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Equations in Physics

By ir. J.C.A. Wevers

Contents
Contents

Physical Constants

1 Mechanics
1.1 Point-kinetics in a fixed coordinate system . . . . . . . .
1.1.1 Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.1.2 Polar coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2 Relative motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3 Point-dynamics in a fixed coordinate system . . . . . . .
1.3.1 Force, (angular)momentum and energy . . . . . .
1.3.2 Conservative force fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3.3 Gravitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3.4 Orbital equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3.5 The virial theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.4 Point dynamics in a moving coordinate system . . . . .
1.4.1 Apparent forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.4.2 Tensor notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.5 Dynamics of masspoint collections . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.5.1 The center of mass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.5.2 Collisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.6 Dynamics of rigid bodies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.6.1 Moment of Inertia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.6.2 Principal axes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.6.3 Time dependence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.7 Variational Calculus, Hamilton and Lagrange mechanics
1.7.1 Variational Calculus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.7.2 Hamilton mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.7.3 Motion around an equilibrium, linearization . . .
1.7.4 Phase space, Liouvilles equation . . . . . . . . .
1.7.5 Generating functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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8

2 Electricity & Magnetism


2.1 The Maxwell equations . . . .
2.2 Force and potential . . . . . .
2.3 Gauge transformations . . . .
2.4 Energy of the electromagnetic
2.5 Electromagnetic waves . . . .
2.5.1 Electromagnetic waves
2.5.2 Electromagnetic waves
2.6 Multipoles . . . . . . . . . . .
2.7 Electric currents . . . . . . .
2.8 Depolarizing field . . . . . . .
2.9 Mixtures of materials . . . . .

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field . . . .
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in vacuum .
in mater . .
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I

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II

Equations in Physics by ir. J.C.A. Wevers

3 Relativity
3.1 Special relativity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.1 The Lorentz transformation . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.2 Red and blue shift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.3 The stress-energy tensor and the field tensor
3.2 General relativity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.1 Riemannian geometry, the Einstein tensor . .
3.2.2 The line element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.3 Planetary orbits and the perihelium shift . .
3.2.4 The trajectory of a photon . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.5 Gravitational waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.6 Cosmology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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4 Oscillations
4.1 Harmonic oscillations . . . . . . . . . .
4.2 Mechanic oscillations . . . . . . . . . .
4.3 Electric oscillations . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4 Waves in long conductors . . . . . . .
4.5 Coupled conductors and transformers
4.6 Pendulums . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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5 Waves
5.1 The wave equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2 Solutions of the wave equation . . . . . . . .
5.2.1 Plane waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.2 Spherical waves . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.3 Cylindrical waves . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.4 The general solution in one dimension
5.3 The stationary phase method . . . . . . . . .
5.4 Green functions for the initial-value problem
5.5 Waveguides and resonating cavities . . . . . .
5.6 Non-linear wave equations . . . . . . . . . . .

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6 Optics
6.1 The bending of light . . . . . .
6.2 Paraxial geometrical optics . .
6.2.1 Lenses . . . . . . . . . .
6.2.2 Mirrors . . . . . . . . .
6.2.3 Principal planes . . . .
6.2.4 Magnification . . . . . .
6.3 Matrix methods . . . . . . . . .
6.4 Aberrations . . . . . . . . . . .
6.5 Reflection and transmission . .
6.6 Polarization . . . . . . . . . . .
6.7 Prisms and dispersion . . . . .
6.8 Diffraction . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.9 Special optical effects . . . . . .
6.10 The Fabry-Perot interferometer

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7 Statistical physics
7.1 Degrees of freedom . . . . . . . .
7.2 The energy distribution function
7.3 Pressure on a wall . . . . . . . .
7.4 The equation of state . . . . . . .
7.5 Collisions between molecules . .

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32

III

Equations in Physics by ir. J.C.A. Wevers

7.6

Interaction between molecules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8 Thermodynamics
8.1 Mathematical introduction . . . . . . .
8.2 Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.3 Thermal heat capacity . . . . . . . . .
8.4 The laws of thermodynamics . . . . .
8.5 State functions and Maxwell relations
8.6 Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.7 Maximal work . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.8 Phase transitions . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.9 Thermodynamic potential . . . . . . .
8.10 Ideal mixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.11 Conditions for equilibrium . . . . . . .
8.12 Statistical basis for thermodynamics .
8.13 Application on other systems . . . . .

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9 Transport phenomena
9.1 Mathematical introduction . . . . . . . .
9.2 Conservation laws . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.3 Bernoullis equations . . . . . . . . . . .
9.4 Caracterising of flows with dimensionless
9.5 Tube flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.6 Potential theory . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.7 Boundary layers . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.7.1 Flow boundary layers . . . . . .
9.7.2 Temperature boundary layers . .
9.8 Heat conductance . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.9 Turbulence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.10 Self organization . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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10 Quantum physics
10.1 Introduction in quantum physics . . . . . . .
10.1.1 Black body radiation . . . . . . . . . . .
10.1.2 The Compton effect . . . . . . . . . . .
10.1.3 Electron diffraction . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.2 Wave functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.3 Operators in quantum physics . . . . . . . . .
10.4 The uncertaincy principle . . . . . . . . . . .
10.5 The Schrodinger equation . . . . . . . . . . .
10.6 Parity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.7 The tunnel effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.8 The harmonic oscillator . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.9 Angular momentum . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.10 Spin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.11 The Dirac formalism . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.12 Atom physics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.12.1 Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.12.2 Eigenvalue equations . . . . . . . . . .
10.12.3 Spin-orbit interaction . . . . . . . . . .
10.12.4 Selection rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.13 Interaction with electromagnetic fields . . . .
10.14 Perturbation theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.14.1 Time-independent perturbation theory
10.14.2 Time-dependent perturbation theory .

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IV

Equations in Physics by ir. J.C.A. Wevers

10.15 N-particle systems


10.15.1 General . .
10.15.2 Molecules .
10.16 Quantum statistics

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11 Plasma physics
11.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.2 Transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.3 Elastic collisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.3.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.3.2 The Coulomb interaction . . . . . . .
11.3.3 The induced dipole interaction . . . .
11.3.4 The center of mass system . . . . . . .
11.3.5 Scattering of light at free electrons . .
11.4 Thermodynamic equilibrium and reversibility
11.5 Inelastic collisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.5.1 Types of collisions . . . . . . . . . . .
11.5.2 Cross sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.6 Radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.7 The Boltzmann transport equation . . . . . .
11.8 Collision-radiative models . . . . . . . . . . .
11.9 Waves in plasmas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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12 Solid state physics


12.1 Crystal structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.2 Crystal binding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.3 Crystal vibrations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.3.1 lattice with one kind of atoms . . . . .
12.3.2 A lattice with two kinds of atoms . . .
12.3.3 Phonons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.3.4 Thermal heat capacity . . . . . . . . .
12.4 Magnetic field in the solid state . . . . . . . .
12.4.1 Dielectrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.4.2 Paramagnetism . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.4.3 Ferromagnetism . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.5 Free electron Fermi gas . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.5.1 Thermal heat capacity . . . . . . . . .
12.5.2 Electric conductance . . . . . . . . . .
12.5.3 The Hall-effect . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.5.4 Thermal heat conductivity . . . . . .
12.6 Energy bands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.7 Semiconductors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.8 Superconductivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.8.1 Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.8.2 The Josephson effect . . . . . . . . . .
12.8.3 Fluxquantisation in a superconducting
12.8.4 Macroscopic quantum interference . .
12.8.5 The London equation . . . . . . . . .
12.8.6 The BCS model . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Equations in Physics by ir. J.C.A. Wevers

13 Theory of groups
13.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.1.1 Definition of a group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.1.2 The Cayley table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.1.3 Conjugated elements, subgroups and classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.1.4 Isomorfism and homomorfism; representations . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.1.5 Reducible and irreducible representations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.2 The fundamental orthogonality theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.2.1 Schurs lemma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.2.2 The fundamental orthogonality theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.2.3 Character . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.3 The relation with quantummechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.3.1 Representations, energy levels and degeneracy . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.3.2 Breaking of degeneracy with a perturbation . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.3.3 The construction of a basefunction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.3.4 The direct product of representations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.3.5 Clebsch-Gordan coefficients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.3.6 Symmetric transformations of operators, irreducible tensor operators
13.3.7 The Wigner-Eckart theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.4 Continuous groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.4.1 The 3-dimensional translation group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.4.2 The 3-dimensional rotation group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.4.3 Properties of continuous groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.5 The group SO(3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.6 Applications in quantum mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.6.1 Vectormodel for the addition of angular momentum . . . . . . . . .
13.6.2 Irreducible tensoroperators, matrixelements and selection rules . . .
13.7 Applications in particle physics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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71
71
71
71
71
72
72
72
72
72
72
73
73
73
73
74
74
74
75
75
75
76
76
77
78
78
78
79

14 Nuclear physics
14.1 Nuclear forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.2 The shape of the nucleus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.3 Radioactive decay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.4 Scattering and nuclear reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.4.1 Kinetic model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.4.2 Quantummechanical model for n-p scattering . . . . . . . .
14.4.3 Conservation of energy and momentum in nuclear reactions
14.5 Radiation dosimetry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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81
81
82
82
83
83
83
84
84

15 Quantum field theory & Particle physics


15.1 Creation and annihilation operators . . . . . . .
15.2 Classical and quantum fields . . . . . . . . . . .
15.3 The interaction picture . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.4 Real scalar field in the interaction picture . . .
15.5 Charged spin-0 particles, conservation of charge
15.6 Field functions for spin- 21 particles . . . . . . .
15.7 Quantization of spin- 21 fields . . . . . . . . . . .
15.8 Quantization of the electromagnetic field . . . .
15.9 Interacting fields and the S-matrix . . . . . . .
15.10 Divergences and renormalization . . . . . . . .
15.11 Classification of elementary particles . . . . . .
15.12 P and CP-violation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.13 The standard model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.13.1 The electroweak theory . . . . . . . . .
15.13.2 Spontaneous symmetry breaking . . . .

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85
85
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87
88
89
89
90
91
92
93
93
94

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VI

Equations in Physics by ir. J.C.A. Wevers

15.13.3 Quantumchromodynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.14 Pathintegrals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16 Astrophysics
16.1 Determination of distances . . . . .
16.2 Brightnes and magnitudes . . . . .
16.3 Radiation and stellar atmospheres
16.4 Composition and evolution of stars
16.5 Energy production in stars . . . .

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94
95
96
96
96
97
97
98

Physical Constants
Name
Number
Number e
Eulers constant
Elementary charge
Gravitational constant
Fine-structure constant
Speed of light in vacuum
Permittivity of the vacuum
Permeability of the vacuum
(40 )1

Symbol
Value
Unit

3,14159265
e
2,718281828459
 n

P
= lim
1/k ln(n) = 0, 5772156649
n

k=1

e
G,
= e2 /2hc0
c
0
0

Plancks constant
Diracs constant
Bohr magneton
Bohr radius
Rydbergs constant
Electron Compton wavelength
Proton Compton wavelength
Reduced mass of the H-atom

h
h = h/2
B = eh/2me
a0
Ry
Ce = h/me c
Cp = h/mp c
H

Stefan-Boltzmanns constant
Wiens constant
Molar gasconstant
Avogadros constant
Boltzmanns constant

kW
R
NA
k = R/NA

Electron mass
Proton mass
Neutron mass
Elementary mass unit
Nuclear magneton

me
mp
mn
mu =
N

Diameter of the Sun


Mass of the Sun
Rotational period of the Sun
Radius of Earth
Mass of Earth
Rotational period of Earth
Astronomical unit
Light year
Parsec
Hubble constant

D
M
T
RA
MA
TA
AU
lj
pc
H

1, 60217733 1019
6, 67259 1011
1/137
2, 99792458 108
8, 854187 1012
4 107
8, 9876 109

Js
Js
Am2

A
eV
m
m
kg

9, 1093897 1031
1, 6726231 1027
1, 674954 1027
1, 6605656 1027
5, 0508 1027

kg
kg
kg
kg
J/T

1392 106
1, 989 1030
25,38
6, 378 106
5, 976 1024
23,96
1, 4959787066 1011
9, 4605 1015
3, 0857 1016
(75 25)

m/s (def)
F/m
H/m
Nm2 C2

6, 6260755 1034
1, 0545727 1034
9, 2741 1024
0, 52918
13,595
2, 2463 1012
1, 3214 1015
9, 1045755 1031

5, 67032 108
2, 8978 103
8,31441
6, 0221367 1023
1, 380658 1023

1
12
12 m( 6 C)

C
m3 kg1 s2

Wm2 K4
mK
J/mol
mol1
J/K

m
kg
days
m
kg
hours
m
m
m
kms1 Mpc1

Chapter 1

Mechanics
1.1
1.1.1

Point-kinetics in a fixed coordinate system


Definitions

The position ~r, the velocity ~v and the acceleration ~a are defined by: ~r = (x, y, z), ~v = (x,
y,
z),

~a = (
x, y, z). The following holds:
Z
Z
Z
s(t) = s0 + |~v (t)|dt ; ~r(t) = ~r0 + ~v (t)dt ; ~v (t) = ~v0 + ~a(t)dt
When the acceleration is constant this gives: v(t) = v0 + at and s(t) = s0 + v0 t + 21 at2 .
For the unit vectors in a direction to the orbit ~et and parallel to it ~en holds:
~et =

d~r
~v
=
|~v |
ds

v
~et = ~en ;

For the curvature k and the radius of curvature holds:



2

~k = d~et = d ~r = d ;
ds
2
ds
ds

1.1.2

~en =

~et
|~et |

1
|k|

Polar coordinates

Polar coordinates are defined by: x = r cos(), y = r sin(). So, for the unit coordinate vectors holds:
e , ~e = ~
er
~er = ~
e , ~a = (
The velocity and the acceleration are derived from: ~r = r~er , ~v = r~
er + r~
r r2 )~er + (2r +
e .
r)~

1.2

Relative motion

For the motion of a point D w.r.t. a point Q holds: ~rD = ~rQ +

~ ~vQ

~ = ~rD ~rQ and = .


with QD
2

means that the quantity is defined in a moving system of coordinates. In a


Further holds: = .
moving system holds:
~v = ~vQ + ~v +
~ ~r and ~a = ~aQ + ~a +
~ ~r + 2~ ~v ~ (~ ~r )
with |~ (~
~r )| = 2~rn

1.3
1.3.1

Point-dynamics in a fixed coordinate system


Force, (angular)momentum and energy

Newtons 2nd law connects the force on an object and the resulting acceleration of the object:
d~
p
, where the momentum is given by: p~ = m~v
F~ (~r, ~v , t) = m~a =
dt
Newtons 3rd law is: F~action = F~reaction .
2

Chapter 1: Mechanics

= F~ ~v . For the total energy W , the kinetic energy T and the


For the power P holds: P = W
potential energy U holds: W = T + U ; T = U with T = 21 mv 2 .
Z
~ is given by: S
~ = ~
The kick S
p = F~ dt
The work A, delivered by a force, is A =

F~ d~s =

F cos()ds

~ ~ = L
~ = ~r F~ ; and
The torque ~ is related to the angular momentum L:
2
~
~
L = ~r p~ = m~v ~r, |L| = mr . The following holds:
U

P
P
F~i = 0 and
~i = 0.
So, the conditions for a mechanical equilibrium are:
=

The force of friction is usually proportional with the force perpendicular to the surface, except when
the motion starts, when a threshold has to be overcome: Ffric = f Fnorm ~et .

1.3.2

Conservative force fields

~ . From this follows


A conservative force can be written as the gradient of a potential: F~cons = U
~
~
that rotF = 0. For such a force field also holds:
I

F~ d~s = 0 U = U0

Zr1

r0

F~ d~s

So the work delivered by a conservative force field depends not on the followed trajectory but only
on the starting and ending points of the motion.

1.3.3

Gravitation

The Newtonian law of gravitation is (in GRT one also uses instead of G):
m1 m2
F~g = G 2 ~er
r
The gravitationpotential is then given by V = Gm/r. From Gauss law then follows: 2 V = 4G.

1.3.4

Orbital equations

From the equations of Lagrange for , conservation of angular momentum can be derived:
V
d
L
=
= 0 (mr2 ) = 0 Lz = mr2 = constant

dt
For the radius as a function of time can be found that:
 2
dr
L2
2(W V )
2 2
=
dt
m
m r
The angular equation is then:
0 =

Zr "
0

mr2
L

2(W V )
L2
2 2
m
m r

#1

dr

r 2 field

arccos 1 +

1
r
1
r0

1
r0

+ km/L2z

if F = F (r): L =constant, if F is conservative: W =constant, if F~ ~v then T = 0 and U = 0.

Equations in Physics by ir. J.C.A. Wevers

Keplers equations
In a force field F = kr2 , the orbits are conic sections (Keplers 1st law). The equation of the orbit
is:

r() =
, or: x2 + y 2 = ( x)2
1 + cos( 0 )
with

L2
;
G2 Mtot

2 = 1 +

2W L2
2
G2 3 Mtot

=1

;
a

a=

=
2
1
2W

a is half the length of the


long axis of the elliptical orbit in case the orbit is closed. Half the length
of the short axis is b = a. is the excentricity of the orbit. Orbits with an equal are equally
shaped. Now, 5 kinds of orbits are possible:
1. k < 0 and = 0: a circle.
2. k < 0 and 0 < < 1: an ellipse.
3. k < 0 and = 1: a parabole.
4. k < 0 and > 1: a hyperbole, curved towards the center of force.
5. k > 0 and > 1: a hyperbole, curved away of the center of force.
Other combinations are not possible: the total energy in a repulsive force field is always positive so
> 1.
If the surface between the orbit walked thru between t1 and t2 and the focus C around which the
planet moves is A(t1 , t2 ), Keplers 2nd law is
A(t1 , t2 ) =

LC
(t2 t1 )
2m

Keplers 3rd law is, with T the period and Mtot the total mass of the system:
4 2
T2
=
a3
GMtot

1.3.5

The virial theorem

The virial theorem for one particle is:


hm~v ~ri = 0 hT i =

12

D
E
F~ ~r =

1
2

dU
r
dr

= 12 n hU i if U =

k
rn

The virial theorem for a collection of particles is:


+
*
X
X
1
~
~
Fij ~rij
Fi ~ri +
hT i = 2
particles

pairs

These propositions can also be written as: 2Ekin + Epot = 0.

1.4
1.4.1

Point dynamics in a moving coordinate system


Apparent forces

The total force in a moving coordinate system can be found by subtracting the apparent forces from
the forces working in the reference frame: F~ = F~ F~app . The different apparent forces are given
by:
1. Transformation of the origin: For = m~aa

Chapter 1: Mechanics

2. Rotation: F~ = m~
~r

3. Coriolis force: Fcor = 2m~ ~v


2

mv
4. Centrifugal force: F~cf = m 2~rn = F~cp ; F~cp =
~er
r

1.4.2

Tensor notation

Transformation of the Newtonian equations of motion to x = x (x) gives:


x
x d
dx
=
;
dt
x
dt
so

d dx
d
d2 x
=
=
2
dt dt
dt
dt

x d
x
x
dt

x d2 x

d
x d
=
+
x
dt2
dt dt

x
x

The chain rule gives:


x
x
d x
x d
2 x d
=
=
dt x

x
x
dt
x
x
dt
So:

x d2 x

2 x d
x
d2 x
=
+
dt2
x
dt2
x
x
dt

So the Newtonian equation of motion


m
will be transformed into:
m

d2 x
= F
dt2

dx dx
d2 x
+

2
dt
dt dt

= F

The apparent forces are brought from he origin to the effect side in the way

1.5
1.5.1

dx dx
.
dt dt

Dynamics of masspoint collections


The center of mass

~ is given by ~v R.
~ The coordinates of the center of mass are
The velocity w.r.t. the center of mass R
given by:
P
mi~ri
~rm = P
mi

In a 2-particle system, the coordinates of the center of mass are given by:
~ = m1~r1 + m2~r2
R
m1 + m2

With ~r = ~r1 ~r2 , the kinetic energy becomes: T = 21 Mtot R 2 + 12 r 2 , with the reduced mass is given
1
1
1
by:
+
=

m1
m2
The motion within and outside the center of mass can be separated:
~ outside = ~outside ;
L
p = m~vm ;
~

~ inside = ~inside
L

F~ext = m~am ;

F~12 = ~u

Equations in Physics by ir. J.C.A. Wevers

1.5.2

Collisions

With collisions, where B are the coordinates of the collision and C an arbitrary other position, holds:
p~ = m~vm is constant, and T = 21 m~vm2 is constant. The changes in the relative velocities can be
~ = ~
~ C = CB
~ S,
~ p~ k S
~ =constant and L
~
derived from: S
p = (~vaft ~vbefore ). Further holds L
w.r.t. B is constant.

1.6

Dynamics of rigid bodies

1.6.1

Moment of Inertia

The angular momentum in a moving coordinate system is given by:


~ = I~ + L
~
L
n
where I is the moment of inertia with respect to a central axis, which is given by:
X
mi~ri 2 ; T = Wrot = 21 Iij ~ei~ej = 21 I 2
I=
i

or, in the continuous case:


I=

m
V

rn dV =

rn dm

Further holds:
Li = I ij j ;

Iij = Iji =

Iii = Ii ;

mk xi xj

Steiners theorem is: Iw.r.t.D = Iw.r.t.C + m(DM )2 if axis C k axis D.


Object

Object

Cavern cylinder

I = mR2

Massive cylinder

I = 21 mR2

Disc, axis in plane disc through m

I = 41 mR2

Halter

I = 21 R2

Cavern sphere

I = 32 mR2

Massive sphere

I = 52 mR2

Bar, axis through c.o.m.

I=

1
2
12 ml

I = 13 ml2

Rectangle, axis plane thr. c.o.m.

I=

1
2
12 (a

Bar, axis through end


Rectangle, axis k b thr. m

I = ma2

1.6.2

+ b2 )

Principal axes

Each rigid body has (at least) 3 principal axes which stand at each other. For a principal axis
holds:
I
I
I
=
=
= 0 so Ln = 0
x
y
z
The following holds: k = aijk i j with aijk =

1.6.3

Ii Ij
if I1 I2 I3 .
Ik

Time dependence

For torque of force ~ holds:


~ = I ;
~
The torque T~ is defined by: T~ = F~ d.

~
d L
~
= ~ ~ L
dt

Chapter 1: Mechanics

1.7
1.7.1

Variational Calculus, Hamilton and Lagrange mechanics


Variational Calculus

Starting with:

Zb
a

L(q, q,
t)dt = 0 met (a) = (b) = 0 and

du
dx

d
(u)
dx

the equations of Lagrange can be derived:


d L
L
=
dt qi
qi
When there are additional conditions applying on the variational problem J(u) = 0 of the type
K(u) =constant, the new problem becomes: J(u) K(u) = 0.

1.7.2

Hamilton mechanics

P
P
The Lagrangian is given by: L = T (qi ) V (qi ). The Hamiltonian is given by: H = qi pi L. In
2 dimensions holds: L = T U = 21 m(r 2 + r2 2 ) U (r, ).
If the used coordinates are canonical are the Hamilton equations the equations of motion for the
system:
dpi
H
H
dqi
;
=
=
dt
pi
dt
qi
Coordinates are canonical if the following holds: {qi , qj } = 0, {pi , pj } = 0, {qi , pj } = ij where {, }
is the Poisson bracket:

X  A B
A B

{A, B} =
qi pi
pi qi
i

1.7.3

Motion around an equilibrium, linearization

For natural systems around equilibrium holds:




 2 
V
V
= 0 ; V (q) = V (0) + Vik qi qk with Vik =
qi 0
qi qk 0
With T = 12 (Mik qi qk ) one receives the set of equations M q + V q = 0. If we substitute qi (t) =
ai exp(it), this set of equations has solutions if det(V 2 M ) = 0. This leads to the eigenfrequentions
aT V a k
of the problem: k2 = Tk
. If the equilibrium is stable holds: k that k2 > 0. The general solution
ak M ak
is a superposition if eigenvibrations.

1.7.4

Phase space, Liouvilles equation

In phase space holds:


=

X X
,
qi i pi
i


X  H
H
so ~v =

qi pi
pi qi
i

If the equation of continuity, t + (~v ) = 0 holds, this can be written as:


{, H} +

=0
t

Equations in Physics by ir. J.C.A. Wevers

For an arbitrary quantity A holds:

dA
A
= {A, H} +
dt
t
Liouvilles theorem can than be written as:
Z
d
= 0 ; or:
pdq = constant
dt

1.7.5

Generating functions

Starting with the coordinate transformation:



Qi = Qi (qi , pi , t)
Pi = Pi (qi , qi , t)
The following Hamilton equations can be derived:
dQi
K
;
=
dt
Pi

dPi
K
=
dt
Qi

Now, a distinction between 4 cases can be made:


1. If pi qi H = Pi Qi K(Pi , Qi , t)
pi =

dF1 (qi , Qi , t)
, the coordinates follow from:
dt

F1
;
qi

Pi =

F1
;
Qi

K =H+

dF1
dt

dF2 (qi , Pi , t)
, the coordinates follow from:
2. If pi qi H = P i Qi K +
dt
pi =
3. If p i qi H = Pi Q i K +

F2
;
qi

Qi =

F2
;
Pi

K =H+

F2
t

dF3 (pi , Qi , t)
, the coordinates follow from:
dt

qi =
4. If p i qi H = Pi Qi K +

F3
;
pi

Pi =

F3
;
Qi

K=H+

F3
t

dF4 (pi , Pi , t)
, the coordinates follow from:
dt

qi =

F4
;
pi

Qi =

F4
;
pi

K =H+

F4
t

The functions F1 , F2 , F3 and F4 are called generating functions.


The Hamiltonian of a charged particle with charge q in an external electromagnetic field is given by:
H=

2
1 
~ + qV
p~ q A
2m

This Hamiltonian can be derived from the Hamiltonian of a free particle H = p2 /2m with the
~ and H H qV . This is elegant from a relativistic point of view: this is
transformations p~ p~ q A
equivalent with the transformation of the momentum 4-vector p p qA . A gaugetransformation
on the potentials A corresponds with a canonical transformation, which make the Hamilton equations
the equations of motion for the system.

Chapter 2

Electricity & Magnetism


2.1

The Maxwell equations

The classical electromagnetic field can be described with the Maxwell equations, and can be written
both as differential and integral equations:
ZZ
~ ~n)d2 A = Qfree,included
~ = free
(D
D
ZZ
~ ~n)d2 A = 0
~ =0
(B
B
I
~
~ = B
~ d~s = d
E
E
dt
t
I
~
d
~ = J~free + D
~ d~s = Ifree,included +
H
H
dt
t
ZZ
ZZ
~ ~n)d2 A, =
~ ~n)d2 A.
For the fluxes holds: =
(D
(B

~ polarization P~ and electric field strength E


~ depend on each other
The electric displacement D,
according to:
np20
~ P~ = P ~
~ + P~ = 0 r E,
~ = 0 E
p0 /Vol, r = 1 + e , with e =
D
30 kT

~ the magnetization M
~ and the magnetic flux density B
~ depend on
The magnetic field strength H,
each other according to:
0 nm20
~ M
~ = P m/Vol,
~ = 0 (H
~ +M
~ ) = 0 r H,
~
r = 1 + m , with m =
B
3kT

2.2

Force and potential

The force and the electric field between 2 point charges are given by:
F~12 =

Q1 Q2
~er ;
40 r r2

~
~ = F
E
Q

The Lorentzforce is the force which is felt by a charged particle that moves through a magnetic field.
~ = l(I~ B).
~
The origin of this force is a relativistic transformation of the Coulomb force: F~L = Q(~v B)
The magnetic field which results from an electric current is given by the law of Biot-Savart:
~ =
dB

0 I ~
dl ~er
4r2

If the current is time-dependent one has to take retardation into account: the substitution I(t)
I(t r/c) has to be applied.
The potentials are given by:
V12 =

Z2
1

~ d~s ,
E
9

~ ~r
~ = 1B
A
2

10

Equations in Physics by ir. J.C.A. Wevers

Here, the freedom remains to apply a gauge transformation. The fields can be derived from the
potentials as follows:
~
~ = A
~
~ = V A , B
E
t
~ = ~v E.
~
Further holds the relation: c2 B

2.3

Gauge transformations

The potentials of the electromagnetic fields transform as follows when a gauge transformation is
applied:

~ = A
~ f
A
f
V =V +
t
~
~
so the fields E and B do not change. This results in a canonical transformation of the Hamiltonian.
Further, the freedom remains to apply a limiting condition. Two common choices are:
~ + 1 V = 0. This separates the differential equations for A
~ and V :
1. Lorentz-gauge: A
c2 t

~
~ = 0 J.
2V = , 2A
0
~ = 0. If = 0 and J~ = 0 holds V = 0 and follows A
~ from 2A
~ = 0.
2. Coulomb gauge: A

2.4

Energy of the electromagnetic field

The energy density of the electromagnetic field is:


Z
Z
dW
= w = HdB + EdD
dVol
The energy density can be expressed in the potentials and currents as follows:
Z
Z
~ 3 x , wel = 1 V d3 x
wmag = 12 J~ Ad
2

2.5
2.5.1

Electromagnetic waves
Electromagnetic waves in vacuum

The wave equation 2(~r, t) = f (~r, t) has the general solution, with c = (0 0 )1/2 :
Z
f (~r, t |~r ~r |/c) 3
d r
(~r, t) =
4|~r ~r |
~ r , t) = J(~
~ r ) exp(it) and A(~
~ r , t) = A(~
~ r ) exp(it) with:
If this is written as: J(~
Z
Z

r ~r |) 3
exp(ik|~
~ r ) exp(ik|~r ~r |) d3~r , V (~r) = 1
~ r) =
J(~
d ~r
(~
r
)
A(~
4
|~r ~r |
4
|~r ~r |

will a derivation via multipole development show that for the radiated energy holds, if d, r:
Z
2


dP
k2
i~
k~
r 3

=
J (~r )e d r

2
d
32 0 c
The energy density of the electromagnetic wave of a vibrating dipole at a large distance is:
w = 0 E 2 =

p20 sin2 () 4
sin2 (kr t) ,
16 2 0 r2 c4

hwit =

p20 sin2 () 4
ck 4 |~
p |2
, P =
2
2
4
32 0 r c
120

Chapter 2: Electricity & Magnetism

11

~ S
~ =E
~ H
~ = cW~ev . The irradiance
The radiated energy can be derived from the Poynting vector S:
~ t . The radiation pressure ps is given by
is the time-averaged of the Poynting vector: I = h|S|i
~
ps = (1 + R)|S|/c,
where R is the coefficient of reflection.

