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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION
BACKGROUND
As we know that in fact, the language in the world is not a single language but
different. Moreover, in a variety of languages have various forms, such as standard
and non-standard variations. These variations arise because of social and cultural
factors, where individuals or groups of individuals live.
Shape or form of language of a person or group of people is influenced by
environmental or extra lingual factors that come into contact with it. Therefore extra
lingual factor is thus a form of language to suit a wide-variety of social reality that
reflection. This opinion Chomsky denies the concept of homogeneous language
community affairs. Wardhaugh (1986: 113) evaluates Chomsky's view of a
homogeneous society like the following quote.
"For purely theoretical purposes, linguist may want to hypothesize the existence of
some kind of" ideal "speech community. This is actually what Chomsky proposes, his
'completely homogenous speech community'. However, such a community cannot be
our concern: it is theoretical construct employed for a narrow purpose. Our speech
community, whatever they are, exists in a 'real world'. Consequently, some alternative
view must be developed of speech community, one helpful to investigation of a
language in society rather than necessitated by more abstract linguistic theorizing ".
Wardhaugh opinion based on the above it can be concluded that the presence
of a heterogeneous language makes more sense. About the homogeneous society, it
seems it is hard to imagine. Suppose there, the numbers are very limited. Therefore,
the heterogeneity of language, the factors that are individual, regional, social and
situational influences the language variation.
Based on the above opinion, the experts found that language sociolinguistic
there are manifold. Among the various languages it is pidgin language and creoles
languages. At first, pidgin and creoles considered a linguistic phenomenon which is
not attractive. Hymes (in Wardhaugh, 1988) adds that before 1930 pidgin and creoles

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history. structure. This is due to their origins. the speaker realizes that talking to pidgin and creoles language variation which is not a bad. Therefore. Language experts give serious attention to pidgin and creoles languages. this assumption on the behavior and the present has changed. 1 THE HISTORY OF PIDGINS AND CREOLES Pidgins and creoles are new language varieties. CHAPTER II DISCUSSION 2. Pidgin and creoles study to be an important part of the study of literature and sociolinguistics with all of pidgin and creoles controversy itself. They found an interesting characteristic of the particulars pidgin and creoles. In the end. people who speak the language of pidgin and creoles associated with members of the poor and the black community. but a language or language variety that has legitimacy. which developed out of contacts between colonial nonstandard varieties of a European language and several non-European languages around the Atlantic and in the Indian and Pacific Oceans during the seventeenth to nineteenth centuries. such as on the 2 . and possible recognition as a language is or was. Pidgins typically emerged in trade colonies which developed around trade forts or along trade routes.is widely ignored by linguists and language is rated as marginal. Fortunately.

(Kikongo-) Kituba. Chinook Jargon. The term `Creoles' was originally coined in Iberian colonies. By the second half of the same century. in which Europeans and non-Europeans interacted differently –sporadically in trade colonies (which produced pidgins) but regularly in the initial stages of settlement colonies (where Creoles developed). several speakers of Creoles (or pidgins) actually believe they speak dialects of their lexifiers. in reference to non indigenous people born in the American colonies. Creoles may not have applied widely to language varieties until the late eighteenth century. Usage varied from one colony to another. Smith 1995) Mufwene (2001) emphasizes that Creoles and pidgins developed in separate places. 3 . Nonetheless. Sango. It was adopted in metropolitan Spanish. especially in urban settings. and initially they served as non-native lingua francas to users who preserved their native vernaculars for their day-to-day interactions. and Hiri Motu in Papua New Guinea (Holm 1989. apparently in the sixteenth century. they are as complex as Creoles. it was generalized to descendants of Africans or Europeans born in Romance colonies. Some pidgins have expanded into regular vernaculars. Kinubi in Southern Sudan and in Uganda.' Examples include Bislama and Tok Pisin (in Melanesia) and Nigerian and Cameroon Pidgin English. then in French and later in English by the early seventeenth century. It is not clear how the term became associated only with vernaculars spoken primarily by descendants of non-Europeans. The terms Creoles and pidgin have also been extended to some other varieties that developed during the same period out of contacts among primarily nonEuropean languages. animals. and Mobilian in North America. Such usage may have been initiated by metropolitan Europeans to disfranchise particular colonial varieties of their languages. The term was also used as an adjective to characterize plants. and Lingala in Central Africa. and customs typical of the same colonies. Examples include Delaware Pidgin.coast of West Africa. Structurally. They are reduced in structures and specialized in functions (typically trade). and are called `expanded pidgins.

