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Marketing Intelligence & Planning

Factors affecting consumers’ green product purchase decisions
Prashant Kumar Bhimrao M Ghodeswar

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in turn. India. drive for environmental responsibility. and which is certified as such by a recognized organization” (Gurau and Ranchhod. . usage and post-usage activities. social importance and environmental significance of purchasing. Though environmental consciousness in Indian consumers is observed in the literature. 3. their purchase behaviour towards green products is not yet clearly understood. National Institute of Industrial Engineering. transportation. Mumbai. Market research Paper type Research paper Marketing Intelligence & Planning Vol. and inclination towards searching green product-related information and learning about green products. So. National Institute of Industrial Engineering.emeraldinsight. 2015 pp. Introduction Awareness of the destruction of natural resources resulting from human activities has raised the issue of environmental protection and environmental consciousness in consumer behaviour. 2005). (2006) have addressed consumption aspects of green products across their life-cycles. Findings – The results witnessed that the respondents possess willingness to support environmental protection. 33 storage. India Downloaded by Universitas Sebelas Maret At 04:12 17 April 2016 (PT) Abstract Purpose – The literature on green consumer behaviour recently focuses upon the Asian markets. environmental friendliness of companies and social appeal are identified as important factors affecting green product purchase decisions. has increased the demand for green products in the market worldwide. Using a 38-item questionnaire and snowball sampling method. Research limitations/implications – Results of the research are useful for marketing professionals for green products to develop effective green marketing strategies emphasizing personal relevance.htm MIP 33. realization of environmental responsibilities. the data were collected from 403 working Indian respondents in Mumbai. the purpose of this paper is to study the factors affecting consumers’ green product purchase decisions in India. Originality/value – This research provides valuable insights into green consumer behaviour in Indian context by examining the factors that influence their purchase decisions towards green products. Keywords India. Green marketing. 330-347 © Emerald Group Publishing Limited 0263-4503 DOI 10.The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available on Emerald Insight at: www. The data were analysed using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. using and disposing green products that produce increased levels of satisfaction for customers and influence their decisions to buy green products. Supporting environmental protection.1108/MIP-03-2014-0068 1. Consumer behaviour. Structural equation modelling was used to test the proposed hypotheses. Ghodeswar Department of Marketing. and Prashant Kumar Received 31 March 2014 Revised 28 June 2014 Accepted 10 September 2014 Bhimrao M. Green issues. A green product is defined as “a product that was manufactured using toxic-free ingredients and environmentally-friendly procedures. This. Mumbai. Many of the researchers like D’Souza et al. Greening of a product takes place over its complete life-cycle from product design and raw material procurement to manufacturing. Design/methodology/approach – The research employs a survey-based method to test a theoretically grounded set of hypotheses. green product experience.3 Factors affecting consumers’ green product purchase decisions 330 Department of General Management.

for Green product purchase decisions 331 . The purchase decisions of green consumers are influenced by broadly two factors. actual purchase behaviour and willingness-to-pay. 2009). and to test their relationships with green product purchase decisions. 2011. 1998). Green product purchase decisions For the purpose of this study. 2009. their competitive prices and their accountability in the retail stores (Singh et al. the others are extrinsic to the consumers which are related to. So. 2007). elaborates upon demand of eco-friendly products and motivates business organizations to behave environmentally favourable to survive in the market (Hansen. The way green consumerism is found gradually moving to Asian regions (Lee. purchase decisions. 2008).. 2012. self-interest and willingness to act for resource conservation and reduced impact on the environment. 2011) and likely to spend more for green products (Essoussi and Linton. Manaktola and Jauhari. Gurau and Ranchhod. 1996). 2008). have focused on consumer attitude towards green practices in lodging industry (Manaktola and Jauhari. and are becoming choosy in their purchase behaviour in terms of preference for green products.. constant attempts are being made to expand these concepts universally to understand the similarities and differences that may exist between cultures in an environmentally conscious setting. Since improved environmental consciousness is observed in the Indian market (Singh et al. These behavioural studies have focused on determinants of environmentally friendly purchase behaviour such as purchase intentions. The studies in Indian context. India is found to be a potential market of green products (Singh. 2013). Using and testing samples from several cities. Knight and Paradkar. and intend to modify their purchase and consumption behaviour for reducing the environmental impact. Knight and Paradkar. green consumers are described as the ones who take into consideration the environmental consequences of their consumption patterns. the purpose of the study is to explore dimensions of environmental consciousness in Indian consumers. product quality. Though most of the studies on green consumer behaviour are based in Europe and American contexts. 2004. And. Chakrabarti. The studies have investigated how consumers make informed choices about green products. quest for gaining knowledge.. 2009).. Purchase decisions of green consumers are found to be the central theme in the present state of research on green consumer behaviour. 2005.. Schlegelmilch et al. The purchase decisions are described in forms of supporting green companies. the literature addresses environmental aspects of consumption patterns. studies on green consumer behaviour have witnessed the increasing environmental consciousness in the consumers. Findings of the studies reveal that Indian consumers prioritize products and services from environmentally friendly companies (Nath et al. 2013). Rooted in consumer behaviour theories and models. and have attempted to develop an understanding of the determinants of their behaviour and purchase habits. Singh. 2012. Yam-Tang and Chan.Downloaded by Universitas Sebelas Maret At 04:12 17 April 2016 (PT) Since the knowledge of the consumer market and the variables motivating green purchase behaviour are found to have important implications (Medeiros and Ribeiro. 2013. 2012. 2008. there is a need to understand the factors affecting environmentally friendly purchase decision making.. 2010. researchers have been attempting to understand the nature of green consumers in different markets. purchasing green products (Albayrak et al. 2010). adopting sustainable consumption practices (Gadenne et al. so far. 2007). and determinants of consumer food choices and purchase behaviour for products such as genetically modified food and organic food (Anand. One set of factors are intrinsic to the consumers such as realization of their environmental responsibilities. countries and cross-countries. 2.

