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Every management tries to coordinate various factor of production in such a way
that their contribution is maximum in achieving organizational goals. The
performance of non-human factors like machines, etc. will depend upon the level
of technology and the competence of those who use them. To improve the overall
performance of persons depends upon two factors, i.e. (i) ability to do a work, and
(ii) motivation. Both these factors taken together will increase the efficiency of
human beings. If a person does not have the capability or ability to do a work then
he cannot increase his efficiency. On the other hand, even if a person has got the
ability but is not properly motivated even then his performance will be low.
Motivation is an important factor which encourages persons to give their best
performance and help in reaching enterprise goals. A strong positive motivation
will enable the increased output of employees but a negative motivation will
reduce their performance. A key element in personnel management is motivation.
According to Likert, “ It is the core of management which shows that every human
being gives him a sense of worth in face-to-face groups which are most important
to him …….. A supervisor should strive to treat individuals with dignity and
recognition of their personal worth.”1
Motivation has been variously defined by scholars. Soe definitions are discussed as
Berelson and Steiner. “ A motive is an inner state that energizes, activates or moves
and or driving it to action.”3


including the degree of readiness.” Dubin.” Vitiles. The 2 .The Encyclopedia or Management “Motivation refers to degree of readiness of an organism to pursue some designated goal and implies the determination of the nature and locus of the forces. causing the individual to make in a goal-directed pattern towards restoring a state of equilibrium by satisfying the need. A person feels the lack of certain needs.” NATURE OF MOTIVATION Motivation is a psychological phenomena which generates within an individual. to satisfy which he feels working more. “ Motivation represents an unsatisfied need which creates a state of tension or disequilibrium. “ A willingness to expend energy to achieve a goal or reward. “Motivation implies any emotion or desire which so conditions one’s will that the individual is property led into action. It is a force that activates dormant energies and sets in motion the action of the people.” Memoria. It is the fuction that kindles a burning passion for action among the human beings of an organizations. “Motivation is the complex of forces starting and keeping a person at work in an organization.” Vance.

A person moves to fulfill his unsatisfied needs by conditioning his energies. The incentives may be in the shape of more pay.need satisfying ego motivates a person to do better than he normally does.There are unsatisfied needs of a person which disturb his equilibrium.. recognition of work. The following are the types of motivation: 1. recognition etc. etc. or he may instill fear in them or use force for getting desired work. better reports. 5.Motivation is an inner feeling which energizes a person to work more. From definitions given earlier th following inferences can be derived: 1. The employees are offered the incentives and try to improve their performance willingly. 4. The workers are offered incentives for achieving the desired goals. 3. They will either be offered incentive for more work. high standard of performance. 2. TYPES OF MOTIVATION When a manager wants to get more work from his subordinates then he will have to motivate them for improving their performance.The emotions or desires of a person promt him for doing a particular work. promotion. or may be in the space of rewards.There are dormant energies in a person which are activated by channelizing them into actions. the real and positive motivators are responsible for placement. information adequate for self-control and the participation of the worker as a responsible citizen in the plant 3 . According to Peter Ducker.Positive Motivation: Positive motivation or incentive motivation is based on reward.

The fear acts as a push mechanism. The untapped reservoirs of physical and mental abilities are taped to the maximum. The employees do not willingly co-operate. In spite of the drawbacks of negative motivation. Efforts should be made to motivate employees for contributing their maximum. IMPORTANCE OF MOTIVATION Management tries to utilize all the sources of production in a best possible manner. they do not act accordingly. this method is commonly used to achieve desired results. This can be achieved only when employees co-operate in this task.” Positive motivation is achieved by the co-operation of employees and they have a feeling of happiness. Better performance will also result in higher 4 .High Performance: Motivated employees will put maximum efforts for achieving organizational goals. then they may be punished with demotions or lay-offs. rather they want to avoid the punishment. Fear causes employee to act in a certain way. 1. In case. 2. Negative Motivation: Negative or fear motivation is based on force or fear. The following is the importance of This type of motivation generally becomes a cause of industrial unrest. Though employees work upto a level where punishment is avoided but this type of motivation causes anger and frustration. There may be hardly any management which has not used negative motivation at one or the other time. The efforts of management will not bear fruit if the employees are not encouraged to work more. The motivated employees become an asset to the organization.

