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# HALOCHEMICALS

BASIC LOOP
DYNAMICS COURSE

Fiona M Coulthard
Philip W Masding

AIMS OF THE COURSE
After this course you should be able to ...
Understand the dynamics of a simple loop
Tune straightforward loops quickly and effectively
Appreciate why a loop might be difficult to tune

The controllers view of the process
Most processes have similar characteristics which can be described
as first order plus deadtime i.e. the response of the measurement to
a step change in actuation (valve position) looks like this

Describing the process to the
controller
Need to give the controller 4 pieces of
information :
How much the measurement changes (Gain)
How long before it starts to move
How long it takes to steady out
(Time constant)
How quickly you want it to move back to setpoint

Process Gain Gain is defined as the steady state change in measured variable divided by the change in actuator that caused it Actuator ∆VP% K= ∆ΜV% ∆VP% Measured Variable ∆MV% .

i. Gain = y change in measured variable x change in actuator Example of Process Gain: 1. Push accelerator down 10cm in a Citroen 2CV and the speed increases from 40mph to 45mph.5 10cm GAIN = 30mph = 3 10cm So the process gain of the Porsche 911 is 6 times that of the 2CV. 2. Push accelerator down 10cm in a Porsche 911 and the speed increases from 40mph to 70mph. 10cm on the accelerator will give a greater increase in speed at 30mph than at 90mph .PROCESS GAIN The ratio of the change in measured variable that results from a change in process actuator. NOTE: This process gain may vary dependant on operating point.e. GAIN = 5mph = 0.

a measure of how long it takes the process to reach a new steady state after the initial change is detected Hot Water Valve Hot Water Flow Bath Temperature .Process Dynamics : Time Constant Time Constant or lag τ .

The lag determines the speed of response of a control loop. HOT TAP OPENED Flow of hot water increases very fast Temperature of cold bath changes more slowly Temperature of bathroom increases very slowly.LAG This is found from the characteristics of the process. ( τ = Speed of response) . Examples of increasing lags: 1. HOT TAP OPENED 3. HOT TAP OPENED 2. A lag is the speed at which a process responds to change and is mainly determined by the process.

How long does it take for the initial change in measured variable to be detected after the occurrence of the actuator change θ Measurement .Process Dynamics : Dead Time Deadtime (θ).

Time for a change in temperature to reach a downstream thermocouple. Sources of Dead Time: 1. .DEAD TIME This is the period of time during which nothing happens after a change has been made in the process. If material is added at one end. Example of Dead Time: A conveyor belt. Sample line on an analyser 2. there is a fixed period of time before this material appears at the other end of the conveyor.

How much temperature finally changes Lag .How quickly temperature responds Delay .How long before any change in temperature is seen 2 .SIMPLE PROCESS DYNAMICS Cold Water Steam Water in tank causes lag Length of pipe causes deadtime TI Open steam valve and see what happens to temperature 50°C 63% of 5°C TEMP 45°C 0 dead time lag 1 Time (minutes) Process Gain .

What is your control objective? It is important that the loop is designed and tuned to do what you want Do you want to be able to control at very low rates as well as high ones? Do you want a vessel to be used as a buffer tank? Do you want to reject disturbances or respond to setpoint changes? .

Control Loop Disturbance + error output Controller Setpoint Valve Process Value Measurement Signal Transmission Process + + .

eliminate offset . Speeds up controller action. This is usually called PID control .Bring controlled variable all the way to setpoint .Computing the Control Signal Three basic modes or actions of feedback control Proportional Integral Derivative Causes an instantaneous response to error .Responds to the rate of change of error.

PB = 100 Kc Example: Kc 0.0 5.PROPORTIONAL ACTION error Kc Kc x error Kc Controller gain PB (Proportional Band) is the range over which the error must change in order to drive the controller output over its full range.4 1.0 PB 250% 100% 20% .

INTEGRAL ACTION error Kc error 1 TI time integral sum time DEFINITION OF INTEGRAL TIME (TI) TI= time for integral component to equal proportional component for constant error step error Integral component P+I Proportional component TI edt .

INTEGRAL ACTION FEATURES: Integral action introduces a time lag to the control Integral action is essential to remove offset from setpoint NB: Units can be repeats / min = 1 TI (mins) .

error=constant slope Proportional component Derivative component P+D TD .DERIVATIVE ACTION error DERIVATIVE Kc x TD x de dt error time derivative action time DEFINITION OF DERIVATIVE TIME (TD) TD = time for proportional component to equal derivative component for a constant slope error.

