You are on page 1of 389

POLICING THE
POLICE
ENLARGED SECOND EDITION

PRAVEEN KUMAR

Published Works of Praveen Kumar

Policing for the New Age
Policing the Police
Indian Police
Inside India
Policing the Police 2 Edn
Unknown Horizons
Portraits of Passion
Love & Pride
Simply Yours
Shobha Priya
Golden Wonder
Celestial Glow
Divya Belaku
Bhavana
Priya Chaitra Tapasvini
Ananya Priya Lavanya
Priya Geethegalu
Tapasvini

Lovingly Dedicated To
SHOBHA

FOREWORD

Police police the people. Who police the police? How? The answer lies in 'Policing
the Police'. As the author says in an article in thi work, "Policing the police involves selfpolicing".This work delves deeply on this core aspect of policing and lays bare the extant
Indian Police setup, sheath by sheath, with the precision of a master surgeon, only to
rebuild it from the scratches with the right essence of professionalism, commitment and
zeal. It is an abundantly readable magnum opus of the author and a valuable reference for
understanding the pathology and the epinosic dynamics with which the present Indian
Police suffer and identifies likely solutions for its redemption. I am sure that this scholarly
work serves as a ready-reckoner for both police professionals and common readers.
This book stands out for the highest regard it holds for policing as a profession and the
paracute critique it makes of its practices in India. The UPSC also comes under its critical
gaze for its dull – witted performance.
This book has another dimension. It, in certain aspects, interprets police and policing
through the prism of a poet's sensibilities with idealistic interpretations.The author's close
association with events in police and his close observations in the police world for nearly
a quarter of a century brings authenticity to whatever he says or analyses. The sensibilities
of the author as a poet with nearly half a dozen books of poems from him in Kannada and
English render his observations and analyses of police and policing highly refreshing and
interesting.

Bangalore,

Pratheek Praveen Kumar

PREFACE

"Policing the Police" is a sequel to my earlier book ‘Policing for the new age'. Most of the
articles of the present book were already published in various newspapers including The
Hindu, The Indian Express, TheTimes of India and Deccan Herald and various periodicals
and journals like Alive and The Indian Journal of Criminology and Criminalistics. All those
articles are reproduced in this book as in the original publications with the names of the
respective newspapers, periodicals and journals indicated. Some of the responses from the
readers to the original publications are also reproduced at the end of the respective articles. I
gratefully acknowledge the contribution of the editors of each of these newspapers,
periodicals and journals, especially The Hindu, The Indian Express and Alive, in producing
this work. And also those readers who responded to the articles through the columns of the
newspapers and periodicals.
Care is taken to emphasise certain core aspects of the discussion and analyses, by figuring
them in more than one article, depending on the importance, to convey across ideas with
right emphasis. It is hoped that this exercise adds to the value and usefulness of the book. I
would be failing in my duty if I fail to express my gratitude to Shree A.R.Sridharan, IPS,
former Director General of Police and former Hon'ble member of the Karnataka
Administrative Tribunal for his unstinted support and encouragement to my intellectual
exercises. He is a rare oasis of pristine values and dignified restraint in the desert of police
and bureaucracy, inhabited by immoral hawks.
For the gargantuam size of the police organisation in India and the key-role of policing in
governing thecountry, the number of books written on this subject is absolutely exiguous.
Most of the available books are commonplaces, hardly laying claim on originality, creativity,
imagination or insight the problems in the field. They are mostly repetitions of the obvious,
rendering reading a boredom. In this sense, "Policing The Police" marks a departure from the
lot and can be called as a rare work.
Very few people are privileged to have a keek to the complexities of the police as an
organisation and the policing as a process. Lack of transparency insulates police and policing
from the public. Left to its own fate, complacency is eating up the vitals of the police. Police
will die a slow death unless somebody comes out ab intra and identifies the cancerous growth
for surgery.
The core problem areas include defective selection and recruitment, unsound training
and unhealthy job culture. Other maladies like corruption, misplaced loyalties and lack
of professionalism flow out of these core problems. On the final analysis, the problem areas
boil down to one specific morbidity, that is, utterly incompetent selection and recruitment
process at higher levels by the UPSC. Other problems flow from this single mishandling.
Blaming the system or the values is an exercise in futility for the simple reason that
system and values are the creation of the people at the top. Equally hollow is the claim that
no right persons of unimpeachable character are available for selection to key slots in the
one billion population of the country after independence. Why this atrophy after

independence? What is the panpharmacon for the malady? The book addresses such
problems with clarity and vision.
Police police the people. Who police the police? How? The answer lies in Policing The
Police. Policing the police involves self policing. This work delves deeply on this core aspect
of policing and lays bare the extant Indian Police setup, sheath by sheath, with the precision
of a master surgeon, only to rebuild it from the scratches with the right essence
of
professionalism, commitment and zeal.
A valuable reference for understanding the pathology and the epinosic dynamics
with which the present Indian Police suffer, and identifies likely solutions for its redemption.
The book stands out for the highest regard it holds for policing as a profession, and the
paracute critique it makes of its practices in India. The UPSC also comes under its critical
gaze for its dull-writted peformance.
The author's close association with events in police and his close observations in the
police world for nearly three decades bring authenticity to whatever he says or analyses.
Bangalore

- PK

The crumbling steelframe of India. 3 15 5. 18 87 96 25. 6. Police & human rights – does end justify means?. 67 19. Empowering the CBI. 14. Need to liberate law enforcers from unholy alliance. 7. 22 26 8. 13. 7 3. Restoring credibility to crime investigation. Corruption – “Indian Police Scenario”. 11 4. 2. 21. Role of police in the reconstruction of India. Where their loyalties lie…. 12. What ails professional policing in India. 17. Indian police at a crossroads: which way to take?. 11. Internal security – challenges and approach. 41 45 49 51 15. Police morale eroded by poor administration. 26. Law and justice.CONTENTS 1. Indian police needs healthy job culture. Politics and the Police. The gun still speaks. Criminalisation of police. 29 9. 16. Quota system can weaken civil service. The Indian police: maladies and remedies. Policing under political patronage. 61 18. 104 99 37 . 79 81 84 23. Indian police: time to take tough decisions. What ails the Indian secret police. 53 57 73 20. 22. Caught in the vicious circle of corruption... Crime. Police unprofessional. 32 10. 24. Police structure needs the management touch. Time to improve the quality of civil service.

202 47. 134 34. 127 130 33. Towards sane service. Where proactive judiciary leads India?. 156 192 198 46. Challenges of coordination in Indian police. 177 42. 36. 239 223 . The role of police in a democracy. 227 53. 186 44. 45. Humanising the police. 207 211 215 219 51. 29. Status of women in emerging India. 233 54. Social justice. 49. 236 55. 52. Law and order policing in India. Kidnapping for ransom. Policing the police. Police and the underworld. 48. Need to revitalise the police. Indian police and sixty years of independence. 35. Lacking vigour. In defence of judiciary. 115 119 123 31. 137 142 150 37. 30. Investigation of economic crimes. 162 39. 50. Need of attitudinal change in police. Man management in police. 110 28. 32. Challenges of the police setup.27. Investigation of dowry death cases. 40. Enforcement of social justice. Precepts of police administration. 182 43. Indian police: what course to pursue in the 21st century. Professional pride of the police. How crime affects national life. Role of police in the cause of social justice. 38. 167 172 41. Police in the administration of justice. Where Indian police is heading?. Indian internal security buildup.