1990). This way. 2005). Thus. price. This study identifies variables from the literature (Figure 1) and describes them as follows. their product knowledge and the situational factors such as promotional campaign (Vermeir and Verbeke. 2004). 2010). They are inspired by intrinsic care about the well-being of the planet and its inhabitants.. consumers understand their individual responsibilities towards environmental protection (Gadenne et al. performance. Supporting environmental protection significantly affects green product purchase decisions of consumers.. 2011). social image of consumers and product characteristics (such as product quality. 2009) and believe that they can individually contribute towards environmental protection by adopting environmentally favourable activities at individual levels. They search for products which are not harmful to the animals and nature. Realizing the adverse impact of environment on human and other living-beings. Hence. 2008.3 example. they recognize the role of green products in improving the quality of environment and they exhibit support for environmental protection by purchasing and owning green products (Escalas and Bettman. 2008) and develop positive predisposition in the minds of consumers.MIP 33. Thus. 332 Downloaded by Universitas Sebelas Maret At 04:12 17 April 2016 (PT) 2. following hypothesis is proposed: H1. Conceptual framework Social appeal Green product purchase decisions Drive for environmental responsibility Environment friendliness of companies Green product experience . 2.1 Supporting environmental protection Supporting environmental protection is one of the key reasons for consumers to behave environmentally friendly in their purchase decisions (Gadenne et al. promotion and impact on human health).. 2010). their ingredients are recyclable and produce lesser environmental pollution during their usage. They feel emotionally involved with environmental protection issues (Lee. The actual behaviour is a result of consumers’ regular habits. green products add relevance to their environmentally friendly lifestyle (Pickett-Baker and Ozaki.. 2011). and are found to be primarily engaged in environmental conservation (Griskevicius et al.2 Drive for environmental responsibility Drive for environmental responsibility is related to consumers’ personal commitment towards environmental protection issues and their individual-level activities intended to improve the quality of the environment. consumers prefer green products over non-green products and translate their positive predisposition into actual purchase of environmentally friendly products (Han et al. They are also able to relate appropriateness of higher prices of green products with environmental benefits offered by them. safety. Their Supporting environmental protection Figure 1. They look for environmentally beneficial attributes related to product design and product usage cause lesser impact on the environment and create meaningful difference in environmental protection (Lee.

