot may be
kept thereon; WITH PEAT OR WOOD, one may not keep
[a pot] there UNTIL, HE SWEEPS IT OR COVERS IT
WITH ASHES. And what may be kept there? BETH
SHAMMAI MAINTAIN: HOT WATER, BUT NOT A
DISH; BUT BETH HILLEL RULE: BOTH HOT WATER
AND A DISH. And just as they differ in respect to keeping
it there, so do they differ in respect to putting it back, where
BETH SHAMMAI MAINTAIN: ONE MAY REMOVE
[IT], BUT NOT PUT [IT] BACK; BUT BETH HILLEL
RULE: ONE MAY PUT [IT] BACK TOO. But if you say
that we learnt about putting it back, then this is what he
teaches: IF A STOVE IS HEATED WITH STUBBLE OR
RAKINGS, A POT MAY BE PUT BACK THEREON;
WITH PEAT OR WOOD, one must not put it back UNTIL,
HE SWEEPS IT OR COVERS IT WITH ASHES. And
what may be put back? BETH SHAMMAI MAINTAIN:
HOT WATER, BUT NOT A DISH; BUT BETH HILLEL
RULE: BOTH HOT WATER AND A DISH. BETH
SHAMMAI MAINTAIN: ONE MAY REMOVE [IT], BUT
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NOT PUT [IT] BACK;11 BUT BETH HILLEL RULE:


ONE MAY PUT [IT] BACK TOO. Then what is the
purpose of this addition?12
- To Next Folio Original footnotes renumbered.
1. The name of the towns in which the husband and wife are
residing must be written in divorces. With respect to Babylon
and Borsipha, the names as after the change must be written.
2. A stove which held two pots.
3. On the eve of the Sabbath, the reference being to a cooked dish.
4. Clear of burning pieces.
5. Otherwise it adds heat, which is forbidden; v. supra 34a.
6. Only the former may be placed there after it is swept; but not
the latter, because he may wish it to boil more, forget himself,
and rake the coals or logs.
7. After the commencement of the Sabbath.
8. From the eve of the Sabbath.
9. A third cooked.
10. V. supra 20a, q.v. notes.
11. Presumably referring to a dish, since Beth Shammai permit the
replacing of hot water.
12. It has already been stated in the previous clause, 'BUT NOT A
DISH'.

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