Training strategy to affect behavioral and attitudinal change in……. Home guards training. 348 82. Rat-race at the top affects policing. 79. India and All India Services. 64. 245 57. Religion in politics. Need of competent brass in police. In pursuit of excellence. Recent trends in economic crimes. Value system in Indian bureaucracy. 68. The core of police problems. Reconstruction of India. Corruption in India. 330 336 80.56. 63. Evolution of norms for manpower and logistics requirements……. 58. 325 77. 297 309 312 74. Innovative techniques in policing. 62. 340 81. 355 . 290 315 321 76. Police and administration. Police as social surgeons. 300 71. 73. Requisites of good governance. Revamping the investigation machinery. Core issue and the core of India’s nationhood. Coordinated approach to criminal justice system. Vision for ‘Police 2010’ and ‘Police 2020’. 249 257 59. 327 78. Need of lean and mean civil services. Right orientation in government service. 265 61. 66.. 261 60. Political crimes and security. 70. 272 276 281 65. 294 69. 75. Crisis of right leadership in India. Infrastructure development. Democracy for whom?. 268 284 288 67. 304 72.

.

healthy and responsible bureaucratic setup yet. This is the secret of the eternal strength of India.Chopra. The once steel frame of Indian bureaucracy of the British vintage gradually crumbled to its extant putridity under the sad auspice of its corrupt and incompetent UPSC (Union Public Service Commission) and the deterioration trickled fast downwards in the last six decades to bring India to this sad state of affairs. Naturally. in spite of misdeeds of notorious scoundrels like R. Along its long history. The core weakness in Karnataka police lies in sweepingly conforming to the putrid system and bad culture against conscience to cover own tracks.S. India is a civilization of diversities and a culture of contradictions. and are extremely resistant to reform that affects them or the way they go about their duties”. However. The report says that working with the country’s civil servants in India is a “slow and painful” process and it continues to report that “They are a power centre in their own right at both the national and state levels. situation is better there than some of the more notorious state police organizations of India.274 expatriates working in these countries were interviewed showed Indian bureaucracy at the bottom at the 12 position as the least efficient bureaucracy after Philippines and Indonesia in 10 and 11 positions respectively. Faithful assessment must precede reconstruction. This volume is a first hand account of the observations. most illustrations in this volume are from Karnataka police where the author served at senior levels for nearly three decades. ‘The Crumbling Steel Frame of India’ of this volume.R. this makes no difference to the over all picture of India as situation is not much different elsewhere. A. This resilience of India underscores its unique heritage spawned by its thoughts and philosophies that perhaps are nearest to the true nature of the universe that the scientific world of today is engaged in to probe. Yet. 2009 where 1. The cause of the malady in reference to Indian Police is analyzed and remedies are recommended in the article.Nizamuddin and degenerates of the similar ilk. 1 . no way can Karnataka police be called as an efficient. This volume is an effort in this direction.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED INTRODUCTION The Hong Kong-based Political & Economic Risk Consultancy (PERC) in a 12-page report on a business survey of 12 economies of Asia released on June 3. impressions and experiences of the author as an insider. India’s is an inclusive way of life. The deterioration is a post-independence phenomenon. it saw umpteen falls and rises without losing its innate vitality and always rose from worst quagmires unscathed. Complacency leads to stagnation and is a dangerous indulgence in a rotten situation like India’s. It is mere cowardice of mediocrity and gross selfish interests of ignobility and nothing more. discover and formulate as the Grand Unification Theory (GUT). This volume is intended to breach the vicious indulgence involved and inspire India to its rich potentialities on the way to much dreamed of world leadership. As far as Karnataka police is concerned.

Further. That is why India must act to bring its police and bureaucracy on right track to fulfill its dream of a regional power and act pronto. These factors together render the police and policing the deciding parameter in determining the character of a national life. India shall see a better system replace the present corrupt and incompetent UPSC and a healthy administrative system replace the extant inefficient and rogue bureaucracy. Time of revival shall come. 2 . The present fall is not forever. This is true of India and Indian police also.PRAVEEN KUMAR This resilience of India gives hope. the menace of the current world namely terrorism is increasingly moving the police centre-stage in governance as the sine qua non mechanism for founding peace and safety of the citizens. The nature of the police accurately reflects the quality of democracy entertained by a country.

This coupled with the prolate powers to cover all aspects of living.culture and vice versa. The workculture builds and moulds the vitality to meet the general atmosphere around. Powers to search. unless his individual strength conquers the vitiating work-culture of the organisation. the powers will ruin the social fabric of the country and usher in anarchy. What if the band of doctors itself is infested with serious malignant growths? This is the position of the present day Indian police. This results in the absence of a proper set of standards to approach the call of duty. each call of duty is approached subjectively. renders its structure. somewhere between the armed forces and the civil administration. Even a degenerate character turns honest and efficient in an honest and efficient environment. seize. unfortunately. remains an enigma to outsiders. detain. has made the police an awful force to live with. The Indian police never recognises the equality of all and 3 . including administrators and the general public. it has been realised that self-rule does not mean fraud and tyranny and that the cabals of compatriots are no less pernicious than that of the aliens. Such powers must be invested only in people of high probity and conscience. therefore. Policemen are social doctors and policing is a surgical operation to systematically remove cancerous growths from the body of society. scope and style of functioning undefined in the monolith of governance. India and the Indian police thus stand at a crossroads. The situation is like one-way traffic wherein the police have a say on every aspect of the life of the people while the latter hardly know anything about the department. It is those in an organisation who build up its job. Building up a proper job-culture is. This. Otherwise. This could be a boon if the right man sits at the top. where and how in policing and the police organisation. if trusted to wrong hands. Forty eight years is a long enough period to realise the need to break away from the webs of corruption in independent India. remove. Belatedly though. arrest. being a specialised job. The problem of the Indian police lies in a lack of understanding of the scope and ground rules of its work. The police. sycophants climb the ladder and reach the top to hold the reins and guide the destiny of the police. an honest and efficient person in a degenerate culture is bound to change sooner or later. Its status. It has been nearly five decades since independence. is accepted by all strata of people. hit and even kill may prove pernicious. This has given the police the unique advantage of dictating what should be what. Also. direct. The result is the Indian police has got what it deserves-a spiritless culture created by incompetent leaders. the bedrock of a proficient police organisation.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED INDIAN POLICE AT A CROSSROADS: WHICH WAY TO TAKE? Policing. Consequently. as the enforcers of law and protectors of public interests. The standard expected and observed in the police at the dawn of independence is no more. depending upon the mood and understanding of the police in charge of the situation. How these powers are exercised depends on the work ethics of the organisation. wield tremendous powers. But.