enables them to make the right choices in their purchase decisions and develops their willingness-to-pay higher for green products (Zhao et al. Zuraidah et al. or the harmful ingredient is replaced by an eco-friendly or eco-safe ingredient. Green product experience significantly affects green product purchase decisions of consumers. 2010). 2014. They are more likely to refuse buying products from companies accused of being polluters. appreciation and promotion of environmentally friendly companies are exhibited in purchase decisions of environmentally conscious consumers. Environmental friendliness of companies significantly affects green product purchase decisions of consumers. Drive for environmental responsibility significantly affects green product purchase decisions of consumers..5 Social appeal Consumer behaviour is highly influenced by the opinion of others for their product choices and usage (Bearden and Rose. etc. and to design their products and processes with lesser impact on the environment (Gadenne et al. 2. It is related to consumers’ inquisitiveness to gain knowledge about environmental aspects of green products. Also.. they look for whether a green product consumes less input in terms of energy and resources during its usage. Hence.. adopt environmentally friendly manufacturing practices and operations and comply with the national and international regulations (Papadopoulos et al.. For example. Recognition. environmentally conscious consumers have been demanding companies to address environmental issues. following hypothesis is proposed: H3. Hence. As consequences of learning process. 2. 2014.3 Green product experience Consumers’ experience with green products is another influential variable to influence their green product purchase decisions. green consumers read the ingredient label of the products to check the impact of the product on the environment. they strive to learn about green products at their own and gain knowledge related to ingredients of green products.environmental concern. Cheah and Phau. Barber et al. 2009). It further influences their purchase decisions. 2008. 2001). So. Hence. and to boycott the companies who do not follow environmental regulations or who ridiculously take advantage of the green movement to increase sales (Laroche et al.4 Environmental friendliness of companies Since last many decades. companies design products which are less harmful to the environment. they share knowledge and information about green products with their friends and learn from each other (Khare.. Consumers develop and realize the Green product purchase decisions 333 . 2011). compassion and belief in the existence of environmental problems at individual level lead them to behave environmentally friendly (Kilbourne and Pickett. For this. While making their purchase decisions. a product is designed environmentally friendly by reducing the amount of harmful ingredients without affecting its overall performance. (Laroche et al. product evaluation enables them to understand environmental benefits of green products and results in effectively developing predisposition towards green products (Cegarra-Navarro and Martinez. Also. 2012) and they shift their purchase patterns towards green products. 2011).. 1990).. 2001). 2. following hypothesis is proposed: Downloaded by Universitas Sebelas Maret At 04:12 17 April 2016 (PT) H2. impact of products on the environment and product functionality. following hypothesis is proposed: H4. 2010).

Thus. consumers are generally attracted towards a product that develops a sense of self for them (Kleine et al. 2010). Hence. Thus. Also. in order to test and quantify the relationships hypothesized. clearly define and elaborate on their own preferences and tastes (Dholakia et al. the questionnaire method is preferred because it allows collecting many responses in a short period of time (Ozaki and Sevastyanova. nature-orientation and eco-aspirations. Designed by Dunlap and Van Liere (1978). The 38 items questionnaire was composed of two sections. 2011). In an environmentally friendly society. So. 2011). NEP scale is a widely used scale for measuring environmental dimensions of consumers. hence is suitable for market research. the approach of self-reported claims in response to the questionnaire items seems to be effective for such studies. they understand the benefits of choosing “green” (Nyborg et al.. Thus. receive and share information. 2004) and evaluate the products based on the comments and opinions of others (Escalas and Bettman. if they do not behave so.. they intend to buy products that follow the perceptions of the society (Sen et al. 2009). 2010). And. 2001). they form. So green products purchase decisions communicate eco-friendliness of consumers (self-image) and exhibits their concerns for environmental conservation so as to comply with social pressure (social image) (Park and Ha. 2004). 1993) and the way they want to be perceived by others. they will be perceived as out-dated in the society. This scale was developed with the aim of investigating . In first part. Thus. Dijksterhuis et al. 2001) as well as construct their social-identities (Ozaki and Sevastyanova.. 2013) and strongly influences their buying decisions of green products (Griskevicius et al. Hence. and know what others think for a particular product (Dholakia et al. 2005). 2012.. following hypothesis is proposed: H5. Methodology Most of the studies on green consumer behaviour have evaluated environmental behaviour based on the self-reported claims in response to the questionnaire items (Steg and Vlek. Oliver and Lee. It leads to important functional consequences for consumers such as pro-social reputation of being trustworthy. 2010). the hypotheses developed from the literature are further tested from a sample of Indian consumers..3 Downloaded by Universitas Sebelas Maret At 04:12 17 April 2016 (PT) 334 importance of products when they interact with others and gather related information (Oliver and Lee. Besides. Methodology for testing the hypotheses and their results are explained in the subsequent sections. valuable companion and status (prestige) (Griskevicius et al. a questionnaire-based survey approach was adopted.. 2006) which increases their desirability of high-priced green products (van Dam and Fischer. 2010). Social appeal significantly affects green product purchase decisions of consumers. (2005) conceptualized the influence of perception on behaviour and advocated strong linkage between perception and behaviour.. Consumers.MIP 33. consumers widely perceive that it is reputational and modern way of lifestyle to behave environmentally friendly (Grier and Deshpande. Though a large number of studies have found a difference between behaviour intentions of environmentally conscious consumers and their actual behaviour. social appeal is also found influential in developing their product preferences (Lee. as a part of a community or a social group. It has symbolic meaning of morality. 2008). it examined the environmental dimensions of consumer behaviour and the items were adopted from the literature based on New Environmental Paradigm (NEP) scale. unselfishness. 3. This way.