2.5.2

Electromagnetic waves in mater

The wave equations in matter, with cmat = ()1/2 are:






2
2
~
~
2
2
2
E=0,
2
B=0
t
t
t
t
~ = E exp(i(~k ~r t)) and B
~ = B exp(i(~k
give, after substitution of monochromatic plane waves: E
~r t)) the dispersion relation:
i
k 2 = 2 +

The first term arises from the displacement current, the second from the conductance current. If k is
written as k := k + ik holds:
v
v
s
s
u
u
q
q
u
u
1
1

t
t
1
1
k = 2 1 + 1 +
and k = 2 1 + 1 +
2
()
()2

~ = E exp(k ~n ~r) exp(i(k ~n ~r t)). If the material is a good


This results in a damped wave: E
r

.
conductor, the wave vanishes after approximately one wavelength, k = (1 + i)
2

2.6

Multipoles

Because

1
1X
=

|~r ~r |
r 0

 l
r
Q X kn
Pl (cos ) can the potential be written as: V =
r
4 n rn

For the lowest-order terms this results in:


R
Monopole: l = 0, k0 = dV
R
Dipole: l = 1, k1 = r cos()dV
P
Quadrupole: l = 2, k2 = 12 (3zi2 ri2 )
i

~ ext ,
1. The electric dipole: dipolemoment: p~ = Ql~e, where ~e goes from to , and F~ = (~
p )E
~
and W = ~
p Eout .


3~
p ~r
~ Q
~ out
Electric field: E

p
~
. The torque is: ~ = p~ E
4r3
r2

~ out
2. The magnetic dipole: dipolemoment: if r A: ~ = I~ (A~e ), F~ = (~ )B
2
mv
~ out
|| =
, W = ~
B
2B


~ = 3 ~r ~ . The moment is: ~ = ~ B
~ out
Magnetic field: B
4r3
r2

2.7

Electric currents

The continuity equation for charge is:

+ J~ = 0. The electric current is given by:


t
ZZ
dQ
=
(J~ ~n)d2 A
I=
dt

12

Equations in Physics by ir. J.C.A. Wevers

~
For most conductors holds: J~ = E/,
where is the resistivity.
d
. If the
If the flux enclosed by a conductor changes this results in an induction voltage Vind = N
dt
current flowing through a conductor changes, this results in a self-inductance voltage which works
dI
against the change: Vselfind = L . If a conductor encloses a flux holds: = LI.
dt
N I
where l is the length, R
The magnetic induction within a coil is approximated by: B =
2
l + 4R2
the radius and N the number of coils. The energy contained within a coil is given by W = 12 LI 2 and
L = N 2 A/l.
The Capacity is defined by: C = Q/V . For a capacitor holds: C = 0 r A/d where d is the distance
between the plates and A the surface of one plate. The electric field strength between the plates is
E = /0 = Q/0 A where is the surface charge. The accumulated energy is given by W = 12 CV 2 .
dV
.
The current through a capacity is given by I = C
dt
For most PTC resistors holds approximately: R = R0 (1 + T ), where R0 = l/A. For a NTC holds:
R(T ) = C exp(B/T ) where B and C depend only on the material.
If a current flows through two different, connecting conductors x and y, the contact area will heat up
or cool down, depending on the direction of the current: the Peltier effect. The generated or removed
heat is given by: W = xy It. This effect can be amplified with semiconductors.
The thermic voltage between 2 metals is given by: V = (T T0 ). For a Cu-Konstantane connection
holds: 0, 2 0.7 mV/K.
In
Kirchhoff s equations apply: for a knot holds:
P an electrical net with only stationary
P currents,
P
In = 0, along a closed path holds:
Vn = In Rn = 0.

2.8

Depolarizing field

If a dielectric material is placed in an electric or magnetic field, the field strength within and outside
the material will change because the material will be polarized or magnetized. If the medium has
~ 0 or B
~ 0 is the
an ellipsoidal shape and one of the principal axes are parallel with the external field E
depolarizing field homogeneous.
~
~ dep = E
~ mat E
~0 = N P
E
0
~
~
~
~
Hdep = Hmat H0 = N M
N is a constant depending only on the shape of the object placed in the field, with 0 N 1. For
a few limiting cases of an ellipsoid holds: a thin plane: N = 1, a long, thin bar: N = 0, a sphere:
N = 13 .

2.9

Mixtures of materials

The average electric displacement in a material which in inhomogenious on a mesoscopic scale is given
1

2 (1 x)

where x = 1 /2 . For a sphere holds:


by: hDi = hEi = hEi where = 1 1
( /2 )
2
1
= 3 + 3 x. Further holds:
!1
X i
X
i i

i
i
i

Chapter 3

Relativity
3.1
3.1.1

Special relativity
The Lorentz transformation

The Lorentz transformation (~x , t ) = (~x (~x, t), t (~x, t)) leaves the wave equation invariant if c is
invariant:
2
2
1 2
2
2
2
1 2
2
+ 2+ 2 2 2 =
+ 2 + 2 2 2
2
2
x
y
z
c t
x
y
z
c t
This transformation can also be found when ds2 = ds2 is demanded. The general form of the Lorentz
transformation is given by:
~x = ~x +

(t ~x ~v )
( 1)(~x ~v )~v
~v t , t =
|v|2
c2

where

1
=r
2
1 v2
c

If the velocity is parallel to the x-axis, this becomes:


x = (x vt)
y = y

xv 
t = t 2
c

x = (x + vt )
z = z


x v

t= t + 2
c

The velocity difference ~v between two observers transforms according to:



1 
 
~v1 ~v2
~v1 ~v2

~v2 + ( 1) 2 ~v1 ~v1


~v = 1
c2
v2
If ~v = v~ex holds:
px



W
,
= px
c

W = (W vpx )

With = v/c the electric field of a moving charge is given by:


~ =
E

Q
(1 2 )~er
40 r2 (1 2 sin2 ())3/2

The electromagnetic field transforms according to:


~ = (E
~ + ~v B)
~ ,
E

~ =
B

~
~ ~v E
B
c2

Length, mass and time transform according to: tb = te , mb = m0 , lb = l0 /, with e the


quantities in the frame of he observer and b the quantities outside it. The proper time is defined as:
d 2 = ds2 /c2 , so = t/. For energy and momentum holds: W = mc2 = W0 , W 2 = m20 c4 +p2 c2 .
p = mv = W v/c2 , and pc = W where = v/c.
13

14

Equations in Physics by ir. J.C.A. Wevers

4-vectors have the property that their modulus is independent of the observer: their components
can change after a coordinate transformation but not their modulus. The difference of two 4-vectors
dx
. The relation with
transforms also as a 4-vector. The 4-vector for the velocity is given by U =
d
i
i

i
the common velocity u := dx /dt is: U = (u , ic). For particles with nonzero restmass holds:
U U = c2 , for particles with zero restmass (so with v = c) holds: U U = 0. The 4-vector for
energy and momentum is given by: p = m0 U = (pi , iW/c). So: p p = m20 c2 = p2 W 2 /c2 .

3.1.2

Red and blue shift

There are three causes of red and blue shifts:




f
v cos()
1. Motion: with ~ev ~er = cos() follows:
.
= 1
f
c
This can give both red- and blueshift, also the direction of motion.
2. Gravitational redshift:

M
f
= 2.
f
rc

3. Redshift because the universe expands, resulting in e.g. the cosmic background radiation:
R0
.
R1

3.1.3

0
=
1

The stress-energy tensor and the field tensor

The stress-energy tensor is given by:


T = (c2 + p)u u + pg +


1
F F + 41 g F F
2
c

The conservation laws can than be written as: T = 0. The electromagnetic field tensor is given
by:
A
A
F =

x
x
~ iV /c) and J := (J~, ic). The Maxwell equations can than be written as:
with A := (A,
F = 0 J , F + F + F = 0
The equations of motion for a charged particle in an EM field become with the field tensor:
dp
= qF u
d

3.2
3.2.1

General relativity
Riemannian geometry, the Einstein tensor

The basic principles of general relativity are:


1. The geodesic postulate: free falling particles move along geodesics of space-time with the proper
time or arc length s as parameter. For particles with zero rest mass
R (photons), the use of a
free parameter is required because for them holds ds = 0. From ds = 0 the equations of
motion can be derived:
dx dx
d2 x
+
=0

2
ds
ds ds
2. The principle of equivalence: inertial mass gravitational mass gravitation is equivalent
with a curved space-time were particles move along geodesics.

15

Chapter 3: Relativity

3. By a proper choice of the coordinate system it is possible to make the metric locally flat in each
point xi : g (xi ) = :=diag(1, 1, 1, 1).

The Riemann tensor is defined as: R


T := T T , where the covariant derivate is
i
i
i
k
given by j a = j a + jk a and j ai = j ai kij ak . Here,

ijk =

2 xl xi
xj xk x
l

are the Christoffel symbols. For a second-order tensor holds: [ , ]T = R


T + R
T ,
j il
i
i
l
i
i l
l
l
ij
ij
i lj
k aj = k aj kj al + kl aj , k aij = k aij ki alj kj ajl and k a = k a + kl a + kl a .

The following holds: R


=
+ .

The Ricci tensor is a contraction of the Riemann tensor: R := R


, which is symmetric: R =
R . The Bianchi identities are: R + R + R = 0.

is the Ricci scalar, for which


The Einstein tensor is given by: G := R 21 g R, where R := R
p
R
2
holds: G = 0. With the variational principle (L(g ) Rc /16) |g|d4 x = 0 for variations
g g + g the Einstein field equations can be derived:

G =

8
T
c2

, which can also be written as R =

8
(T 21 g T )
c2

For empty space this is equivalent with R = 0. The equation R = 0 has as only solution a flat
space.
The Einstein equations are of 10 independent equations, who are second order in g . From here,
the Laplace equation from Newtonian gravitation can be derived by stating: g = + h , where
|h| 1. In the stationary case, this results in 2 h00 = 8/c2 .

8
T
c2
where is the cosmological constant. This constant plays a role in inflatory models of the universe.
The most general shape of the field equations is: R 21 g R + g =

3.2.2

The line element

The metric tensor is given by: gij =

X x
k x
k
.
i
x xj
k

In general holds: ds2 = g dx dx . In special relativity this becomes ds2 = c2 dt2 + dx2 + dy 2 + dz 2 .
This metric, :=diag(1, 1, 1, 1), is called the Minkowski metric.
The external Schwarzschild metric applies in vacuum outside a spherical mass distribution, and is
given by:


1

2m
2m 2 2
c dt + 1
dr2 + r2 d2
ds2 = 1 +
r
r
Here, m := M /c2 is the geometrical mass of an object with mass M , and d2 = d2 + sin2 d2 .
This metric is singular for r = 2m = 2M/c2 . If an object is smaller than its eventhorizon 2m it is
called a black hole. The Newtonian limit of this metric is given by:
ds2 = (1 + 2V )c2 dt2 + (1 2V )(dx2 + dy 2 + dz 2 )
where V = M/r is the Newtonian gravitation potential. In general relativity, the components of
g are associated with the potentials and the derivates of g with the field strength.
The Kruskal-Szekeres coordinates are used to solve certain problems with the Schwarzschild metric
near r = 2m. They are defined by:

16

Equations in Physics by ir. J.C.A. Wevers

r > 2m:

r < 2m:

 r 
r
cosh
1 exp
2m
4m

 r 
r
sinh
1 exp
2m
4m

r


 r 
t
r
sinh
exp
1
2m
4m
4m

t
4m

t
4m

r


 r 
t
r
=
cosh
exp
1
2m
4m
4m

r = 2m: here, the Kruskal coordinates are singular, which is necessary to eliminate the coordinate singularity there.
The line element in these coordinates is given by:
ds2 =

32m3 r/2m 2
e
(dv du2 ) + r2 d2
r

The line r = 2m corresponds to u = v = 0, the limit x0 with u = v and x0 with u = v.


The Kruskal coordinates are only singular on the hyperbole v 2 u2 = 1, this corresponds with r = 0.
On the line dv = du holds d = d = ds = 0.
For the metric outside a rotating, charged spherical mass the Newman metric applies:




2mr e2
r2 + a2 cos2
2 2
ds2 =
1 2
c
dt

dr2 (r2 + a2 cos2 )d2


r + a2 cos2
r2 2mr + a2 e2




2a(2mr e2 )
(2mr e2 )a2 sin2
2
2
2
2
sin d +
sin2 (d)(cdt)
r +a +
r2 + a2 cos2
r2 + a2 cos2
where m = M/c2 , a = L/M c and e = Q/0 c2 .

3.2.3

Planetary orbits and the perihelium shift

R
To find a planetary
problem ds = 0 has to be solved. This is equivalent with
R 2 orbit,R the variational
the problem ds = gij dxi dxj = 0. Substituting the external Schwarzschild metric gives for a
planetary orbit:


m
du d2 u
du 
3mu
+
+
u
=
d d2
d
h2
where u := 1/r and h = r2 =constant. The term 3mu is not present in the
 classical
 solution. This
h2
M
1+ 2 .
term can in the classical case also be found with a potential V (r) =
r
r

The orbital equation gives r =constant as solution, or can, after dividing by du/d, be solved with
perturbation theory. In zeroth order, this results in an elliptical orbit: u0 () = A + B cos() with
A = m/h2 and B an arbitrary constant. In first order, this becomes:


B2
B2

cos(2)
u1 () = A + B cos( ) + A +
2A 6A
where = 3m2 /h2 is small. The perihelion of a planet is the point for which r is minimal, or u
maximal. This is the case if cos( ) = 0 2n(1 + ). For the perihelion shift then follows:
= 2 = 6m2 /h2 per orbit.

17

Chapter 3: Relativity

3.2.4

The trajectory of a photon

For the trajectory of a photon (and for each particle with zero restmass) holds ds2 = 0. Substituting
the external Schwarzschild metric results in the following orbital equation:


du d2 u
+ u 3mu = 0
d d2

3.2.5

Gravitational waves

Starting with the approximation g = + h for weak gravitational fields, and the definition

h = h 21 h
, follows that 2h = 0 if the gauge condition h /x = 0 is satisfied. From
this, it follows that the loss of energy of a mechanical system, if the occurring velocities are c and
for wavelengths the size of the system, is given by:

2
G X d3 Qij
dE
= 5
dt
5c i,j
dt3
with Qij =

3.2.6

(xi xj 31 ij r2 )d3 x the mass quadrupole moment.

Cosmology

If for the universe as a whole is assumed:


1. There exists a global time coordinate which acts as x0 of a Gaussian coordinate system,
2. The 3-dimensional spaces are isotrope for a certain value of x0 ,
3. Each point is equivalent to each other point for a fixed x0 .
then the Robertson-Walker metric can be derived for the line element:
ds2 = c2 dt2 +

R2 (t)
2
2

 2
2 (dr + r d )
kr
r02 1 2
4r0

For the scalefactor R(t) the following equations can be derived:

8p
R 2 + kc2
2R
= 2
+
2
R
R
c

and

R 2 + kc2
8
=
2
R
3

where p is the pressure and the density of the universe. For the deceleration parameter q follows
from this:

RR
4
q=
=
3H 2
R 2

where H = R/R
is Hubbles constant. This is a measure of the velocity of which galaxies far away
are moving away of each other, and has the value (75 25) kms1 Mpc1 . This gives 3 possible
conditions of the universe (here, W is the total amount of energy in the universe):
1. Parabolical universe: k = 0, W = 0, q = 21 . The expansion velocity of the universe 0 if
t . The hereto related density c = 3H 2 /8 is the critical density.
2. Hyperbolical universe: k = 1, W < 0, q < 21 . The expansion velocity of the universe remains
positive forever.
3. Elliptical universe: k = 1, W > 0, q > 21 . The expansion velocity of the universe becomes
negative after some time: the universe starts falling together.

Chapter 4

Oscillations
4.1

Harmonic oscillations

i(t)
cos(t ),
The general shape of a harmonic oscillation is: (t) = e
is the amplitude. A superposition of more harmonic oscillations with the same frequency
where
results in an other harmonic oscillation:
X
i cos(i t) =
cos( t)

with:
P
i sin(i )
i
tan() = P
i cos(i )

2 =
and

For harmonic oscillations holds:

4.2

x(t)dt =

X
i

2i + 2

XX
j>i

j cos(i j )
i

dn x(t)
x(t)
= (i)n x(t).
and
i
dtn

Mechanic oscillations

For a construction with a spring with constant C parallel to a damping k which is connected to
a mass M , on which a periodic force F (t) = F cos(t) is applied holds the equation of motion
m
x = F (t) k x Cx. With complex amplitudes, this becomes m 2 x = F Cx ikx. With
2
0 = C/m follows:
x=

F
F
, and for the velocity holds: x =
m(02 2 ) + ik
i Cm + k

0
. The quantity Z = F/x is called the impedance of the system. The quality of the
0

Cm
.
system is given by Q =
k
where =

The frequency with minimal


|Z| is called velocity resonance frequency. This is equal to 0 . In the

resonance curve is |Z|/ Cm plotted


against /0 . The width of this curve is characterized by the

points where |Z()| = |Z(0 )| 2. In these points holds: R = X and = Q1 , and the width is
2B = 0 /Q.
The stiffness of an oscillating system is given by F/x. The amplitude
resonance frequency A is the
q
1 2
frequency where iZ is minimal. This is the case for A = 0 1 2 Q .

The damping frequency


r D is a measure for the time in which an oscillating system comes to rest. It
1
. A weak damped oscillation (k 2 < 4mC) dies after TD = 2/D . For
is given by D = 0 1
4Q2
a critical damped oscillation (k 2 = 4mC) holds D = 0. A strong damped oscillation (k 2 > 4mC)
drops like (if k 2 4mC) x(t) x0 exp(t/ ).
18

19

Chapter 4: Oscillations

4.3

Electric oscillations

The impedance is given by: Z = R + iX. The phase angle is := arctan(X/R). The impedance of
a resistor is R, of a capacitor 1/iC and of a self inductor iL. The quality of a coil is Q = L/R.
The total impedance in case several elements are positioned is given by:
1. Series connection: V = IZ,
Ztot =

Zi , Ltot =

Li ,

X 1
1
Z0
=
, Q=
, Z = R(1 + iQ)
Ctot
C
R
i
i

2. parallel connection: V = IZ,


X 1
X 1
X
R
1
1
R
Ci , Q =
=
,
=
, Ctot =
, Z=
Ztot
Z
L
L
Z
1
+
iQ
i
tot
i
0
i
i
i
Here, Z0 =

1
L
and 0 =
.
C
LC

The power given by a source is given by P (t) = V (t) I(t), so


hP it = 21 V I cos(v i ) = Veff Ieff cos() where cos() is the work factor.

4.4

Waves in long conductors

These cables are in use for signal transfer, e.g. coax cable. For them holds: Z0 =
r
dx dx
The transmission velocity is given by v =
.
dL dC

4.5

dL dx
.
dx dC

Coupled conductors and transformers

For two coils enclosing each others flux holds: if 12 is the part of the flux originating from I2 through
coil 2 which is enclosed by coil 1, than holds 12 = M12 I2 , 21 = M21 I1 . For the coefficients of mutual
induction Mij holds:
M12 = M21 := M = k

p
N 2 2
N 1 1
=
N1 N2
L1 L2 =
I2
I1

where 0 k 1 is the coupling factor. For a transformer it is k 1. At full load holds:


r
V1
L1
I2
iM
N1
=
=

=
V2
I1
iL2 + Rload
L2
N2

4.6

Pendulums

The oscillation time T = 1/f , and for different types of pendulums is given by:
p
Oscillating spring: T = 2 m/C if the spring force is given by F = C l.
p
Physical pendulum: T = 2 I/ with the moment of force and I the moment of inertia.
Torsion pendulum: T = 2
of inertia.

p
I/ with =

Mathematic pendulum: T = 2
pendulum.

2lm
the constant of torsion and I the moment
r4

p
l/g with g the acceleration of gravity and l the length of the

Chapter 5

Waves
5.1

The wave equation

The general shape of the wave equation is: 2u = 0, or:


2 u

2u 2u 2u
1 2u
1 2u
=
+ 2 + 2 2 2 =0
2
2
2
v t
x
y
z
v t

where u is the disturbance and v the propagation velocity. In general holds: v = f . Per definition
holds: k = 2 and = 2f .
In principle, there are two kinds of waves:
1. Longitudinal waves: for these holds ~k k ~v k ~u.
2. Transversal waves: for these holds ~k k ~v ~u.
The phase velocity is given by vph = /k. The group velocity is given by:


k dn
dvph
d
= vph + f
= vph 1
vg =
dk
dk
n dk
where n is the refractive index of the medium. If one want to transfer information with a wave, e.g.
by modulating it, will the information move with the group velocity. If vph does not depend on
holds: vph = vg . In a dispersive medium it is possible that vg > vph or vg < vph .
For some media, the propagation velocity follows from:
p
Pressure waves in a liquid or gas: v = /, where is the modulus of compression.
p
p
For pressure waves in a gas also holds: v = p/ = RT /M .
p
Pressure waves in a solid bar: v = E/
p
waves in a string: v = Fspan l/m
s



2h
g 2
Surface waves on a liquid: v =
+
tanh
2

where h is the depth of the liquid and the surface tension. If h holds: v gh.

5.2
5.2.1

Solutions of the wave equation


Plane waves

In n dimensions a harmonic plane wave is defined by:


u(~x, t) = 2n u
cos(t)

n
X

sin(ki xi )

i=1

The equation for a harmonic traveling plane wave is: u(~x, t) = u


cos(~k ~x t + )
20

21

Chapter 5: Waves

If waves reflect at the end of a spring will this result in a change in phase. A fixed end gives a phase
change of /2 to the reflected wave, with boundary condition u(l) = 0. A lose end gives no change
in the phase of the reflected wave, with boundary condition (u/x)l = 0.
If an observer is moving w.r.t. the wave with a velocity vobs , he will observe a change in frequency:
vf vobs
f
=
.
the Doppler effect. This is given by:
f0
vf

5.2.2

Spherical waves

When the situation is spherical symmetric, the homogeneous wave equation is given by:
1 2 (ru) 2 (ru)

=0
v 2 t2
r2
with general solution:
u(r, t) = C1

5.2.3

f (r vt)
g(r + vt)
+ C2
r
r

Cylindrical waves

When the situation has a cylindrical symmetry, the homogeneous wave equation becomes:


1 2u 1
u
r
=0

v 2 t2
r r
r

This is a Bessel equation, with solutions which can be written as Hankel functions. For sufficient
large values of r these are approximated with:
u

u(r, t) = cos(k(r vt))


r

5.2.4

The general solution in one dimension

Starting point is the equation:



N 
X
m
2 u(x, t)
b
u(x, t)
=
m
t2
xm
m=0

where bm IR. Substituting u(x, t) = Aei(kxt) gives two solutions j = j (k) as dispersion
relations. The general solution is given by:
Z 

a(k)ei(kx1 (k)t) + b(k)ei(kx2 (k)t) dk
u(x, t) =

Because in general the frequencies j are non-linear in k there is dispersion and the solution can not
be written any more as a sum of functions depending only on x vt: the wave front transforms.

5.3

The stationary phase method

The Fourier integrals of the previous section can usually not be calculated exact. If j (k) IR the
stationary phase method can be applied. Assuming that a(k) is only a slowly varying function of k,
one can state that the parts of the k-axis where the phase of kx(k)t changes rapidly will give no net
contribution to the integral because the exponent oscillates rapidly there. The only areas contributing
d
significantly to the integral are areas with a stationary phase, determined by
(kx (k)t) = 0.
dk
Now the following approximation is possible:
v
Z
N u
X


u 2
a(k)ei(kx(k)t) dk
t d2 (k ) exp i 41 + i(ki x (ki )t)
i

i=1

dki2

22

Equations in Physics by ir. J.C.A. Wevers

5.4

Green functions for the initial-value problem

This method is preferable if the solutions deviate much from the stationary solutions, like point-like
excitations. Starting with the wave equation in one dimension, with 2 = 2 /x2 holds: if Q(x, x , t)
Q(x, x , 0)
is the solution with initial values Q(x, x , 0) = (x x ) and
= 0, and P (x, x , t) the
t
P (x, x , 0)
= (x x ), then the solution of the wave
solution with initial values P (x, x , 0) = 0 and
t
u(x, 0)
is given by:
equation with arbitrary initial conditions f (x) = u(x, 0) and g(x) =
t
u(x, t) =

f (x )Q(x, x , t)dx +

g(x )P (x, x , t)dx

P and Q are called the propagators. They are defined by: door:
Q(x, x , t) =
P (x, x , t) =

Further holds the relation: Q(x, x , t) =

5.5

1
2 [(x x vt) + (x x + vt)]
(
1
if |x x | < vt
2v
0
if |x x | > vt

P (x, x , t)
t

Waveguides and resonating cavities

The boundary conditions at a perfect conductor can be derived from the Maxwell equations. If ~n is
~ is a surface current density, than holds:
a unit vector the surface, aimed from 1 to 2, and K
~2 D
~ 1) =
~n (D
~
~
~n (B2 B1 ) = 0

~2 E
~ 1) = 0
~n (E
~
~ 1) = K
~
~n (H2 H

~ x, t) = E(x,
~ y)ei(kzt) and B(~
~ x, t) =
In a waveguide holds because of the cylindrical symmetry: E(~
i(kzt)
~
B(x, y)e
. One can now deduce that, if Bz and Ez are not 0:




i
i
Bz
Bz
Ez
Ez
Bx =
B
=
k
k

y
2 k 2  x
y 
2 k 2  y
x 
i
i
Ez
Ez
Bz
Bz
Ex =
Ey =
k
k
+

2 k 2
x
y
2 k 2
y
x
Now one can distinguish between three cases:
1. Bz 0: the Transversal Magnetic modes (TM). Boundary condition: Ez |surf = 0.

Bz
2. Ez 0: the Transversal Electric modes (TE). Boundary condition:
= 0.
n surf

For the TE and TM modes this gives an eigenvalue problem for Ez resp. Bz with as boundary
conditions:

 2
2

+ 2 = 2 with eigenvalues 2 := 2 k 2
x2
y
p
This gives a discrete solution at eigenvalue 2 : k = 2 2 . For < , k is imaginary
and the wave is damped. Therefore, is called the cut-off frequency. In rectangular conductors
the following expression can be found for the cut-off frequency for modes TEm,n of TMm,n :
2
= p
(m/a)2 + (n/b)2

23

Chapter 5: Waves

3. Ez and Bz are zero everywhere: the Transversal electromagnetic mode (TEM). Than holds:

k = and vf = vg , just as if here were no waveguide. Further k IR, so there exist no


cut-off frequency.
In a rectangular, 3 dimensional resonating cavity with edges a, b and c are the possible wave numbers
n2
n3
n1
, ky =
, kz =
This results in the possible frequencies f = vk/2 in
given by: kx =
a
b
c
the cavity:
r
n2y
v n2x
n2
f=
+ 2 + 2z
2
2 a
b
c
For a cubic cavity, with a = b = c, the possible number of oscillating modes NL for longitudinal waves
is given by:
4a3 f 3
NL =
3v 3
Because transversal waves have two possible polarizations holds for them: NT = 2NL .