The state of human relations in Indian police does not bring credit to the organisation. hold the reins at the highest levels of the department. Only a few people with money and power to back policing of the passionate genre deserve the passionate approach. justice. as players in a football game. The point is not that the principle of equality should defy ground realities. is devoid of objectivity. in spite of its commitment to its goals. the game is played dispassionately and played because the members are paid to do so. It will not be so in India until people who place their personal interests beyond everything. and master and servant relationship while hard. depending on for whom they work and what would be their personal gain ultimately.PRAVEEN KUMAR the need to provide security to all citizens of India. This is equally true among officers of the same rank and has led to an atmosphere of mutual suspicion in spite of an outward show of belonging to the single family that the police is. play the game within the scope of the ground rules to have the ball inside the goalpost without committing a foul. a former Prime Minister. For. The latter. Here. The former is against the tenets of professionalism and commitment to work. The right approach to professional policing is a synthesis of both the approaches in which the commitment to achieve goals respects the rules and laws of which the police are guardians. They may even commit crimes in the process. There is no genuine human concern and no sense fo recognition of the other man as another human being. Whether it is in matters of protection. righteousness. A dignified police organisation should shun both attitudes. fairness and justice. the standards of policing applied to a nameless poor farmer in a remote village and say. It is rather a donor and recipient relationship while soft. objectivity. both of whom have equal rights before the law and the Constitution. The relations are brittle and mechanical without a human touch. irrespective of their stature. Others must remain contented with the ‘ playful approach’. Policing is not an end in itself. Professional commitment implies achieving goals within the parameters of the permitted methods. including law. 4 . but policing must have a reasonable set of standards within which the more important and the less important aspects must operate. The Indian police is yet to show maturity of professional commitment extending equal attention to all the needy. There are two types of approach to policing: a. wealth and position in society. The playful approach wherein the police. policing by criminal methods cannot be called professional policing. crime control or investigation. The relation between different ranks are soft or hard depending upon the nature of their jobs and mutual advantage. Policing by committing crimes against law and justice is committing crimes against policing. The professional end of the police is upholding the interests of law and justice. do vary. It is a tool to serve law and justice. maintenance of order. The other’s human qualities and talents are dismissed as inconsequential trash. The Indian police oscillate between these two disparate approaches. b. career pride and professional interests. fairness. The passionate approach wherein the police break all rules and laws that come in the way to make their task a success.

not. Good relations strengthen the hierarchical order by making the order willingly acceptable to all and thus facilitating its working. It is up to the police to show its good intentions and convince the public about its trustworthiness. A subtle mental bond that links all men in an organisation is its greatest asset. Here. Good work is seldom recognised. The argument that fear is a necessary constituent in policing is not based on the right understanding of human psychology. The situation can be salvaged by clearing the cobwebs. Every job is done as a personal favour. must win the trust. Men in higher ranks revel in hurting the pride of the subordinates while the latter wait for the right time to settle scores. sympathy and understanding. recognition. Police is not synonymous with fear.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED The police chiefs must think hard to decide whether the current model of human relations in the police is conducive to healthy policing or not. The police does stand on a different footing from the general public but that status is based on trust. The exercise of police powers with absolute humility is quite possible. Sadly this is just the reverse in the Indian police. set 5 . The misuse of power and a supercilious approach will alienate the common man and earn his hatred. There is a bunch of selfmotivated officers in key positions in the police who have contributed to the downslide of the Indian police in the post-democratic era. A police force feared and hated is irrelevant in a democracy. It is time serious efforts were made in this direction. The hierarchical order only defines the relations created in the minds of the people. A sense of recognition from others coupled with the pride of belonging creates a happy atmosphere in the organisation and improves efficiency and output. It is healthy awe that inspires in citizens genuine cooperation and willing subjection to police authority. respect. An approach of service to the general public renders the exercise a sensible and delicate task and avoids harshness. rewards. Policing involves enforcement of order for the good of many which may sometimes mean inconvenience to a few. sustained by genuine concern. Medals and citations are divested of their distinction by being linked to seniority and not merit That is why medals carry no meaning within the organisation. A sound police organisation thrives on sound human relations between and within ranks. Instead a sense of belonging and unity of purpose are cultivated. This is the greatest single failing of the Indian police. respect. not trust. fear and hatred. so that they consider themselves as useful and responsible members of the police outfit and endeavour to live up to the image. Mutual suspicion and antagonism are the rule. censure or punishment has been earned by him. Such relations do not perforce go against police discipline and the official command-obedience functions. The job. especially in democracy. The goal can be achieved by proper modulation of perks. Nothing the Indian police does now will help to create this image. The police is not the enemy of the people. praise. love and a healthy awe. They have corrupted the police atmosphere. all its people suffer and the country suffers. if performed right. A smiling and helpful police force is a salient feature of democracy. This is a far cry from what is actually happening in India. In this atmosphere of hostility and under-cuttings. The success of a police organisation depends on its ability to create a sense of pride and dignity in its members including the constabulary. What the Indian police inspires in the public is fear and hatred. good treatment. love and respect of the masses. respect and love. This is where India stands at present. mutual respect. human relations are vitiated. the organisation and its objects suffer.

These elements should be sidelined to make way for men of probity to refurbish and rebuild the setup. for. It works as a subsidiary force in support of the military during war. It must be a disciplined and committed force. and where.PRAVEEN KUMAR wrong precedents. encouraged self-indulgence eroded its tough image and reduced it to its present cadaverous existence. But the relevance of the police is more meaningful. It saves the country from all disasters. The question is. It is time Indian police is given a fresh lease of life of vitality and strength. here. Defence forces are relevant to the existence of India in so much as defending its borders and protecting its system of government. If need be. The importance of this great tool of governance is yet to be recognised. The police must be powerful. who should begin the process. something should be done to save the police. it can run the administration when civil rule breaks down and can function as an armed force if the military fails. The significance of the police is often forgotten somewhere between the width of civil administration and the depth of the defence forces. it supports the administration in civil rule and works as its watch dog. the very existence of India as a nation is at stake. Yes. The future of India depends upon the strengths and weaknesses of its police. when and how? Who will bell the cat to bring it to its senses? 6 .

Even in the advanced countries the police find it difficult to cope with the problem. no man. The rise in hatred and violence. no time of the day or night can be construed as safe. An anonymous Kannada letter claimed to have been written by the LTTE was received in Mysore with the threat of blowing up the KRS dam on the intervening right of August 14 and 15. has made internal security an unsure field. Accrescent unemployment makes terrorism popular by giving the unemployed youth a raison d’etre for life and an ideology to pursue. The unenviable task of providing protection to men. in 1991 and was later followed with similar threats of blowing up the Vidhana Soudha on the same night. Somebody well versed with the LTTE objectives. The police should have led in modernisation techniques with the antipode marching to keep pace. SPASMODIC APPROACH An internal security machinery working in a void often gives rise to ludicrous security reactions. Their inability to penetrate terrorist organisations has put it at a costly disadvantage. machinery and other resources of the police. places and structures from these committed zealots with the choice of time. Internal security cannot be guaranteed sans a sound knowledge of the terrorists’ way of functioning. Each man has potentially become a power-centre and he can build or destroy the world he lives in. It has become the primary challenge for the police force. Unfortunately. replacing its hitherto main functions of crime control and maintenance of law and order. New scientific inventions give man such sophisticated mechanisms and machinery that he can do anything he wants without being personally present at a place.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED INTERNAL SECURITY CHALLENGES AND APPROACH In an age of sabotage and terrorism. and everything ends up as a hoax. place and target in their favour and any number of sophisticated methods and techniques of strike to choose from. Anonymous calls or letters in most unlikely situations are attended to with a desperate mobilisation of men and machinery without scrutinising the call or the letter. But the Karnataka police had to be prepared for an emergency because it as not equipped to handle internal security problems with courage and confidence. the kettle of human life Is spilling over with organised hatred and violence. Terrorism has become an international phenomenon. With the increasing complexity of human society with increasing claims on the limited resources of the world. it is not so in the Indian situation. continually sap the manpower. expertise and method of operation would have dismissed the calls and the letters as a non-event. no place and no structure is really safe. The threat to internal security is posed by highly trained and motivated volunteers belonging to highly organised and resourceful terrorist outfits. It is not 7 . The reaction of the police to terrorist threats is desperate mobbing and covering the target at best and diffident immobilisation at the worst. compounded with man’s dangerous power to wreak vengeance. The lopsided material growth of 20th century life at the cost of contentment and inner peace have endeared to man the thrills and adventures of the life that fills up his inner void. Their failure to draw up detailed long-term plans to meet terrorist challenges handicaps them in their operations.