1997) which develops relationship between the scales and other variables of environmentally conscious consumer behaviours. educational qualification. Consumers were approached in different parts of the city. Model fit was also estimated using confirmatory factor analysis. The study was conducted in Mumbai. All measurements in the study were subjective assessments by the respondents using a five-point Likert-type scale (with end-points 1 strongly disagree and 5 strongly agree). The respondents were selected irrespective of their education. Data collection took place from November 2011 to August 2012. Green product purchase decisions 335 . they were persuaded to participate in the study.9 per cent) were female. seed informants were identified in which personal. hypotheses testing using structural equation modelling were carried out to test the relationships of variables identified with the green product purchase decisions of consumers. a total of 403 valid responses were obtained. The second stage used snowball sampling technique to recruit the rest of the respondents. Out of these.Downloaded by Universitas Sebelas Maret At 04:12 17 April 2016 (PT) whether a more general position about society and the environment existed among the public. Out of 1. The demographic characteristics are mentioned in Table II. Further. The data were analysed using exploratory factor analysis to identify and validate the items contributing to each component. India. These tests were then interpreted based on the support from the literature. family and professional networks were accessed. Demographic measures such as age. profession. 202 (50.200 consumers contacted. they were asked to provide the names of individuals who may be willing to participate in the study. hypotheses testing were carried out to understand the relationship of variables identified with the green product purchase decisions of consumers. These tests were then interpreted based on the support from the literature. This stage can be seen as using convenient sampling. a suitable time and place was decided with an appointment (where appropriate) for data collection. All measurements were subjective assessments by the respondents using a five-point Likert-type scale (Wrenn. It measures a spectrum of attitude related to three main dimensions. Thus. The second part collected data about the demographic characteristics of respondents. Through personal and/or telephonic conversation. limited carrying capacity of ecosystem and technological ability to solve environmental problems.1 per cent) were male and 201 (49. i. 1997). gender. The candidates were contacted by telephone or personally and they were asked if they were willing to participate in the study. origin and other demographic characteristics. The data were analysed using exploratory factor analysis to identify and validate the items contributing to each component. Still NEP scales are constantly found reliable and valid through a number of empirical studies across different samples. First. The sample in the study was selected mainly by using a snowball sampling technique which relied on chain referrals to recruit eligible participants. a clear measure of a specific variable to measure environmentally conscious consumer behaviour is difficult. human as a part of nature. income. status of employment and sector of employment were included. A total of 403 valid responses were collected. Once the data were collected from the seed informants. Further. Those who agreed to participate. This multidimensionality is the main issue with NEP scale (Roberts and Bacon.e. The selection of respondents was carried out in two stages. The demographic characteristics are mentioned in Table I. Model fit was also estimated using confirmatory factor analysis.