5.6

Non-linear wave equations

The Van der Pol equation is given by:


d2 x
dx
0 (1 x2 )
+ 02 x = 0
2
dt
dt
x2 can beqignored for very small values of the amplitude. Substitution of x eit gives: =
1 2
1
1
2 0 (i 2 1 2 ). The lowest-order instabilities grow with 2 0 . While x is growing, the 2nd

term becomes larger and decreases the growth. Oscillations on a time scale 01 can exist. If x is
developed as x = x(0) + x(1) + 2 x(2) + and this is substituted we have, besides periodic, secular
terms t. If we assume there exist some timescales n , 0 N with n /t = n and if we put
the secular terms 0 we get:
(  
)
 2
2
dx
d 1 dx
2
1 2 2
= 0 (1 x )
+ 2 0 x
dt 2 dt
dt
This is an energy equation. Energy is conserved if the left-hand side is 0. If x2 > 1/, the right-hand
side changes sign and an increase in energy changes into a decrease of energy. This mechanism limits
the growth of oscillations.
The Korteweg-De Vries equation is given by:
u
u
3u
+ au
+ b 3 =0
t
| {zx}
| x
{z }
nonlin

dispersive

This equation is for example a model for ion-acoustic waves in a plasma. For this equation, soliton
solutions of the following shape exist:
u(x ct) =

cosh2 ( 12

3c

2(x ct))

Chapter 6

Optics
6.1

The bending of light

For the refraction at a surface holds: ni sin(i ) = nt sin(t ) where n is the refractive index of the
material. Snells law is:
n2
1
v1
=
=
n1
2
v2
If n 1, the change in phase of the light is = 0, if n > 1 holds: = . The refraction of
light in a material is caused by scattering at atoms. This is described by:
n2 = 1 +

fj
ne e 2 X
2
0 m j 0,j 2 i

where ne is the electron density and fj the oscillator strength, for which holds:

fj = 1. From

this follows that vg = c/(1 + (ne e2 /20 m 2 )). From this the equation of Cauchy can be derived:
n
X
ak
n = a0 + a1 /2 . More general, it is possible to develop n as: n =
.
2k
k=0

For an electromagnetic wave in general holds: n = r r .


The path, followed by a lightray in material can be found with Fermats principle:

Z2
1

6.2
6.2.1

dt =

Z2
1

n(s)
ds = 0
c

Z2

n(s)ds = 0

Paraxial geometrical optics


Lenses

The Gaussian lens formula can be deduced from Fermats principle with the approximations cos = 1
and sin = . For the refraction at a spherical surface with radius R holds:
n2
n1 n2
n1

=
v
b
R
where |v| is the distance of the object and |b| the distance of the image. Applying this twice results
in:


1
1
1

= (nl 1)
f
R2
R1
where nl is the refractive index of the lens, f is the focal length and R1 and R2 are the curvature
radii of both surfaces. For a double concave lens holds R1 < 0, R2 > 0, for a double convex lens holds
R1 > 0 and R2 < 0. Further holds:
1 1
1
=
f
v
b
D := 1/f is called the dioptric power of a lens. For a lens with thickness d and diameter D holds in
good approximation: 1/f = 8(n 1)d/D2 . For two lenses placed on a line with distance d holds:
1
1
d
1
+

=
f
f1
f2
f1 f2
24

25

Chapter 6: Optics

In these equations the following signs are being used for refraction at a spherical surface, as is seen
by an incoming lightray:
Quantity
R
f
v
b

6.2.2

+
Concave surface
Converging lens
Real object
Virtual image

Convex surface
Diverging lens
Virtual object
Real image

Mirrors

For images of mirrors holds:


2
1
1 1
2
h2 1
1
= + = +

f
v
b
R
2 R v
where h is the perpendicular distance from the point the light ray hits the mirror to the optical
axis. Spherical aberration can be reduced by not using spherical mirrors. A parabolical mirror has
no spherical aberration for light rays parallel with the optical axis and is therefore often used for
telescopes. The used signs are:
Quantity
R
f
v
b

6.2.3

+
Concave mirror
Concave mirror
Real object
Real image

Convex mirror
Convex mirror
Virtual object
Virtual image

Principal planes

The nodal points N of a lens are defined by the figure on the right. If the
lens is surrounded by the same medium on both sides, the nodal points are
the same as the principal points H. The plane the optical axis through
the principal points is called the principal plane. Is the lens is described by
a matrix mij holds for the distances h1 and h2 to the boundary of the lens:
h1 = n

6.2.4

m11 1
,
m12

h2 = n

N1
r r r
O N2

m22 1
m12

Magnification

The linear magnification is defined by: N =

b
v

syst
none
where sys is size of the retinal image with the optical system and none the size of the retinal image
without the system. Further holds: N N = 1. For a telescope holds: N = fobjective/focular. The
f-number is defined by f /Dobjective.

The angular magnification is defined by: N =

6.3

Matrix methods

A light ray can be described by a vector (n, y) with the angle with the optical axis and y the
distance to the optical axis. The change of a light ray interacting with an optical system can be
obtained using a matrix multiplication:




n1 1
n2 2
=M
y1
y2
where Tr(M ) = 1. M is a product of elementary matrices. These are:

26

Equations in Physics by ir. J.C.A. Wevers

1. Transfer along length l: MR =

1 0
l/n 1

2. Refraction at a surface with dioptric power D: MT =

6.4

1
0

D
1

Aberrations

Lenses usually do not give a perfect image. Some causes are:


1. Chromatic aberration is caused by the fact that n = n(). This can be partially corrected
with a lens which is composed of more lenses with different functions ni (). Using N lenses
makes it possible to obtain the same f for N wavelengths.
2. Spherical aberration is caused by second-order effects which are usually ignored; a spherical
surface does not make a perfect lens. Incomming rays far from the optical axis will more bent.
3. Coma is caused by the fact that the principal planes of a lens are only plane near the principal
axis. Further away of the optical axis they are curved. This curvature can be both positive or
negative.
4. Astigmatism: from each point of an object not on the optical axis the image is an ellipse
because the thickness of the lens is not the same everywhere.
5. Field curvature can be corrected by the human eye.
6. Distorsion gives abberations near the borders of the image. This can be corrected with a
combination of positive and negative lenses.

6.5

Reflection and transmission

If an electromagnetic wave hits a transparent medium a part of the wave shall reflect at the same
angle as the incident angle, and a part will be refracted at an angle following from Snells law. It
~ field of the wave is or k w.r.t. the surface. When the coefficients
makes a difference whether the E
of reflection r and transmission t are defined as:








E0r
E0t
E0t
E0r
, r
, tk
, t
rk
E0i k
E0i
E0i k
E0i
where E0r is the reflected amplitude and E0t the transmitted amplitude. Then the Fresnel equations
are:
sin(t i )
tan(i t )
, r =
rk =
tan(i + t )
sin(t + i )
tk =

2 sin(t ) cos(i )
sin(t + i ) cos(t i )

t =

2 sin(t ) cos(i )
sin(t + i )

The following holds: t r = 1 and tk + rk = 1. If the coefficient of reflection R and transmission


T are defined as (with i = r ):
R

Ir
Ii

and T

It cos(t )
Ii cos(i )

~ follows: R + T = 1. Special is the case r = 0. This happens if the angle between the
with I = h|S|i
reflected and transmitted rays is 90 . From Snells law then follows: tan(i ) = n. This angle is called
Brewsters angle. The situation with rk = 0 is not possible.

27

Chapter 6: Optics

6.6

Polarization

The polarization is defined as: P =

Ip
Imax Imin
=
Ip + Iu
Imax + Imin

where the intensity of the polarized light is given by Ip and the intensity of the unpolarized light
is given by Iu . Imax and Imin are the maximum and minimum intensities when the light passes a
polarizer. If polarized light passes through a polarizer Malus law applies: I() = I(0) cos2 () where
is the angle of the polarizer.
The state of a light ray can be described with the Stokes-parameters: start with 4 filters which each
let pass half the intensity. The first is independent of the polarization, the second and third are linear
polarizers with the transmission axes horizontal and at +45 , while the fourth is a circular polarizer
which is opaque for L-states. Then holds S1 = 2I1 , S2 = 2I2 2I1 , S3 = 2I3 2I1 and S4 = 2I4 2I1 .
The state of a polarized light ray can also be described with the Jones vector:


E0x eix
~
E=
E0y eiy

~ = (1, 0), for the vertical P -state E


~ = (0, 1), the R-state is given
For the horizontal
P -state holds: E

1
1
~
~
by E = 2 2(1, i) and the L-state by E = 2 2(1, i). The change in state of a light beam after
~2 = M E
~ 1 . For some kinds of optical equipment
passage of optical equipment can be described as E
the Jones matrix M is given by:


1 0
Horizontal linear polarizer:
0 0


0 0
Vertical linear polarizer:
0 1


1 1
1
Linear polarizer at +45
2
1 1


1 1
1

Lineair polarizer at 45
2
1 1


1 0
1
i/4
-
plate,
fast
axis
vertical
e
4
0 i


1 0
1
i/4
-
plate,
fast
axis
horizontal
e
4
0 i


1 i
1
Homogene circulair polarizor right
2
i 1


1 i
1
Homogene circular polarizer left
2
i 1

6.7

Prisms and dispersion

A light ray passing through a prism is refracted twice and gets a deviation from its original direction
= i + i + w.r.t. the incident direction, where is the apex angle, i is the angle between the
incident angle and a line perpendicular to the surface and i is the angle between the ray leaving the
prism and a line perpendicular to the surface. When i varies there is an angle for which becomes
minimal. For the refractive index of the prism now holds:
n=

sin( 21 (min + ))
sin( 21 )

The dispersion of a prism is defined by:


D=

d dn
d
=
d
dn d

28

Equations in Physics by ir. J.C.A. Wevers

where the first factor depends on the shape and the second on the composition of the prism. For the
first factor follows:
2 sin( 12 )
d
=
dn
cos( 21 (min + ))
For visible light usually holds dn/d < 0: shorter wavelengths are stronger bent than longer. The
refractive index in this area can usually be approximated by Cauchys formula.

6.8

Diffraction

Fraunhofer diffraction occurs far away of the source(s). The Fraunhofer diffraction of light passing
through multiple slits is described by:
2 
2

I()
sin(N v)
sin(u)

=
I0
u
sin(v)
where u = b sin()/, v = d sin()/. N is the number of slits, b is the width of a slit and d is the
distance between the slits. The maxima in intensity are given by d sin() = k.
The diffraction through a spherical aperture with radius a is described by:
2

J1 (ka sin())
I()
=
I0
ka sin()
The diffraction pattern of a rectangular aperture at distance R with length a in the x-direction and
b in the y-direction is described by:

2 
2
sin( )
sin( )
I(x, y)
=
I0

where = kax/2R and = kby/2R.


When X rays are diffracted at a crystal holds for the position of the maxima in intensity Braggs
relation: 2d sin() = n where d is the distance between the crystal layers.
Close at the source the Fraunhofermodel is unusable because it ignores the angle-dependence of
the reflected waves. This is described by the obliquity or inclination factor, which describes the
directionality of the secondary emissions: E() = 21 E0 (1 + cos()) where is the angle with the
optical axis.
Diffraction limits the resolution of a system. This is the minimum angle min between two incident
rays coming from points far away for which their refraction patterns can be detected separately. For
a circular slit holds: min = 1, 22/D where D is the diameter of the slit.
For a grating holds: min = 2/(N a cos(m )) where a is the distance between two peaks and N the
number of peaks. The minimum difference between two wavelengths that gives a separated diffraction
pattern in a multiple slit geometry is given by / = nN where N is the number of lines and n the
order of the pattern.

6.9

Special optical effects

~ is not parallel with E


~ if the polarizability P~ of a material is
Birefringe and dichroism. D
nut equal in all directions. There are at least 3 directions, the principal axes, in which they are
parallel. This results in 3 refractive indices ni with can be used to construct Fresnels ellipsoid.
In case n2 = n3 6= n1 , which happens e.g. at trigonal, hexagonal and tetragonal crystals there
is one optical axis in the direction of n1 . Incident light rays can now be split up in two parts:
the ordinary wave is linear polarized the plane through the transmission direction and the
optical axis. The extraordinary wave is linear polarized in the plane through the transmission

29

Chapter 6: Optics

direction and the optical axis. Dichroism is caused by a different absorption of the ordinary
and extraordinary wave in some materials. Double images occur when the incident ray makes
an angle with optical axis: the extraordinary wave will refract, the ordinary will not.
Retarders: waveplates and compensators. Incident light will have a phase shift of =
2d(|n0 ne |)/0 if an uniaxial crystal is cut in such a way that the optical axis is parallel with
the front and back plane. Here, 0 is the wavelength in vacuum and n0 and ne the refractive
indices for the ordinary and extraordinary wave. For a quarter-wave plate holds: = /2.
The Kerr-effect: isotropic, transparent materials can become birefringent when placed in an
~ The difference in refractive index in
electric field. In that case, the optical axis is parallel to E.
2
the two directions is given by: n = 0 KE , where K is the Kerr constant of the material. If
the electrodes have an effective length and are separated by a distance d, the retardation is
given by: = 2KV 2 /d2 , where V is the applied voltage.
The Pockels or linear electro-optical effect can occur in 20 (from a total of 32) crystal symmetry
classes, namely those without a center of symmetry. These crystals are also piezoelectric: their
~ The retardation
polarization changes when a pressure is applied and vice versa: P~ = pd+0 E.
3
in a Pockels cell is = 2n0 r63 V /0 where r63 is the 6-3 element of the electro-optic tensor.
The Faraday effect: the polarization of light passing through material with length d and on
which a magnetic field is applied in the propagation direction is rotated by an angle = VBd
where V is the Verdet constant.

Cerenkov
radiation arises when a particle with arrives with vq > vf . The radiation is emitted
within a cone with an apex angle with sin() = c/cmedium = c/nvq .

6.10

The Fabry-Perot interferometer

For a Fabry-Perot interferometer holds


in general: T + R + A = 1 where T
is the transmission factor, R the reflection factor and A the absorption factor. If F is given by F = 4R/(1 R)2
follows for the intensity distribution:
2

1
A
It
= 1
Ii
1 R 1 + F sin2 ()
The term [1 + F sin2 ()]1 := A() is
called the Airy function.

PP
PP
q
d

Screen
Focussing lens

The width of the peaks at half height is given bt = 4/ F . The finesse F is defined as F = 21 F .
The maximum resolution is then given by fmin = c/2ndF .
Source

Lens

Chapter 7

Statistical physics
7.1

Degrees of freedom

A molecule consisting of n atoms has s = 3n degrees of freedom. There are 3 translational degrees of
freedom, a linear molecule has s = 3n 5 vibrational degrees of freedom and a non-linear molecule
s = 3n 6. A linear molecule has 2 rotational degrees of freedom and a non-linear molecule 3.
Because vibrational degrees of freedom account for both kinetic and potential energy they count
double. So, for linear molecules this results in a total of s = 6n 5. For non-linear molecules this
gives s = 6n 6. The average energy of a molecule in thermodynamic equilibrium is hEtot i = 12 skT .
Each degree of freedom of a molecule has in principle the same energy: the principle of equipartition.
The rotational and vibrational energy of a molecule are:
Wrot =

2
h
l(l + 1) = Bl(l + 1) , Wvib = (v + 21 )
h 0
2I

The vibrational levels are excited if kT h, the rotational levels of a hetronuclear molecule are
excited if kT 2B. For homonuclear molecules additional selection rules apply so the rotational
levels are well coupled if kT 6B.

7.2

The energy distribution function

The general shape of the equilibrium velocity distribution function is


P (vx , vy , vz )dvx dvy dvz = P (vx )dvx P (vy )dvy P (vz )dvz with
 2
1
v
P (vi )dvi = exp i2 dvi


p
where =

is the most probable velocity of a particle. The average velocity is given by


2kT /m
hvi = 2/ , and v 2 = 23 2 . The distribution as a function of the absolute value of the velocity is
given by:


4N
mv 2
dN
2
= 3 v exp
dv
2kT

The general shape of the energy distribution function then becomes:
c(s)
P (E)dE =
kT

E
kT

 21 s1

where c(s) is a normalization constant, given by:


1. Even s: s = 2l: c(s) =

1
(l 1)!

2. Odd s: s = 2l + 1: c(s) =

2l
(2l 1)!!
30



E
exp
kT

31

Chapter 7: Statistical physics

7.3

Pressure on a wall

The number of molecules that collides with a wall with surface A within a time is given by:
ZZZ

d N=

Z Z Z2
0

nAv cos()P (v, , )dvdd

From this follows for the particle flux on the wall: = 41 n hvi. For the pressure on the wall then
follows:
2
2mv cos()d3 N
, so p = n hEi
d3 p =
A
3

7.4

The equation of state

If intermolecular forces and the own volume of the molecules can be neglected can for gases from
p = 23 n hEi and hEi = 32 kT be derived:
pV = ns RT =


1
N m v2
3

Here, ns is the number of moles particles and N is the total number of particles within volume V . If
the own volume and the intermolecular forces can not be neglected the Van der Waals equation can
be derived:


an2
p + 2s (V bns ) = ns RT
V
There is an isotherme with a horizontal point of inflection. In the Van der Waals equation this
corresponds with the critical temperature, pressure and volume of the gas. This is the upper limit of
the area of coexistence between liquid and vapor. From dp/dV = 0 and d2 p/dV 2 = 0 follows:
Tcr =

a
8a
, Vcr = 3bns
, pcr =
27bR
27b2

For the critical point holds: pcr Vm,cr /RTcr = 83 , which differs from the value of 1 which follows from
the general gas law.
Scaled on the critical quantities, with p := p/pcr , T = T /Tcr and Vm = Vm /Vm,cr with Vm := V /ns
holds:



3
Vm 13 = 38 T
p +

2
(Vm )

Gases behave the same for equal values of the reduced quantities: the law of the corresponding states.
A virial development is used for even more accurate contemplations:
p(T, Vm ) = RT


B(T ) C(T )
1
+
+
+

Vm
Vm2
Vm3

The Boyle temperature TB is the temperature for which the 2nd virial coefficient is 0. In a Van der
Waals gas, this happens at TB = a/Rb. The inversion temperature Ti = 2TB .
The equation of state for solids and liquids is given by:
1
V
= 1 + p T T p = 1 +
V0
V

V
T

T +
p

1
V

V
p

32

7.5

Equations in Physics by ir. J.C.A. Wevers

Collisions between molecules

The collision probability of a particle in a gas that is translated over a distance dx is given bt ndx,
p
v1
where is the cross section. The mean free path is given by =
with u = v12 + v22 the relative
nu
r
1
m1
u
= 1+
, so =
. If m1 = m2 holds:
velocity between the particles. If m1 m2 holds:
v1
m2
n
1
1
. This means that the average time between two collisions is given by =
=
. If the
nv
n 2
1
molecules are approximated with hard spheres the cross section is: = 4 (D12 + D22 ). The average
distance between two molecules is 0, 55n1/3 . Collisions between molecules and small particles in a
solution result

in the

Brownian motion. For the average motion of a particle with radius R can be
derived: x2i = 31 r2 = kT t/3R.

A gas is called a Knudsen gas if the dimensions of the gas, something that can easily occur at low
pressures.pThe equilibrium
holds
for a vessel which has a hole with surface A in itfor which
condition
that A/ is: n1 T1 = n2 T2 . Together with the general gas law follows: p1 / T1 = p2 / T2 .

If two plates move along each other at a distance d with velocity wx the viscosity is given by:
Awx
Fx =
. The velocity profile between the plates is in that case given by w(z) = zwx /d. It can
d
be derived that = 31 hvi where v is the thermal velocity.


dQ
T2 T1
The heat conductance in a non-moving gas is described by:
, which results
= A
dt
d
in a temperature profile T (z) = T1 + z(T2 T1 )/d. It can be derived that = 31 CmV n hvi /NA .
Also holds: = CV . A better expression for can be obtained with the Eucken correction:
= (1 + 9R/4cmV )CV with an error <5%.

7.6

Interaction between molecules

For dipole interaction between molecules can be derived that U 1/r6 . If the distance between
two molecules approaches the molecular diameter D a repulsing force between the electron clouds
appears. This force can be described by Urep exp(r) or Vrep = +Cs /rs with 12 s 20. This
results in the Lennard-Jones potential for intermolecular forces:
" 
 6 #
12
D
D
ULJ = 4

r
r
with a minimum at r = rm . The following holds: D 0, 89rm . For the Van der Waals coefficients
a and b and the critical quantities holds: a = 5, 275NA2 D3 , b = 1, 3NAD3 , kTkr = 1, 2 and Vm,kr =
3, 9NA D3 .
A more simple model for intermolecular forces assumes a potential U (r) = for r < D, U (r) = ULJ
for D r 3D and U (r) = 0 for r 3D. This gives for the potential energy of one molecule:
Z 3D
Epot =
U (r)F (r)dr.
D

with F (r) the spatial distribution function in spherical coordinates, which is for a homogeneous
distribution given by: F (r)dr = 4nr2 dr.
Some useful mathematical relations are:
Z
0

n x

x e

dx = n! ,

Z
0

2n x2

x e

Z
2
(2n)!
dx =
x2n+1 ex dx = 12 n!
,
2n+1
n!2
0

Chapter 8

Thermodynamics
8.1

Mathematical introduction

If there exists a relation f (x, y, z) = 0 between 3 variables, one can write: x = x(y, z), y = y(x, z)
and z = z(x, y). The total differential dz of z is than given by:
 
 
z
z
dz =
dx +
dy
x y
y x
By writing this also for dx and dy it can be obtained that
     
y
z
x

= 1
y z
z x
x y
Because dz is a total differential holds

dz = 0.

A homogeneous function of degree m obeys: m F (x, y, z) = F (x, y, z). For such a function Eulers
theorem applies:
F
F
F
mF (x, y, z) = x
+y
+z
x
y
z

8.2

Definitions
1
p

1
V


The isochoric pressure coefficient: V =


The isothermal compressibility: T =
The isobaric volume coefficient: p =

1
V

1
The adiabatic compressibility: S =
V

p
T

V
p

V
T p

V
p

For an ideal gas follows: p = 1/T , T = 1/p and V = 1/V .

8.3

Thermal heat capacity


S
T X


H
The specific heat at constant pressure: Cp =
T p
The specific heat at constant X is: CX = T

The specific heat at constant volume: CV =

33

U
T

34

Equations in Physics by ir. J.C.A. Wevers

For an ideal gas holds: Cmp CmV = R. Further, if the temperature is high enough to thermalize
all internal rotational and vibrational degrees of freedom, holds: CV = 21 sR. So Cp = 12 (s + 2)R.
For their ratio now follows = (2 + s)/s. For a lower T one needs only to consider the thermalized
degrees of freedom. For a Van der Waals gas holds: CmV = 12 sR + ap/RT 2.
In general holds:
Cp CV = T

p
T

V
T

= T

V
T

2 
p

p
V

Because (p/V )T is always < 0, the following is always true: Cp CV . If the coefficient of expansion
is 0, Cp = CV , and also at T = 0K.

8.4

The laws of thermodynamics

The zeroth law is that heat flows from higher to lower temperatures. The first law is the conservation
of energy. For a closed system holds: Q = U +W , where Q is the total added heat, W the performed
work and U the difference in the internal energy. In differential form this becomes: d Q = dU + d W ,
where d means that the it is not a differential of a quantity of state. For a quasi-statical process
holds: d W = pdV . So for a reversible process holds: d Q = dU + pdV .
For an open (flowing) system the first law is: Q = H + Wi + Ekin + Epot . One can extract a
work Wt from the system or add a work Wt = Wi to the system.
The second law is: there exists an additive quantity S, the entropy, whose differential has the following
property:
dQ
dS
T
If the only processes occurring are reversible holds: dS = d Qrev /T . So, the entropy difference after
a reversible process is:
Z2
d Qrev
S2 S1 =
T
1

So, for a reversible cycle holds:


For an irreversible cycle holds:

d Qrev
= 0.
T
d Qirr
< 0.
T

The third law of thermodynamics is (Nernst):


lim

T 0

S
X

=0

From this can be concluded that the thermal heat capacity if T 0, so absolute zero temperature can not be reached by cooling with a finite number of steps.

8.5

State functions and Maxwell relations

The quantities of state and their differentials are:


Internal energy:
Enthalpy:
Free energy:
Gibbs free enthalpy:

U
H = U + pV
F = U TS
G = H TS

dU = T dS pdV
dH = T dS + V dp
dF = SdT pdV
dG = SdT + V dp

35

Chapter 8: Thermodynamics

From this one can derive Maxwells relations:








 





 

p
T
V
p
S
V
S
T
=
,
=
,
=
,
=
V S
S V
p S
S p
T V
V T
T p
p T
From the complete differential and the definitions of CV and Cp can be derived that:




p
V
T dS = CV dT + T
dV and T dS = Cp dT T
dp
T V
T p
For an ideal gas also holds:
 
 
 
 
V
T
p
T

+ R ln
+ Sm0 and Sm = Cp ln
R ln
+ Sm0
Sm = CV ln
T0
V0
T0
p0
Helmholtz equations are:








U
p
H
V
=T
p ,
=V T
V T
T V
p T
T p
When a surface is enlarged holds: d Wrev = dA, with the surface tension. From this follows:




F
U
=
=
A S
A T

8.6

Processes

The efficiency of a process is given by: =

Work done
Heat added

The Cold factor of a cooling down process is given by: =

Cold delivered
Work added

Reversible adiabatic processes


For adiabatic processes holds: W = U1 U2 . For reversible adiabatic processes holds Poissons
equation: with = Cp /CV one gets that pV =constant. Also holds: T V 1 =constant and
T p1 =constant. Adiabatics are more stylish in a p-V diagram than isothermics because > 1.
Isobaric processes
Here holds: H2 H1 =
The throttle process

R2
1

Cp dT . For a reversible isobaric process holds: H2 H1 = Qrev .

This is also called the Joule-Kelvin effect, and is an adiabatic expansion of a gas through a porous
material or a small opening. Here is H a conserved quantity, and dS > 0. In general this is acompanied
with a change in temperature. The quantity which is important here is the throttle coefficient:
" 
#



T
V
1
H =
=
T
V
p H
Cp
T p
The inversion temperature is the temperature where an adiabatically expanding gas keeps the same
temperature If T > Ti the gas heats up, if T < Ti the gas cools down. Ti = 2TB , with for TB :
[(pV )/p]T = 0. The throttle process is e.g. applied in refridgerators.
The Carnotprocess
The system undergoes a reversible cycle with 2 isothemics and 2 adiabatics:
1. Isothermic expansion at T1 . The system absorbs a heat Q1 from the reservoir.
2. Adiabatic expansion with a temperature drop to T2 .

36

Equations in Physics by ir. J.C.A. Wevers

3. Isothermic compression at T2 , removing Q2 from the system.


4. Adiabatic compression to T1 .
The efficiency for Carnots process is:
=1

T2
|Q2 |
:= C
=1
|Q1 |
T1

The Carnot efficiency C is the maximal efficiency at which a heat machine can operate. If the process
is applied in reverse order and the system performs a work W the cold factor is given by:
=

|Q2 |
T2
|Q2 |
=
=
W
|Q1 | |Q2 |
T1 T2

The Stirling process


Stirlings cycle exists of 2 isothermics and 2 isochorics. The efficiency in the ideal case is the same as
for Carnots cycle.

8.7

Maximal work

Consider a system that transits from state 1 to state 2, with the temperature and pressure of the
surroundings given by T0 and p0 . The maximum work which can be obtained from this change is,
when all processes are reversible:
1. Closed system: Wmax = (U1 U2 ) T0 (S1 S2 ) + p0 (V1 V2 ).
2. Open system: Wmax = (H1 H2 ) T0 (S1 S2 ) Ekin Epot .
The minimal work needed to reach a certain state is: Wmin = Wmax .