The employees should be offered more incentive for increasing their performance. Motivational efforts will simplify personnel fuctions also.Low Employee Turnover and Absenteeism: When the employees are not satisfied with employees also uincreases absenteeism. When the employees are satisfied with their jobs and they are well motivated by offering them financial and nonfinancial incentives then they will not leave the job. So motivation among employees will lead to better industrial relations. The employment will offer them better service conditions and vaiours other incentives. the employees will like to join such organizations. The employment training of new employees costs dearly to the organization. Since there is a better man-power to development programme.Acceptability to change: The changing social and industrial situations will require changes and improvements in the working of enterprises. There will be a need to introduced new and better methods of work from time to time. 3. 2. Motivation will act as a stimulant for improving the performance of employees.Better organizational Image: Those enterprises which offer better monetary and non-monetary facilities to their employees have a better image among them. The rate of absenteeism will also be low because they will try to increase their output.productivity. Such concerns are successful in attracting better qualified and experienced persons. The cost of production can also be brought down if productivity raised. Generally.Better Industrial Relations: A good motivational system will create job satisfaction among employees. There will be an atmosphere of confidence among employers and employees. There will be no reason for conflict and cordial relations among both sides will create a healthy atmosphere. 5 . 4. 5.

When the employees are given various opportunities of development then they can easily adapt to new situation. In practice.Make sure that the rewards dispensed are valued by the employees. rather it is a complex phenomenon. he should find out what rewards are attractive to the employee and see if such rewards can be given to him. Motivation will ensure the acceptability of new changes by the employees.Prescribe in concrete terms the actual performance levels expected of the individuals and these levels should be made attainable. we find that motivation is not a simple cause and effect relationship. 6 . This model is of great significance to managers since it sensitizes them to focus their attention on the following points to keep their employees motivated: 1.To achieve and maintain motivation.He should carefully explain to the subordinates their roles or what they must do to be rewarded. the appropriate reward must be associated with successful performance. 4. 2. They will think of positive side of new changes and will cooperate with the management. If the employees are satisfied with their work and are not offered better avenues then they will oppose everything suggested by the management. 5.employees resist changes for fear of an adverse effect on their employment.Match the abilities and traits of individuals to the requirements of the job by putting the right person on the right job. Then he must make sure that they understand it. Thus. 3. Significance of the Porter and Lawler Model Porter and Lawler model is a departure from the traditional analysis of satisfaction and performance relationship.

Some techniques may be suitably employed in one concern. TECHNIQUES TO INCREASE MOTIVATION Every management tries to spacing certain motivational techniques which can be employed for improving performance of its employees. A person may be satisfied with a modest house at one time. He may like to have a comfortable house later on for some persons money remains to be a motivator and for others it may never be. bonuses. But even then. Motivational techniques may be classified into two categories i. Both the categories of motivators are discussed as under. on the other hand tnd to place them low. Behavioural scientists..e. to date.Porter and Lawler model has definitely made a significant contribution to the better understanding of work motivation and the relationship between performance and satisfaction. profit-sharing. Money needs go on changing from time to time. Money is the most important motivator to people who are young and are raising their families than to those who have aligned at a stage when money needs are less. financial and non-financial. The techniques may not be similarly useful in all types of concerns. medical reimbursements. According to Gellerman money is actually used to retain people in the organization 7 . leave with pay. Financial Motivators Financial motivators may be in the form of more wages and salaries. A. company paid insurance of any of the other things that may be given to employees for performance. others may be useful in another concern and so on. it has not made much impact on the actual practice of human resource management. Neither view is probably right. The economists and most managers consider money and financial incentives as important motivators.

certificates. B. 1. improving quality of products. It satisfies ego and self esteem of persons. persons engaged in some types of work are offered equal wages. There is no doubt that most of the people know the problems they will face and their possible solutions. There may also be awards. Generally.Recognition: Every person wants his work to be recognized by his superiors.Participation: Participation has been considered a good technique for motivation. participation. It implies physical and mental involvement of people in decisionmaking process. It is seen as a practice that persons on comparable levels get the same or usually the same compensation. The recognition may be for better output. suggestions for better ways of doing things etc. Some of these motivators are discussed here. 2.the not primarily to motivate them. The recognition may be in the form of a word of praise. entry in annual confidential report etc. When he knows that his performance is know to his boss then he will try to improve it more and mor. Non – financial Motivators These motivators are in the nature of better status. They feel important when asked to make suggestions in their field of activity. job security etc. Besides all this money can motivate people if their wages are related to their performance. 8 . a pat on the bak. To attract good persons an organization will have to offer better wages. plaque etc. Under such circumstances money tends to be diluted as a motivator. recognition. If the performance of person is not recognized and everybody is treated on the same footing then good persons will not like to put their best efforts. These types of recognitions will act as motivator. a letter of appreciation. saving in time. a word of praise.