DERIVATIVE ACTION FEATURES: Not recommended for noisy signals such as flow Useful for processes with long time lags where 'prediction' is required .

Integral & Derivative constants to put into the controller to give it the right control action for that control loop .Controller Tuning Controller tuning is about getting the Proportional.

Open Loop and others .Quarter decay OPEN LOOP METHODS Brambilla Cohen Coon Zeigler Nichols .DIFFERENT TUNING TECHNIQUES CLOSED LOOP METHODS Zeigler Nichols Zeigler Nichols .Continuous oscillation .

63 ∆MV θ time τ K = ∆MV% = change in transmitter output % ∆VP% change in controller output% . θ and τ from step response ∆VP % ∆MV 0.OPEN LOOP STEP TEST TUNING PLANT IDENTIFICATION Basis: The plant can be modelled by −θs ∆ ΜV(s) Ke = ∆ VP(s) 1+τs Determine K.

Choose a reasonable closed loop response time (B). where B> τ 3 We recommend that B >= τ (lower values of B make the controller susceptible to measurement noise).BRAMBILLA TUNING METHOD 1. Closed loop response to set-point changes θ Calculate gains Gain Kc = τ+θ/2 K(B+θ) time B Integral time Ti = τ + θ / 2 Derivative time Td = τθ 2τ + θ .

For fast loops other checks are possible. Make sure the step test is the right size Avoid a big step that will cause alarms or trips Make sure step is large enough to produce a change in measured variable which is significantly bigger than any noise. After making the step keep a note of the time and process variable readings then draw the graph and calculate the gains. If the loop is unstable then stability must be achieved in manual. Is gain scheduling needed ? 7. Start by allowing the process to stabilise with the loop to be tuned in automatic.does it show excessive backlash ? Check for linearity across the whole range of valve positions. 3. 6. The total valve movement used by the controller to reach the new set-point is the size of step you need. For slow loops only a single test may be possible. This should allow the initial process state to be restored if necessary.NOTES OF THE APPLICATION OF THE BRAMBILLA TUNING METHOD 1. If the measurement seems to oscillate even with the controller in manual then other poorly tuned loops are probably the cause and should be either tuned first or put in manual. 5. For fast loops the time constant is easily estimated by noting the 2 steady states before and after the step input. With the loop in automatic and using the old settings ( if they are stable ! ) change the set-point by the agreed amount and wait for the loop to stabilise at the new value. . Move the valve back and forward between 2 settings . 4. Note down the stable values of valve position and measured variable. Impress on operators that during the step test no other changes should be made to the process unless absolutely necessary. Then calculate the process variable valve at the 63% point and repeat the test noting specifically the time taken to reach that point. If you don't know what size of step will produce a significant response then decide on an allowable change in process variable. 2.

If the process is slow then control must be slow If the process is fast then the control can be fast .Limitations on Control The Brambilla rule allows you to chose the speed of closed loop response but there are practical limits: A control loop cannot act faster than the process. the measurement and the control valves will allow.

accuracy. Problems can include Valve stiction / hysterisis / saturation Measeurement problems . calibration etc Interaction with another loop Process can't be controlled any faster Process problems (eg heat exchanger fouled) Signal transmission problems .Loop Tuning isn't Always the Answer Poor loop performance isn't always due to poor tuning.

KOH PLANT PRESSURE CONTROL Steam out 1st Evaporator KOH out PIC Steam Injector / mixer D300 Steam KOH in .

45 bar -0.3 bar 80 secs -1.5 ∆P bar Offsets at time 0 removed pressure 0 0.5 1.5% -1 Valve position -2 0 10 20 30 40 Samples (16 secs / sample) 50 60 .KOH PLANT CONTROL STEP TEST 0.5 ∆VP % 0.

4 -0.1 Pressure -0.KOH PLANT CLOSED LOOP PERFORMANCE Offsets at time 0 removed 0.5 0 10 20 40 30 Samples (16 secs / sample) 50 60 .2 ∆VP -0.3 % -0.1 0 Setpoint ∆P bar -0.