8.8

Phase transitions

Phase transitions are isothermic and isobaric, so dG = 0. When the phases are noted with , and

holds: G
m = Gm and
r

Sm = Sm
Sm
=
T0
where r is the transition heat of phase to phase and T0 is the transition temperature. The
following holds: r = r and r = r r . Further


Gm
Sm =
T p
so G has a twist in the transition point. In a two phase system holds Clapheyrons equation:

r
dp
S Sm
=
= m

dT
Vm Vm
(Vm Vm )T

For an ideal gas one finds for the vapor line at some distance from the critical point:
p = p0 er/RT
There exist also phase transitions with r = 0. For those there will occur only a discontinuity in the
second derivates of Gm . These second-order transitions appear at organization phenomena.
A phase-change of the 3rd order, so with e.g. [ 3 Gm /T 3]p non continuous arises e.g. when ferromagnetic iron changes to the paramagnetic state.

37

Chapter 8: Thermodynamics

8.9

Thermodynamic potential

When the number of particles within a system changes this number becomes a third quantity of state.
Because addition of matter usually happens at constant p and T , G is the relevant quantity. If a
system exists of more components this becomes:
X
i dni
dG = SdT + V dp +
i

where =
holds:

G
ni

is called the thermodynamic potential. This is a partial quantity. For V

p,T,nj

V =

c
X

ni

i=1

V
ni

:=

nj ,p,T

c
X

ni Vi

i=1

where Vi is the the partial volume of component i. The following holds:


X
xi Vi
Vm =
i

xi dVi

where xi = ni /n is the molar fraction of component i. The molar volume of a mixture of two
components can be a concave line in a V -x2 diagram: the mixing contracts the volume.
The thermodynamic
potentials are not independent in a multiple-phase
system. It can be derived
P
P
that
ni di = SdT + V dp, this gives at constant p and T :
xi di = 0 (Gibbs-Duhmen).
i

Each component has as much s as there are phases. The number of free parameters in a system
with c components and p different phases is given by f = c + 2 p.

8.10

Ideal mixtures

For a mixture of n components holds (the index 0 is the value for the pure component):
X
X
X
Umixture =
ni Ui0 , Hmixture =
ni Hi0 , Smixture = n
xi Si0 + Smix
i

where for ideal gases holds: Smix = nR

xi ln(xi ).

For the thermodynamic potentials holds: i = 0i + RT ln(xi ) < 0i . A mixture of two liquids is rarely
ideal: this is usually only the case for chemical related components or isotopes. In spite of this holds
Raoults law for the vapor pressure holds for many binary mixtures: pi = xi p0i = yi p. Here is xi the
fraction of the ith component in liquid phase and yi the fraction of the ith component in gas phase.
A solution of one component in another gives rise to an increase in the boiling point Tk and a
decrease of the freezing point. Ts . For x2 1 holds:
Tk =

RT 2
RTk2
x2 , Ts = s x2
r
r

with r the evaporation heat and r < 0 the melting heat. For the osmotic pressure of a solution
0
holds: Vml
= x2 RT .

8.11

Conditions for equilibrium

When a system evolves towards equilibrium the only changes that are possible are those for which
holds: (dS)U,V 0 or (dU )S,V 0 or (dH)S,p 0 or (dF )T,V 0 or (dG)T,p 0. In equilibrium

holds for each component:


i = i = i .

38

8.12

Equations in Physics by ir. J.C.A. Wevers

Statistical basis for thermodynamics

The number of possibilities P to distribute N particles on n possible energy levels, each with a g-fold
degeneracy is called the thermodynamic probability and is given by:
P = N!

Y g ni
i

ni !

The most probable distribution, the one with the maximum value for P , is the equilibrium state. When
Stirlings equation, ln(n!) n ln(n)n is used, one finds for a discrete system the Maxwell-Boltzmann
distribution. The occupation numbers in equilibrium are then given by:


N
Wi
ni = gi exp
Z
kT
P
The state sum Z is a norming constant, given by: Z = gi exp(Wi /kT ). Fort an ideal gas holds:
i

Z=

V (2mkT )3/2
h3

The entropy can than be defined as: S = k ln(P ) . For a system in thermodynamic equilibrium this
becomes:
 
 N
U
Z
Z
U

+ kN ln
+ k ln
S=
T
N
T
N!


V (2mkT )3/2
3
5
For an ideal gas, with U = 2 kT then holds: S = 2 kN + kN ln
N h3

8.13

Application on other systems

Thermodynamics can be applied on other systems than gases and liquids. To do this the term
d W = pdV has to be replaced with the correct work term, like d Wrev = F dl for the stretching of a
wire, d Wrev = dA for the expansion of a soap bubble or d Wrev = BdM for a magnetic system.

Chapter 9

Transport phenomena
9.1

Mathematical introduction

An important relation is: if X is a quantity of a volume element which travels from position ~r to
~r + d~r in a time dt, the total differential dX is then given by:
dX =

X
X
X
dX
X
X
X
X
X
dx +
dy +
dz +
dt
=
vx +
vy +
vz +
x
y
z
t
dt
x
y
z
t

dX
X
=
+ (~v )X .
dt
t
ZZZ
ZZZ
ZZ
d

3
3
From this follows that also holds:
Xd V =
Xd V + X(~v ~n)d2 A
dt
t

This results in general to:

when the volume V is surrounded by surface A. Some properties of the operator are:
div(~v ) = div~v + grad ~v
div(~u ~v ) = ~v (rot~u) ~u (rot~v )
div grad = 2

rot(~v ) = rot~v + (grad) ~v


rot rot~v = grad div~v 2~v
2~v (2 v1 , 2 v2 , 2 v3 )

rot grad = ~0
div rot~v = 0

Here, ~v is an arbitrary vector field and an arbitrary scalar field. Some important integral theorems
are:
ZZ
ZZZ
Gauss:
(~v ~n)d2 A =
(div~v )d3 V
Stokes for a scalar field:
Stokes for a vector field:
This results in:
Ostrogradsky:

Here, the orientable surface

9.2

RR

( ~et )ds =
(~v ~et )ds =

ZZ

ZZ

(~n grad)d2 A
(rot~v ~n)d2 A

ZZ
(rot~v ~n)d2 A = 0

ZZ
ZZZ
2
(~n ~v )d A =
(rot~v )d3 A
ZZ
ZZZ
2
(~n)d A =
(grad)d3 V

d2 A is limited by the Jordan curve

ds.

Conservation laws

On a volume work two kinds of forces:


1. The force f~0 on each volume element. For gravity holds: f~0 = ~g .
2. Surface forces working only on the margins: ~t. For these holds: ~t = ~n T, where T is the pressure
tensor.
39

40

Equations in Physics by ir. J.C.A. Wevers

T can be split in a part pI representing the normal tensions and a part T representing the shear
stresses: T = T + pI, where I is the unit tensor. When viscous aspects can be ignored holds:
divT= gradp.
When the flow velocity is ~v at position ~r holds on position ~r + d~r:
~v (d~r) =

~v (~r)
|{z}

d~r (grad~v )
|
{z
}

translation

rotation, deformation, dilatation

The quantity L:=grad~v can be spilt in a symmetric part D and an antisymmetric part W. L = D + W
with




1 vi
vj
vj
1 vi
, Wij :=
+

Dij :=
2 xj
xi
2 xj
xi
When the rotation or vorticity ~
= rot~v is introduced holds: Wij = 12 ijk k . ~ represents the local
~ W = 1 dr.
~
rotation velocity: dr
2
For a Newtonian liquid holds: T = 2D. Here, is the dynamical viscosity. These is related with the
shear stress by:
vi
ij =
xj

For compressible media can be stated: T = ( div~v )I + 2D. Equilization of the thermodynamical
and the mechanical pressure follows: 3 + 2 = 0. If the viscosity is constant holds: div(2D) =
2~v + grad div~v .
The conservation laws for mass, momentum and energy for continuous media can be written in both
integral and differential form. They are:

Integral notation:

1. Conservation of mass:
t

ZZZ

ZZ
d V + (~v ~n)d2 A = 0
3

ZZZ
ZZ
ZZZ
ZZ

3
2
3
2. Conservation of momentum:
~v d V + ~v (~v ~n)d A =
f0 d V + ~n T d2 A
t
ZZZ
ZZ

3. Conservation of energy:
( 21 v 2 + e)d3 V + ( 12 v 2 + e)(~v ~n)d2 A =
t
ZZ
ZZZ
ZZ
(~
q ~n)d2 A +
(~v f~0 )d3 V + (~v ~n T)d2 A

Differential notation:
1. Conservation of mass:

+ div (~v ) = 0
t

2. Conservation of momentum:
3. Conservation of energy: T

~v
+ (~v )~v = f~0 + divT = f~0 gradp + divT
t

de p d
ds
=
= div~q + T : D
dt
dt
dt

Here, e is the internal energy per unit of mass E/m and s is the entropy per unit of mass S/m.
~ is the heat flow. Further holds:
~q = T
p=

e
E
=
,
V
1/

so
CV =

e
T

T =

and Cp =

E
e
=
S
s


h
T

41

Chapter 9: Transport phenomena

with h = H/m the enthalpy per unit of mass.


From this one can derive the Navier-Stokes equations for an incompressible, viscous and heatconducting medium:
div~v
~v

+ (~v )~v
t
T
+ C(~v )T
C
t

~g gradp + 2~v

2 T + 2D : D

with C the thermal heat capacity. The force F~ on an object within a flow, when viscous effects are
limited to the boundary layer, can be obtained using the momentum law. If a surface A surrounds
the object outside the boundary layer holds:
ZZ
F~ = [p~n + ~v (~v ~n)]d2 A

9.3

Bernoullis equations

Starting with the momentum equation one can find for a non-viscous medium for stationary flows,
with
(~v grad)~v = 21 grad(v 2 ) + (rot~v ) ~v

and the potential equation ~g = grad(gh) that:


Z
dp
1 2
= constant along a streamline
2 v + gh +

For compressible flows holds: 12 v 2 + gh + p/ =constant along aRline of flow. If also holds rot~v = 0
and the entropy is equal on each streamline holds 12 v 2 + gh + dp/ =constant everywhere. For
incompressible flows this becomes: 12 v 2 + gh + p/ =constant everywhere. For ideal gases with
constant Cp and CV holds, with = Cp /CV :
1 2
2v

p
c2
= 21 v 2 +
= constant
1
1

With a velocity potential defined by ~v = grad holds for instationary flows:


Z
1 2
dp
+ 2 v + gh +
= constant everywhere
t

9.4

Caracterising of flows with dimensionless numbers

The advantage of dimensionless numbers is that they make model experiments possible: one has
to make the dimensionless numbers which are important for the specific experiment equal for both
model and the real situation. One can also deduce functional equalities without solving the differential
equations. Some dimensionless numbers are given by:
v
c
L
Strouhal: Sr =
v
a
Fourier:
Fo =
L2

Prandtl: Pr =
a
v2
Eckert:
Ec =
cT

Mach:

Ma =

vL

v2
Fr =
gL
vL
Pe =
a
L
Nu =

Reynolds: Re =
Froude:
Peclet:
Nusselt:

42

Equations in Physics by ir. J.C.A. Wevers

Here, = / is the kinematic viscosity, c is the speed of sound and L is a characteristic length of
the system. follows from the equation for heat transport y T = T and a = /c is the thermal
diffusion coefficient.
These numbers can be interpreted as follows:
Re: (stationary inertial forces)/(viscous forces)
Sr: (instationary inertial forces)/(stationary inertial forces)
Fr: (stationary inertial forces)/(gravity)
Fo: (heat conductance)/(instationary change in enthalpy)
Pe: (convective heat transport)/(heat conductance)
Ec: (viscous dissipation)/(convective heat transport)
Pr and Nu are related to specific materials.
Now, the dimensionless Navier-Stokes equation becomes, with x = x/L, ~v = ~v /V , grad = Lgrad,
2 = L2 2 and t = t:
Sr

9.5

~g
2~v
~v
+ (~v )~v = grad p +
+

t
Fr
Re

Tube flows

For tube flows holds: they are laminar if Re< 2300 with as dimension of length the diameter of the
tube, and turbulent if Re is larger. For an incompressible laminar flow through a straight, circular
tube holds for the velocity profile:
v(r) =
For the volume flow holds: V =

ZR
0

1 dp 2
(R r2 )
4 dx

v(r)2rdr =

dp 4
R
8 dx

The entrance length Le is given by:


1. 500 < ReD < 2300: Le /2R = 0, 056ReD
2. Re > 2300: Le /2R 50
For gas transport at low pressures (Knudsen-gas) holds: V =

4R3 dp
3
dx

For flows at a small Re holds: p = 2~v and div~v = 0. For the total force on a sphere with radius
R in a flow then holds: F = 6Rv. For large Re holds for the force on a surface A: F = 21 CW Av 2 .

9.6

Potential theory

The circulation is defined as: =

(~v ~et )ds =

ZZ

(rot~v ) ~nd A =

ZZ

(~ ~n)d2 A

For non viscous media, if p = p() and all forces are conservative, Kelvins theorem can be derived:
d
=0
dt

43

Chapter 9: Transport phenomena

For rotationless flows a velocity potential ~v = grad can be introduced. In the incompressible case
follows from conservation of mass 2 = 0. For a 2-dimensional flow a flow function (x, y) can be
defined: with AB the amount of liquid flowing through a curve s between the points A and B:
AB

ZB
ZB
= (~v ~n)ds = (vx dy vy dx)
A

and the definitions vx = /y, vy = /x holds: AB = (B) (A). In general holds:


2
2
+
= z
2
x
y 2
In polar coordinates holds:
vr =

1
1
=
, v =
=
r
r
r
r

For source flows with power Q in (x, y) = (0, 0) holds: =

Q
ln(r) so that vr = Q/2r, v = 0.
2

For a dipole of strength Q in x = a and strength Q in x = a follows from superposition: =


Qax/2r2 where Qa is the dipole strength. For a vortex holds: = /2.
If an object is surrounded with an uniform main flow with ~v = v~ex and such a large Re that viscous
effects are limited to the boundary layer holds: Fx = 0 and Fy = v. The statement that Fx = 0 is
dAlemberts paradox and originates from the neglection of viscous effects. The lift Fy is also created
by because 6= 0 due to viscous effects. So also rotating bodies create a force perpendicular to
their direction of motion: the Magnus effect.

9.7
9.7.1

Boundary layers
Flow boundary layers

If for the thickness of the boundary layer holds: L holds: L/ Re. With v the velocity
of the main flow follows for the velocity vy the surface: vy L v . Blasius equation for the
boundary layer is, with vy /v = f (y/): 2f + f f = 0 with boundary conditions f (0) = f (0) = 0,
f () = 1. From this follows: CW = 0, 664 Rex1/2 .
The momentum theorem of Von Karman for the boundary layer is:

d
dv
0
(v 2 ) + v
=
dx
dx

where the displacement thickness v and the momentum thickness v 2 are given by:
Z
v = (v vx )vx dy ,
2


Z
vx
v = (v vx )dy and 0 =
y y=0

The boundary layer is released from the surface if


12v
.
2

9.7.2

vx
y

= 0. This is equivalent with


y=0

dp
=
dx

Temperature boundary layers

If the thickness of the temperature boundary layer T L holds:

1. If Pr 1: /T Pr.
2. If Pr 1: /T 3 Pr.

44

9.8

Equations in Physics by ir. J.C.A. Wevers

Heat conductance

For instationairy heat conductance in one dimension without flow holds:


T
2T
+
=
t
c x2
where is a source term. If = 0 the solutions for harmonic oscillations at x = 0 are:
 x

T T
x
= exp
cos t
Tmax T
D
D
p
with D = 2/c. At x = D the temperature variation is in anti-phase with the surface. The
one-dimensional solution at = 0 is


1
x2
T (x, t) =
exp
4at
2 at
This is mathematical equivalent with the diffusion problem:
n
= D2 n + P A
t
where P is the production of and A the discharge of particles. The flow density J = Dn.

9.9

Turbulence

The time scale of turbulent velocity variations t is in the order of: t = Re/Ma2 with the
molecular time scale. For the velocity of the particles holds: v(t) = hvi + v (t) with hv (t)i = 0. The
Navier-Stokes equation now becomes:
h~v i
hpi
divSR
+ (h~v i ) h~v i =
+ 2 h~v i +
t

where SR ij = hvi vj i is the turbulent stress tensor. Boussinesqs assumption is: ij = vi vj .


It is stated that, analogous to Newtonian media: SR = 2t hDi. Near a boundary holds: t = 0, far
away of a boundary holds: t Re.

9.10

Self organization

=
+ J(, ) = 2
dt
t
With J(, ) the Jacobian. So if = 0 is is conserved. Further, the kinetic energy/mA and the
enstrofy V are conserved: with ~v = (~k)
For a (semi) two-dimensional flow holds:

E ()

Z
0

E(k, t)dk = constant , V ( )

Z
0

k 2 E(k, t)dk = constant

From this follows that in a two-dimensional flow the energy flux goes towards large values of k: larger
structures become larger at the expanse of smaller ones. In three-dimensional flows the situation is
just the opposite.

Chapter 10

Quantum physics
10.1

Introduction in quantum physics

10.1.1

Black body radiation

Plancks law for the energy distribution for the radiation from a black body is:
w(f ) =

1
8hf 3
,
c3 ehf /kT 1

w() =

1
8hc
5 ehc/kT 1

Stefan-Boltzmanns law for the total power density can be derived from this: P = AT 4 . Wiens law
for the maximum can also be derived from this: T max = kW .

10.1.2

The Compton effect

For the wavelength of scattered light, if light is considered to exist of particles, can can be derived:
= +

10.1.3

h
(1 cos ) = + C (1 cos )
mc

Electron diffraction

Diffraction of electrons at a crystal can be explained by assuming that particles have a wave character
with wavelength = h/p. This wavelength is called the Broglie-wavelength.

10.2

Wave functions

The wave character of particles is described with a wavefunction . This wavefunction can be described in normal or momentum space. Both definitions are each others Fourier transformed:
Z
Z
1
1
(x, t)eikx dx and (x, t) =
(k, t)eikx dk
(k, t) =
h
h
These waves define a particle with group velocity vg = p/m and energy E = h
.
The wavefunction can be interpreted as a measure for the probability P to find a particle somewhere
(Born): dP = ||2 d3 V . The expectation value hf i of a quantity f of a system is given by:
ZZZ
ZZZ
hf (t)i =
f d3 V , hfp (t)i =
f d3 Vp
This is also written as hf (t)i = h|f |i. The normalizing condition for wavefunctions follows from
this: h|i = h|i = 1.

10.3

Operators in quantum physics

In quantum mechanics, classical quantities are translated in operators. These operators are hermitian
because their eigenvalues must be real:
Z
Z
1 A2 d3 V = 2 (A1 ) d3 V
45

46

Equations in Physics by ir. J.C.A. Wevers

When un is the eigenfunction of the eigenvalue


equation A = a for eigenvalue an , can be
P
developed to a basis of eigenfunctions: = cn un . If this basis is chosen orthonormal, then follows
n

for the coefficients: cn = hun |i. If the system is in a state described by , the chance to find
eigenvalue an when measuring A is given by |cn |2 in the discrete part of the spectrum and |cn |2 da
in the continuous part of the spectrum between a and P
a + da. The matrix element
P Aij is given by:
Aij = hui |A|uj i. Because (AB)ij = hui |AB|uj i = hui |A |un i hun |B|uj i holds:
|un ihun | = 1.
n

The time-dependence of an operator is given by (Heisenberg):


A [A, H]
dA
=
+
dt
t
ih

with [A, B] AB BA the commutator of A and B. For hermitian operators the commutator is
always complex. If [A, B] = 0, the operators A and B have a common set eigenfunctions. By applying
this to px and x follows (Ehrenfest):


d2
dU (x)
m 2 hxit =
dt
dx
The first order approximation hF (x)it F (hxi), with F = dU/dx represents the classical equation.

10.4

The uncertaincy principle



If the uncertaincy A in A is defined as: (A)2 = |Aop hAi |2 = A2 hAi2 follows:
A B 12 | h|[A, B]|i |

From this follows: E t 12 h


, and because [x, px ] = ih holds: px x 21 h
, and Lx Ly
1
h

L
.
z
2

10.5

The Schr
odinger equation

The momentum operator is given by: pop = ih. The position operator is: xop = ihp . The energy
operator is given by: Eop = i
h/t. The Hamiltonian of a particle with mass m, potential energy
U and total energy E is given by: H = p2 /2m + U . From H = E then follows the Schr
odinger
equation:

2 2
h
+ U = E = ih
2m
t

The linear combination of the solutions of this equation form the general solution. In one dimension
it is:

X Z


iEt
(x, t) =
+ dE c(E)uE (x) exp
h
h
( )
2im
P (x, t)
The following conservation law holds:
= J(x, t)
t

The current density J is given by: J =

10.6

Parity

The parity operator in one dimension is given by P(x) = (x). If the wavefunction is split in even
and odd functions, it is being developed to eigenfunctions of P:
(x) = 21 ((x) + (x)) + 21 ((x) (x))
{z
} |
{z
}
|
+

even:
odd:

47

Chapter 10: Quantum physics

[P, H] = 0. The functions + = 21 (1+P)(x, t) and = 21 (1P)(x, t) both satisfy the Schrodinger
equation. So parity is a conserved quantity.

10.7

The tunnel effect

The wavefunction of a particle in an high potential step from x = 0 to x = a is given by (x) =


a1/2 sin(kx). The energylevels are given by En = n2 h2 /8a2 m.
If the wavefunction with energy W meets a potential well of W0 > W the wavefunction will, unlike
the classical case, be non-zero within the potential well. If 1, 2 and 3 are the areas before, within and
after the potential well, holds:
1 = Aeikx + Beikx ,

2 = Ceik x + Deik x ,

3 = A eikx

with k 2 = 2m(W W0 )/
h2 and k 2 = 2mW . Using the boundary conditions requiring continuity:
=continuous and /x =continuous at x = 0 and x = a gives B, C and D and A expressed
in A. The amplitude T of the transmitted wave is defined by T = |A |2 /|A|2 . If W > W0 and
2a = n = 2n/k holds: T = 1.

10.8

The harmonic oscillator

For a harmonic oscillator holds: U = 21 bx2 and 02 = b/m. The Hamiltonian H is then given by:
H=
with

p2
+ 1 m 2 x2 = 21 h
+ A A
2m 2

q
ip
ip
+
and A = 12 mx
2m
2m

A 6= A is non hermitian. [A, A ] = h


and [A, H] = h
A. A is a raising ladder operator, A a lowering
ladder operator. HAuE = (E
h)AuE . There is an eigenfunction u0 for which holds: Au0 = 0.
The energy in this ground state is 12
h: the zero point energy. For the normalized eigenfunctions
follows:
r


 n
mx2
A
m
1
4

exp
u0 with u0 =
un =
h
2
h
n!
h

1
with En = ( 2 + n)
h.
A=

10.9

1
2 mx

Angular momentum

For the angular momentum operators L holds: [Lz , L2 ] = 0 and [L, H] = 0. However, cyclically holds:
[Lx , Ly ] = i
hLz . Not all components of L can be known at the same time with arbitrary accuracy.
For Lz holds:



Lz = ih
= ih x
y

y
x
The ladder operators L are defined by: L = Lx iLy . Now holds: L2 = L+ L + L2z hLz .
Further,



L = h
ei
+ i cot()

From [L+ , Lz ] =
hL+ follows: Lz (L+ Ylm ) = (m + 1)
h(L+ Ylm ).
From [L , Lz ] = h
L follows: Lz (L Ylm ) = (m 1)
h(L Ylm ).
From [L2 , L ] = 0 follows: L2 (L Ylm ) = l(l + 1)
h2 (L Ylm ).

Because Lx and Ly are hermitian (this implies L = L ) and |L Ylm |2 > 0 follows: l(l+1)m2 m
0 l m l. Further follows that l has to be integral or half-integral. Half-odd integral values
give no unique solution and are therefore dismissed.

48

10.10

Equations in Physics by ir. J.C.A. Wevers

Spin

For the spin operators are defined by their commutation relations: [Sx , Sy ] = ihSz . Because the
spin operators do not act in the physical space (x, y, z) the uniqueness of the wavefunction is not a
criterium here: also half odd-integer values are allowed for the spin. Because [L, S] = 0 spin and
angular momentum operators do not have a common set of eigenfunctions. The spin operators are
~~
~ , with
h~
given by S
= 1
2

~
~ x =

0 1
1 0

, ~~ y =

0 i
i 0

, ~~ z =

1
0

0
1

The eigenstates of Sz are called spinors: = + + + , where + = (1, 0) represents the state
with spin up (Sz = 21
h) and = (0, 1) represents the state with spin down (Sz = 21 h). Then the
probability to find spin up after a measurement is given by |+ |2 and the chance to find spin down
is given by | |2 . Of course holds |+ |2 + | |2 = 1.

~ by virtue of its spin, given by M


~ =
The electron will have an intrinsic magnetic dipole moment M
~
with gS = 2(1 + /2 + ) the gyromagnetic ratio. In the presence of an external
egS S/2m,
~ B.
~ The Schrodinger equation then becomes
magnetic field this gives a potential energy U = M
because /xi 0:
(t)
egh
~
ih
=
~ B(t)
t
4m
~ = B~ez there are two eigenvalues for this problem: for E =
with ~ = (~
~ x , ~
~ y , ~
~ z ). If B
eghB/4m =
h. So the general solution is given by = (aeit , beit ). From this can be
1
h cos(2t) and hSy i = 12 h sin(2t). Thus the spin precesses about the z-axis with
derived: hSx i = 2
frequency 2. This causes the normal Zeeman splitting of spectral lines.
The potential operator for two particles with spin 21 h is given by:
V (r) = V1 (r) +

1 ~ ~
(S1 S2 )V2 (r) = V1 (r) + 12 V2 (r)[S(S + 1) 23 ]
h2

This makes it possible for two states to exist: S = 1 (triplet) or S = 0 (Singlet).

10.11

The Dirac formalism

If the operators for p and E are substituted in the relativistic E 2 = m20 c4 + p2 c2 follows the KleinGordon equation:


m 2 c2
1 2
(~x, t) = 0
2 2 2 02
c t
h
The operator 2 m20 c2 /
h2 can be separated:



1 2
m20 c2
m20 c2
m20 c2

2
2 2

=
c t
x
x
h2

2
h
2
h
where the Dirac matrices are given by: + = 2 . From this it can be derived that the
are hermitian 4 4 matrices given by:




I 0
0 ik
, 4 =
k =
ik
0
0 I
With this, the Dirac equation becomes:


m20 c2

+
(~x, t) = 0

x
h2
where (x) = (1 (x), 2 (x), 3 (x), 4 (x)) is a spinor.

49

Chapter 10: Quantum physics

10.12

Atom physics

10.12.1

Solutions

The solutions of the Schrodinger equation in spherical coordinates if the potential energy is a function
of r alone can be written as: (r, , ) = Rnl (r)Yl,ml (, )ms , with
Clm
Ylm = Plm (cos )eim
2
For an atom or ion with one electron holds: Rlm () = Clm e/2 l L2l+1
nl1 ()
with = 2rZ/na0 with a0 = 0 h2 /me2 me . The Lji are the associated Laguere functions and the
Plm are the associated Legendre polynomials:
|m|

Pl

(x) = (1 x2 )m/2


d|m|  2
(1)m n! x m dnm x n
l
m
(e x )
e x
(x

1)
,
L
(x)
=
n
(n m)!
dxnm
dx|m|

The parity of these solutions is (1)l . The functions are 2

n1
P

(2l + 1) = 2n2 -folded degenerated.

l=0

10.12.2

Eigenvalue equations

The eigenvalue equation for an atom or ion with with one electron are:
Equation

10.12.3

Eigenvalue
4

Range
2

/820 h2 n2

Hop = E

En = e Z

Lzop Ylm = Lz Ylm

Lz = ml h

L2op Ylm = L2 Ylm

L2 = l(l + 1)
h2

Szop = Sz

Sz = ms h

2
Sop
= S2

S 2 = s(s + 1)
h2

n1
l ml l
l<n
ms = 12
s=

1
2

Spin-orbit interaction

~ +M
~ . The total magnetic dipole moment of an electron
The total momentum is given by J~ = L
~
~
~
~
~
is then M = ML + MS = (e/2me)(L + gS S) where gS = 2, 0024 is the gyromagnetic ratio of the
~ S
~ = L2 + S 2 + 2Lz Sz + L+ S + L S+ . J has quantum
electron. Further holds: J 2 = L2 + S 2 + 2L
1
numbers j with possible values j = l 2 , with 2j + 1 possible z-components (mJ {j, .., 0, .., j}). If
~ L.
~
the interaction energy between S and L is small it can be stated that: E = En + ESL = En + aS
It can then be derived that:
|En |Z 2 2
a= 2
h nl(l + 1)(l + 12 )
After a relativistic correction this becomes:
|En |Z 2 2
E = En +
n

3
1

4n j +

1
2

The fine structure in atomic spectra arises from this. With gS = 2 follows for the average magnetic
~ gem = (e/2me)g
~ where g is the Lande-factor:
moment: M
hJ,
g =1+

~ J~
j(j + 1) + s(s + 1) l(l + 1)
S
=1+
J2
2j(j + 1)

For atoms with more than one electron the following limiting situations occur:

50

Equations in Physics by ir. J.C.A. Wevers

1. L S coupling: for small atoms is the electrostatic interaction dominant and the state can be
characterized by L, S, J, mJ . J {|L S|, ..., L + S 1, L + S} and mJ {J, ..., J 1, J}. The
spectroscopic notation for this interaction is: 2S+1 LJ . 2S + 1 is the multiplicity of a multiplet.
2. j j coupling: for larger atoms is the electrostatic interaction smaller then the Li si interaction
of an electron. The state is characterized by ji ...jn , J, mJ where only the ji of the not completely
filled subshells are to be taken into account.
The energy difference for larger atoms when placed in a magnetic field is: E = gB mJ B where
g is the Lande factor. For a transition between two singlet states the line splits in 3 parts, for
mJ = 1, 0 + 1. This results in the normal Zeeman effect. At higher S the line splits up in more
parts: the anomalous Zeeman effect.
Interaction with the spin of the nucleus gives the hyperfine structure.