In this way status needs act as motivator. It certainly acts as motivator. The employee is given the dealings and quality standards he must meet. 3. Managers should listen various view-point and then take decisions themselves. The competition encourages persons to improve their performance. financial incentives to those who reach the goals first. When a person achieves certain facilities then he tries to get better status by working more.There may be praises appreciation letters.Job Enrichment: Job enrichment has been recognized as an important motivator by various researches. The job is made more important and challenging for the workers. A management facilities to the persons. Status: It refers to a social status of a person and it satisfies egoistic needs. 5.Participations result in motivation and knowledge valuable for the enterprise success. 4. may be given wide latitude in deciding about their work methods. According to Herzberg.Competition: In some organizations competition is used as a motivator. Within a framework he is 9 . These may be superior furniture. Participation gives a sense of affiliation and accomplishment. attachments of peons. personal assistant etc. The employees will also perform the management functions of planning and control so far as the work is concerned. Various persons are given certain objectives and everbody tries to achieve them ahead of others. carpets on the floor. They sould encourage subordinates to participate in matters whre they can help. job enrichment would provide an opportunity for the employees’ psychological growth. Participation should not mena that managers should abdicate their positions. To get these facilities a person will have to hshow a certain amount of performance.

company and associates. It begins more job satisfaction and high morale. So it is an overall attitude of an individual or group towards all aspects of their work e. the company. and a willingness to co-operate with others in the accomplishment of an organisation’s objectives.” In the words fo Yoder.given a free hand to decide and perform the work. in education it may be the eagerness to learn by student. Jucius. Poor morale is evidenced by surliness. enthusiasm or xeal. according to a popular usage of the word. insubordination. fellow workers. Definitions Flippo has described morale” as a mental condition or attitude of individuals and groups which determines their willingness to co-operate.g. voluntary confirmation with regulations and orders. in business it is associated with the desire to achieve the goals. climate or atmosphere of work. In military situation morale means enthusiasm to accomplish the assigned task or espirt-de-corps. working conditions. a feeling of discouragement and dislike of the job.. perhaps vaguely sensed by the members. For group of workers. Good morale is evidenced by employee enthusiasm. etc. refers to the over-all tone. morale. somewhat related to esprit de corps. morale consists of : 10 . the job. MORALE Morale is defined by various terms from different standpoints. So it is recognized device of motivation. According to Prof.”morale is a feeling. the supervisors. in sports it may mean self confidence of a team.

(d)Where does it affect? It affect the employees and executives in there interactions. Individual and group morale Individual morale is a single person’s attitude towards work. initiative and other ingredients of success.What is it? What does it do? Where does it reside? Whom does it affect? And what does it affect? He answers his own question as3: (a)What is it? It is an attitude of mind. the quality of a product. They have an effect on each other. costs. an esprit de corps. Group morale is everybody’s concern and may go on changing with the passage of time. enthusiasm. a state of well being. (e)Whom does it affect? It affects an employee’s groups will to work and cooperate in the best interests of the individuals or groups and the organizations for which they work. co-operation. discipline. (c)Where does it reside. Whereas group morale reflects the general attitude of a group of persons. Individual and group morale are interested but not necessarily identical. environment etc. The individual’s personal perception of the present conditions may be high but the group’s perception may be low or vice-versa. High or Low Morale 11 . Ultimately it affects consumers and the community. And an emotional force. It resides in the minds and emotions of individuals and in the reaction of their group or groups. (b)What does it do? It affects output.

bickering. loyalty. Low morale may be describe by words like lack of interest. if work is inadequately divided. 12 . if there is any hint of partiality or if there are considerable differences of pay among those with similar length of services and class of work. Motivation helps in mobilizing energy while morale is concerned with the mobilization of sentiments.Morale may be referred to high morale. The words such as zeal. Morale and Motivation Morale and motivation are interred related but differ from each other. Morale of the employees will be low if some people are allowed to get away with insufficient work. dependability denote high morale. in addition to the above mentioned factors affecting the morale of the employees : 1. jealousy. Motivation revolves round needs and incentives while morale will determine the willingness to co-operate. etc. CAUSES OF LOW MARALE Following are considered to be causes of low morale in a group . high Morale exists when employee attitudes are favourable to the total situation of a group and to the attainment of its objectives. enthusiasm. Morale is a group phenomenon while motivation is an individual’s readiness to work more. Moral is related to the combination of various factors operating at work but motivation concerns to the job only. Morale refers to the attitude fo a person towards his work and environment while motivation is a process to inspire people. Motivation is an inner feeling which energizes a person to work more for satisfying his unsatisfied demands. quarrelsome. Low morale exists when attitudes inhibit the willingness and ability of an organization to attain its objective. In the words of MeFarland. pessimism. laziness apathy.