The variables were grouped in six factors (Table II) and all together accounted for 64. In the exploratory factor analysis. meeting the assumption for factorability. confirmatory factor analysis was employed on the sample using structural equation modelling.3 Downloaded by Universitas Sebelas Maret At 04:12 17 April 2016 (PT) 336 Frequency (%) Gender (n ¼ 403) Male Female 202 (50. This is in line with earlier studies in the domain (Kucukusta et al.0) 140 (34.1) 201 (49. Analyses and findings The analyses were started by tabulating the data collected in a MS excel sheet.3) (22.000 and the KMO value 0.7) 251 (62. item i25 was removed to achieve a better model fit.1 Reliability and factor analyses The data collected from 403 respondents was tabulated in MS excel sheet. The findings are then elaborated in the subsequently. The reliability of the questionnaire was calculated which was followed by factor analyses and hypotheses testing.9) Age (n ¼ 403) 20-25 26-30 31-35 36-40 41-45 80 98 90 86 49 Academic qualification (n ¼ 403) High school or less Bachelor Post-graduate or above 9 (2.7) 4. The scale was factor analysed using principal component analysis and varimax rotation. The result for Bartlett’s test of sphericity was 0.059 per cent of the total variance.6) Professional status (n ¼ 403) Student Self-employed Employed 12 (3. Structural equation modelling effectively accesses the relationships between observed and latent factors. 2003).3) (21. 2013. It is popular as a versatile statistical technique to analyse non-experimental data and to test relationships and interaction effects.783.2) 186 (46.2) 102 (25. the items having factor loading more than 0. The analysis . researchers can compare competing conceptual models and reject alternative models.MIP 33.804 and is comparable with the reliabilities reported in Laroche et al. A range of indices were used to assess the model fit. 4.0 and maximum likelihood method was chosen for confirmatory factor analysis.4 were retained. Using the values of fit indices.3) Table I. and the strength of relationships amongst them.2) 208 (51. While conducting confirmatory factor analysis. (2001). Reliability analysis revealed Cronbach’s α value for the questionnaire as 0. To test the stability of the scale. Gregory and Leo. A measurement model was developed using AMOS V20.6) (12.. Sector of employment (n ¼ 403) Demographic characteristics of the Public Private sample (19.3) 301 (74.6) (24.

420 0.715 0.977) i61. Supporting environmental protection makes me feel meaningful i12. Supporting environmental issues makes me more socially attractive 337 0.988) i41. I refuse to buy products from companies accused of being polluters 0. I think environmental protection is meaningless i14.477 F3: green product experience (ά ¼ 0. I would say I am emotionally involved in environmental protection issues i25.918.695 0.822) i21. I will be perceived by others as “out-dated” if I do not support environmental protection i62.Downloaded by Universitas Sebelas Maret At 04:12 17 April 2016 (PT) Items F1: supporting environmental protection (ά ¼ 0. Supporting environmental protection makes me feel as an environmentally responsible person i22. I will not pay above a certain price level i53.6. I choose to buy products that are environmentally friendly Green product purchase decisions 0.488 F2: drive for environmental responsibility (ά ¼ 0. Environmental protection starts with me i24.667) i31. 1993) as CFI was obtained 0. Ingredients of an environmentally friendly product are not harmful to the animals and nature i15.539 0.710 0.917 0.789 0. I prefer green products over non-green products when their product qualities are similar Factor loading 0. Even if I trust the performance of a green product. For a green product. I feel good about buying brands which are less damaging to the environment i42.890 and an adjusted goodness of fit index (AGFI) of 0. Ingredients of an environmentally friendly product are recyclable i17.749 0. I often buy products that use recycled/recyclable packaging i52.962 0. it can be inferred that green consumer behaviour are best identified along six dimensions.609) i51.623) i11.902 0. Thus.575 0.577 0.078.609 and 0. An environmentally friendly product produces the least amount of pollution in its usage i19. I learn about environmental products from my friends 0.619 0. Supporting environmental protection makes me special F5: green product purchase decisions (ά ¼ 0. Exploratory factor analysis .834. good value for money exists in its features i16. I buy green products even if they are more expensive than non-green products i33. I share my green products experiences and information with my friends i32. the RMSEA was obtained 0. I should be responsible for protecting our environment i23.951 0. which exceeded the recommended level of 0.988. I strive to learn as much as possible about environmental issues i34. I find green products really relevant to my lifestyle i18. The price for green products should be appropriate in relation to the value for money i13. goodness of fit index (GFI) of 0.947 demonstrated broadly satisfactory levels of fit (Browne and Cudeck. The six-factor model had the best overall fit to the data with a χ2 statistic of 688.626.624 0.712 −0.798 0. Further.552 0. Composite reliabilities varied between 0.458 F4: environmental friendliness of companies (ά ¼ 0.958 F6: social appeal (ά ¼ 0. convergent validity was checked by ensuring all Table II.589 0.518 0.