10.12.4

Selection rules

~ ~r |l1 m1 i|. Conservation of angular


For the dipole transition matrix elements follows: p0 |hl2 m2 |E
momentum demands that for the transiting electron holds that l = 1.
For an atom where L S coupling is dominant further holds: S = 0 (but not strict), L = 0, 1,
J = 0, 1 except for J = 0 J = 0 transitions, mJ = 0, 1, but mJ = 0 is forbidden if
J = 0.
For an atom where j j coupling is dominant further holds: for the jumping electron holds, except
l = 1, also: j = 0, 1, and for all other electrons: j = 0. For the total atom holds: J = 0, 1
but no J = 0 J = 0 transitions and mJ = 0, 1, but mJ = 0 is forbidden if J = 0.

10.13

Interaction with electromagnetic fields

The Hamiltonian of an electron in an electromagnetic field is given by:


H=

2
2
1
~ L
~ + e A2 eV
~ 2 eV = h 2 + e B
(~
p + eA)
2
2
2
2

where is the reduced mass of the system. The term A2 can usually be neglected, except for very
~ = B~ez it is given by e2 B 2 (x2 + y 2 )/8.
strong fields or macroscopic motions. For B
~ = A
~ f , V = V + f /t is applied on the potentials the
When a gauge transformation A
wavefunction is also transformed according to = eiqef /h with qe the charge of the particle.
Because f = f (x, t), this is called a local gauge transformation, in contrast with a global gauge
transform which can always be applied.

10.14

Perturbation theory

10.14.1

Time-independent perturbation theory

To solve the equation (H0 + H1 )n = En n one has to find the eigenfunctions of H = H0 + H1 .


Suppose that n is a complete set eigenfunctions is of the nun-perturbed Hamiltonian H0 : H0 n =
En0 n . Because n is a complete set holds:

X
n = N () n +
cnk ()k

k6=n

(1)

(2)

When cnk and En are being developed to : cnk = cnk + 2 cnk +


(1)
(2)
En = En0 + En + 2 En +

51

Chapter 10: Quantum physics

(1)

and this is put into the Schrodinger equation the result is: En = hn |H1 |n i and
hm |H1 |n i
if m 6= n. The second-order correction to the energy is than given by:
c(1)
nm =
0
En0 Em
X | hk |H1 |n i |2
X hk |H1 |n i
En(2) =
. So in first order holds: n = n +
k .
0
0
En Ek
En0 Ek0
k6=n

k6=n

In case the levels are degenerated the above does not hold. In that case an orthonormal set eigenfunctions ni is chosen for each level n, so that hmi |nj i = mn ij . Now is developed as:

X
X (1) X
i ki +
n = N ()
i ni +
cnk

k6=n

(1)

0
0
:= En0 . Substitution in the Schrodinger equation and
Eni = Eni
+ Eni is approximated by Eni
P
P
(1)
taking dot product with ni gives:
i hnj |H1 |ni i = En j . Norming requires that
|i |2 = 1.
i

10.14.2

Time-dependent perturbation theory

(t)
= (H0 + V (t))(t)
t


X
iEn0 t
(1)
n with cn (t) = nk + cn (t) +
and the development (t) =
cn (t) exp
h

From the Schrodinger equation i


h

follows:

c(1)
n (t)

=
i
h

Zt
0

hn |V (t )|k i exp

10.15

N-particle systems

10.15.1

General

i(En0 Ek0 )t
h

dt

Identical particles are indistinguishable. For the total wavefunction of a system of identical indistinguishable particles holds:
1. Particles with a half-odd integer spin (Fermions): total must be antisymmetric w.r.t. interchange of the coordinates (spatial and spin) of each pair of particles. The Pauli principle results
from this: two Fermions can not exist in an identical state because then total = 0.
2. Particles with an integer spin (Bosons): total must be symmetric w.r.t. interchange of the
coordinates (spatial and spin) of each pair of particles.
For a system of two electrons there are 2 possibilities for the spatial wavefunction. When a and b are
the quantum numbers of electron 1 and 2 holds:
S (1, 2) = a (1)b (2) + a (2)b (1) , A (1, 2) = a (1)b (2) a (2)b (1)
Because the particles do not approach each other closely at A the repulsion energy in this state is
smaller. The following spin wavefunctions are possible:

A = 21 2[+ (1) (2) + (2) (1)] ms = 0

ms = +1
+
(1)+ (2)
1
S =
2[
(1)
(2)
+

(2)
(1)]
ms = 0
+

2
(1) (2)
ms = 1

Because the total wavefunction must be antisymmetric follows: total = S A of total = A S .

52

Equations in Physics by ir. J.C.A. Wevers

For N particles the symmetric spatial function is given by:


X
S (1, ..., N ) =
(all permutations of 1..N )

1
The antisymmetric wavefunction is given by the determinant A (1, ..., N ) = |uEi (j)|
N!

10.15.2

Molecules

The wavefunctions of atom a and b are a and b . If the 2 atoms approach each other there are
two possibilities:
the total wavefunction approaches the bonding function with lower
total energy

B = 12 2(a + b ) or approaches the anti-bonding function with higher energy AB = 21 2(a b ).


If a molecular-orbital is symmetric w.r.t. the connecting axis, like a combination of two s-orbitals it
is called a -orbital, otherwise a -orbital, like the combination of two p-orbitals along two axes.
The energy of a system is: E =

h|H|i
.
h|i

The energy calculated with this method is always higher than the real energy if is only an approximation for the solutions of H = E. Also, if there can be chosen of more functions, the
function
P which gives the lowest energy is the best approximation. Applying this on the function
= ci i one finds: (Hij ESij )ci = 0. This equation has only solutions if the secular determinant
|Hij ESij | = 0. Here, Hij = hi |H|j i and Sij = hi |j i. i := Hii is the Coulomb integral and
ij := Hij the exchange integral. Sii = 1 and Sij is the overlap integral.
The first approximation in the molecular-orbital theory is to place both electrons of a chemical bond in
the bonding orbital: (1, 2) = B (1)B (2). This results in a large electron density between the nuclei
and therefore a repulsion. A better approximation is: (1, 2) = C1 B (1)B (2) + C2 AB (1)AB (2),
with C1 = 1 and C2 0, 6.
In some atoms, like C, it is energetical more suitable to form orbitals which are a linear combination
of the s, p and d states. There are three ways of hybridization in C:

1. SP-hybridization: sp = 21 2(2s 2pz ). There are 2 hybrid orbitals who are placed at one
line under 180. Further the 2px and 2py orbitals remain.
2. SP2 hybridization: sp2 = 2s +c1 2pz +c2 2py , where (c1 , c2 ) {(1, 1, 0), (1, 1, 1), (1, 1, 1)}.
The 3 SP2 orbitals lay in one plane, their symmetry axes who are at an angle of 120 .
3. SP3 hybridization: sp3 = 12 (2s 2pz 2py 2px ). The 4 SP3 orbitals form a tetraheder
with the symmetry axes at an angle of 109 28 .

10.16

Quantum statistics

If a system exists in a state in which one has not the maximal amount of information about the
system, it can be described with a density matrix . If the probability
Pthat the system is in state i
is given by ai , one can write for the expectation value a of A: hai = ri hi |A|i i.
i

If is developed to an orthonormal basis {k } as:


hAi =

(i)

P
k

(i)
ck k ,

holds:

(A)kk = Tr(A)

P
where lk = ck cl . is hermitian, with Tr() = 1. Further holds =
ri |i ihi |. The probability to
find eigenvalue an when measuring A is given by nn if one uses a basis of eigenvectors of A for {k }.
For the time-dependence holds (in the Schrodinger image operators are not explicitly time-dependent):
ih

d
= [H, ]
dt

53

Chapter 10: Quantum physics

For a macroscopic system in equilibrium holds [H, ] = 0. If all quantumstates with the same energy
are equally probable: Pi = P (Ei ), one can obtain the distribution:
Pn (E) = nn =

X
eEn /kT
with the state sum Z =
eEn /kT
Z
n

The thermodynamic quantities are related with these definitions as follows: F = kT ln(Z), U =
P
P

ln(Z), S = k Pn ln(Pn ). For a mixed state of M orthonormal quantum


hHi =
pn En =
kT
n
n
states with probability 1/M follows: S = k ln(M ).
The distribution function for the internal states for a system in thermic equilibrium is the most
probable function. This function can be found by finding the maximum of the function
P which gives
nk = N and
the number of states with Stirlings equation: ln(n!) n ln(n) n, and the conditions
k
P
nk Wk = W . For identical, indistinguishable particles who obey the Pauli exclusion principle the
k

possible number of states is given by:

P =

Y
k

gk !
nk !(gk nk )!

This results in the Fermi-Dirac statistics. For indistinguishable particles who do not obey the exclusion principle the possible number of states is given by:
P = N!

Y g nk
k

nk !

This results in the Bose-Einstein statistics. So the distribution functions who explain how particles
are distributed over the different one-particle states k who are each gk -fold degenerate depend on the
spin of the particles. They are given by:
gk
N
1. Fermi-Dirac statistics: integer spin. nk {0, 1}, nk =
Z
exp((E

)/kT ) + 1
g
k
P
with ln(Zg ) = gk ln[1 + exp((Ei )/kT )].

N
gk
2. Bose-Einstein statistics: half odd-integer spin. nk IN , nk =
Z
exp((E

)/kT ) 1
g
k
P
with ln(Zg ) = gk ln[1 exp((Ei )/kT )].

Here,
Zg is the large-canonical state sum and the chemical potential. It is found by demanding
P
nk = N , and for it holds: lim = EF , the Fermi-energy. N is the total number of particles. The
T 0

Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution can be derived from this in the limit Ek kT :






X
Ek
Ek
N
with Z =
gk exp
exp
nk =
Z
kT
kT
k

With the Fermi-energy, the Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein statistics can be written as:
1. Fermi-Dirac statistics: nk =

gk
.
exp((Ek EF )/kT ) + 1

2. Bose-Einstein statistics: nk =

gk
.
exp((Ek EF )/kT ) 1

Chapter 11

Plasma physics
11.1

Introduction

The degree of ionization of a plasma is defined by: =

ne
ne + n0

where ne is the electron density and n0 the density of the neutrals. If a plasma contains also negative
charged ions is not well defined.
The probability that a test particle has a collision with another is given by dP = ndx where is the
cross section. The collision frequency c = 1/c = nv. The mean free path is given by v = 1/n.
The ratecoefficient K is defined by K = hvi. The number of collisions per unit of time and volume
between particles of kind 1 and 2 is given by n1 n2 hvi = Kn1 n2 .
The potential of an electron is given by:


e
r
V (r) =
exp
40 r
D

with

D =

0 kTe Ti

e2 (ne Ti + ni Te )

0 kTe
ne e 2

because charge is shielded in a plasma. Here, D is the Debye length. For distances < D the plasma
can not be assumed to be quasi-neutral. Deviations of charge neutrality by thermic motion are
compensated by oscillations with frequency
s
ne e 2
pe =
me 0
The distance of closest approximation when two equal charged particles collide for a deviation of /2
1/3
is 2b0 = e2 /(40 21 mv 2 ). A neat plasma is defined as a plasma for which holds: b0 < ne

D Lp . Here Lp := |ne /ne | is the gradient length of the plasma.

11.2

Transport

Relaxation times are defined as = 1/c. Starting with m = 4b20 ln(C ) and with
can be found that:

8 220 m(kT )3/2


42 m2 v 3
=
m = 4 0
ne ln(C )
ne4 ln(C )

1
2
2 mv

= kT it

For momentum transfer between electrons and ions holds for a Maxwellian velocity distribution:


6 320 mi (kTi )3/2
6 320 me (kTe )3/2
ei , ii =
ee =
ne e4 ln(C )
ni e4 ln(C )
The energy relaxation times for equal particles are equal to the momentum relaxation times. Because
for e-i collisions the energy
p transfer is only 2me /mi this is a slow process. Approximately holds:
ee : ei : ie : ieE = 1 : 1 : mi /me : mi /me .

The relaxation for e-o interaction is much more complicated. For T > 10 eV holds approximately:
2/5
eo = 1017 ve
, for lower energies this can be a factor 10 lower.
54

55

Chapter 11: Plasma physics

The resistivity = E/J of a plasma is given by:

e2 me ln(C )
ne e 2

=
=
me ei
6 320 (kTe )3/2
The diffusion coefficient D is defined via the flux by ~ = n~vdiff = Dn. The equation of
continuity is t n + (nvdiff ) = 0 t n = D2 n. One finds that D = 31 v v. A rough estimate gives
D = Lp /D = L2p c /2v . For magnetized plasmas v must be replaced with the cyclotron radius. In
~ = e(ne e + ni i )E
~ with = e/mc the mobility of the particles.
electrical fields also holds J~ = neE
The Einstein ratio is:
D
kT
=

e
Because a plasma is electrical neutral electrons and ions are strongly coupled and they dont diffuse
independent. The coefficient of ambipolar diffusion Damb is defined by ~ = ~i = ~e = Damb ne,i .
From this follows that
kTe i
kTe /e kTi /e

Damb =
1/e 1/i
e
In an external magnetic field B0 particles will move in spiral orbits with cyclotron radius = mv/eB0
and with cyclotron frequency = B0 e/m. The spiralized orbit is disturbed by collisions. A plasma
is called magnetized if v > e,i . So the electrons are magnetized if

me e3 ne ln(C )
e
2
<1
=
ee
6 30 (kTe )3/2 B0

Magnetization of only the electrons is sufficient to confine the plasma reasonable because they are
~
coupled to the ions by charge neutrality. In case of magnetic confinement holds: p = J~ B.
Combined with the two stationary Maxwell equations for the B-field these form the ideal magnetohydrodynamic equations. For a uniform B-field holds: p = nkT = B 2 /20 .
If both magnetic and electric fields are present electrons and ions will move in the same direction.
2
~ = Er ~er + Ez ~ez and B
~ = Bz ~ez the E
~ B
~ drift results in a velocity ~u = (E
~ B)/B
~
If E
and the

velocity in the r, plane is r(r,


, t) = ~u +
~(t).

11.3

Elastic collisions

11.3.1

General

The scattering angle of a particle in interaction with


another particle, as shown in the figure at the right is:
= 2b

ra

b
@
I
@
R

dr
r2

W (r)
b2

r2
E0

Particles with an impact parameter between b and b +


db, going through a ring with d = 2bdb leave the
scattering area at a solid angle d = 2 sin()d. The
differential cross section is then defined as:

d
b b
I() = =
d
sin()

For a potential energy W (r) = krn follows: I(, v) v 4/n .

ra
b 6
?

For low energies, O(1 eV), has a Ramsauer minimum. It arises from the interference of matter
waves behind the object. I() for angles 0 < < /4 is larger than the classical value.

56

Equations in Physics by ir. J.C.A. Wevers

11.3.2

The Coulomb interaction

For the Coulomb interaction holds: 2b0 = q1 q2 /20 mv02 , so W (r) = 2b0 /r. This gives b = b0 cot( 12 )
and
b20
b b
=
I( =
sin()
4 sin2 ( 12 )
Because the influence of a particle vanishes at r = D holds: = (2D b20 ). Because dp = d(mv) =
mv0 (1 cos ) a cross section related to momentum transfer m is given by:
m =

(1 cos )I()d =

4b20

ln

1
sin( 21 min )

4b20

ln

D
b0

:= 4b20 ln(C )

ln(v 4 )
v4

where ln(C ) is the Coulomb-logarithm. For this quantity holds: C = D /b0 = 9n(D ).

11.3.3

The induced dipole interaction

~ gives a potential V and an energy W in a dipole field


The induced dipole interaction, with ~
p = E,
given by:
|e|p
e2
p~ ~er
,
W
(r)
=

V (r) =
40 r2
80 r2
2(40 )2 r4
s
Z
dr
2e2
4
r
holds: = 2b
with ba =
1
2
2
(40 ) 2 mv0
b2
b4
ra r 2
1 2 + a4
r
4r
If b ba the charge would hit the atom. Repulsing nuclear forces prevent this to happen. If the
scattering angle is many times 2 it is called capture. The cross section for capture orb = b2a is
called the Langevin limit, and is a lowest estimate for the total cross section.

11.3.4

The center of mass system

If collisions of two particles with masses m1 and m2 who scatter in the center of mass system under
an angle are compared with the scattering under an angle in the laboratory system holds:
tan() =

m2 sin()
m1 + m2 cos()

The energy loss E of the incoming particle is given by:


E
=
E

11.3.5

1
2
2 m2 v2
1
2
2 m1 v1

2m1 m2
(1 cos())
(m1 + m2 )2

Scattering of light at free electrons

Scattering of light at free electrons is called Thomson scattering. The scattering is free of collective
effects if kD 1. The cross section = 6, 65 1029 m2 and
2v
f
=
sin( 21 )
f
c
This gives for the scattered energy Escat = N 40 /(2 20 )2 . If relativistic effects become important,
this limit of Compton scattering (which is given by = C (1 cos ) with C = h/mc) can not
be used any more.

57

Chapter 11: Plasma physics

11.4

Thermodynamic equilibrium and reversibility

For a plasma in equilibrium holds Plancks radiation law and the Maxwellian velocity distribution:


8h 3
E
1
2n
(, T )d =
E exp
dE
d , N (E, T )dE =
c3 exp(h/kT ) 1
kT
(kT )3/2
Detailed balancing means that the number of reactions in one direction equals the number of
reactions in the opposite direction because both processes have equal probability if one corrects for
the used phase space. For the reaction
X
X

Xforward
Xback
forward

back

holds in a plasma in equilibrium microscopic reversibility:


Y
Y
forward =
back
forward

back

If the velocity distribution is Maxwellian, this gives:


x =

h3
nx
eEkin /kT
gx (2mx kT )3/2

where g is the statistical weight of the state and n/g := . For electrons holds g = 2, for excited
states usually holds g = 2j + 1 = 2n2 .
X1 + e + (E1p ):
With this one finds for the Boltzmann balance: Xp + e
gp
np
=
exp
n1
g1

Ep E1
kTe

X+ + 2e :
And for the Saha balance: Xp + e + (Epi )
1
nSp
n+
h3
1 ne
= +
exp
gp
g1 ge (2me kTe )3/2

Epi
kTe

Because the number of particles on the left-hand side and right-hand side of the equation is different,
a factor g/Ve remains. This factor causes the Saha-jump.
From microscopic reversibility one can derive that for the rate coefficients K(p, q, T ) := hvipq holds:
K(q, p, T ) =

11.5

Inelastic collisions

11.5.1

Types of collisions



gp
Epq
K(p, q, T ) exp
gq
kT

The kinetic energy can be split in a part of and a part in the center of mass system. The energy in
the center of mass system is available for reactions. This energy is given by
E=

m1 m2 (v1 v2 )2
2(m1 + m2 )

Some types of inelastic collisions important for plasma physics are:


Aq + e
1. Excitation: Ap + e

Ap + hf
2. Decay: Aq

58

Equations in Physics by ir. J.C.A. Wevers

3. Ionisation and 3-particles recombination: Ap + e


A+ + 2e

4. radiative recombination: A+ + e
Ap + hf
5. Stimulated emission: Aq + hf Ap + 2hf

AB+ + e
6. Associative ionisation: A + B

Ar+ + Ne + e
7. Penning ionisation: b.v. Ne + Ar

A + B+
8. Charge transfer: A+ + B

A + A+
9. Resonant charge transfer: A+ + A

11.5.2

Cross sections

Collisions between an electron and an atom can be approximated by a collision between an electron
and one of the electrons of that atom. This results in
d
Z 2 e4
=
d(E)
(40 )2 E(E)2
Then follows for the transition p q: pq (E) =

Z 2 e4 Eq,q+1
(40 )2 E(E)2pq

For ionisation from state p holds in good approximation: p =


For resonant charge transfer holds: ex =

11.6

4a20 Ry

1
1

Ep
E

ln

1, 25E
Ep

A[1 B ln(E)]2
1 + CE 3,3

Radiation

In equilibrium holds for radiation processes:


np Apq + np Bpq (, T ) = nq Bqp (, T )
|
| {z }
{z
}
{z
}
|

emission

stimulated emission

absorption

Here, Apq is the matrix element of the transition p q, and is given by:
Apq =

8 2 e2 3 |rpq |2
with rpq = hp |~r |q i
3
h0 c3

For hydrogen-like atoms holds: Ap = 1, 58 108 Z 4 p4,5 , with Ap = 1/p =

P
q

Apq . The intensity I af

a line is given by Ipq = hf Apq np /4. The Einstein coefficients B are given by:
Bpq =

Bpq
gq
c3 Apq
en
=
8h 3
Bqp
gp

A spectral line is broadened by several mechanisms:


1. Because
the states have a finite life time. The natural life time of a state p is given by p =
P
, this gives
1/ Apq . From the uncertaincy relation then follows: (h) p = 21 h
q

1
=
4p

Apq

The natural line width is usually than the broadening from the following two mechanisms:

59

Chapter 11: Plasma physics

2. The Doppler broadening is caused by the thermic motion of the particles:


s

2 2 ln(2kTi )
=

c
mi
This broadeningresults in a Gaussian line profile:
k = k0 exp([2 ln 2( 0 )/D ]2 ), with k the coefficient of absorption or emission.
3. The Stark broadening is caused by the electric fields of the electrons:
1/2

ne
=
C(ne , Te )

2/3

with for the H- line: C(ne , Te ) 3 1014


A3/2 cm3 .
The natural broadening and the Stark broadening result in a Lorentz profile of a spectral line: k =
1
1
2
2
2 k0 L /[( 2 L ) + ( 0 ) ]. The total line shape is a convolution of the Gauss- and Lorentz profile
and is called a Voigt profile.
The number of transitions p q is given by np Bpq and by np nhf ha ci = np (d/h)a c where d
is the line width. Then follows for the cross section of absorption processes: a = Bpq h/cd.
The background radiation in a plasma originates from two processes:
1. Free-Bound radiation, originating from radiative recombination. The emission is given by:



hc
C1 zi ni ne
1 exp
f b (, Te )
f b = 2

kTe
kTe
with C1 = 1, 63 1043 Wm4 K1/2 sr1 and the Biberman factor.
2. Free-free radiation, originating from the acceleration of particles in the EM-field of other particles:


hc
C1 zi ni ne
f f (, Te )
exp
f f = 2

kTe
kTe

11.7

The Boltzmann transport equation

It is assumed that there exist a distribution function F for the plasma so that
F (~r, ~v , t) = Fr (~r, t) Fv (~v , t) = F1 (x, t)F2 (y, t)F3 (z, t)F4 (vx , t)F5 (vy , t)F6 (vz , t)


dF
F
F
Then the BTE is:
=
+ r (F~v ) + v (F~a) =
dt
t
t collrad
Assuming that v does not depends on r and ai not depends on vi , holds r (F~v ) = ~v F and
v (F~a) = ~a v F . This is also true in magnetic fields because ai /xi = 0. The velocity
is
R
separated
in
a
thermic
velocity
~
v
and
a
drift
velocity
w.
~
The
total
density
is
given
by
n
=
F
d~
v
t
R
and ~v F d~v = nw.
~
The balance equations can be derived with the moment method:
 
Z
n
n
+ (nw)
~ =
1. Mass balance: (BTE)d~v
t
t bs
Z
dw
~
~
2. Momentum balance: (BTE)m~v d~v mn
+ T + p = mn h~a i + R
dt
Z
3 dp 5
+ p w
~ + ~q = Q
3. Energy balance: (BTE)mv 2 d~v
2 dt
2

60

Equations in Physics by ir. J.C.A. Wevers

~ +w
~ is the average acceleration, ~q = 1 nm ~v 2~vt the heat flow, Q =
Here, h~a i = e/m(E
~ B)
t
2


Z
mvt2 F
~ is a friction term and p = nkT the
d~v the source term for energy production, R
r
t bs
pressure.
X
e2 (ne + zi ni )
pi
A thermodynamic derivation gives for the total pressure: p = nkT =
240 D
i
For the electrical conductance in a plasma follows from the momentum balance, if we wi :
~ ~
~ J B + pe
J~ = E
ene
In a plasma where only elastic e-a collisions are important the equilibrium energy distribution function
is the Druyvesteyn distribution:
"
 2 #
 3/2
3me E
E
dE
exp
N (E)dE = Cne
E0
m0 E0
with E0 = eEv = eE/n.

11.8

Collision-radiative models

These models are first-moment equations for excited states.


solution is valid, where p>1 [(np /t = 0) ( (np w
~ p ) = 0)].




np>1
n1
n1
=0 ,
,
+ (n1 w
~ 1) =
t
t
t bs
bs

One assumes the Quasi-steady-state


This results in:


ni
ni
+ (ni w
~i) =
t
t bs

with as solutions np = rp0 nSp + rp1 nB


= bp nSp . Further holds for all collision-dominated levels that
p p
x
bp := bp 1 = b0 peff with peff = Ry/Epi and 5 x 6. For systems in ESP, where only
collisional (de)excitation between levels p and p 1 is taken into account holds x = 6. Even in
plasmas far from equilibrium the excited levels will eventually reach ESP, so from a certain level up
the level densities can be calculated.
To find the population densities of the lower levels in the stationary case one has to start with a
macroscopic equilibrium:
Number of populating processes of level p = Number of depopulating processes of level p ,
When this is expanded it becomes:
X
X
X
ne
nq Kqp + ne
nq Aqp + n2e ni K+p + ne ni rad =
nq Kqp +
| {z }
| {z }
q<p
q>p
q>p
|
{z
} |
{z
} | {z } coll. recomb. rad. recomb
coll. excit.

ne np

coll. deexcit.

Kpq + nenp

q<p

11.9

{z

coll. deexcit.

rad. deex. to

Kpq + np

q>p

Waves in plasmas

{z

col. excit.

Apq + ne np Kp+
| {z }
coll. ion.
{z }

q<p

rad. deex. from

Interaction of electromagnetic weaves in plasmas results in scattering and absorption of energy. For
electromagnetic waves with complex wave number k = (n + i)/c in one dimension one finds:
Ex = E0 ex/c cos[(t nx/c)]. The refractive index n is given by:
r
p2
c
k
= 1 2
n=c =

vf

61

Chapter 11: Plasma physics

~ i(kzt)
~ = B0~ez +Be
For disturbances in the z-direction in a cold, homogeneous, magnetized plasma: B
i(kzt)
and n = n0 + n
e
(external E fields are screened) follows, with the definitions = p / and
2
2
= / and p2 = pi
+ pe
:

1
is
0

1 s2 1 s2
X

2
~
~
~
~
1
J = ~ E , with ~ = i0
s is

s
1 s2 1 s2
0
0
1

where the sum is taken over particle species s. The dielectric tensor E, with property:
~k (~E~ E)
~ =0
~ ~
is given by E~ = I~ ~
~ /i0 .
With the definitions S = 1
follows:

X
s

X 2 s
X
2s
s
, D=
, P =1
2s
2
2
1 s
1

s
s
s

S
~~
iD
E=
0

iD
S
0

0
0
P

The eigenvalues
of this
hermitian matrix are R = S + D, L = S D, 3 = P , with eigenvectors

~er = 12 2(1, i, 0), ~el = 12 2(1, i, 0) and ~e3 = (0, 0, 1). ~er is connected with a right rotating field for
which iEx /Ey = 1 and ~el is connected with a left rotating field for which iEx /Ey = 1. Whenk
~ one finds:
makes an angle with B
tan2 () =

P (n2 R)(n2 L)
S(n2 RL/S)(n2 P )

where n is the refractive index. From this the following solutions can be obtained:
A. = 0: transmission in the z-direction.
1. P = 0: Ex = Ey = 0. This describes a longitudinal linear polarized wave.
2. n2 = L: a left, circular polarized wave.
3. n2 = R: a right, circular polarized wave.
B. = /2: transmission the B-field.
1. n2 = P : the ordinary mode: Ex = Ey = 0. This is a transversal linear polarized wave.
2. n2 = RL/S: the extraordinary mode: iEx /Ey = D/S, an elliptical polarized wave.