Instead of inventing an undercover strategy to draw the extremists out or entering their den as friends 8 . They believe in taking charge of the target. but a handful of highly qualified and motivated men of experience with an intelligent. Desperate reaction may prompt mischievous elements to shoot similar missives almost daily. The larger the number. This reflects on the serious loopholes in the field of security planning in India. resources and the element of surprise at their disposal. The failure to capture Sivarasan and Subha. The chance intelligence. thoroughly drawn up security plan. Everything except these salient features is present in the responses of the Indian police to security challenges. Indian security plans ignore the cardinal principle of a good reticulation. b) the outfit is yet to equip itself c) that security sleuths could be exclusively covering the target making a strike impossible. an installation.PRAVEEN KUMAR wrong to be ready to meet threats but. But Indian security sleuths feel otherwise. coordination problems and higher chances of leakage. It is argued that the Indian security system is effective in discouraging the less resourceful terrorist outfits from attempting strikes and preventing half-hearted attacks. the action should be subtle without fanfare and unnecessary show of strength. If a target is not struck for a long time. And all this for inadequate security. Can the police react to all those letters similarly? It is subtle planning and low-key operation that make security possible. No target is out of their reach. Those who really execute the sabotage are highly motivated trained and competent individuals. This is completely forgotten in the Indian situation. namely providing security without coming in the way of the normal life of the target except where unavoidable. the smaller the chances of success because of human nature. suspects in the Rajiv Gandhi assassination case. Also it involves the problem of providing security and escape routes for more men in the post-operational period. as early as in August. India should reach a stage where the third reason which is an exception now becomes the rule. But even national leaders have traded their image and popularity for this supposed safety. or a person and dictating terms as though the security is given in exchange for freedom of movement and action. a) the outfit has not really intended to strike. based on reliable intelligence inputs about the objects and operational plans of the adversary. plans and strategies and a complete commitment to carry out their operational plans. The essence of security buildup is protection with minimum inconvenience to the concerned. It is quality that counts and not quantity in both sabotage and security operations. Not many are involved in an expertly drawn-up operational plan of sabotage. What is required is not companies of policemen. The argument is not convincing for the simple reason all terrorist outfits worth the name are extremely resourceful with objectives. All security arrangements must be preceded by through research and detailed plans. that both extremists were holed up with others in a ramshackle house at Konanakunte in Karnataka did not enable the Indian security forces to catch them alive with all the time. be it a place. No number of policemen can stop a highly motivated and trained man from sneaking up to his target and destroying it. 1991. the reasons can be only three. is a recent event.

a comprehensive plan of operation with flexibility to meet contingencies. This creates problems of mobilisation and deployment without rousing suspicion. The timing of briefing and development must be decided at high levels to ensure perfect secrecy. true and false information are so much entwined that it is impossible to distinguish one from the other. how much can be told? Security operation basically involves the creative initiative of the operator. Timing is an essential ingredient of security planning and decides the success or failure of an operation. The primary requirement of any security operation is a thorough study and analysis of intelligence and other inputs. National Security Guards. liberal outlets for vital information create security risks.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED with the help of undercover agents. It is the failure of security agencies to effectively carry out such preparations that cost Indian Indira Gandhi. Continued research is a must to utilise the information in action . This again depends upon the skill and experience of the individual or group of individuals who handle the job. it must not be too long. Any leak may prompt an adversary to modify his plan which will annul the security operation. First is intelligence collection. Often. mobile patrols and striking forces for a static target. both the research and analysis are carried out under the pressure of time because of the proximity of the threat. Special Protection Group and so on. Success also depends on how much briefing must be made to operators at various ranks and levels and how much information and background knowledge can be fed to them. armed pickets. these crack forces are important but they are only the ammunition and not the weapon. PROBLEMS The problems of security are manifold. The time of briefing must be carefully chosen so that while the gap between the impending operation and the briefing gives sufficient time to the operators for preparation. And. Their antecedents and recent activities must be closely examined before they are cleared. Indeed. Even if a piece of information is identified as true. That isolated piece of information is removed from the adversary’s action plan and when pursued leads to wrong conclusions and dangerous situations. Not that everything traditional is irrelevant today. For instance. India is yet to have such a macro-plan to guide its security sleuths. The briefing of security operations about their job itself poses a problem. His success depends upon the ability to assess the situation and pursue a better course of action without loss of time. An exhaustive internal security plan on which all security strategies and operations are based must be the gospel of the internal security religion. What happened was not only the suicide of the extremists which was expected but the operation to nab the culprits virtually ended there. Often. The reason for such bungling is that Indian security operation does not go much beyond the multiple crack forces-Black Cats. The men to handle the security operation should be handpicked for competence and probity. the strategy of quadruple deployment-static guards. Sadly. It lends the element of surprise. 9 . it loses its value standing in the midst of useless material. the police failed to surprise the suspects and surrounded them. Both intelligence and its source must be kept a closely guarded secret. Here again.

piloting and striking force will form the skeleton of the system. the Akali separatist movement in the West. outer cordon and striking force are deployed for a human target while for a mobile target a security officer. the LTTE in the South and the naxalites in the Centre. However. Until the country learns the basic lessons of modern security. tragic deaths and destruction are bound to continue. The country faces challenges from the Kashmiri separatist movement in the North.PRAVEEN KUMAR Standing guards. Security. inner cordon. it only complements them. the ULFA in the East. 10 . rather than on improving the quality. its challenges and counter strategies are ever-growing phenomena. it should be borne in mind that this strategy in no way replaces specific security strategies. The number of new security outfits coming up is an indication of India’s concern but then the accent is misplaced on quantity in the form of a new security outfit every time a serious security breach shakes the country. An effective strategy must foresee challenges and arm itself in advance. personal security officer. escort.