The very fact of resorting to a handful of prototypes for the general Creoles structural category suggests that the vast majority of them do not share the putative set of defining features.' i. 474): `when the jargon [i. He argued that fossilized inflectional morphology in Haitian Creoles (HC) and the like is evidence that Europeans did not communicate with the Africans in foreigner or baby talk. hence that the features cannot be used to single them out as a unique type of language. The first creolist to dispute this connection was Alleyne (1971). changes in the ethnolinguistic makeup of the populations that came in contact. variation in the structural features of Creoles (lexified by the same language) is correlated with variation in the linguistic and sociohistorical ecologies of their developments (Mufwene 2001). Creoles have been defined inaccurately as `nativized pidgins. Those of the Atlantic and Indian Ocean are. p. 1984). the kinds of interactions between speakers of the lexifier and those of other languages. those that 4 . This position is as disputable as the counterclaim that they are more similar in the socio historical ecologies of their developments.Among the earliest claims that Creoles developed from pidgins is the following statement in Bloomfield (1933.' Hall (1962) reinterpreted this. The notion of `ecology' includes. among other things.. or even the more recent claim that there are Creoles prototypes from which others deviate in various ways (McWhorter 1998). the nature of the lexifier. structural features of the substrate languages. along with Hawaiian Creoles. associating the vernacular function of Creoles with nativization. Thus. it is a creolized language. To date the best known Creoles have been lexified by English and French.e. pidgins that have acquired native speakers and have therefore expanded both their structures and functions and have stabilized. It has also been claimed that Creoles have more or less the same structural design (Bickerton. pidgin] has become the only language of the subject group.. which would have fostered pidgins on the plantations. and rates and modes of population growth. Hall then also introduced the pidgin-Creoles `life-cycle' to which DeCamp (1971) added a `post-Creoles' stage. On the other hand.e.

Pidgin language (origin in Engl. Nigerian and Singaporean English).g. 5 . The denotations and importance of these terms deserve re-examining. Creoles. A pidgin is a language with no native speakers. which are not clearly articulated have also been proposed. or contact language. out of a mixture of other languages as a means of communication between speakers of different tongues. Pidgins have rudimentary grammars and restricted vocabulary. 2. While the terms `Creoles' and `creolization' have often been applied uncritically to various contactinduced language varieties. Many pidgins are `contact vernaculars'. between pidgin. serving as auxiliary contact languages.. the prestige of Pidgin languages is very low. They are improvised rather than learned natively. despite an undeniable increase during the 1990s in the number of works on structural features. semi-Creoles. intertwined varieties.have informed most theorizing on the development of Creoles. may arise when two speakers of different languages with no common language try to have a makeshift conversation. Gastarbeiter Deutsch). It is the product of a multilingual situation in which those who wish to communicate must find or improvise a simple language system (Wardaugh. Because of colonialism. usually spontaneously. several distinctions. may only exist for one speech event. Lexicon usually comes from one language. Pidgins A Pidgin. a. and `indigenized varieties' of European languages (e. slavery etc. it is no one’s first language.. foreign workers' varieties of European languages (e. koine! .g. is the name given to any language created. word `business'?) is nobody's native language. structure often from the other. 2010). for instance. 2 THE DEFENITION OF PIDGINS AND CREOLES Most studies of pidgins and Creoles (PC) have focused on their origins.