Resonance frequencies are frequencies for which n2 , so vf = 0. For these holds: tan() = P/S.
For R this gives the electron cyclotron resonance frequency = e , for L the ion cyclotron
resonance frequency = i and for S = 0 holds for the extraordinary mode:

 


mi 2i
m2i 2i
2i
2 1
=
1

me 2
m2e 2
2
Cut-off frequencies are frequencies for which n2 = 0, so vf . For these holds: P = 0 or R = 0 or
L = 0.
In the case that 2 1 one finds Alfven waves propagating parallel to the field lines. With the
Alfven velocity
e i
2
vA = 2
2 c
pe + pi
p
follows: n = 1 + c/vA , and in case vA c: = kvA .

Chapter 12

Solid state physics


12.1

Crystal structure

A lattice is defined by the 3 translation vectors ~ai , so that the atomic composition looks the same
from each point ~r and ~r = ~r + T~ , where T~ is a translation vector given by: T~ = u1~a1 + u2~a2 + u3~a3
with ui IN . A lattice can be constructed from primitive cells. As primitive cell one can take a
parallellepiped, with volume
Vcell = |~a1 (~a2 ~a3 )|
Because a lattice has a periodical structure the physical properties who are connected with the lattice
have the same periodicity (neglecting boundary effects):
ne (~r + T~ ) = ne (~r ) .
This periodicity is excellent to use Fourier analysis: n(~r) is developed as:
X
~ ~r )
n(~r) =
nG exp(iG
G

with
nG =

1
Vcell

ZZZ

~ ~r )dV .
n(~r ) exp(iG

cell

~ is the reciprocal lattice vector. If G


~ is written as G
~ = v1~b1 + v2~b2 + v3~b3 with vi IN , follows for
G
~
the vectors bi , cyclical:
~bi = 2 ~ai+1 ~ai+2
.
~ai (~ai+1 ~ai+2 )

~
The set of G-vectors
determines the R
ontgen diffractions: a maximum in the reflected radiation occurs
~
~
~ = G2 . From this follows for parallel lattice planes (Bragg
if: k = G with ~k = ~k ~k . So: 2~k G
reflection) that for the maxima holds: 2d sin() = n.
The Brillouin zone is defined as a Wigner-Seitz cell in the reciprocal lattice.

12.2

Crystal binding

A distinction can be made between 4 kinds of binding:


1. Van der Waals bond
2. Ion bond
3. Covalent or homopolar bond
4. Metalic bond.
At the ion binding of NaCl the energy per molecule is calculated by:
E = cohesive energy(NaCl) ionization energy(Na) + electron affinity(Cl)
The interaction in a covalent bond depends on the relative spin orientations of the electrons forming
the bond. The potential energy for two parallel spins is higher than the potential energy for two
antiparallel spins. Further the potential energy for two parallel spins has sometimes no minimum. In
that case binding is not possible.
62

63

Chapter 12: Solid state physics

12.3

Crystal vibrations

12.3.1

lattice with one kind of atoms

In this model for crystal vibrations, only nearest-neighbor interactions are taken into account. The
force on atom s with mass M can then be written as:
Fs = M

d2 us
= C(us+1 us ) + C(us1 us )
dt2

Assuming that all solutions have the same time-dependence exp(it) this results in:
M 2 us = C(us+1 + us1 2us )
Further it is postulated that: us1 = u exp(isKa) exp(iKa).
This gives: us = exp(iKsa). Substituting of the later two equations in the first gives a system of
linear equations, who have only a solution if their determinant is 0. This gives:
2 =

4C
sin2 ( 21 Ka)
M

Only vibrations with a wavelength within the first Brillouin Zone have a physical significance. This
requires that < Ka .
The group velocity of these vibrations is given by:
d
=
vg =
dK

Ca2
cos( 12 Ka) .
M

and is 0 on the edge of a Brillouin Zone. Here, there is a standing wave.

12.3.2

A lattice with two kinds of atoms

Now the solutions are:


2

=C

1
1
+
M1
M2

s

1
1
+
M1
M2

2

4 sin2 (Ka)
M1 M2

Connected with each value of are two values of K, as can


be seen in the graph. The upper line describes the optical
branch, the lower line the acoustical branch. In the optical branch, both kind of ions oscillate in opposite phases, in
the acoustical branch they oscillate in the same phase. This
results in a much larger induced dipole moment for optical
oscillations, and also a stronger emission and absorption of
radiation. Further each branch has 3 polarization directions, one longitudinal and two transversal.

12.3.3

2C
M2
2C
M1

- K
/a

Phonons

The quantummechanical excitation of a crystal vibration with an energy h


is called a phonon.
Phonons can be viewed as quasi-particles: with collisions, they behave as particles with momentum
hK. Their total momentum is 0. When they collide, their momentum need not be conserved: for a
normal process holds: K1 + K2 = K3 , for an umklapp process holds: K1 + K2 = K3 + G. Because
phonons have no spin they behave like bosons.

64

12.3.4

Equations in Physics by ir. J.C.A. Wevers

Thermal heat capacity

The total energy of the crystal vibrations can be calculated by multiplying each mode with its energy
and sum over all branches K and polarizations P :
XX
XZ
h
U=
h hnk,p i =

D ()
d
exp(
h/kT ) 1
K

for a given polarization . The thermal heat capacity is then:


XZ
U
(
h/kT )2 exp(
h/kT )
d
Crooster =
=k
D()
T
(exp(
h/kT ) 1)2

The dispersion relation in one dimension is given by:


D()d =

L dK
L d
d =
d
vg

In three dimensions one applies periodic boundary conditions on a cube with N 3 primitive cells and
a volume L3 : exp(i(Kx x + Ky y + Kz z)) exp(i(Kx (x + L) + Ky (y + L) + Kz (z + L)).
Because exp(2i) = 1 this is only possible if:

Kx , Ky , Kz = 0;

2
4
6
2N
; ; ; ...
L
L
L
L

~ per volume (2/L)3 in K-space, or:


So there is only one permitted value of K
 3
V
L
=
2
8 3
~
~
permitted K-values
per unit volume in K-space,
for each polarization and each branch. The total
number of states with a wave vector < K is:
 3
4K 3
L
N=
2
3
for each polarization. The density of states for each polarization is, according to the Einstein model:


ZZ
dN
V K 2 dK
dA
V
D() =
=
=
d
2 2
d
8 3
vg
The Debye model for thermal heat capacities is a low-temperature approximation which is valid till
50K. Here, only the acoustic phonons are taken into account (3 polarizations), and one assumes
that v = K, independent of the polarization. From this follows: D() = V 2 /2 2 v 3 , where v is the
speed of sound. This gives:
U =3

D() hni
hd =

ZD
0

V 2
h
3V k 2 T 4
d = 2 3 3
2
3
2 v exp(
h/kT ) 1
2 v h

ZxD
0

x3 dx
.
ex 1

Here, xD = h
D /kT = D /T . D is the Debye temperature and is defined by:

1/3
hv 6 2 N
D =
k
V
where N is the number of primitive cells. Because xD for T 0 follows from this:
U = 9N kT

T
D

3 Z
0

x3 dx
3 4 N kT 4
T4
=
ex 1
5D

and CV =

12 4 N kT 3
T3
3
5D

In the Einstein model for the thermal heat capacity one considers only phonons at one frequency, an
approximation for optical phonons.

65

Chapter 12: Solid state physics

12.4

Magnetic field in the solid state

12.4.1

Dielectrics

The quantummechanical origin of diamagnetism is the Larmorprecession of the spin of the electron.
Starting with a circular electron orbit in an atom with two electrons, there is a Coulomb force Fc and
a magnetic force on each electron. If the magnetic part of the force is not strong enough to significant
deform the orbit holds:
s
2
eB
eB
eB
Fc (r) eB
2
2

= 0
(0 + ) =
+ 0
= 0 L
0
=
mr
m
m
2m
2m
Here, L is the Larmor frequency. One electron is accelerated, the other decelerated. So there
is a net circular current which results
in a magnetic

moment ~. The circular current is given by


I = ZeL /2, and hi = IA = I 2 = 23 I r2 . If N is the number of atoms in the crystal
~ = ~N :
follows for the susceptibility, with M
=

12.4.2

Paramagnetism

0 N Ze2
2
0 M
r
=
B
6m

~ = mJ gB B,
Starting with the splitting of energy levels in a weak magnetic field: Um ~ B
and
with
a
distribution
f

exp(U
/kT
),
one
finds
for
the
average
magnetic
hi =
m
m
P
P
P
P
P moment
fm / fm . After linearization, and because
mJ = 0,
J = 2J + 1 and
m2J = 23 J(J +
1)(J + 12 ) it follows that:
p =

0 N hi
0 J(J + 1)g 2 2B N
0 M
=
=
B
B
3kT

This is the Curie law, p 1/T .

12.4.3

Ferromagnetism

A ferromagnet behaves like a paramagnet above a critical temperature Tc . To describe ferromagnetism


~ . The treatment is further analogous with
~ E = 0 M
a field BE parallel with M is postulated: B
paramagnetism:


C
M
0 M = p (Ba + BE ) = p (Ba + 0 M ) = 0 1
T
From this follows for a ferromagnet: F =

0 M
C
=
this is Weiss-Curies law.
Ba
T Tc

If BE is estimated this way it results in values of about 1000 T. This is clearly unrealistic and suggests
an other mechanism. A quantummechanical approach from Heisenberg postulates an interaction
~i S
~j ~ B
~ E . J is an overlap integral given by:
between two neighbor atoms: U = 2J S
J = 3kTc /2zS(S + 1), with z the number of neighbors. A distinction between 2 cases can now
be made:
1. J > 0: Si and Sj become parallel: the material is a ferromagnet.
2. J < 0: Si and Sj become antiparallel: the material is an antiferromagnet.
Heisenbergs theory predicts quantized spin waves: magnons. Starting with a model with only nearest
neighbor interaction one can write:
~p (S
~p1 + S
~p+1 ) ~p B
~p
U = 2J S

~p1 + S
~p+1 )
~ p = 2J (S
with B
gB

66

Equations in Physics by ir. J.C.A. Wevers

The equation of motion for the magnons becomes:

~
dS
2J ~
~p1 + S
~p+1 )
Sp (S
=
dt

~p =
The treatment is further analogous with phonons: postulate traveling waves of the type S
~u exp(i(pka t)). This results in a system of linear equations with solution:
h = 4JS(1 cos(ka))

12.5

Free electron Fermi gas

12.5.1

Thermal heat capacity

The solution with period L of the one-dimensional Schrodinger equation is: n (x) = A sin(2x/n)
with nn = 2L. From this follows
h2  n 2
E=
2m L
In a linear lattice the only important quantum numbers are n and ms . The Fermi level is the
uppermost filled level in the ground state, which has the Fermi-energy EF . If nF is the quantum
number of the Fermi level, it can be expressed as: 2nF = N so EF = h
2 2 N 2 /8mL. In 3 dimensions
holds:

2/3
 2 1/3
3 N
h2 3 2 N
kF =
and EF =
V
2m
V
3/2

V
2mE
The number of states with energy E is then: N =
.
2
3
h2

3/2

3N
2m
V
dN
=
.
and the density of states becomes: D(E) =
E=
2
2
dE
2
2E
h

The heat capacity of the electrons is approximately 0.01 times the classical expected value 23 N k. This
is caused by the Pauli exclusion principle and the Fermi-Dirac distribution: only electrons within an
energy range kT of the Fermi level are excited thermally. There is a fraction T /TF excited
thermally. The internal energy then becomes:
U N kT

U
T
T
and C =
Nk
TF
T
TF

A more accurate analysis gives: Celectrons = 21 2 N kT /TF T . Together with the T 3 dependence of
the thermal heat capacity of the phonons the total thermal heat capacity of metals is described by:
C = T + AT 3 .

12.5.2

Electric conductance

The equation of motion for the charge carriers is: F~ = md~v /dt = h
d~k/dt. The variation of ~k is given
~ h. If is the characteristic collision time of the electrons, ~k remains
by ~k = ~k(t) ~k(0) = eEt/
~ with = e /m the mobility of the electrons.
stable if t = . Then holds: h~v i = E,

~ = E/
~ = neE.
~ Because for the collision time
The current in a conductor is given by: J~ = nq~v = E
holds: 1/ = 1/L + 1/i , where L is the collision time with the lattice phonons and i the collision
time with the impurities, follows for the resistivity = L + i , with lim L = 0.
T 0

12.5.3

The Hall-effect

If a magnetic field is applied at the direction of the current the charge carriers will be pushed aside
by the Lorentz force. This results in a magnetic field the flow direction of the current. If J~ = J~ex
~ = B~ez then Ey /Ex = B. The Hall coefficient is defined by: RH = Ey /Jx B, and RH = 1/ne
and B
if Jx = neEx . The Hall voltage is given by: VH = Bvb = IB/neh where b is the width of the
material and h de height.

67

Chapter 12: Solid state physics

12.5.4

Thermal heat conductivity

With = vF the mean free path of the electrons follows from = 31 C hvi : electrons = 2 nk 2 T /3m.
From this follows for the Wiedemann-Franz ratio: / = 31 (k/e)2 T .

12.6

Energy bands

In the tight-bond approximation it is assumed that = eikna (x na). From this follows for the
energy: hEi = h|H|i = Eat 2 cos(ka). So this gives a cosine superimposed on the atomic
energy, which can often be approximated with a harmonic oscillator. If it is assumed that the
electron is nearly free one can postulate: = exp(i~k ~r ). This is a traveling wave. This wave can be
decomposed in two standing waves:
(+) =

exp(ix/a) + exp(ix/a) = 2 cos(x/a)

() =

exp(ix/a) exp(ix/a) = 2i sin(x/a)

The probability density |(+)|2 is high near the atoms of the lattice and low between them. The
probability density |()|2 is low near the atoms of the lattice and high between them. So the energy
of (+) is also lower than the energy of )(). Suppose that U (x) = U cos(2x/a), than the bandgap
is given by:
Z1


Egap = U (x) |(+)|2 |()|2 dx = U
0

12.7

Semiconductors

The band structures and the transitions between them of direct and indirect semiconductors are
shown in the figures below. Here it is assumed that the momentum of the absorbed photon can be
neglected. For an indirect semiconductor a transition from the valence to the conduction band is also
possible if the energy of the absorbed photon is smaller than the band gap: then, also a phonon is
absorbed.
conduction
E
band
6


6

g



E
6


Direct transition

6




Indirect transition

This difference can also be observed in the absorption spectra:


absorption

absorption

hg

-E

Direct semiconductor

..
...
.
.
..
..

...

....

..
Eg + h

- E

Indirect semiconductor

68

Equations in Physics by ir. J.C.A. Wevers

So indirect semiconductors, like Si and Ge, can not emit any light and are therefore not usable to
fabricate lasers. When light is absorbed holds: ~kh = ~ke , Eh (~kh ) = Ee (~ke ), ~vh = ~ve and mh = me
if the conduction band and the valence band have the same structure.
Instead of the normal electron mass one has to use the effective mass within a lattice. It is defined
by:
 2 1
d E
dp/dt
dK
F
2

=h

=
=h

m =
a
dvg /dt
dvg
dk 2
with E = h
and vg = d/dk and p = h
k.
With the distribution function fe (E) exp(( E)/kT ) for the electrons and fh (E) = 1 fe (E) for
the holes the density of states is given by:
D(E) =

1
2 2

2m
h2

3/2 p
E Ec

with Ec the energy at the edge of the conductance band. From this follows for the concentrations of
the holes p and the electrons n:
n=

De (E)fe (E)dE = 2

Ec

For the product np follows: np = 4

kT
2h2

3

m kT
2h2

3/2

exp

Ec
kT



p
Eg
me mh exp
kT

In an intrinsic (no impurities) semiconductor holds: ni = pi , in a n type holds: n > p and in a


p type holds: n < p.
An exciton is a bound electron-hole pair, rotating on each other as in positronium. The excitation
energy of an exciton is smaller than the bandgap because the energy of an exciton is lower than the
energy of a free electron and a free hole. This causes a peak in the absorption just before Eg .

12.8

Superconductivity

12.8.1

Description

A superconductor is characterized by a zero resistivity if certain quantities are smaller than some
critical values: T < Tc , I < Ic and H < Hc . The BCS-model predicts for the transition temperature
Tc :


1
Tc = 1, 14D exp
U D(EF )
while experiments find for Hc in approximation:


T2
Hc (T ) Hc (Tc ) 1 2 .
Tc
Within a superconductor the magnetic field is 0: the Meissner effect.
There are type I and type II superconductors. Because the Meissner effect implies that a supercon~ . This holds for a type I
~ = 0 M
ductor is a perfect diamagnet holds in the superconducting state: H
superconductor, for a type II superconductor this only holds to a certain value Hc1 , for higher values
of H the superconductor is in a vortex state to a value Hc2 , which can be 100 times Hc1 . If H becomes
larger than Hc2 the superconductor becomes a normal conductor. This is shown in the figures below.

69

Chapter 12: Solid state physics

0 M

0 M

Hc

-H

Hc1

Type I

- H
Hc2

Type II

The transition to a superconducting state is a second order thermodynamic state transition. This
means that there is a twist in the T S diagram and a discontinuity in the CX T diagram.

12.8.2

The Josephson effect

For the Josephson effect one considers two superconductors, separated by an insulator. The electron
wavefunction in one superconductor is 1 , in the other 2 . The Schrodinger equations in both
superconductors is set equal:
i
h

1
2
=h
T 2 , ih
=h
T 1
t
t

T is the effect of the coupling of the electrons, or the transfer interaction through the insulator. The
h

electron wavefunctions are written as


1 = n1 exp(i1 ) and 2 = n2 exp(i2 ). Because a Cooper
pair exist of two electrons holds: n. From this follows, if n1 n2 :
2
n2
n1
1
=
and
=
t
t
t
t
The Josephson effect results in a current density through the insulator depending on the phase
difference as: J = J0 sin(2 1 ) = J0 sin(), where J0 T . With an AC-voltage is across the
junction the Schrodinger equations become:
1
2
=h
T 2 eV 1 and ih
=h
T 1 + eV 2
t
t


2eV t
.
This gives: J = J0 sin 2 1
h

i
h

So there is an oscillation with = 2eV /h.

12.8.3

Fluxquantisation in a superconducting ring

nq ~
~]
For the current density in general holds: J~ = q ~v =
[
h q A
m
H
~ = 0 and J~ = 0, follows: h
~ = qA
~ dl
~
From the Meissner effect, B

= 2 1 = 2s with
H
RR
RR
~ = (rotA,
~ ~n)d = (B,
~ ~n)d = follows: = 2hs/q. The size of a flux
s IN . Because: Adl
quantum follows by setting s = 1: = 2h/e = 2, 0678 1015 Tm2 .

12.8.4

Macroscopic quantum interference

From 2 1 = 2e/
h follows for two parallel junctions: b a =

2e
, so
h


 
e
This gives maxima if e/h = s.
J = Ja + Jb = 2J0 sin 0 cos
h

70

12.8.5

Equations in Physics by ir. J.C.A. Wevers

The London equation

~ is postulated:
A current density in a superconductor proportional with the vector potential A
~
A
J~ =
0 2L
where L =

or rotJ~ =

~
B
0 2L

p
~ = B/
~ 2.
0 mc2 /nq 2 . From this follows: 2 B
L

~
The Meissner effect is the solution of this equation: B(x)
= B0 exp(x/L ). Magnetic fields within
a superconductor drop exponentially.

12.8.6

The BCS model

The BCS model can explain superconductivity from metals. (There is till now no explanation for
high-Tc superconductance).
A new ground state where the electrons behave like independent fermions is postulated. Because the
interaction with the lattice these pseudo-particles have a mutual attraction. This causes two electrons
with opposite spin to combine to a Cooper pair. It can be proved that this ground state is perfect
diamagnetic.
The infinite conductivity is more difficult to explain because a ring with a persisting current is not a
real equilibrium: a state with zero current has a lower energy. Fluxquantization prevents transitions
between these states. Fluxquantization is related with the existance of a coherent many-particle
wavefunction. A flux quantum is the equivalent of about 104 electrons. So if the flux has to change
with one flux quantum there has to occur a transition of many electrons, which is very improbable,
or the system must go through intermediary states where the flux is not quantized so they have a
higher energy. This is also very improbable.
Some useful mathematical relations are:
Z

2
xdx
,
=
eax + 1
12a2

And, when

(1) =

n=0

1
2

follows:

Z
0

2
x2 dx
=
,
(ex + 1)2
3

sin(px)dx =

Z
0

Z
0

cos(px)dx =

1
.
p

x3 dx
4
=
ex + 1
15

Chapter 13

Theory of groups
13.1

Introduction

13.1.1

Definition of a group

G is a group for the operation if:


1. A,BG A B G: G is closed.
2. A,B,CG (A B) C = A (B C): G the associative law.
3. EG so that AG A E = E A = A: G has a unit element.
4. AG A1 G z.d.d. A A1 = E: Each element in G has an inverse.
If also holds:
5. A,BG A B = B A the group is called Abelian or commutative.

13.1.2

The Cayley table

Each element arises only once in each row and column of the Cayley or multiplication table: because
EAi = A1
k (Ak Ai ) = Ai each Ai appears once. There are h positions in each row and column when
there are h elements in the group so each elements appears only once.

13.1.3

Conjugated elements, subgroups and classes

B is conjugate with A if XG such that B = XAX 1 . Then A is also conjugate with B because
B = (X 1 )A(X 1 )1 .
If B and C are conjugate with A, B is also conjugate with C.
A subgroup is a subset of G which is also a group for the same operation.
A conjugacy class is the maximum collection of conjugated elements. Each group can be split up in
conjugacy classes. Some theorems:
All classes are completely disjoint.
E is a class itself: for each other element in this class would hold: A = XEX 1 = E.
E is the only class which is also a subgroup because all other classes have no unit element.
In an Abelian group each element is a separate class.
The physical interpretation of classes: elements of a group are usually symmetry operations who map
a symmetrical object on itself. Elements of one class are then the same kind of operations. The
opposite need not to be true.
71

72

Equations in Physics by ir. J.C.A. Wevers

13.1.4

Isomorfism and homomorfism; representations

Two groups are isomorphic if they have the same multiplication table. The mapping from group G1
to G2 , so that the multiplication table remains the same is a homomorphic mapping. It need not be
isomorphic.
A representation is a homomorphic mapping of a group to a group of square matrices with the usual
matrix multiplication as the combining operation. This is symbolized with . The following holds:
(E) = II , (AB) = (A)(B) , (A1 ) = [(A)]1
For each group there are 3 possibilities for a representation:
1. A faithful representation: all matrices are different.
2. The representation A det((A)).
3. The identical representation: A 1.

An equivalent representation is obtained by performing an unitary base transformation: (A) =


S 1 (A)S.

13.1.5

Reducible and irreducible representations

If the same unitary transformation can bring all matrices of a representation in the same block
structure the representation is called reducible:
 (1)

(A)
0
(A) =
0
(2) (A)
This is written as: = (1) (2) . If this is not possible the representation is called irreducible.

The number of irreducible representations equals the number of conjugacy classes.

13.2

The fundamental orthogonality theorem

13.2.1

Schurs lemma

Lemma: Each matrix who commutes with all matrices of an irreducible representation is a constant
II, where II is the unit matrix. The opposite holds (of course) also.
Lemma If there exist a matrix M so that for two irreducible representations of group G, (1) (Ai )
and (2) (Ai ), holds: M (1) (Ai ) = (2) (Ai )M , the representations are equivalent, or M = 0.

13.2.2

The fundamental orthogonality theorem

For a set of inequivalent, irreducible, unitary representations holds that, if h is the number of elements
in the group and i is the dimension of the ith
representation:
X

RG

13.2.3

(j)

(i)
(R) (R) =

h
ij
i

Character

The character of a representation is given by the trace of the matrix and is therefore invariant for
base transformations: (j) (R) = Tr((j) (R))
Also holds, with Nk the number of elements in a conjugacy class:

X
k

Theorem:

n
X
i=1

2i = h

(i) (Ck )(j) (Ck )Nk = hij

73

Chapter 13: Theory of groups

13.3

The relation with quantummechanics

13.3.1

Representations, energy levels and degeneracy

Consider a set of symmetry transformations ~x = R~x who leave the Hamiltonian H invariant. These
transformations are a group. An isomorfic operation on the wavefunction is given by: PR (~x) =
(R1 ~x). This is considered an active rotation. These operators commute with H: PR H = HPR ,
and leave the volume element unchanged: d(R~x) = d~x.
PR is the symmetry group of the physical system. It causes degeneracy: if n is a solution of
Hn = En n holds also: H(PR n ) = En (PR n ). A degeneracy who is not the result of a symmetry
is called an accidental degeneracy.
(n)

Assume a n -fold degeneracy at En : then choose an orthonormal set , = 1, 2, . . . , n . The


n
X
(n)
(n)
function PR is in the same subspace: PR (n) =
(R)
(n)
=1

where (n) is an irreducible, unitary representations of the symmetry group G of the system. Each
n corresponds with an other energy level. One can purely mathematical derive irreducible representations of a symmetry group and label the energy levels with a quantum number this way. A fixed
(n)
choice of (n) (R) defines the base functions . This way one can also label each separate base
function with a quantum number.
Particle in a periodical potential: the symmetry operation is a cyclic group: note the operator
describing one translation over one unit as A. Then: G = {A, A2 , A3 , . . . , Ah = E}.
The group is Abelian so all irreducible representations are one-dimensional. For 0 p h 1 follows:
(p) (An ) = e2ipn/h


2
2p
mod
, so: PA p (x) = p (x a) = e2ip/h p (x), this gives Blochs
If one defines: k =
ah
a
theorem: k (x) = uk (x)eikx , with uk (x a) = uk (x).

13.3.2

Breaking of degeneracy with a perturbation

Suppose the unperturbed system has Hamiltonian H0 and symmetry group G0 . The perturbed system
has H = H0 + V, and symmetry group G G0 . If (n) (R) is an irreducible representation of G0 , it is
also a representation of G but not all elements of (n) in G0 are also in G. The representation then
usually becomes reducible: (n) = (n1 ) (n2 ) . . .. The degeneracy is then (possibly partially)
removed: see the figure below.
n1 = dim((n1 ) )
n2 = dim((n2 ) )

n3 = dim((n3 ) )
Spectrum H0

Spectrum H
(n)

Theorem: The set of n degenerated eigenfunctions with energy En is a basis for an n dimensional irreducible representation (n) of the symmetry group.

13.3.3

The construction of a basefunction

Each function F in configuration space can be decomposed into symmetry types: F =

j
n X
X

j=1 =1

f(j)

74

Equations in Physics by ir. J.C.A. Wevers

The following operator extracts the symmetry types:


j X (j)
(R)PR
h
RG

F = f(j)

(j)
is the part of F that transforms according to the th
row of .
P
(aj)
(j)
F can also be expressed in base functions : F =
caj . the functions f are in general not
(j)

This is expressed as: f

aj

transformed into each other by elements of the group. However, this does happen if cja = cja .

Theorem: Two wavefunctions transforming according to non-equivalent unitary representations or


according to different rows of an unitary irreducible representation are orthogonal:
(i) (i)
(i) (j)
h | i ij , and h | i is independent of .