A natural outcome of this development is taking things easy.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED INDIAN POLICE : TIME TO TAKE TOUGH DECISIONS It is India’s good fortune that its fabric of law and order has withstood the effects of growing complexity of the Indian society for so fragile is its policing. They must be people who have an overall view of things and are capable of seeing them against the wider background of national interest. A right step and an era of perfect security. A minor shift in the style of policing in the country can make a life-and-death difference to myriad people. It is the popular scapegoat for anything and everything that goes wrong in the public life. requiring through knowledge of the nuances of police and policing. The pride. Only an objective analysis of the needs of the time and assessment of the situation would give the insight necessary to make the right choice for police about the course to be pursued. a sense of insecurity has developed among the police men. A serious malady affecting the tough and nonsense image of the police is the interference of people of some standing in society at all levels. the Indian police has become soft humble and easy going. The police has become a widely abused organisation by the virtue of its submission on the wishes of its masters under false notions of discipline. Such an analysis must be carried out by highly competent persons at the highest level who can see things dispassionately and take decisions. An organisation. toughness and commitment to duty are no more visible. People handling policing should be responsible only to law and their superiors in the department and to none else. Pressure from all directions has deprived it of its vitality. Policing must be insulated from public pressures except at the top to which all policing affairs must be accountable. The Indian police must give serious thought to what it wants to be in the future and may have to take some tough decisions. order and peace may be created. social and economical structures of those countries have different backgrounds and value systems from ours. The Indian police system must necessarily meet the aspirations of democracy in fulfilling its objective of maintaining internal order and security. India is a crucible wherein the dynamics and relevance of democracy in the third world are being experimented with. These developments have reduced the police to the level of a toy that moves only when the spring inside unwinds. This dimension has added to the problems of policing in India. A wrong turn and the police could inadvertently tear the fabric of the national life to shreds and ruin the country. unless career interests warrant otherwise Commitment to policing is sacrificed in the process. The fact that the police systems in a few neighbouring countries of Asia and Africa are worse cannot be a solace as the political. The 11 . There is an impression that the Indian police is not what it was before Independence. cannot afford this intrusion. The people who do it must be capable of taking hard decisions which may often go against their own interests and may have farreaching consequences. with the eyes and ears shut. The Indian polity confronts its police with ever greater challenges while giving it an increasingly limited wherewithal to face them. In the circumstances. New entrants who begin eagerly soon after the training period. On the contrary. begin to realise the realities. It is a responsible job. looking for a serious image.

A police force that works at the behest of the rich and powerful can guard their interests only. The very idea of being receptive to pressures and interference indicates a lack of will for objectivity and justice. A police organisation. Does democratic India need such a police force that allows tyranny of the poor and the helpless by the rich and powerful? The country has tolerated such a police in the last four decades. This distinction is forgotten in independent India where mental fetters are yet to be broken and legacies of the British rule continue inveterated. in a democracy is the guardian of public interests and public safety unlike in the raj where the police protected the interests of the raj. The distinguishing traits of the Indian police of the British period such as objectivity. The shoddy creatures sitting court above men of probity is a dangerous situations. the line authority of the organisation must be all powerful to guide and regulate policing and police administration. quality and high standards were discarded. a party or an ideology amounts to violation of professional ethics. however. Pressure often forces of the police to commit crimes under the veil of authority. The possibility of the police being open to the influence of the rich and powerful. the police should do their duty by the public and law.PRAVEEN KUMAR regulation of policies in all details must be controlled and guided by the top. 12 . Misplaced loyalty with an individual. wisdom. mutual. The process spawned a phenomenon in which undemanding aspects of both the worlds survived to create a new police culture. It is the duty of the police not to breach the edifice of the organisation and its spirit. It was a force that met the needs of the time. A byproduct of this degenerate trend is the rise of opportunists and sycophants to key posts and the fall of honest persons of great calibre. commitment. deprives it of its credibility. The scope. The British were the forefathers of the unified Indian Police. apoliticism. The trend creates a catena of reactions that slowly eats up the vitality of the police organisation and reduces it to a foul bunch of bloodhounds of the rich and powerful few. The lack of professional objectivity is the bane of the police in independent India. In an age of rapid changes. either by protecting criminals or more dangerously. design and objects of the Indian police underwent a metamorphosis with the transfer of government to native hands. and human qualities were given up too. On the other hand. familial or party interests ever discharge its functions objectively to law and general public? What can its locus standi be when a different person or party comes to power? A pliable police force is an asset to any individual or party and no sensible individual or party distances it in the name of professional ethics. Traditional Indian values such as a simplicity. charity. respect. must now act the demand a police that lives up to the trust placed in it. This reverse order of merit is sure to bring frustration and the collapse of the organisation someday. The convenient factors of the old and new worlds were chosen to create a new police culture while demands on policing were at the crucial stage in the recent years of independence. The people. open to public pressures can do no policing worth the name. nothing remains constant. Now. The problem was simple in British India where the ruler and the ruled were distinctly identified and the loyalty of the police was defined. by replacing them with innocent people as criminals. discipline. The police. How can a police that stays loyal to personal. the opening up of new vistas and dimensions to life through inventions and discoveries in science and technology. It is criminal elements which cultivate sources that have put the policing on the wrong rails. a family.

on to third-degree methods in crime detection. Discipline is inseparable from police. where sycophancy is the sole criterion for ascending the career ladder. the police ranks display exceptional unity in helping a colleague to suppress the subordinate who shows the tendency to go against his senior’s orders. A headless organisation is better than one headed by a degenerate weakling. This is why the policy of selection and promotion at high levels plays a vital role in the growth of the organisation. is not uncommon. it is not the agency to pass judgement on crimes. Another act carried out behind the façade of discipline is an officer forcing a subordinate to achieve personal ends. Youngsters in the organisation who drop out weaken the organisation. What right has the police to inflict suffering on others. honest. But these days.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED The Indian police officers overnight rose to high positions made vacant by the resignations of their senior British officers. What justification can the police have to commit crimes to collect evidences of other crimes? The sadistic and criminal tendencies of the police are not more justifiable than those of the general public. It is important that only the right people reach the top. it is used as a cover by the people in higher ranks to indulge in wrongdoing and to silence the conscientious few in the lower ranks. To what extent precedence and practice mould the job culture decides the success or otherwise of the organisation. A subtle hatred for superior qualities of the subordinates in inherent in the Indian police force of today. In a democratic age of self-seeking short-term political leadership. Now. sharpedged and functional conduct. independent and ask questions. None placed the police beyond the scope of the Indian Penal code. Here. Even senior officers tacitly supporting the third-degree methods applied on suspects who may turn out to be innocent at the end. How can the police be objective. merely on suspicion? After all. It is also a cover to promote the interests of juniors who support their evil deeds by sycophancy and personal loyalty. 13 . The misplaced stress on results without a concern for organisational and national goals of law and justice only reflects a shallow intellectual commitment to duty on the part of the top brass and the lack of desire to probe the root of the problem. committed and disciplined in such circumstances and how can it uphold the rule of law and justice in line with its professional ethics in such a situation? A job culture involves basic beliefs and principles of the organisation. the policy of recruitment and promotion is far from direct. All those committed to the cause of police and effective policing must break the trend and endeavour to provide a fresh lease of life for effective policing. meticulous. Soon the police became a tool in the hands of the power-brokers of free India. The need for creating a new work –relationship with native political leaders was an opportunity to usher in a new police culture in free India. A serious subculture of the Indian police in Indian hands is committing crimes to prevent and detect crimes and breaking laws to catch law-breakers indeed in the name of showing results. Crimes are crimes whether they are committed by the police or by the public. proud. It governs all parameters of the foce and makes its hierarchical order meaningful and purposeful. the command-obedience relationship. and to suppress those juniors who are strong. apolitical. professional ethics and degree of commitment to the aspirations of the organisation.