Creoles A creole is a language that was originally a pidgin but has become nativized. or just creoles. Some pidgins have expanded into regular vernaculars. Hawaii. Next used to designate the language(s) of people of Caribbean and African descent in colonial and excolonial countries (Jamaica.A pidgin. Another example from this is Bislama pidgins in Vanuatu. i. A creoles language. 3 THE DEVELOPMENT OF PIDGIN AND CREOLES 6 . especially in urban settings. All creoles languages evolved from pidgins. serving as auxiliary contact languages. with NO native speakers. 2. We can conclude that a pidgin is “a language with a reduced range of structure and use.' Examples include Bislama and Tok Pisin (in Melanesia) and Nigerian and Cameroon Pidgin English. Pitcairn. is a well-defined and stable language that originated from a non-trivial combination of two or more languages. b. They are learned as second languages rather than natively.e. is the name given to any language created. out of a mixture of other languages as a means of communication between speakers of different tongues. Haiti. Mauritius. or contact language.) A creole is “a pidgin which has become the mother tongue of a community. Réunion. typically with many distinctive features that are not inherited from either parent. etc. usually spontaneously. a community of speakers claims it as their first language. usually those that have become the native language of a community. Pidgins have simple grammars and few synonyms. and are called `expanded pidgins.” and therefore has native speakers (Source: The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language).” It grows up among people who do not share a common language but who want to communicate with each other. The most kinds of pidgin but now be a creol as like Melanesia pidgin (Tok Pisin in Papua New Guinea).

However. as it is now called in Vanuatu. or contact language. The word is derived from the Chinese pronunciation of the English word business. is fairly mutually intelligible with Tok Pisin. Chinese. When a pidgin reaches this point it acquires the full complexity of a natural language. As tropical islands were colonised their society was restructured. pidgins do not always become creoles . would often come from many different language groups and would need to communicate.they can die out or become obsolete.a. Bislama. usually spontaneously. Another wellknown pidgin is the Beach-la-Mar of the South Seas. Pidgin English was the name given to a Chinese-English-Portuguese pidgin used for commerce in Canton during the 18th and 19th centuries. and becomes a creoles language. This led to the development of pidgins. both natives and slaves. Some scholars dispute this derivation of the word "pidgin". with a ruling minority of some European nation and a large mass of non-European laborers. serving as auxiliary contact languages. and Portuguese words. Pidgins have rudimentary grammars and restricted vocabulary. out of a mixture of other languages as a means of communication between speakers of different tongues. is the name given to any language created. They are improvised rather than learned natively. The laborers. but 7 . The Development Of Pidgin A Pidgin. who then generalize the features of the pidgin into a fully-formed. who used Lingua Franca or Sabir. The concept originated in Europe among the merchants and traders in the Mediterranean in the Middle Ages. stabilized grammar (see Nicaraguan Sign Language). This stage requires the pidgin to be learned natively by children. they can replace the existing mix of languages to become the native language of the current community (such as Krio in Sierra Leone and Tok Pisin in Papua New Guinea). As they develop. and suggest alternative etymologies. Caribbean pidgin is the result of colonialism. based on English but incorporating Malay.

Curacao and Bonaire Leeward islands of the Netherlands Antilles (influenced by Portuguese. In such circumstances may arise that name 8 . Haitian Creoles in the Caribbean. and Creoles to the younger generation. a group of children or grandchildren they acquire and use the language as a first language (mother language). Expansion of Pidgin be equated with creoles languages in other countries that have it. Creoles is a language extension Pidgin. and creoles from Dominica (influenced by Spanish. creoles is pidgin which from time to time and from one generation to the next generation that continues to develop into a variety of languages By the time adults use pidgin as an intermediate language. 2. Sometimes the language changes occur in a short time as a result of contact between two languages used by people with backgrounds different languages. The Development Of Creoles In linguistic. Pidgin for the older generation. English and Spanish). In the language of the user community Pidgin shift or different naming of the language used. French and English). overall language can be changed. There are hundreds of different creoles languages in the world. both grammatical complexity and vocabulary. Papiamentu in Arubia. At the level of creoles.no alternative has been deemed convincing enough to garner widespread support. this contact language was called Canton English. South Venezuela. The speakers can be found throughout the Caribbean and North American comunity. but creoles. no longer called Pidgin. Example is the creoles language Tok Pisin in Papua New Guinea. 4 THE PROCESS OF DEVELOPMENT FROM PIDGIN TO CREOL In general. Creoles is also often referred to as the language Pidgin that has native speakers. the western part of the island of Hispaniola (having six million speakers). b. grammar and vocabulary begin to intricate and complex. In Canton. For children or grandchildren.