13.3.4

The direct product of representations

Consider a physical system existing of two subsystems. The subspace D(i) of the system trans(i)
forms according to (i) . Basefunctions are (~xi ), 1 i . Now form all 1 2 products
(1)
(2)
(1)
(~x1 ) (~x2 ). These define a space D D(2) .
These product functions transform as:
(2)

(2)

PR ((1)
x1 ) (~x2 )) = (PR (1)
x1 ))(PR (~x2 ))
(~
(~
In general the space D(1) D(2) can be split up in a number of invariant subspaces:
X
ni (i)
(1) (2) =
i

A useful tool for this reduction is that for the characters holds:
X
ni (i) (R)
(1) (R)(2) (R) =
i

13.3.5

Clebsch-Gordan coefficients
(i)

(j)

(a)

At the reduction of the direct-product matrix w.r.t. the basis one uses a new basis
These basefunctions lie in subspaces D(ak) . The unitary base transformation is given by:
X
(j)
(ak) =
(i)
(ij|ak)

(j)

and the inverse transformation by: (i)


=

(a)
(ak|ij)

ak

(i)

(j)

(ak)

The Clebsch-Gordan coefficients are dot products in essence: (ij|ak) := hk |

13.3.6

Symmetric transformations of operators, irreducible tensor operators

Observables (operators) transform as follows under symmetry transformations: A = PR APR1 . If a


(j)
set of operators A with 0 j transform into each other under the transformations of G holds:
X
1
(j)
PR A(j)
A(j)
PR =
(R)

(j)

If (j) is irreducible they are called irreducible tensor operators A(j) with components A .

75

Chapter 13: Theory of groups

Also an operator can be decomposed into symmetry types: A =

P
jk

a(j)

(j)

ak , with:

!
j X (j)
(R) (PR APR1 )
h
RG

Theorem: Matrix elements Hij of the operator H who is invariant under AG , are 0 between
states who transform according to non-equivalent irreducible unitary representations or according to
(i)
(i)
different rows of such a representation. Further is h |H| i independent of . For H = 1 this
becomes the previous theorem.
This is applied in quantum mechanics in perturbation theory and variational calculus. Here one tries
(i)
to diagonalize H. Solutions can be found within each category of functions with common i and
: H is already diagonal in categories as a whole.
Perturbation calculus can be applied independent within each category. With variational calculus
the try function can be chosen within a separate category because the exact eigenfunctions transform
according to a row of an irreducible representation.

13.3.7

The Wigner-Eckart theorem


(i)

(j)

(k)

Theorem: The matrix element h |A | i can only be 6= 0 if (j) (k) = . . . (i) . . .. If


this is the case holds (if (i) appears only once, otherwise one has to sum over a):
(i)

(k)
(i)
(j)
(k)
h |A(j)
i
| i = (i|jk)h kA k

This theorem can be used to determine selection rules: the probability on a dipole transition is given
by (~ is the direction of polarization of the radiation):
PD =

8 2 e2 f 3 |r12 |2
with r12 = hl2 m2 |~ ~r |l1 m1 i
3
h0 c3

Further it can be used to determine intensity ratios: if there is only one value of a the ratio of
the matrix elements are the Clebsch-Gordan coefficients. For more a-values relations between the
intensity ratios can be stated. However, the intensity ratios are also dependent on the occupation of
the atomic energy levels.

13.4

Continuous groups

Continuous groups have h = . However, not all groups with h = are continuous, e.g. the
translation group of an spatially infinite periodic potential is not continuous but does have h = .

13.4.1

The 3-dimensional translation group

For the translation of wavefunctions over a distance a holds: Pa (x) = (x a). Taylor development
near x gives:
d(x) 1 2 d2 (x)
(x a) = (x) a
+...
+ a
dx
2
dx2
h
, this can be written
Because the momentum operator in quantum mechanics is given by: px =
i x
as:
(x a) = eiapx /h (x)

76

13.4.2

Equations in Physics by ir. J.C.A. Wevers

The 3-dimensional rotation group

This group is called SO(3) because a faithful representation can be constructed from orthogonal 3 3
matrices with a determinant of +1.
For an infinitesimal rotation around the x-axis holds:
Px (x, y, z)

(x, y + zx , z yx )



= (x, y, z) + zx
(x, y, z)
yx
y
z


ix Lx
=
1
(x, y, z)
h


h

Because the angular momentum operator is given by: Lx =


z
.
y
i
y
z
So in an arbitrary direction holds:

Rotations:
Translations:

P,~n = exp(i(~n J~ )/h)


Pa,~n = exp(ia(~n p~ )/h)

Jx , Jy and Jz are called the generators of the 3-dim. rotation group, px , py and pz are called the
generators of the 3-dim. translation group.
The commutation rules for the generators can be derived from the properties of the group for multiplications: translations are interchangeable px py py px = 0.
Rotations are not generally interchangeable: consider a rotation around axis ~n in the xz-plane over
an angle . Then holds: P,~n = P,y P,x P,y , so:
~

ei(~nJ )/h = eiJy /h eiJx /h eiJy /h


If and are very small and are developed till second order, and the corresponding terms are put
equal with ~n J~ = Jx cos + Jz sin , follows from the term: Jx Jy Jy Jx = ihJz .

13.4.3

Properties of continuous groups

The elements R(p1 , ..., pn ) depend continuous of parameters p1 , ..., pn . For the translation group this
are e.g. anx , any and anz . It is demanded that the multiplication and inverse of an element R depend
continuous of the de parameters of R.
The statement that each element arises only once in each row and column of the Cayley table holds
also for continuous groups. The notion conjugacy class for continuous groups is defined equally as for
discrete groups. The notion representation is fitted by demanding continuity: each matrix element
depends continuous from pi (R).
Summation over all group elements is for continuous groups replaced with an integration. If f (R) is
a function defined on G, e.g. (R), holds:
Z
Z
Z
f (R)dR := f (R(p1 , ..., pn ))g(R(p1 , ..., pn ))dp1 dpn
G

p1

pn

Here, g(R) is the density function.


R
R
Because of the properties of the Cayley table is demanded:
f (R)dR = f (SR)dR. This fixes
g(R) except for a constant factor. Define new variables p by: SR(pi ) = R(pi ). If one writes:
dV := dp1 dpn holds:
dV
g(S) = g(E)
dV
!
dV
dV
pi
Here,
is the Jacobian:
= det
, and g(E) is constant.
dV
dV
pj

77

Chapter 13: Theory of groups

For the translation group holds: g(~a) = constant = g(~0) because g(a~n )d~a = g(~0)d~a and d~a = d~a.
This leads to the fundamental orthogonality theorem:
Z
Z
1
(j)
(i)
(R) (R)dR = ij dR
i
G

and for the characters holds:

(i)

(R)

(j)

(R)dR = ij

dR

Compact groups are groups with a finite group volume:

13.5

dR < .

The group SO(3)

One can take 2 parameters for the direction of the rotational axis and one for the angle of rotation .
The parameter space is a collection points ~n within a sphere with radius . The diametral points
on this sphere are equivalent because R~n, = R~n, .
An other way to define parameters is via Eulers angles. If , and are the 3 Euler angles, defined
as:
1. The spherical angles of axis 3 w.r.t. xyz are , := , . Now a rotation around axis 3 remains
possible.
2. The spherical angles of the z-axis w.r.t. 123 are , := , .
then the rotation of a quantummechanical system is described with:
~
eiJz h eiJy /h eiJz /h . So PR = ei(~nJ )/h .
All irreducible representations of SO(3) can be constructed with the behaviour of the spherical harmonics Ylm (, ) with l m l and for a fixed l:
X
(l)
PR Ylm (, ) =
Ylm (, )Dmm (R)
m

D(l) is an irreducible representation of dimension 2l + 1. The character of D(l) is given by:


(l) () =

l
X

eim = 1 + 2

m=l

l
X

cos(k) =

k=0

sin([l + 12 ])
sin( 12 )

In the used derivation is the rotational angle around the z-axis. This expression holds for all
rotations over an angle because the classes of SO(3) are rotations around the same angle around
an axis with an arbitrary orientation.
Via the the fundamental orthogonality theorem for characters one obtains the following expression
for the density function (which is normalized so that g(0) = 1):
g() =

sin2 ( 12 )
( 12 )2

With this result one can see that the given representations of SO(3) are the only ones: the character
of another representation would have to be the already found ones, so () sin2 ( 12 ) = 0
() = 0. This is contradictionary because the dimension of the representation is given by
(0).
Because fermions have an half-odd integer spin the states sms with s = 12 and ms = 21 stretch a
2-dim. space which is invariant under rotations. A problem arises for rotations over 2:
12 ms e2iSz /h 21 ms = e2ims 21 ms = 12 ms

78

Equations in Physics by ir. J.C.A. Wevers

However, in SO(3) holds: Rz,2 = E. So here holds E II. Because observable quantities can
always be written as h|i or h|A|i, and are bilinear in the states, they do not change sign if the
states do. If only one state changes sign the observable quantities do change.
The existence of these half-odd integer representations is connected with the topological properties
of SO(3): the group is two-fold coherent through the identification R0 = R2 = E.

13.6

Applications in quantum mechanics

13.6.1

Vectormodel for the addition of angular momentum

If two subsystems have angular momentum quantum numbers j1 and j2 the only possible values for
the total angular momentum are J = j1 + jP
2 , j1 + j2 1, ..., |j1 j2 |. This can be derived from group
theory as follows: from (j1 ) ()(j2 ) () = nj (J) () follows:
J

D(j1 ) D(j2 ) = D(j1 +j2 ) D(j1 +j2 1) ... D(|j1 j2 |)

The states can be characterized with quantum numbers in two ways: with j1 , m1 , j2 , m2 and with
j1 , j2 , J, M . The Clebsch-Gordan
P coefficients, for SO(3) called the Wigner coefficients can be chosen
real, so: j1 j2 JM
=
j1 m1 j2 m2 (j1 m1 j2 m2 |JM )
m
P1 m2
j1 j2 JM (j1 m1 j2 m2 |JM )
j1 m1 j2 m2 =
JM

13.6.2

Irreducible tensoroperators, matrixelements and selection rules

Some examples of the behaviour of operators under SO3)


1. Suppose j = 0: this gives the identical representation with j = 1. This state is described with
(0)
(0)
a scalar operator. Because PR A0 PR1 = A0 this operator is invariant, e.g. the Hamiltonian
of a free atom. Then holds: hJ M |H|JM i MM JJ .
~ = (Ax , Ay , Az ). The cartesian components of a vector operator transform
2. A vector operator: A
equally as the cartesian components of ~r by definition. So for rotations around the z-axis holds:

cos sin 0
D(R,z ) = sin cos 0
0
0
1
operator
has the same matrix elements w.r.t. PR and PR :

The transformed

PR |PR Ax PR1 |PR = h|Ax |i. (R,z ) = 1 + 2 cos(). According to the equation for
characters this means one can choose base operators who transform like Y1m (, ). This turn
out to be the spherical components:
1
1
(1)
(1)
(1)
A+1 = (Ax + iAy ), A0 = Az , A1 = (Ax iAy )
2
2
3. A cartesian tensor of rank 2: Tij is a quantity which transforms under rotations like Ui Vj , where
~ and V
~ are vectors. So Tij transforms like PR Tij P 1 = P Tkl Dki (R)Dlj (R), so like D(1)
U
R
kl

D(1) = D(2) D(1) D(0) . The 9 components can be split in 3 invariant subspaces with
dimension 1 (D(0) ), 3 (D(1) ) and 5 (D(2) ). The new base operators are:
~ V
~ , so as D(0) .
I. Tr(T ) = Txx + Tyy + Tzz . This transforms as the scalar U

II. The 3 antisymmetric components Az = 21 (Txy Tyx ), etc. These transform as the vector
~ V~ , so as D(1) .
U

III. The 5 independent components of the traceless, symmetric tensor S:


Sij = 12 (Tij + Tji ) 31 ij Tr(T ). These transform as D(2) .

79

Chapter 13: Theory of groups

Selection rules for dipole transitions


Dipole operators transform as D(1) : for an electric dipole transfer is the operator e~r, for a magnetic
e ~
~
2m (L + 2S).
(1)

From the Wigner-Eckart theorem follows: hJ M |A |JM i = 0 except D(J ) is a part of D(1) D(J) =
D(J+1) D(J) D(|J1|) . This means that J {J + 1, J, |J 1|}: J = J or J = J 1, except
J = J = 0.
Land
e-equation for the anomalous Zeeman splitting
According to Landes model the interaction between a magnetic moment with an external magnetic
~ on J~ because L
~ and S
~ precede fast on J.
~ This can also
field is determined by the projection of M
be understood from the Wigner-Eckart theorem: from this follows that the matrix elements from all
~ follows:
vector operators show a certain proportionality. For an arbitrary operator A
~ J~ |jmi
hjm|A
~
hjm |J~ |jmi
hjm |A|jmi
=
j(j + 1)
h2

13.7

Applications in particle physics

The physics of a system does not change after performing a transformation = ei where is a
constant. This is a global gauge transformation: the phase of the wavefunction changes everywhere
with the same amount.
~ and at the same E
~ and B:
~ gauge
There exist some freedom in the choice of the potentials A
~
~
transformations of the potentials do not change E and B (See chapter 2 and 10). The solution of
the Schrodinger equation with the transformed potentials is: = eiqf (~r,t) .
This is a local gauge transformation: the phase of the wavefunction changes different at each position.
~ and are also transformed. This is now stated as
The physics of the system does not change if A
guide principle: the right of existence of the electromagnetic field is to allow local gauge invariance.
The gauge transformations of the EM-field form a group: U(1), unitary 1 1-matrices. The split-off
of charge in the exponent is essential: it allows one gauge field for all charged particles, independent
of their charge.
This concept is generalized: particles have a special charge Q. The group elements now are PR =
exp(iQ).
Other force fields than the electromagnetic field can also be understood this way. The weak interaction
together with the electromagnetic interaction can be described with a force field that transforms
according to U(1)SU(2), and consists of the photon and three intermediar vector bosons. The color
force is described by SU(3), and has a gauge field that exist of 8 types of gluons.
~ where n are real constants and Tn
In general the group elements are given by PR = exp(iT~ ),
P
operators (generators), like Q. The commutation rules are given by [Ti , Tj ] = i cijk Tk . The cijk
k

are the structure constants of the group. For SO(3) these constants are cijk = ijk , here ijk is the
complete antisymmetric tensor with 123 = +1.

These constants can be found with the help of group product elements: because G is closed holds:
~ ~ ~ ~
~ ~
~ ~
~ ~
eiT ei T eiT ei T = ei T . Taylor development and setting equal n m -terms results in
the commutation rules.
The group SU(2) has 3 free parameters: because it is unitary there are 4 real conditions on 4 complex
parameters, and the determinant has to be +1, remaining 3 free parameters.
Each unitary matrix U can be written as: U = eiH . Here, H is a Hermitian matrix. Further holds
always: det(U ) = eiTr(H) .
For each matrix of SU(2) holds that Tr(H)=0. Each Hermitian, traceless 2 2 matrix can be written

80

Equations in Physics by ir. J.C.A. Wevers

as a linear combination of the 3 Pauli-matrices i . So these matrices are a choice for the operators
~
of SU(2). One can write: SU(2)={exp( 21 i~ )}.
Abstractly, one can consider an isomorphic group where only the commutation rules are considered
known about the operators Ti : [T1 , T2 ] = iT3 , etc.
In elementary particle physics the Ti can be interpreted e.g. as the isospin operators. Elementary
particles can be classified in isospin-multiplets, this are the irreducible representations of SU(2). The
classification is:
~ ~

1. The isospin-singlet the identical representation: eiT = 1 Ti = 0


2. The isospin-doublet the faithful representation of SU(2) on 2 2 matrices.
The group SU(3) has 8 free parameters. (The group SU(N ) has N 2 1 free parameters). The
Hermitian, traceless operators are 3 SU(2)-subgroups in the ~e1~e2 , ~e1~e3 and the ~e2~e3 plane. This gives
9 matrices, who are not all 9 linear independent. By taking a linear combination one gets 8 matrices.
8

In the Lagrange density for the color force one has to substitute

Ti Aix

:=

x
Dx
x i=1

The terms of 3rd and 4th power in A show that the color field interacts with itself.

Chapter 14

Nuclear physics
14.1

Nuclear forces

The mass of a nucleus is given by:


Mnucl = Zmp + N mn Ebind /c2
The binding energy per nucleon is given
in the figure at the right. The top is at
56
26 Fe, the most stable nucleus. With the
constants
a1
a2
a3
a4
a5

=
=
=
=
=

15,760
17,810
0,711
23,702
34,000

MeV
MeV
MeV
MeV
MeV

9
8
7
E 6
(MeV)5
4
3
2
1
0

40

80

is in the droplet or collective model of the nucleus the binding energy Ebind

120 160
M
given by:

200

240

Ebind
Z(Z 1)
(N Z)2
= a1 A a2 A2/3 a3
+ a5 A3/4
a4
2
1/3
c
A
A
These terms arise from:
1. a1 : Binding energy of the strong nuclear force, approximately A.
2. a2 : Surface correction: the nucleons near the surface are less bound.
3. a3 : Coulomb repulsion between the protons.
4. a4 : Asymmetry term: a surplus of protons or neutrons has a lower binding energy.
5. a5 : Pair off effect: nuclei with an even number of protons or neutrons are more stable because
groups of two protons or neutrons have a lower energy. The following holds:
Z even, N even: = +1, Z odd, N odd: = 1.
Z even, N odd: = 0, Z odd, N even: = 0.
The Yukawa potential can be derived if the nuclear force can, in first approximation, be considered
an exchange of virtual pions:


r
W0 r0
exp
U (r) =
r
r0
With E t
h, r0 = ct and E = m0 c2 holds: r0 = h
/m0 c.
In the shell model of the nucleus one assumes that a nucleon moves in an average field of other
~ S:
~ Vls = 1 (2l + 1)
h.
nucleons. Further, there is a contribution of the spin-orbit coupling L
2
1
So each level (n, l) niveau is split in two, with j = l 2 , where the state with j = l + 21 has the
lowest energy. This is just the opposite for electrons, which is an indication that the L S interaction
h.
is not electromagnetical. The energy of a 3-dimensional harmonic oscillator is E = (N + 23 )
N = nx + ny + nz = 2(n 1) + l where n 1 is the main oscillator number. Because l m l
81

82

Equations in Physics by ir. J.C.A. Wevers

h there are 2(2l + 1) substates who exist independent for protons and neutrons. This
and ms = 12
gives rise to the so called magical numbers: nuclei where each state in the outermost level are filled
are especially stable. This is the case if N or Z {2, 8, 20, 28, 50, 82, 126}.

14.2

The shape of the nucleus

An nucleus is in first approximation spherical with a radius of R = R0 A1/3 . Here, R0 1, 4 1015


m, constant for all nuclei. If the nuclear radius is measured with the charge distribution one obtains
R0 1, 2 1015 m. The shape of oscillating nuclei can be described with spherical harmonics:
"
#
X
m
alm Yl (, )
R = R0 1 +
lm

l = 0 gives rise to monopole vibrations, density vibrations, who can be applied in the theory ofneutron
stars. l = 1 gives dipole vibrations, l = 2 quadrupole, with a2,0 = cos and a2,2 = 12 2 sin
where is the deformation factor and the shape parameter. The multipole moment is given by
l = Zerl Ylm (, ). The parity of the electric moment is E = (1)l , of the magnetic moment
M = (1)l+1 .
~L =
There are 2 contributions to the magnetic moment: M

e ~
~ S = gS e S.
~
L and M
2mp
2mp

where gS is the spin-gyromagnetic ratio. For protons holds gS = 5, 5855 and for neutrons gS =
3, 8263. The z-components of the magnetic moment are given by ML,z = N ml and MS,z =
~ =
gS N mS . The resulting magnetic moment is related to the nuclear spin I according to M
~ The z-component is then Mz = N gI mI .
gI (e/2mp)I.

14.3

Radioactive decay

The number of nuclei decaying is proportional with the number of nuclei: N = N . This gives
for the number of nuclei N : N (t) = N0 exp(t). The half life time follows from 21 = ln(2). The
average life time of a nucleus is = 1/. The probability that N nuclei decay within a time interval
is governed by a Poisson distribution:
N e
dt
N!
P
If aP
nucleus can decay to more final states holds: =
i . So the fraction decaying to state i is
i / i . There are 5 types of natural radioactive decay:
P (N )dt = N0

1. -decay: the nucleus emits a He2+ nucleus. Because nucleons tend to order themselves in groups
of 2p+2n this can be considered as a tunneling of a He2+ nucleus through a potential barrier.
The tunnel probability P is
s
Z
1
amplitude incoming
2G
=e
with G =
P =
2m [V (r) E]dr
amplitude outgoing
h
G is called the Gamow factor.

2. -decay. Here a proton changes into a neutron or vice versa:


p+ n0 + W+ n0 + e+ + e , and n0 p+ + W p+ + e + e .
3. Electron capture: here, a proton in the nucleus captures an electron (usually from the K-shell).
4. Spontaneous fission: a nucleus breaks apart.

83

Chapter 14: Nuclear physics

5. -decay: here the nucleus emits a high-energetic photon. The decay constant is given by
2l

P (l)
E R
=

104l
h
hc
where l is the quantum number for the angular momentum and P the radiated power. Usually
the decay constant of electric multipole moments is larger than the one of magnetic multipole
moments. The energy of the photon is E = Ei Ef TR , with TR = E2 /2mc2 the recoil
l
i
f
energy, which can usually be neglected. The parity of the emitted radiation
p is = .
With I the quantum number of angular momentum of the nucleus, L = h
I(I + 1), holds the
~
~
~
~
following selection rule: |Ii If | l |Ii + If |.

14.4

Scattering and nuclear reactions

14.4.1

Kinetic model

If a beam with intensity I hits a target with density n and length x (Rutherford scattering) the
number of scatterings R per unit of time is equal to R = Inx. From this follows that the intensity
of the beam decreases as dI = Indx. This results in I = I0 enx = I0 ex .
R(, )
d
=
Because dR = R(, )d/4 = Inxd follows:
d
4nxI
N
d
If N particles are scattered in a material with density n holds:
= n x
N
d

1
Z1 Z2 e2
d
=
For Coulomb collisions holds:
d C
80 v02 sin4 ( 12 )

14.4.2

Quantummechanical model for n-p scattering

The initial state is a beam of neutrons moving among the z-axis with wavefunction init = eikz
and current density Jinit = v|init |2 = v. At large distastances from the scattering point they have
approximately a spherical wavefunction scat = f ()eikr /r where f () is the scattering amplitude.
The total wavefunction is then given by
= in + scat = eikz + f ()

eikr
r

The particle flux of the scattered particles is v|scat |2 = v|f ()|2 d. From this follows that () =
|f ()|2 . The wavefunction of the incoming particles can be expressed in a sum of angular momentum
wavefunctions:
X
init = eikz =
l
l

The impactparameter is related to the angular momentum with L = bp = bhk, so bk l. For very
low energy only particles with l = 0 are scattered, so
X
sin(kr)
= 0 +
l and 0 =
kr
l>0

sin(kr + 0 )
If the potential is approximately rectangular holds: 0 = C
kr
Z
2
4 sin2 (0 )
sin (0 )
so

=
()d
=
The cross section is then () =
k2
k2
For very low energies holds: sin2 (0 ) =

2 k 2 /2m
h
W0 + W

with W0 the depth of the potential well. For higher energies holds: =

4 X 2
sin (l )
k2
l

84

14.4.3

Equations in Physics by ir. J.C.A. Wevers

Conservation of energy and momentum in nuclear reactions

If a particle P1 collides with a particle P2 which is in rest w.r.t. the laboratory system and other
particles are created, so
X
P1 + P2
Pk
k>2

the total energy Q gained or required is given by Q = (m1 + m2

mk )c2 .

k>2

The minimal required kinetic energy T of P1 in the laboratory system to initialize the reaction is
P
m1 + m2 + mk
T = Q
2m2
If Q < 0 there is a threshold energy.

14.5

Radiation dosimetry

Radiometric quantities determine the strength of the radiation source(es). Dosimetric quantities are
related to the energy transfer from radiation to matter. Parameters describing a relation between
those are called interaction parameters. The intensity of a beam of particles in matter decreases
according to I(s) = I0 exp(s). The deceleration of a heavy particle is described with the BetheBloch equation:
dE
q2
2
ds
v
The fluention is given by = dN/dA. The flux is given by = d/dt. The energy loss is defined
by = dW/dA, and the energy flux density = d/dt. The absorption coefficient is given by
= (dN/N )/dx. The mass absorption coefficient is given by /.
The radiation dose X is amount of charge produced by the radiation per unit of mass, with unit
C/kg. An old unit is the R
ontgen: 1Ro= 2, 58 104 C/kg. With the energy-absorption coefficient
E follows:
eE
dQ
=

X=
dm
W
where W is the energy required to free an elementary charge.
The absorbed dose D is given by D = dEabs /dm, with unit Gy=J/kg. An old unit is the rad: 1
It can be derived that
rad=0,01 Gy. The dose tempo is defined as D.
D=

The Kerma K is the amount of kinetic energy of secundary produced particles which is produced per
mass unit of the radiated object.
The equivalent dose H is an weight average of the absorbed dose per type of radiation, where for each
type radiation the effects on biological material is used for the weigh factor. These weigh factors are
called the quality factors. Their unit is Sv. H = QD.PIf the absorption is not equally distributed
also weigh factors w per organ needs to be used: H = wk Hk . For some types of radiation holds:
Radiation type
R
ontgen, gamma radiation
, electrons, mesons
Thermic neutrons
Fast neutrons
protons
, fission products

Q
1
1
3 to 5
10 to 20
10
20

Chapter 15

Quantum field theory & Particle


physics
15.1

Creation and annihilation operators

A state with more particles can be described with a collection occupation numbers |n1 n2 n3 i.
So the vacuum state is given by |000 i. This is a complete description because the particles are
indistinguishable. The states are orthonormal:
hn1 n2 n3 |n1 n2 n3

i =

ni ni

i=1

The time-dependent state vector is given by


X
(t) =
cn1 n2 (t)|n1 n2 i
n1 n2

The coefficients c can be interpreted as follows: |cn1 n2 |2 is the probability to find n1 particles
P
with momentum ~k1 , n2 particles with momentum ~k2 , etc., and h(t)|(t)i =
|cni (t)|2 = 1. The
development of the states in time is described by the Schrodinger equation
i

d
|(t)i = H|(t)i
dt

where H = H0 + Hint . H0 is the Hamiltonian for free particles and keeps |cni (t)|2 constant, Hint is
the interaction Hamiltonian and can increase or decrease one c2 at the cost of others.
All operators who can change occupation numbers can be expressed in the operators a and a . a is
the annihilation operator and a the creation operator, and:

a(~ki )|n1 n2 ni i =
ni |n1 n2 ni 1 i

~
ni + 1 |n1 n2 ni + 1 i
a (ki )|n1 n2 ni i =
Because the states are normalized holds a|0i = 0 and a(~ki )a (~ki )|ni i = ni |ni i. So aa is an occupation
number operator. The following commutation rules can be derived:
[a(~ki ), a(~kj )] = 0 ,

[a (~ki ), a (~kj )] = 0 ,
P
hki
So for free spin-0 particles holds: H0 = a (~ki )a(~ki )

[a(~ki ), a (~kj )] = ij

15.2

Classical and quantum fields

Starting with a real field (x) (complex fields can be split in a real and an imaginary part), the
Lagrange density L is a function Rof the position x = (~x, ict) via the fields: L = L( (x), (x)).
3
The Lagrangian is given
x. Using the variational principle I() = 0 and with the
R by L = L(x)d
4
action-integral I() = L( , )d x the field equation can be derived:

L
L

=0

x ( )
85

86

Equations in Physics by ir. J.C.A. Wevers

The conjugated field is, analogous with momentum in classical mechanics, defined as:
(x) =

L(x).
With this, the Hamilton density becomes H(x) =
Quantization of a classical field is analogous to quantization in point mass mechanics: the field
functions are considered as operators obeying certain commutation rules:
[ (~x), (~x )] = 0 ,

15.3

[ (~x), (~x )] = 0 ,

[ (~x), (~x )] = i (~x ~x )

The interaction picture

Some equivalent formulations of quantum mechanics are possible:


1. Schrodinger picture: time-dependent states, time-independent operators.
2. Heisenberg picture: time-independent states, time-dependent operators.
3. Interaction picture: time-dependent states, time-dependent operators.
The interaction picture can be obtained from the Schrodinger picture via an unitary transformation:
S

|(t)i = eiH0 |S (t)i and O(t) = eiH0 OS eiH0


The index

denotes the Schrodinger picture. From this follows:


i

15.4

d
d
|(t)i = Hint (t)|(t)i and i O(t) = [O(t), H0 ]
dt
dt

Real scalar field in the interaction picture

It is easy to find that, with M := m20 c2 /h2 , holds:

(x) = (x) and


(x) = (2 M 2 )(x)
t
t
From this follows that obeys the Klein-Gordon equation (2 M 2 ) = 0. With the definition
k02 = ~k 2 + M 2 := k2 and the notation ~k ~x ik0 t := kx the general solution of this equation is given
by:
q


i X 1 
1 X 1  ~ ikx
~ ikx + a (~k)eikx

a(k)e + a (~k)eikx ; (x) =


(x) =
2 k a(k)e
2k
V ~
V ~
k

The field operators contain a volume V , which is used as normalizing factor. Usually one can take
the limit V .
In general holds that the term with eikx , the positive frequency part, is the creation part, and the
negative frequency part is the annihilation part.