It must shed its mental fetters. It is indeed a crucial juncture for the Indian police. rise to its feet and learn to be natural. The Indian police finds itself in a blind-spot today. at a crossroads from where it should build bridges to the future.PRAVEEN KUMAR There are any number of examples of fearless officers who have acted upon their conscience at the cost of promotions and elevations. 14 . A slip at this stage would be a tragedy while a right move would be a major turning point.

The infusion of good blood even at this late hour is certain to repair the damage. The creation of a high-power core group of people adept at assessing men and character may help to create a feeling of confidence and security and inspire the police personnel to discharge their duties fearlessly. It has to be ensured that the right man comes to the right job and that honesty is rewarded. the ugly head of bribery ruthlessly crushed and the unhealthy trend of making recruitment a business checked. This situation leads to random assessment and. job analysis. better salaries and congenial working conditions will definitely make the police less sensitive to these lures. may find it difficult to isolate itself from the behests of its political masters. recruitment and management of human resources. if discreetly employed. Any interference in matters of recruitment should be promptly and decisively resisted. Social scientists say that bribery is inversely proportional to the financial strength of a social group. Only highly qualified officers of proven probity should be entrusted with the task. The authority should be a professional body with men of proven calibre and quality who have reached a stage where they need not sacrifice their convictions to appease those in power. It is an advantage because. It shall be directly responsible to the legislature and function as an independent authority like the judiciary. It is unfortunate that there is no relation between an officer’s efficiency and performance and his standing in the organisation. is both an advantage and a disadvantage. Therefore. talents wither and opportunities overtake high-calibre workers on the hierarchical ladder. This group should be made ultimately responsible for all career decisions. the Comptroller and Auditor General or the Election Commission. in the case of the police force.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED WHAT AILS PROFESSIONAL POLICING IN INDIA Discipline. work assessment. with its trained response. This can be rectified by arranging motivation courses for police officers who must be taught about the work they 15 . in the process. The first and foremost job in this background is to free the police from the unhealthy influence of politicians of all hues by making it accountable to an independent authority with absolute power to take decisions. An unbiased assessment of the work and character of the personnel will take the organisation in the right direction. Those who are empowered to assess subordinates and their work must be made answerable to prevent misuse of this responsibility. The jobs should be made attractive with good salaries and satisfactory working conditions that will give the resolve to resist the bait thrown by the criminals. The recruitment procedure should be overhauled to ensure that really the best from the job-seekers are roped in. It is a disadvantage because the police. it can prevent undue interaction of the police with unwanted elements. Another reason for this sad affair may be that they are not qualified to assess. for the development of the police. The officers are so indifferent to the performance of their subordinates that they are absolutely in the dark about the standard of work turned out under their supervision.

While vacancies at the topmost level are filled up by promotions effected overnight. the same luxury does not extend to the more unfortunate ranks at the lower levels. India is deeply caught in a mire. depending on the rank. It demands certain specific traits in officers which cannot be learnt by any amount of training. its importance and how to discharge their duties. Any move to expand these ranks cannot be called an honest effort to serve the public. therefore. All order to subordinates emanate from a perfect void. the wrong selection can be fatal for the nation. Most of these jobs often serve as places to forget the pressures of family life.000 men and officers about ten years ago. Selection has become a misnomer. particularly at the higher ranks. The most evident symbol of authority and power people trust is the policemen. There is a price fixed for each rank of the police. In this context. How can a recruit who enters service by paying a bribe be expected not to reap returns? What can be his 16 . The best that is done is to hold a meeting of subordinates wherein the latter are allowed to arrive at a course of action to meet a situation and the decision is returned to them as an order to perform. This negative approach to reading and thinking has resulted in poor professional knowledge. The system of overlapping supervision because of multiple ranks. But that is what is happening. It is random at best and high business at its worst. It is years in the case of the constabulary. In the circumstances. selected to meet the challenges. it must be mentioned that often the habit of reading becomes a casualty once a person enters the service. there are now nearly 20 officers of and above that rank for say. it is a supervisory task and in a police force with no supervision to speak of. The process of recruitment is even worse. In States where there were only two officers of the rank of Inspector General for say 40. Beyond that. This approach may leave governance and public life in jeopardy. There are cases where vacancies of head constables and assistant sub-inspectors or subinspectors are not filled up for several years. promotions at the intermediary levels take weeks and even months. where none really discharges his role must be scrapped. Policing is a highly sensitive profession and requires only specially equipped people to handle it. Policemen generally distance themselves from all mental activities.PRAVEEN KUMAR are required to perform.000. Many have retired without a promotion. The style of supervision in the police should be seen to be believed. The organisation has become top-heavy. higher ranks are simply redundant. However. Policing is a job performed mostly at the lower levels with involvement stopping at the level of the Superintendent. Posts are created to satisfy vested interests. But this is not the case. a force of 50. including the constabulary. A thorough overhauling of training and the application of modern techniques would go a long way in mending the situation. What are these people at the top policing apart from being a drain on the state revenue and a nuisance to officers down the ladder by issuing conflicting instructions? Promotion to a higher rank serves no purpose unless it means a more challenging job and a suitable man is. The style of ineffective supervision must stop if the aim is to achieve quality. Work knowledge is generally limited to what is remembered from experience and bits of what has been learnt from books during training decades earlier. Training must endeavour to break this trait and coax candidates to open up their minds and reflect on all matters before making decisions.

Sometimes even rules are overstepped to cut short procedures and do away with cumbersome work. The police is a sacred confluence of those who choose policing as their profession and work together transcending their caste. whatever its other assets. Once this is done everything else will fall into place. Modern equipment are bought. This is one of the main factors for the slow degeneration of the police. The police should be extricated from the clutches of criminals and politicians to make it a professional outfit with objectivity and commitment to its task. No government with weak police system can survive. 17 . like drivers. There is no point in beginning the cleansing operation from the side of the criminals or politicians. Thus the gadgets gather dust and break down. It has to begin from the side of the police by insulating it from the vile influences of criminal wealth and political power. creed. The general reluctance of the Indian police force to adopt new ideas and the ungainly handling of modernisation projects have resulted in its losing the race with organised crime and syndicates. But this objective cannot be achieved when there is no common cause and everybody works for personal progress. integrity and hard work have yielded place to personal loyalty and usefulness for personal work. Quality suffers as a result. are filled up arbitrarily.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED picture of the service that the enters? It is absurd to expect professional policing from such a recruit. Posts at the lowest level but nevertheless sensitive. Those who do not come up to the expectations of personal loyalty fall out of favour and are eliminated from the line of command. This is equally so in transfers. The common aim in recruitment now is to complete the job without inviting legal hurdles. social standing and rank in order to control crime and maintain law and order. but the personnel are not trained to use them. Honesty.