Pidgin usually have a very simple grammar with a vocabulary of different languages so that mixing the two elements of the language led to a mixture of languages. So. and only a pidgin language of the original. Creoles have more speakers than pidgin. Because in determining whether or not a creoles. First of all.pidgin. creoles but called for being their mother tongue. Because creoles evolved through his children and grandchildren. is the Malay language and Betawi Malay Ambon. When someone mentions a creoles language. when they interact with other countries that are much different languages have either structural or functional. a language is used as a first language in an area. especially the merchants. It just said creoles pidgin language if this has been going on for generations. Creolization is a linguistic development that occurs because the two languages in contact for a long time which is pidgin speakers had breed. Creoles language developed from pidgin language. And so on if creoles able to survive and continue berkembanga it would creoles language bias to larger and more complete example is the language of Sierra Leone in West Africa which later became the national language. and to paraphrase of their own languages understood by all 9 . A pidgin has no native speakers (native speakers). so they created a new language with quotes. creoles is the result of language contact as well which is the development of a pidgin. So. among others. The structure is still describe the structure of pidgin. then the language should have first been proven historically about its origins. If you have a native speaker's language is called a creoles language. Some languages are considered creoles language in Indonesia. a language historically has a very important role and have a very close relationship. Pidgin creoles arises when a mother tongue in a particular community. creoles is a pidgin development that has had a parent language (mother tongue). then the youth. Pidgin can be a creoles when the foreign speakers and used by his descendants were then frozen as their first language. activities interaction by trade. From various origins traders.

” and therefore has native speakers (Source: The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language). Pidgins have rudimentary grammars and restricted vocabulary. and the influence of what is left. First language in an area that depends on whether the area is the result of colony. serving as auxiliary contact languages. A Pidgin is the name given to any language created. 2.traders concerned that they are able to interact well. CHAPTER III CONCLUSION CONCLUSION Based on the description of Pidgins and Creoles in the above. usually spontaneously. 10 . Creoles is a pidgin that time to time. A creoles is “a pidgin which has become the mother tongue of a community. out of a mixture of other languages as a means of communication between speakers of different tongues. the authors conclude: 1. from generation to next generation keep moving development be ones language. who occupier.

D. “The Language Bioprogram Hypothesis”. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 4. Holm. John Benjamins Publishing Company. Pidgins and Creoles: An introduction. Theories focusing on the non. India. (1971). D. English as a global language. English as a global language. The Development of Pidgin and Creole Studies. Pidgin and Creole Linguistics. and paraphrase their own languages understood by all traders concerned that they are able to interact well.European input. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited. D. (1984). Crystal. (1989). Indiana University Press. 11 . Relexification in Creole and non-Creole Languages: with special attention to Haitian Creole. Language. then the youth. (2003). a language is used as a first language in an area. when they interact with other countries that are much different languages have either structural or functional. Crystal. Amsterdam Bickerton. First of all. From various origins traders. H. (1977). (1971). and Rumanian. (2003). 3-5. (1994). D. Cambridge (1968). 7(2): 173-221. Modern Hebrew. so they created a new language with quotes. L. Bloomfield. Romani. De Camp.3. activities interaction by trade. Creoles language developed from pidgin language. Jamaica. Behavioral and Brain Sciences. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Otto Harrassowitz. D. “Pidginization and Creolization of Languages”. Cambridge University Press. Proceedings of International Conference on Pidgin and Creole Languages. especially the merchants. REFERENCE Alleyne. Wiesbaden Hymes.

Mufwene (2001) The Ecology of Language Evolution. L. (5th edition). “William A.Goodman. 18(2): 311-317. 2001 Todd. New ed. 12 . Blackwell Publishing. Stewart: 1930-2002”. Pidgins and Creoles. London. R. (1990). Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages. USA. An Introduction to Sociolinguistics. Routledge Wardhaugh. (2010). M. (2003). Cambridge University Press.