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Base isolation and

dampers

This is Haiti presidential Palace before the Earthquake

And this is the same palace after disaster.

Classification of Seismic Protection Systems

SEISMIC RESISTANT DESIGN OF


STRUCTURES

DUCTILITY / STRENGTH
BASED DESIGN METHODS

PASSIVE CONTROL
METHODS

RESPONSE CONTROL BASED


DESIGN METHODS

ACTIVE CONTROL
METHODS

HYBRID / SEMI ACTIVE


CONTROL METHODS
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Classification of Seismic Protection Systems

PASSIVE CONTROL METHODS

ISOLATION

BASE ISOLATION

ENERGY DISSIPATION

FLOOR ISOLATION

ROOF ISOLATION

Base Isolation
Introduction of Flexible Isolator Elements at the foundation level of
the structure so that the sub-structure (below ground level) and
super structure (above ground level) are isolated from each other

The flexible isolation system partially absorbs (through Damping


action) and partially reflects (through Filtering action) a major
portion of the earthquake energy and reduces the energy

dissipation demand of the super structure to a major extent


resulting in increased survivability
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Mechanism of Base Isolation

Seismically Isolated Structures - Examples


Residential Building in Indonesia

Seismically Isolated Structures - Examples


Residential Complex in China

Seismically Isolated Structures - Examples


Hospital Building, Bhuj, India

The first base isolated structure is the new 300 bed Bhuj Hospital, reconstructed
after the devastating earthquake of 26 Jan 2001

Types of Base Isolation Devices

1.

Laminated Rubber Bearings (LRB) : Natural or Synthetic Rubber

2.

Laminated Lead Rubber Bearings

3.

Sliding / Friction based isolation systems: Friction Pendulum

4.

Spring type (GERB) isolation systems

Laminated Rubber
Bearing

Lead Plug Rubber


Bearing

FrictionPendulum SystemGERB-Spring System


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Suitability of Seismic Base Isolation

High Seismic Region and if the Existing Structure is Unsafe

Life-line Structures
Structural foundations are Weak and have Low Ductility
Earthquake motions likely to occur are Short Period Accelerograms
Primary or important secondary structures are more vulnerable to seismic attack and
to minimise the damage

Irregular structural form, L-shaped building


Cost economics of the structure with and without isolators
Reliable and durable isolator components are available at affordable cost

Application in bridges

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Passive Energy Dissipation (PED) systems (DAMPERS):


Supplemental damping devices that Dissipates / Absorbs a portion of the
energy input to the structure thus reducing the energy dissipation demand
of the primary structure

Advantages of PED systems:


Damage to the load resisting system is substantially reduced leading to
major reduction in post EQ repair costs
EQ damaged PED devices can be easily replaced
Ideal for lifeline structures (Structures which are required to functional even
after EQ)
Effective for wind induced motions also (Unlike Seismic Isolation)

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Passive Energy Dissipation (PED) Systems


Classification

Principles of operation

Elasto-plastic devices

1.
2.
3.
1.

Visco-elastic devices

2.

Re-centering devices

3.
1.
2.
3.

Dynamic vibration absorbers

1.
2.

Yielding of metals
Extrusion of lead
Friction
Deformation of visco-elastic
solids.
Deformation of visco-elastic
fluids.
Fluid orificing
Fluid pressurization and
orificing
Friction spring action
Phase transformation of metals
/ Fluids
Tuned mass dampers
Tuned liquid dampers

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Yielding type ELASTO-PLASTIC energy dissipaters:


X - shaped Device

Triangular Device

The tapered shape of the plate produce uniform


yielding throughout the length
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Lead Extrusion Damping (LED) Device


- Applications (Buildings,Bridges)

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Friction dampers
Linear friction dampers

X-braced damper

Rotational friction dampers

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Visco-elastic solid dampers


Top & Bottom Cover Plates
Center Plate
F/2
F

F/2
Visco Elastic Material

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Visco-elastic Fluid Dampers


Dissipation occurs via conversion of mechanical energy to heat as a piston
deforms a highly viscous substance like silicon gel
Extremely high energy dissipation is possible by forcing the fluid to pass
through small orifices rather simply deforming the fluid locally

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Spring Friction Damper


Energy dissipation occurs due to frictional sliding, and consequently the
response is frequency dependent

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Roof Isolation Systems

A roof isolation system is a combination of rubber


isolators and a damping mechanism between the top
story and the roof or between the top story and rest of
the building.

The top story or the roof acts as a tuned mass damper.

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Roof Isolation System

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Efficiency of various methods of


Damping
The hysteresis (force-deflection curve) shows the
efficiency of a damper during an earthquake. The (blue)
area inside the curve is the total dissipated energy. The
curve shows that the rotational friction damper
dissipates more energy than any other damper today.

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