It seems that all actors in this tragic drama think that Indian democracy is a free-for-all field to grab to the maximum in a world where all look for themselves and only those who grab the most survive. Although wealthy industrial and commercial houses form a fourth dimension. A case was registered with the local police. they have touched all the facets of public life with the sole intention of garnering all the benefits. Arrest. Policemen go to politicians for job protection and strike an understanding with the criminals to make money. queer things may take place. This was done and the case was pursued with an ex-convict being picked up and shown as the accused. The tragedy here is that the vice is perpetrated by those whom the public trust as their benefactors and protectors. Court cases were pending against the son. When the maintenance of law and order is in the hands of unscrupulous police. bloating itself on the blood of the hapless masses. their techniques are as yet limited to manipulative strategies to gain a strangle hold over political power by remote control. What a serious breach of public trust it was and what a serious crime was committed by the police who involved a person whom they knew did not commit the offence! In another incident that dates back to 1981. Politicians protect criminals from the law while criminals reciprocate by acting as their henchmen. The trio of manipulators is a dangerous force in the Indian democratic situation. The official who has worked as Circle Inspector in the town until a few months before. a police official in charge of a subdivision in Karnataka picked up a poor goldsmith from a small town for interrogation about receiving stolen properties. The goldsmith died on the second night of torture. Thus works this nexus of vile power-brokers. It is their wealth that fills the coffers of the troika and helps reduce the normal life of free citizens to a welter of uncertainties and endless misery.PRAVEEN KUMAR NEED TO LIBERATE LAW ENFORCERS FROM UNHOLY ALLIANCES Crime. The amoral side of this operation does not seem to have affected either the police or the politicians in any way and the abuse against the Indian public goes on unabated. The complainant however thought it was best to patch up with the suspect in order to protect his family honour. This approach is certain to undermine not only the democratic setup of the nation. People who knew the background said the act was committed by his illegitimate son after a serious quarrel.” recovery” and chargesheet followed a decade after the dacoity. Long ago. He subjected him to torture in a tourist bungalow of the same town for two nights to make the innocent goldsmith confess to something he had not done. preying on innocent people. had indulged in this activity without 18 . Combined as a tight-knit powerblock. politics and the police are the three sides of the vicious triangle within which the future of democratic Indian and its free people are trapped. but its very social fabric. Such developments make criminal administration a mockery. a dacoity was reported in the house of a person of dubious reputation in a particular district .

got him married to a girl of their choice. as such deaths are popularly known. The wife of the goldsmith filed a complaint before the local court. The officer learnt too late that the gambling den was patronised by the Superintendent of Police of the district and the Deputy Inspector General of the range and the men were their friends. wanted to favour a fingerprint sub-Inspector. but nurtured a grudge against the young Superintendent. How subordinates are brought around is another story. Such cases of avenging non-cooperation are common these days. His parents however. This antagonised the DIG who. The District Superintendent of Police and the Range Deputy Inspector General of Police. After a fortnight. the Sub-Inspector had been suspended by an officer of the rank of the Deputy Inspector General of Police. They visited the town and entrusted the investigation to a Deputy Superintendent of Police of neighbouring subdivision with oral orders to certify the case as not proved. run by a powerful local community. in his next annual confidential report. the police chief secured the Sub-Inspector’s release. the officer recorded in the station house diary the names of all those who were gambling at the place and let them of with a written warning that cases would be booked if they continued to gamble there. with huge stake monies. A police official who with the support of his community. The Superintendent of Police failed to understand that the action was an indication that he was to end the Sub-Inspector’s punishment. Most of them obliged and the appeals of the junior officer were never allowed to reach the government. Also he prevailed upon other officers who wrote confidential reports to give adverse remarks. senior government officials and local politicians. with the annual confidential report stating that the public might revolt against the officer if he continued . The career of a bright officer suffered a severe setback. none had dared to raid it in spite of repeated public petitions. He manipulated the records and made sure that the latter was not selected for the Indian Police Service. rose to the occasion to save their protégé. He was transferred to a remote place. Even of he had understood. The library continues to be a gambling den. showed his junior as a liability to the police department. He summoned the Superintendent of Police in charge of the case and examined the file about the suspension. The DIG at the place of the new posting of the officer wanted him to marry a girl from his circle. The officer rounded up more than 50 prominent people including rich businessmen.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED the knowledge of the senior police officers of the town. who had benefited from the flexible ways of the official when he was the Circle Inspector. law and justice. Though the library had been a gambling den for years. who has been under suspension for long after being arrested in a criminal case of community interests. got posted as the police chief of a State in 1986. The Deputy Superintendent complied and sent his repot to the court and that was the end of the case. The trend is adversely affecting the organisation by weakening its cause for fairness. As the law requires that the place must first be proved to be a common gambling house. The news of the lockup death. 19 . was published in local and other newspapers. A young sub divisional police officer in a small town known for its speculative business activities conducted a raid on a library. he could not have acted for. It was actually a gambling house patronised by prominent people of the town. Moreover the case was pending trial in a court.

A permanent cell of organisation experts under the direct control of the police chief to redefine the police organisation is required to make it more meaningful and need-based. The tendency to foul-up superior intellect and excellence is another factor that has adversely affected the police setup.PRAVEEN KUMAR It is to his credit that the officer did not break down and continues in service while his far less competent colleagues have overtaken him on the career ladder. In no way. It is a different story that the officer managed to silence the social worker who brought up the charges and made sure the case fell through for lack of evidence. Unhealthy practices of myriad variety are found at the highest levels. does an ACR reflect an officer’s qualities or capabilities. was taken to court on the eve of his retirement to face trial for defrauding the public and a spastic society in whose name he sold(charity) entertainment tickets. The general reluctance to adopt modern techniques of policing and management. A recent instance is that of a police chief who. preventing duplication and redefining duties and procedures and thus the rights and responsibilities at each level. Servility is its inevitable consequence and it would not be immoderate to say that eliminating the ACR altogether would be certainly a step forward. he later appealed to the Chief Secretary not to consider him any more for the service. Is it by design or accident that independent India has raised a criminal outfit to catch criminals? It is in the interest of the police to accept the reality so that remedy could be thought of. At present. If policing is to be effective in the years ahead. rationalising workloads. Denied selection to the all-India service. I suggest three distinct police services with separate recruitment and training: (1) Regulatory police or uniformed police in charge of law and 20 . it has become a means to personal ends. specialisation is crucial. The annual assessment of men and officers in the police has become a travesty of what it used to be or meant to be. He took this drastic step in utter contempt for the corrupt department heads who sat above him and decided his career advances. under the present circumstances. These problems can be overcome only by efficient police leadership at all levels and only if a semblance of objectivity reasonableness and good judgement touches the core of the police administration. Result: police functioning would be made more cost-effective and efficient. It is believed that the department would be far better off without this pernicious evaluation process that breeds corruption and bias. The constabulary which forms the bulk of the service is largely constituted by people from the lower strata of society who are diffident and hence do not exercise their powers against the more enlightened people. along with his wife. To what sad levels could men in high ranks stoop to make a few dirty bucks! The Indian Police Service continues to be an intellectually poor unattractive realm with only the mediocre opting for it. growth is not much more than a spasmodic reaction to stimuli and lacks the benefit of an integrated approach. This could help in streamlining the hierarchy by eliminating redundant posts. the dogmatic approach to man-to-man and public relations and the lack of understanding of human nature are other factors responsible for the unfortunate state of affairs. What characterises the ACR today is a distinct lack of objectivity. a medium for the advancement of individual interests and even settlement of personal scores.

functioning in tandem in much the same way as the Army. (3) Social police in charge of prevention and investigation of all social offences and implementation of social legislation. (2) Mainstay police in charge of crime investigation and prevention and security and intelligence operation. it cannot hope to rise above the mediocre level. All the present maladies emanate from the politicians who are only concerned with winning the next elections. Such mediocrity is wont to percolate downwards in a democratic setup. either in proficiency or in character. An All India Police Authority accountable only to th President of India at the national level with the regional Police Boards in States as independent bodies should be created. Until the organisation is extricated from the grip of politicians. thus enabling the personnel to function in an independent atmosphere. All three wings should have their own individual organisations up to the district level with independent Superintendents and staff as required. The regional Police Boards must have a High Court Judge at the helm with the Home secretary and the Chief Secretary as members and the State Police chief as member-secretary. At the apex could be a specially constituted body called the State Police Authority with the chiefs of all three wings as members and the Chief Secretary as chairman.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED order and other regulatory duties. The Authority must be headed by a Supreme Court judge with the Union Home Secretary and the Cabinet Secretary as members and the senior most police officer of the country as the member-secretary. 21 . The arrangement will bring to an end interference of any kind in police affairs. Navy and Air Force.