who tested positive that consumers who understand significant role of individual actions in making a difference in environmental quality have environmentally responsible purchase intentions. individuals with positive predisposition towards green products are more likely to purchase green products. First factor “Supporting environmental protection” explains consumer perceptions for green products and their contribution towards protecting the environment. It elaborates on consumers’ choice of green products which is influenced by the product quality. 1981).05).05). (2006) and Kim and Chung (2011) who found positive influence of consumers’ experience with green products on environmentally friendly purchase behaviour.001) in the study. which is consistent to those of Laroche et al. First.001). This finding is consistent to those of Follows and Jobber (2000). Second factor “Drive for environmental responsibility” is related to consumers’ understanding of significance of human activities having impact on the environment and the realization of their responsibilities towards environmental protection. individuals having awareness of their individual responsibilities towards the environment are more likely to purchase green products. 1988. The sixth factor “Social appeal” describes social sentiments of environmentally friendly consumer behaviour for their willingness to be accepted and recognized in the society. Using regression weight table. The relationship between consumers’ experience with green products and green product purchase decisions of consumers (H3) is also supported (p o 0. Also.5 and the smallest item test statistic was W 1. (2002) who found the two positively related. indicating that.3 Downloaded by Universitas Sebelas Maret At 04:12 17 April 2016 (PT) 338 average variance extracted values W 0. Fornell and Larcker.2 Hypotheses testing To test proposed hypotheses. indicating that.001) (Anderson and Gerbing. The variables identified from the literature review hold support in the empirical analysis. Oliver and Lee (2010) also found propensity to seek information about green products positively related with environmentally friendly purchase behaviour. This supports H1. This supports H2. This finding is consistent to those of Lee (2009). value for money and their relevance to consumers’ lifestyles. . the relationship between supporting environmental protection and green product purchase decisions is found statistically significant (p o 0. product attributes. Fifth factor “Green product purchase decision” is related to consumers’ purchase decisions of green products. They also understand the fact that it is worth paying higher prices for green products that contribute towards improving the quality of environment.MIP 33. the study supports relationship between environmental friendliness of companies and green product purchase decisions of consumers (H4) (p o 0. Fourth factor “Environmentally friendliness of companies” is related to consumers’ concern towards the impact of company actions on the environment and their judgement of buying products based on environmental performance of companies. the results are interpreted and discussed. The relationship between drive for environmental responsibility and green product purchase decisions of consumers is found statistically significant (p o 0.96 (α ¼ 0. the measurement model was converted to structural model in AMOS (Figure 2). 4. This finding is consistent to those of D’Souza et al. who tested positive that consumers who understand environmental consequences of their consumption patterns have environmentally responsible purchase intentions. Third factor “Green product experience” elaborates upon consumers’ experience of green products from self-learning and experience-sharing with friends.

45 e5 i15 0.26 0.08 0.47 0.50 Downloaded by Universitas Sebelas Maret At 04:12 17 April 2016 (PT) 0. green product purchase decisions (F5) was significantly determined by explicit support to environmental protection (F1).21 e1 i19 0.98 e19 e23 –0. Output of structural model using AMOS .28 F4 0.31 0. Oliver and Lee (2010) and Ozaki and Sevastyanova (2011). resulting in an R2 ¼ 0.81 0.99 i62 0. A summary of the hypotheses testing results is shown in the Table III.99 F6 It indicates that consumers buy products from those companies who behave environmentally friendly and on the contrary.48 0.51 0.99 0.48 0.29 0.30 0.46 0.97 i42 0.68 e11 i24 0.07 e3 i17 0. Drive for environmental responsibility (F2). This indicates that individuals who wish to be a part of an environmentally friendly society.35 e14 i21 0.59 F5 0.44 0.19 0. environmental friendliness of companies (F4) and social appeal (F6).85 0.19 F3 0.69 –0.96 0.75 e18 e17 i31 0. Further.56 –0. In other words.31 e21 0.19 i51 0.82 –0.29 i41 0.63 0.40 i32 0.65 e9 i11 e8 i12 e7 i13 0.61 0.99 0. penalize those who do not.72 e13 i22 0. the variables described above explained 69 per cent of the variance of green product purchase behaviour.58 i53 F2 e25 0.68 i52 e22 0.25 e2 i18 0.56 0.56 0.33 0.13 –0. Thus.93 e24 i61 0.05).69.48 e15 i34 e20 0.42 339 F1 0. and to develop and maintain environmentally friendly standards of living are more likely to purchase green products. Figure 2.Green product purchase decisions 0.14 0.07 e4 i16 0. the relationship between social appeal and green product purchase decisions is found statistically significant (H5) (p o 0.21 0.32 e6 i14 0. green product experience (F3).23 e16 i33 0.82 0.34 e12 i23 0.37 0.46 0. This result is consistent to those of Lee (2009).69 0.40 e26 0.69 0.