Reduces period of oscillation Maximum contribution is not realised Derivative too low Correct derivative Derivative too high .Effect on response Mode Proportional Contribution Stable control with minimum offset and minimum period of oscillation consistent with stability Too Much Stability decreases Too Little More stable Longer period Larger offset Offset LOW GAIN 1/4 DECAY HIGH GAIN Eliminates offset Integral Stability decreases Period of oscillation increases Time for variable to return to set point increases Integral too low correct integral Integral too high Derivative Increases stability permitting Stability Decreases larger values of gain and reset to be used.Process noise in amplified Reduces height of first peak.

output is flow controller setpoint .CASCADE CONTROL Outer Temperature Control Loop Flow Setpoint TC FC Inner flow control loop Cascade controller: Inner loop holds steam flow steady Outer loop controls temperature.

EFFECT OF CASCADE CONTROL Response to change in steam pressure Mixer Temperature Control Temperature 40.5 40 No cascade control Cascade control 39.5 0 10 Time (Minutes) 20 .

CASCADE CONTROL TUNING EXERCISE The Whitehouse software simulates a temperature control system on an oil fired heater. The operating principle is the same as the cascade system on a distillation column shown here: TIC Remote Set-Point Column FIC Reboiler Slave Loop Steam Flow Range 0 .500kg / hr Master Loop Temperature Range 200 -500ºC .

Perform the step test θ ∆MV ∆t 2. Warning: if θ > B then overshoot from setpoint can be large 4 4. A small value of B gives very tight level control. Similar rules still apply though. (dependant on individual requirements). ∆VP% 1. B can be increased until the required balance between good level control vs rejection of upstream disturbances is achieved. Estimate process gain Time K= ∆MV x 100 range ∆t ∆VP% 3. Choose B where B > 1k + θ. but passes on upstream disturbances. Calculate gains Kc= 2 BK Ti = 2B Derivative not needed for level control .LEVEL CONTROLLER TUNING Open loop methods such as Brambilla cannot be used for level controllers because the step response is a ramp.

LEVEL CONTROL NOTES 1 AVERAGING LEVEL Proportional Gain Only Kc min = PB=100 Kc min 100.e error is replaced by e.d f = max flow disturbance expected F = max vol flow through valve d = difference (%) between setpoint and closest alarm ERROR SQUARED ALGORITHM Error squared algorithm may be useful.lel + 1 Ti e.f F. TYPICALLY OP=Kc (e.lel ) i.lel .

10 mins IT = 1 K .8Kmax Any dead time may require gain reduction High gain (PB<100%).h F Using the experimental procedure for measuring the process gain K equivalent formulae Kmax = 1 KB Kc = 0.A F.8K h = measurement range A = C/S area F = Max vol flow through valve B = Response time max IT = A.LEVEL CONTROL NOTES 2 TIGHT LEVEL CONTROL K max = h. IT approx.B Kc = 0.

averaging and tight rules to tune it Compare results Inlet flow range 0-100m3/hr LC2 FC2 Tank volume 5m³ Slave Loop Flow Range 0 .100m3/hr . Use the open loop step test.LEVEL CONTROLLER TUNING EXERCISE The Whitehouse software simulates a level control system.

FAILINGS OF TRADITIONAL PID CONTROL DIFFICULT PLANT DYNAMICS non linearity inverse response TIME DELAYS PROCESS CHANGES WITH TIME catalyst ageing heat exchange fouling INTERACTIONS WITHIN THE PLANT CONTROL STRATEGY NEEDS TO CHANGE WITH TIME market conditions change PRESENCE OF PLANT OPERATING CONSTRAINTS .

6 1.2 1.2 0.4 0.8 1.6 0.0 1.4 1.0 1 Moles of Caustic / Moles of Acid .8 2.pH is an example of a highly non-linear process pH 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 0 0.

INVERSE RESPONSE 100% Valve Position 0 Initially moves in "inverse" direction to its final response Measured Variable Final response Measured variable responds first in the opposite direction to the final response .

g Model Based Predictive Control. then even the best 3 term controller tuning expert will be unable to tune this control loop without additional help e.TIME DELAY PU = Process uncontrollability parameter Pu = θ τ Deadtime Process time constant If PU > 10.0 Note: for digital systems PU = ( Ts = sample time ) θ + Τs / 2 τ . Smith Predictors. Performance generally poor for Pu > 1.

INTERACTIONS DEFINITION:When one controller on auto affects another controller causing one/both to oscillate FC ETHYLENE 2A/2B PC .