Because is hermitian the coefficients have to be each others hermitian conjugate. Because has
only one component this can be interpreted as a field describing a particle with zero spin. From this
follows that the commutation rules obey [(x), (x )] = i(x x ) with
Z
1
sin(ky) 3
(y) =
d k
(2)3
k
(y) is a odd function which is invariant for proper Lorentz transformations (no mirroring). This
is consistent with the previously found result [(~x, t, (~x , t)] = 0. In general holds that (y) = 0
outside the light cone. So the equations obey the locality postulate.

87

Chapter 15: Quantum field theory & Particle physics

The Lagrange density is given by: L(, ) = 12 ( + m2 2 ). The energy operator is given
by:
Z
X
H = H(x)d3 x =
hk a (~k)a(~k)
~
k

15.5

Charged spin-0 particles, conservation of charge

The Lagrange density of charged spin-0 particles is given by: L = ( + M 2 ).


Noethers theorem connects a continuous symmetry of L and an additive conservation law. Suppose
that L (( ) , ( ) ) = L ( , ) and there exists a continuous transformation between and
like = + f (). Then holds



=0
f
x ( )
This is a continuity equation conservation law. Which quantity is conserved depends on the
symmetry. The above Lagrange density is invariant for a change in phase ei : a global gauge
transformation. The conserved quantity is the current density J (x) = ie( ). Because
this quantity is 0 for real fields a complex field is needed to describe charged particles. When this
field is quantized the field operators are given by


1 X 1  ~ ikx
1 X 1  ~ ikx

(x) =
a(k)e + b (~k)eikx and (x) =
a (k)e + b(~k)eikx
2k
2k
V ~
V ~
k

The energy operator is given by:


H=

X
~
k



hk a (~k)a(~k) + b (~k)b(~k)

and the charge operator follows from:


Z

X 
Q(t) = i J4 (x)d3 x Q =
e a (~k)a(~k) b (~k)b(~k)
~
k

From this follows that a a := N+ (~k) is an occupation number operator for particles with a positive
charge and b b := N (~k) is an occupation number operator for particles with a negative charge.

15.6

Field functions for spin- 21 particles

Spin is defined by the behaviour of the solutions of the Dirac equation. A scalar field has the

property that if it obeys the Klein-Gordon equation also the rotated field (x)
:= (1 x) obeys it.
denotes 4-dimensional rotations: the proper Lorentz transformations. These can be written as:



(x)
= (x)ei~nL with L = ih x
x
x
x
For 3, 3 this are rotations, for = 4, 6= 4 this are Lorentz transformations.

A rotated field obeys the Dirac equation if the following holds: (x)
= D()(1 x). This results
~
1
i~
nS
in the condition D D = . One finds: D = e
with S = i 21 h . So:

(x)
= ei(S+L) (x) = eiJ (x)
The solutions of the Dirac equation are then given by:
(x) = ur (~
p )ei(~p~xEt)

88

Equations in Physics by ir. J.C.A. Wevers

Here, r is an indication for the direction of the spin, and is the sign of the energy. With the
notation v r (~
p ) = ur (~
p ) and ur (~
p ) = ur+ (~
p ) one can write for the dot products of these spinors:

ur+ (~
p )ur+ (~
p)=

E
E
p )ur (~
p)=
p )ur (~
p)=0
rr , ur (~
rr , ur+ (~
M
M

Because of the factor E/M this is not relativistic invariant. A Lorentz-invariant dot product is defined
by ab := a 4 b, where a := a 4 is a row spinor. From this follows:

ur (~
p )ur (~
p ) = rr , v r (~
p )v r (~
p ) = rr , ur (~
p )v r (~
p)=0
Combinations of the type aa give a 4 4 matrix:
2
X

p)=
ur (~
p )ur (~

r=1

2
X
i p + M
i p M
p)=
,
v r (~
p )v r (~
2M
2M
r=1

The Lagrange density resulting in the Dirac equation and has the correct energy normalization is:



+ M (x)
L(x) = (x)
x
and the current density is J (x) = ie .

15.7

Quantization of spin- 21 fields

The general solution for the fieldoperators is in this case:


r

M X 1 X

(x) =
cr (~
p )ur (~
p )eipx + dr (~
p )v r (~
p )eipx
V
E r
p
~
and
(x) =


M X 1 X

cr (~
p )ur (~
p )eipx + dr (~
p )v r (~
p )eipx
V
E r
p
~

Here, c and c are the creation e.g. annihilation operators for an electron and d and d the creation
e.g. annihilation operators for a positron. The energy operator is given by
H=

X
p
~

Ep~

2
X
r=1


p)
cr (~
p )cr (~
p ) dr (~
p )dr (~

To prevent that the energy of positrons is negative the operators must obey anti commutation rules
in stead of commutation rules:
[cr (~
p ), cr (~
p )]+ = [dr (~
p ), dr (~
p )]+ = rr pp , all other anti commutators are 0.
The field operators obey
[ (x), (x )] = 0 , [ (x), (x )] = 0 , [ (x), (x )]+ = iS (x x )



M (x)
with S(x) =
x

The anti commutation rules give except the positive-definite energy also the Pauli exclusion principle
and the Fermi-Dirac statistics: because cr (~
p )cr (~
p ) = cr (~
p )cr (~
p ) holds: {cr (p)}2 = 0. It appears
to be not possible to create two electrons with the same momentum and spin. This is the exclusion
principle. An other method to see this is the fact that {Nr+ (~
p )}2 = Nr+ (~
p ): the occupation operators
have only eigenvalues 0 and 1.
To avoid infinite vacuum contributions to the energy and charge the normal product is introduced.
The expression for the current density now becomes J = ieN ( ). This product is obtained by:

Chapter 15: Quantum field theory & Particle physics

89

Expand all fields to creation and annihilation operators,


Keep all terms who have no annihilation operators, or in which they are at the right of the
creation operators,
In all other terms interchange the factors so that the annihilation operators go to the right. By
an interchange of two fermion operators add a sign, by interchange of two boson operators
not. Assume hereby that all commutators are 0.

15.8

Quantization of the electromagnetic field

Starting with the Lagrange density L = 21

A A
x x

follows for the field operators A(x):


4

1 X 1 X

A(x) =
am (~k)m (~k)eikx + a (~k)m (~k) eikx
2k m=1
V ~
k

The operators obey [am (~k), am (~k)] = mm kk . All other commutators are 0. m gives the polarization
direction of the photon: m = 1, 2 gives transversal polarized, m = 3 longitudinal polarized and m = 4
timelike polarized photons. Further holds:
[A (x), A (x )] = i D(x x ) with D(y) = (y)|m=0
In spite of the fact that A4 = iV is imaginary in the classical case, A4 is still defined to be hermitian
because otherwise the sign of the energy becomes incorrect. By changing the definition of the inner
product in configuration space the expectation values for A1,2,3 (x) IR and for A4 (x) imaginary.
If the potentials satisfy the Lorentz gauge condition A = 0 the E and B operators derived
from these potentials will satisfy the Maxwell equations. However, this gives problems with the
commutation rules. There is now demanded that only those states are permitted for which holds
A+

|i = 0
x
This results in:

A
x

= 0.

From this follows that (a3 (~k) a4 (~k))|i = 0. With a local gauge transformation one obtains
N3 (~k) = 0 and N4 (~k) = 0. However, this only applies for free EM-fields: in intermediary states in
interactions there can exist longitudinal and timelike photons. These photons are also responsible for
the stationary Coulomb potential.

15.9

Interacting fields and the S-matrix

The S(scattering)-matrix gives a relation between the initial and final states for an interaction:
|()i = S|()i. If the Schrodinger equation is integrated:
|(t)i = |()i i

Zt

Hint (t1 )|(t1 )idt1

and perturbation theory is applied one finds that:


Z
Z

X
X
(i)n
T {Hint (x1 ) Hint (xn )} d4 x1 d4 xn
S (n)
S=
n!
n=0
n=0

90

Equations in Physics by ir. J.C.A. Wevers

Here, the T -operator means a time-ordened product: the terms in such a product must be oredned in
increasing time order from the right to the left so that the earliest terms work first. The S-matrix is
then given by: Sij = hi |S|j i = hi |()i.

The interaction Hamilton density for the interaction between the electromagnetic and the electronpositron field is: Hint (x) = J (x)A (x) = ieN ( A )



When this is expanded as: Hint = ieN ( + + ) ( + + )(A+


+ A )

eight terms appear. Each term corresponds with a possible process. The term ie + + A
working
+
+ annihilates a
on |i gives transitions where A
creates
a
photon,

annihilates
an
electron
and

positron. Only terms with the correct number of particles in the initial and final state contribute to
a matrixelement hi |S|j i. Further the factors in Hint can create and thereafter annihilate particles:
the virtual particles.
The expressions for S (n) contain time-ordened products of normal products. This can be written
as a sum of normal products. The appearing operators describe the minimal changes necessary to
change the initial state in the final state. The effects of the virtual particles are described by the
(anti)commutator functions. Some time-ordened products are:
T {(x)(y)}
o
n
T (x) (y)

T {A (x)A (y)}

= N {(x)(y)} + 12 F (x y)
n
o
F
(x y)
= N (x) (y) 21 S

F
= N {A (x)A (y)} + 21 D
(x y)

Here, S F (x) = ( M )F (x), DF (x) = F (x)|m=0 and

Z ikx
1
e

d3 k

~k
(2)
F (x) =
Z ikx

e
1

d3 k
(2)3
~k

if x0 > 0

if x0 < 0

The term 21 F (x y) is called the contraction of (x) and (y), and is the expectation value of the
time-ordened product in the vacuum state. Wicks theorem gives an expression for the time-ordened
product of an arbitrary number of field operators. The graphical representation of these processes
are called Feynman diagrams. In the x-representation each diagram describes a number of processes.
The contraction functions can also be written as:
Z
Z
eikx
2i
i p M 4
2i
4
F
F
d k and S (x) = lim
d p
(x) = lim
eipx 2
2
2
4
0
0 (2)4
k + m i
(2)
p + M 2 i
In the expressions for S (2) this gives rise to terms (p + k p k ). This means that energy and
momentum is conserved. However, virtual particles do not obey the relation between energy and
momentum.

15.10

Divergences and renormalization

It turns out that higher order contribute infinitely much because only the sum p + k of the fourmomentum of the virtual particles is fixed. An integration over one of both becomes . In the
x-representation this can be understood because the product of two functions containing -like singularities is not well defined. This is solved by discounting all divergent diagrams in a renormalization
of e and M . It is assumed that an electron, if there would not be an electromagnetical field, would
have a mass M0 and a charge e0 unequal to the observed mass M and charge e. In the Hamilton and
Lagrange density of the free electron-positron field appears M0 . So this gives, with M = M0 + M :
Lep (x) = (x)( + M0 )(x) = (x)( + M )(x) + M (x)(x)
and Hint = ieN ( A ) ieN ( A ).

91

Chapter 15: Quantum field theory & Particle physics

15.11

Classification of elementary particles

Elementary particles can be categorized as follows:


1. Hadrons: these exists of quarks, and can be categorized in:
I. Baryons: these exists of 3 quarks or 3 antiquarks.
II. Mesons: these exists of one quark and one antiquark.
2. Leptons: e , , , e , , , e , , .
3. Field quanta: , W , Z0 , gluons, gravitons (?).
An overview is given in the following table:
Particle
u
d
s
c
b
t
e

spin (
h)
1/2
1/2
1/2
1/2
1/2
1/2
1/2
1/2
1/2
1/2
1/2
1/2

B
1/3
1/3
1/3
1/3
1/3
1/3
0
0
0
0
0
0

L
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1

T
1/2
1/2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

T3
1/2
1/2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

S
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

C
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

B
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

charge (e)
2/3
1/3
1/3
2/3
1/3
2/3
1
1
1
0
0
0

m0 (MeV)
5
8
175
1270
4200
170000
0,511
105,7
1784
0(?)
0(?)
0(?)

antipart.
u
d
s
c
b
t
e+
+
+
e

Where B is the baryon number and L the lepton number. It is found that there are three different
lepton numbers, one for e, and . T is the isospin, with T3 the projection of the isospin on the third
axis, C the charmness, S the strangeness and B the bottomness. The anti particles have quantum
numbers with the opposite sign except for the total isospin T. The hadrons are as follows composed
from (anti)quarks:
0
+

K0
K0
K+
K
D+
D
D0
D0
F+
F

1
2

2(uu+dd)
ud
du
sd
ds
us
su
cd
dc
cu
uc
cs
sc

J/
T
p+
p
n0
n0

0
0

cc
bb
uud
uud
udd
udd
uds
uds
uus
uus
uds
uds
dds

+
0
0

+
+
c
2
2+
+
0

dds
uss
uss
dss
dss
sss
sss
udc
uuu
uuu
uud
udd
ddd

Each quark can exist is two spin states. So mesons are bosons with spin 0 or 1 while baryons are
fermions with spin 21 or 23 .
The quantum numbers are subject to conservation laws. These can be derived from symmetries in the
Lagrange density: continuous symmetries give rise to additive conservation laws, discrete symmetries
result in multiplicative conservation laws.
Geometrical conservation laws are invariant under Lorentz transformations and the CPT-operation.
These are:

92

Equations in Physics by ir. J.C.A. Wevers

1. Mass/energy because the laws of nature are invariant for translations in time.
2. Momentum because the laws of nature are invariant for translations in space.
3. Angular momentum because the laws of nature are invariant for rotations.
Dynamical conservation laws are invariant under the CPT-operation. These are:
1. Electrical charge because the Maxwell equations are invariant under gauge transformations.
2. Color charge is conserved.
3. Isospin because QCD is invariant for rotations in T-space.
4. Baryon number and lepton number are conserved but not under a possible SU(5) symmetry of
the laws of nature.
5. Quarks type is only conserved under the color interaction.
6. Parity is conserved except for weak interactions.
The elementary particles can be classified into three families:
leptons

quarks

antileptons

antiquarks

1st generation

e
e

d
u

e
e

d
u

2nd generation

s
c

s
c

3rd generation

b
t

b
t

Quarks exist in three colors but because they are confined these colors can not be seen directly. The
color force does not decrease with distance. The potential energy shall be high enough to create a
quark-antiquark pair when it is tried to free an (anti)quark from a hadron. This will result in two
hadrons and not in free quarks.

15.12

P and CP-violation

It is found that the weak interaction violates P-symmetry, and even CP-symmetry is not conserved.
Some processes which violate P symmetry but conserve the combination CP are:
1. -decay: e + + e . Left-handed electrons appear more than 1000 as much as
right-handed ones.
2. -decay of spin-polarized 60 Co: 60 Co 60 Ni + e + e . More electrons with a spin parallel to
the Co than with a spin antiparallel are created: (parallelantiparallel)/(total)=20%.
3. There is no connection with the neutrino: the decay of the particle via: p+ + and
n0 + 0 has also these properties.
The CP-symmetry was found to be violated at the decay of neutral Kaons. This are the lowest
possible states with a s-quark so they can decay only weak. The following holds: C|K0 i = |K0 i
where is a phase factor. Further holds P|K0 i = |K0 i because K0 and K0 have an intrinsic parity
of 1. From this follows that K0 and K0 are not eigenvalues of CP: CP|K0 i = |K0 i. The linear
combinations

|K01 i := 21 2(|K0 i + |K0 i) and |K02 i := 12 2(|K0 i |K0 i)


are eigenstates of CP: CP|K01 i = +|K01 i and CP|K02 i = |K02 i. A base of K01 and K02 is practical while
describing weak interactions. For color interactions a base of K0 and K0 is practical because then the
number unumber u is constant. The expansion postulate must be used for weak decays:
|K0 i = 12 (hK01 |K0 i + hK02 |K0 i)

93

Chapter 15: Quantum field theory & Particle physics


The probability
to find a final state with CP= 1 is 12 | K02 |K0 |2 , the probability on CP=+1 decay


is 21 | K01 |K0 |2 .
The relation between the mass eigenvalues of the quarks (unaccented) and the fields arising in the
weak currents (accented) is (u , c , t ) = (u, c, t), and:

d
1
0
0
1 0 0
cos 1
sin 1 0
s = 0 cos 2
sin 2 0 1 0 sin 1 cos 1 0

b
0 0 ei
0 sin 2 cos 2
0
0
1

1
0
0
d
0 cos 3
sin 3 s
0 sin 3 cos 3
b
1 C is the Cabibbo angle: sin(C ) 0, 23 0, 01.

15.13

The standard model

When one wants to make the Lagrange density which describes a field invariant for local gauge
transformations from a certain group one has to perform the transformation
D

=
i Lk Ak
x
Dx
x

h
Here the Lk are the generators of the gauge group (the charges) and the Ak are the gauge fields.
g is the applying coupling constant. The Lagrange density for a scalar field becomes:
a
L = 21 (D D + M 2 ) 41 F
Fa
a
and the field tensors are given by: F
= Aa Aa + gcalm Al Am
.

15.13.1

The electroweak theory

The electroweak interaction arises from the necessity to keep the Lagrange density invariant for
local gauge transformations of the group SU(2)U(1). Right and left-handed spin states are treated
different because the weak interaction does not conserve parity. If a fifth Dirac matrix is defined by:

0 0 1 0
0 0 0 1

5 := 1 2 3 4 =
1 0 0 0
0 1 0 0

the left and right handed solutions of the Dirac equation for neutrinos are given by:
L = 12 (1 + 5 )

and R = 12 (1 5 )

It appears that neutrinos are always left-handed while antineutrinos are always right-handed. The
hypercharge Y , for quarks given by Y = B + S + C + B + T , is defined by:
Q = 12 Y + T3
so [Y, Tk ] = 0. The group U(1)Y SU(2)T is taken as symmetry group for the electroweak interaction
because the generators of this group commute. The multiplets are classified as follows:

e
R

eL e
L

uL dL

uR

dR

1
2

1
2

4
3

23

T3

1
2

1
2

1
2

1
3

1
2

94

Equations in Physics by ir. J.C.A. Wevers

~ (x) are connected with


Now, 1 field B (x) is connected with gauge group U(1) and 3 gauge fields A
SU(2). The total Lagrange density (minus the fieldterms) for a scalar field now becomes:




g~
e,L

1 g
1
L0,EZ = (e,L , eL ) i A ( 2 ~ ) 2 i B (1)

eL
h
h


g
eR 21 i (2)B eR
h

Here, 21 ~ are the generators of T and 1 and 2 the generators of Y .

15.13.2

Spontaneous symmetry breaking

All leptons are massless in the equations above. Their mass is probably generated by spontaneous
symmetry breaking. This means that the dynamic equations which describe the system have a symmetry which the ground state does not have. It is assumed that there exist an isospin-doublet of
scalar fields with electrical charges +1 and 0. (Their antiparticles have charges 1 and 0). The
extra terms in L arising from these fields are globally U(1)SU(2) symmetrical. Further it is assumed
that the state with the lowest energy corresponds with the state (x) =constant. The state on which
the system fluctuates is chosen so that
 


+
0
h
i


=
hi =
hvi
0
Because of this expectation value 6= 0 the SU(2) symmetry is broken but the U(1) symmetry is not.
When the gaugefields in the resulting Lagrange density are separated one obtains:

W = 12 2(A1 + iA2 ) , W+ = 12 2(A1 iA2 )


Z

gA3 g B
p
A3 cos(W ) B sin(W )
g 2 + g 2
g A3 + gB
p
A3 sin(W ) + B cos(W )
g 2 + g 2

where W is called the Weinberg angle. For this angle holds: sin2 (W ) = 0, 255 0, 010. From
the remaining terms can relations for the masses of the field quanta be obtained: MW = 12 vg and
p
gg
= g cos(W ) = g sin(W )
MZ = 21 v g 2 + g 2 , and for the elementary charge holds: e = p
g 2 + g 2
Experimentally it is found that MW = 80, 9 1, 5 GeV/c2 and MZ = 95, 6 1, 4 GeV/c2 . according
to the weak theory this should be: MW = 83, 0 0, 24 GeV/c2 and MZ = 93, 8 2, 0 GeV/c2 .

15.13.3

Quantumchromodynamics

Colored particles interact because the Lagrange density is invariant for the transformations of the
group SU(3) of the color interaction. A distinction can be made between two kinds of particles:
1. White particles: they have no color charge, the generator T~ = 0.
2. Colored particles: the generators T~ are 8 3 3 matrices. There exist three colors and three
anticolors.
The Lagrange density for colored particles is given by
X
X
a
LQCD = i
Fa
k D k +
k Mkl l 41 F
k

k,l

The gluons remain massless because this Lagrange density does not contain spinless particles. Because
left- and right handed quarks now belong to the same multiplet a mass term can be introduced. This
term can be brought in the form Mkl = mk kl .

Chapter 15: Quantum field theory & Particle physics

15.14

95

Pathintegrals

The development in time of a quantummechanical system can, except with Schrodingers equation,
also be described with a pathintegral (Feynman):
Z
(x , t ) = F (x , t , x, t)(x, t)dx
in which F (x , t , x, t) is the amplitude of probability to find a system on time t in x if it was in x
on time t. Then,


Z
iS[x]

F (x , t , x, t) = exp
d[x]
h
R
where S[x] is an action-integral: S[x] = L(x, x,
t)dt. The notation d[x] means that the integral has
to be taken over all possible paths [x]:

Z
Z

1 Y
dx(tn )
d[x] := lim
n N

in which N a normalization constant is. To each path is assigned a probability amplitude exp(iS/h).
The classical limit can be found by taking S = 0: the average of the exponent vanishes, except
where he is stationary. In quantumvfieldtheory, the probability of the transition of a fieldoperator
(~x, ) to (~x, ) is given by


Z
iS[]

d[]
F ( (~x, ), (~x, )) = exp
h
with the action-integral
S[] =

L(, )d4 x

Chapter 16

Astrophysics
16.1

Determination of distances

To determine distances in the near space, the parallax is mostly used. The parallax is the angular
difference between two measurements of the position of the object from different views. If the annual
parallax is given by p, the distance R of the object is given by R = a/ sin(p), in which a is the radius
of Earths orbit. The clusterparallax is used to determine the distance of a group of stars by using
their motion w.r.t a fixed background. The tangential velocity vt and the radial velocity vr of the
stars along the sky are given by
vr = V cos()

vt = V sin() = R

where is the angle between the star and the point of convergence and
the distance in pc. This results, with vt = vr tan(), in:
R
R=

vr tan()
= 1
R

where p is the parallax in arch seconds. The parallax is then given by


p=

4, 74
vr tan()

-5
-4
hM i -3
-2
-1

Type 1

Type 2

0
1

RR-Lyrae
0,1 0,3 1

3 10 30 100

P (days)

with de self motion of the star in /yr. A method to determine the distance of objects which are
somewhat further away, like galaxies and star clusters, uses the period-Brightness relation between
Cepheids. This relation is shown in the above figure for different types of stars.

16.2

Brightnes and magnitudes

The brightness is the total radiated energy per unit of time. Earth receives s0 = 1, 374 kW/m2 from
the Sun. So, the brightness of the Sun is given by L = 4r2 s0 = 3, 82 1026 W. It is also given by:
L =

2
4R

F d

where F is the monochromatic radiation flux. On the position of an observer this is f , with
f = (R/r)2 F if absorption is ignored. If the fraction of the flux which reaches Earths surface is
called A , the transmission factor is given by R and the surface of the detector is given by a2 , the
apparent brightness b is given by:
Z
2
f A R d
b = a
0

The magnitude m is defined by:


b1
1
= (100) 5 (m2 m1 ) = (2, 512)m2 m1
b2
96

97

Chapter 16: Astrophysics

because the human eye perceives lightintensities logaritmical. From this follows that m2 m1 =
2, 5 10 log(b1 /b2 ), or: m = 2, 5 10 log(b) + C. The apparent brightness of a star if this star would be
at a distance of 10 pc is called the absolute brightness B: B/b = (
r /10)2 . The absolute magnitude is
10
10
then given by M = 2, 5 log(B) + C, or: M = 5 + m 5 log(
r ). When an interstellar absorption
of 104 /pc is taken into account one finds:
M = (m 4 104 r) + 5 5 10 log(
r)
If a detector detects all radiation emitted by a source one would measure the absolute bolometric
magnitude. If the bolometric correction BC is given by


 R

f d
Energy flux received
10
10
= 2, 5 log R
BC = 2, 5 log
Energy flux registered
f A R d

holds: Mb = MV BC where MV is the visual magnitude. Further holds




L
10
Mb = 2, 5 log
+ 4, 72
L

16.3

Radiation and stellar atmospheres

The radiation energy passing through a surface dA is dE = I () cos()dddAdt, where I is


the monochromatical intensity [Wm2 sr1 Hz1 ]. When there is no absorption is the quantity I
independent of the distance to the source. Plancks law holds for a black body:
I (T ) B (T ) =

1
2h 3
c
w (T ) = 2
4
c exp(h/kT ) 1

The radiation transport through a layer can than be written as:


dI
= I + j
ds
R
Here, j is the coefficient of emission and the coefficient of Rabsorption. ds is the thickness of
the layer. The optical thickness of the layer is given by = ds. The layer is optically thin if
1, the layer is optically thick as 1. For a stellar atmosphere in LTE holds: j = B (T ).
Then also holds:
I (s) = I (0)e + B (T )(1 e )

16.4

Composition and evolution of stars

The construction of a star is described by the following equations:


dM (r)
dr
dp(r)
dr
L(r)
dr

dT (r)
dr

 stral
dT (r)
dr
conv

4(r)r2

4(r)(r)r2

GM (r)(r)
r2

3 L(r) (r)
, (Eddington), or
4 4r2 4T 3 (r)
T (r) 1 dp(r)
, (convective energy transport)
p(r)
dr

Further, for stars of the solar type, the composing plasma can be described as an ideal gas:
p(r) =

(r)kT (r)
mH

98

Equations in Physics by ir. J.C.A. Wevers

where is the average molecular mass, usually well approximated by:


=

=
3
nmH
2X + 4 Y + 21 Z

where X is the mass fraction of H is, Y the mass fraction of He and Z the mass fraction of the other
elements. Further holds:
(r) = f ((r), T (r), composition) and (r) = g((r), T (r), composition)
Convection will occur when the star meets the Schwartzschild criterium:
 
 
dT
dT
<
dr conv
dr stral
Otherwise the energy transfer shall be by radiation. For stars in quasi-hydrostatic equilibrium hold
the approximations r = 21 R, M (r) = 21 M , dM/dr = M/R, and T (this last assumption
is only valid for stars on the main sequence). For pp-chains holds 5 and for the CNO chaines
holds = 12 tot 18. It can be derived that L M 3 : the mass-brightness relation. Further holds:
8
L R4 Teff
. This results in the equation of the main sequence in the Hertzsprung-Russel diagram:
10

16.5

log(L) = 8 10 log(Teff ) + constant

Energy production in stars

The net reaction from which most stars gain their energy is: 41 H 4 He + 2e+ + 2e + .
This reaction produces 26,72 MeV. Two reaction chains are responsible for this reaction. The slowest,
speed-limiting reaction is shown in boldface. The energy between brackets is the energy cried away
by the neutrino.
1. The proton-proton chain can be divided in two subchains:
1
H + p+ 2 D + e+ + e , and then 2 D + p 3 He + .
I. pp1: 3 He +3 He 2p+ +4 He. There is 26,21 + (0,51) MeV released.

II. pp2: 3 He + 7 Be +

i. 7 Be + e 7 Li + , dan 7 Li + p+ 24 He + . 25,92 + (0,80) MeV.


ii. 7 Be + p+ 8 B + , dan 8 B + e+ 24 He + . 19,5 + (7,2) MeV.

Both 7 Be chains become more important with raising T .

2. The CNO cycle. The first chain releases 25,03 + (1,69) MeV, the second 24,74 + (1,98) MeV.
The reactions are shown below.

15

O + e+

14
N + p+

15

N+

15

O+

N + p+ +12 C

12
C + p+ 13 N +

13
N 13 C + e+ +

13
C + p+ 14 N +

15

15

N + p+ 16 O +

16
O + p+ 17 F +

17
F 17 O + e+ +

17
O + p+ +14 N