no. extensively search for product-related environmental information and make environmentally friendly purchase decisions.001) Supported (p o0. the significant relationship of supporting environmental protection and drive for environmental responsibility with green product purchase decisions confirm that the decision to purchase a green product requires a deliberate conscious evaluation of environmental. Discussion and implications Increasing environmental consciousness of consumers has prompted marketing managers of green products to seek information concerning environmentally friendly purchase behaviour of consumers. So. They examine and evaluate green products against their expectations to make their purchase decisions.3 Sl. So. with gradual progress in the green consumer research domain. realize their responsibilities towards environmental protection. Results of hypotheses testing H5 Hypotheses Findings Supporting environmental protection significantly affects green product purchase decisions of consumers Drive for environmental responsibility significantly affects green product purchase decisions of consumers Green product experience significantly affects green product purchase decisions of consumers Environmental friendliness of companies significantly affects green product purchase decisions of consumers Social appeal significantly affects green product purchase decisions of consumers Supported (p o0. marketing professionals for green products should communicate how consumers’ concern of environmental protection and their individual responsibilities towards the environment are addressed by purchasing. Findings of this study indicate that Indian consumers have level of environmentally consciousness which is exhibited in their green product purchase decisions.05) Supported (p o0.001) Supported (p o0. individual and social consequences associated with green products. In this direction. using and disposing green products. First. it can be inferred that acceptance of green products depends upon the products’ environmental characteristics demanded by the consumers. The study tested relationship of several variables for their impact on green product purchase decisions which have significant theoretical contribution and managerial implications. Such consumer-oriented approaches seem meaningful for converting consumers’ support for environmental protection and drive for environmental responsibility into green product purchase decisions. They should analyse environmental characteristics of green products and understand how they can be marketed so as to meet with specific desires of the target segments. recent studies have focused on consumption based studies so that purchase behaviour of green products can be examined.05) Supported (p o0. They are concerned with environmental protection issues. . emotional and experiential needs which influence their purchase decisions. believe in existence of environmental problems and their solutions at individual levels. So. It further indicates that consumers look for fulfillment of their functional.05) 5. H1 H2 340 H3 H4 Downloaded by Universitas Sebelas Maret At 04:12 17 April 2016 (PT) Table III. This reflects environmentally friendly lifestyle in their consumption patterns and relevance of green products to them. this study has attempted to develop an understanding on consumers’ perceptions of green products in reducing the impact of their consumption patterns on the environment.MIP 33.

emotional and experiential benefits of green products in the green product experience process in green product purchase-related decision making. Thus. the relationship between environmental friendliness of companies and environmentally friendly consumer decisions is found significant in the study. They prefer to buy products from companies behaving in environmentally responsible manner and on the contrary. The study observes that the experience is facilitated either by self-experience of consumers or by gaining from experiences of others which develops consumer perceptions about green products. purchase green products and consume them. So. using. when marketers launch a green product in Indian market. and environmentally responsible person. and product usage and/or ownership. According to social psychology literature. Product experience related to information search and sharing explains products’ unique environmental attributes and features. organizations are also perceived as having dispositional qualities or characteristics of being good or bad as individuals are (Hamilton and Sherman. Those who wish to attain social status of being a moral. Also. environmentally conscious consumers demand companies to behave in environmentally responsible manner. Green product experience is determined by physical actions. comparing and understanding) (Desmet and Hekkert. It exists in forms of information search and information sharing. this finding can be useful to them in developing advertising campaigns and promotions. exploring. ideologically driven. The significant relationship between green product experience and green product purchase decisions signifies the role of functional. adopt eco-friendly lifestyle. This has further implications for companies to comply with environmental regulations so that consumers accept their products in the market. its attributes and features to product-related memorial experiences and product involvement. they refuse to buy products from those who are found accused of being polluters. convey self-concept of consumers and communicate desirable social meaning. marketing professionals should promote green products in a way that offers learning about green products and facilitate sharing information about green products. The study distinctly elaborates Green product purchase decisions 341 . and perceptual and cognitive processes (e. And. The way firms’ environmental friendliness influences consumers’ green product purchase behaviour comes from the literature examining how information about companies’ environmental behaviour influences consumers’ evaluations and perceptions for firms’ behaviour towards the environment and environmental performance of their products. this study theoretically contributes towards understanding factors affecting green product purchase decisions in Indian context. 1996). So. like individuals. Another relationship was studied between social appeal and green product purchase decisions. significant relationship between green product experience of consumers and their purchase decisions has a distinct interpretation. remembering. The study witnessed that it ranges from gaining specific knowledge about the product. The significant relationship suggests that others’ perceptions about one’s behaviour have considerable influence on consumers’ purchase behaviour for green products. perceiving.g. So.Downloaded by Universitas Sebelas Maret At 04:12 17 April 2016 (PT) Further. This has implications for marketing professionals to realize the significance of environmental impact of their business activities over green consumers’ purchase behaviour. 2007). Marketing managers for green products in Indian market should focus on attaching improved self-importance with environmentally friendly products in advertising of green products. product experience related to usage and/or ownership explains consumers’ broad understanding about the product and its characteristics. Consumers buy green products if they are publically recognized symbols of supporting environmental protection.