his morale tends to be low.2. there are no future prospects he loses a sense of belongingness. This is the one of the most frequent cause of lowering the moracle of employees. 3. This. usually happens in the situations where a person feels that the underlying aim of building morale and team work is personal advancement of the superiors or maximum profits for the organization. If the superior short circuits his immediate subordinate and gives orders directly to his subordinate’s subordinate. When there is no chance of promotion and the employee feels that while remaining in the same organistion. they will consider themselves fools for working harder than they have to. If a worker is not well. the moral is definitely being undermined. it violates a fundamental principle of management when this thing happens repeatedly it undermines the morale of the subordinate who is shifted to the position of a figure head only. If the supervisor makes a big fuss over a little fault of the worker. 4. 7. If the employee does not get any sense of achievement while working in the organization. 6. Morale may be seriously affected if the lines of authority which have been established are not adhered to. it is always a cause of discomfort. 5. 13 . If one employee is getting higher emoluments but doing less important work compared to one who is doing more important and quality work but is receiving less salary. physically or mentally. the morale of the latter is definitely going to be adversely affected. especially when it is due to maladjustments in the work.

not noticed till it is obviously how or when something has gone amiss. Factors Improving Morale Morale building is very important for an organization. A commonness of goals among the members of the group A passive attitude of the members with respect to the objectives of the group (g) and to its leaders. generally.WARNING SIGNS OF LOW MORALE Perceptive managers are constantly on the look out for clues to any deterioration in the morale of the employees Signs of low morale are. A desire on the part of the members to retain the group and a regard for its positive value. A feeling of belongingness and togetherness among the members of the group. Among the more significant of the warning signals of how morale are (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) High rate of absenteeism Tardiness High labour turnover Strikes and sabotage Lack of pride in work and Wastage and spoilage SIGNS OF HIGH MORALE Following are some of the significant signs of high morale of a group : (a) A tendency for the group to hold together not merely as a result of external (b) (c) pressures but rather through internal cohesiveness. Although it may be 14 . The manager should constantly make efforts to improve the morale of employees. A lack of tendency of its members to divide into sub-groups. An ability of the group to adapt itself to changing circumstances and to handle (d) (e) (f) internal conflicts.

can automatically achieve the individual morale. There should be housing facilities. Human Relation Approach: This approach suggests that employees should be treated as human beings. Their feelings and emotions should be given due weight age. The employuees showing better performance should automatically be given incentives.done either on individual basis or on group basis. Two way communication: There should be proper communication between management and employees. All these 15 . There should be proper promotional awareness for employees who can under take higher responsibilities. schools for the children. social security etc. This is because. medical facilities. Following suggestions can help in improving the morale of employees: 1. The feed-back from employees will help the management in required changes in policies etc. Welfare Schemes: There should be proper welfare schemes for the employees and their families. All policies and programmes should be explained to the employees through down ward communication. The feelings. 2. Proper Incentive System : There should be proper system for monetary and non-monetary benefits for the employees. reactions of the employees should regularly reach management in an upward communication. Two-way communication will help in improving the morale of employees. The contribution of every employee to the organization should be recognized and adequate incentives rewards should be offered for higher performance. 4. the letter is always prefersable. There should not be any discrimination among employees and groups. 3. which in turn. the management can easily influence the group morale by understanding the group dynamics. recreation facilities.

Conclusion Having studied this course you should be able to discuss what is meant by the term ‘motivation’ and the situational and trait-centred views of motivation. Participation in Management: Workers should be made a part of management by opting them in decision making bodies. This will give satisfaction and pleasure for working on their jobs. You have examined two of the theories of motivation to develop your understanding more deeply. 5.measures will develop positive attitudes in employees. Such a step will enhance the prestige of workers and their morale will improve. The workers will bhe able to understand the viewpoint of the management on important decision concerning the workers. The periodical consulation with workers for making any changes will help in proper implementation. So better training helps in improving morale of employees. Once workers are associated with decision making then they will feel it as their responsibility to help in implementing them. It will encourage industrial democracy in the organization. such schemes will also show management’s concern for the employees’ welfare. 16 . Improve workers Training: The workers should be given proper training so that their performance on jobs is better. If a worker is not suitable for a job or he is deficient in working on a job then it will bring frustration and tension to him. 6.

17 .The main learning points for this course are:  People will be motivated by a range of factors and these are different for everyone.  Personality and the environment both need to be considered when motivating people.  Attribution theory shows that what we attribute our success or failure to will have an effect on our motivation.  Need achievement theory explains why high achievers choose difficult or challenging tasks and why low achievers choose easier tasks at which they are less likely to fail.