they search information about green products on their own as well as enquire from their friends. The study concludes that marketing professionals need to relate green products with functional. they should carefully understand needs of their consumer segments. As well. Third. the study recognizes the role of supporting environmental protection and drive for environmental responsibility in making green product purchase decisions. green product experience and environment friendliness of companies are more important for Indian consumers to make green product purchase decisions rather than simply greenness in the product or their environmental consciousness. this study enhances understanding of green purchasers in Indian context and offers insights to understand consumer demand for green products in Indian market. Compared to earlier studies. Also. Thus. environmental friendliness of companies and social appeal significantly influence Indian consumers’ purchase decisions for green products. In other words. observe social attractiveness in supporting environmental protection issues. environmental activism and perceived environmental responsibility in determining green consumer behaviour. Second. and accordingly position products green products to them. They actively support the environment by purchasing and consuming products which are known to be environmentally friendly.MIP 33. they prefer to buy products from companies behaving in environmentally responsible manner and on the contrary.3 Downloaded by Universitas Sebelas Maret At 04:12 17 April 2016 (PT) 342 upon the relevance of green product experience and environment friendliness of companies in making green product purchase decisions by Indian consumers. congruence with their desirable social image and relevance to their lifestyles. green product experience. Conclusion The findings of the study can be summarized as follows. Thus. this study more prominently address the two factors and their relationships with green product purchase decisions. information related to green products. foreign companies who . marketers can use them to effectively communicate with consumers so that they can maintain or grow their market shares. The findings can be used by the managers of green products who are interested to know the underlying behaviour of prospective green purchasers of their green products. Also. Indian consumers make their attempts to learn about green products. Further. supporting environmental protection and drive for environmental responsibility. Thus. marketing of green products should offer consumers facts related to environmental performance of the companies. They also share their experiences with green products and thus. And. For this. 6. gain green product-related knowledge and experience them. First. Further. they derive individual and social meaning in their environmentally favourable activities and are willing to adopt environmentally friendly lifestyle. This is in line with the findings from the literature that explains the roles of environmental concern. this study has implications for marketing professionals in developing marketing strategies for green products in Indian market. emotional and experiential needs of consumers. this study is different than earlier studies on green consumer behaviour in explaining the relevance of social appeal rather than social identity in making green product purchase decisions. Indian consumers possess environmental consciousness and are concerned for environmental protection. It is obvious from findings of the study that mere existence of environmental consciousness in consumers does not lead to green product purchase decisions. they refuse to buy products from those who are found accused of being polluters.

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com/licensing/reprints. strategic marketing. Hyderabad. Dr Ghodeswar has published papers in reputed journals including paper presentations in prestigious international conferences. Mumbai. For instructions on how to order reprints of this article. Dr Ghodeswar has an MBA and PhD in Marketing from Osmania University. He holds a Master in Business Administration and Bachelor in Electrical Engineering from the Indian universities. please visit our website: www. India. He is actively engaged in research in green marketing with green retailing an area of expertise. service quality and brand management. He is actively engaged in research in customer relationship management.htm Or contact us for further details: permissions@emeraldinsight. Ghodeswar is currently working as a Professor of Marketing in the National Institute of Industrial Green product purchase decisions 347 .Downloaded by Universitas Sebelas Maret At 04:12 17 April 2016 (PT) About the authors Prashant Kumar is presently enrolled in Doctoral Programme at the National Institute of Industrial Engineering.emeraldgrouppublishing. His research papers are accepted in reputed international journals for publication and he has presented papers in several international Bhimrao M. Prashant Kumar is the corresponding author and can be contacted at: ctech. India. Mumbai.