Often. One was the wrong type of people at the helm of the organisation as models. They are the watchdog of the administration. Or. RESPONSIBILITIES IGNORED The reasons lie in police because the police of democratic India chose to brush aside their professional and national responsibilities and instead preferred to be the handmaid of those in power . In the rulers because it is natural for anyone to take advantage of the tools that make themselves available for use and it is rather naïve to expect the rulers to ignore it while the police willingly offer themselves to be at their disposal. they are beholden to the judiciary as the investigating authority while their part as watchdogs of the country’s internal security raises them above political and leadership bickerings. while they function only as a fact finding machine to help the judiciary enforce the rule of law. The police are one of the most important levers required in running the machinery of statecraft. The utility of the Indian police to India depends on the direction and degree to which they have taken to this process of adaptation and also how successfully and efficiently. though surreptitiously. ASPECTS FORGOTTON The very nature of the functions of the police demands that it be insulated from the vagaries of the short-time rules of a democratic setup. what gives the police a holistic dimension is their importance as the spine of the rule of law. That explains the impatient race among rulers to control this vital lever.PRAVEEN KUMAR ROLE OF POLICE IN THE RECONSTRUCTION OF INDIA The police is the watchdog in a democracy. Two factors helped the process. assisting the judiciary in the dispensation of justice and keeping an eye on the internal security of the country.In spite of these variations. Their responsibilities as enforcers of law warrant their allegiance exclusively to the rules and laws of the country. in order to protect the security of the country. security and law and order. The rulers of democratic India do use the police for their personal and party ends to the extent that the nearly half a century after Independence has obfuscated the distinction between national interests and personal interests of the rulers in the use of policemen. It is modelled on the British system except for a few changes made in response to the situation regarding crime. That is not to say that the Indian police is alien to the Indian situation. Another was the lack of understanding of the concepts of 22 . The police may sometimes be called upon to break laws. The responsibility of the police as an organisation is three fold in enforcing the rule of law. they may be asked to enforce laws as enforcers of law and order. The three responsibilities do widely vary in their scope and functional requirements. It forms the axle that keeps the vital engine of the administration running. these aspects of the police are happily forgotten in India. The reasons lie in the rulers as well as in the police.

BRITISH CHARACTERISTICS India. and the intellectual class in the police system. The most glaring among the negative qualities are its disinclination to democratic values. Personal interests have gained precedence over organisational interests. This leads to a close link between politicians and the police. The nonprofessional approach of the police leadership percolated down and sadly was accepted as the general rule by the rank and file. Other aspects were a sound professional approach. high morale and respect for a healthy value system. This is where crime enters the picture. a sense of commitment and fair play in discharging the work in hand. on the threshold of independence. Only. Serious professional lapses have not only weakened the Indian police. In other words.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED obedience and discipline. The entire force has forgotten that its primary obedience is to the laws of the country and that the rulers and mere representatives of the laws. Matters beyond the realm of the police have gained in importance at the cost of the organisation’s credibility. objectivity and toughness in police work. unfair selection and recruitment procedures. neglected training. This trend has told upon the professional qualities of the police causing decline in its organisational efficiency. The nonprofessional approach has eroded professional commitment and encouraged corruption. An independent India has added to the negative aspects. Ignorance and indifference on the part of the public in general. The police have forgotten the cardinal principle that their profession dictates them to do their duty even if it may be against the rulers if the law finds the latter doing wrong. failure to identify with the Indian ethos and failure to appreciate the common man’s aspirations and predicament. The breaches have helped opportunists to intervene and dictate terms to the police. but damaged the political system. The link is too deeprooted to be easily severed. The country. a feeling of pride among the policemen. Among the positive attributes was the creation of a sound police system. Efficient management has been relegated to the background with the whole set up inclined towards a rigid hierarchical order.the nonprofessional approach and arbitrary management. unplanned modernisation programmes and funny service rules. Professional pride has been pushed into oblivion. inaccuracies in the assessment of work and people. The police have two weak areas. the rulers have recognised the important role played by the police in running the administration. indeed has a sturdy police framework in terms of organisational strength and budgetary provisions. One 23 . social values and the credibility of the democratic process. the fabric is in poor shape. have ended up with the police acquiring a free hand to function without restraint and guidance. That money is liberally made available to the police indicates political patronage. irregular promotions and transfers. saw both the positive and negative sides of the British administration. Both are interlined and contribute to each other’s existence. The system has undergone a lopsided growth with random spurts of control and workload.

D. Indeed. the officer’s political masters rose to the occasion and soon he superseded a more efficient and down-to-earth senior. and is striking at the foundation of the strength of the country. may be. the situation could have been brought under control and the death of several people and destruction of property could have been avoided.D. N. It is an irony that the political leadership which is supposed to take the lead in the reconstruction of India is colluding with the police. and on the other.PRAVEEN KUMAR of them is corruption. EMERGENCY TREND The police acted as the handmaid of the political leadership during the Emergency in 1976. some officers in higher ranks wanted to be close to and in the good books of key political figures to promote their interests. in the absence of capable leadership. A police officer in a southern State played it so well that in 24 . As a result. the system gradually lost touch with its professional objective of being loyal to the Indian Constitution. They need the help of the police and it is not the other way round.Venkatesh Commission of Inquiry never saw the light of day. Both the Central Bureau of Investigation and the Intelligence Bureau were extensively used for political ends. The police of the British rule has as its prime objective the interests and upkeep of the British Raj in India. In some places. and they have to be cautious on their dependence on illegal political funds. left a void and they found refuge in the political leadership. the passage of time has set in motion a process of continuous reconstruction. Dealt with in a professional way. which is supposed to be the tool of the reconstruction.Venkatesh indicted the Police Commissioner for his lapses. Every year sees a new phase and a new trend in this nasty collusion among the important players of national reconstruction taking the country nearer to the brink of lawlessness During the bandh in Bangalore (1991) in connection with the Cauvery water dispute. In democratic India. But the fact remains that the findings of the Justice. On the one hand. The fall of the British Raj. Then emerged the custom of providing protection mostly to political leaders and other well-connected personages as the expense of the public. save for a few dignified people. It seems to have failed to comprehend where its loyalty should lie. the police were mute spectators as the agitators indulged in vandalism and violence. the policemen were unable to think clearly. There are many police officers who understand this dynamics and play their cards shrewdly. a commission of Inquiry under Justice N. the officers were forced to open fire in self-defense and all hell broke loose. an objective of establishing the rule of the law in the country Power went into the hands of dishonest and criminal elements. Also. It is a different story that the State administration changed hands within a few months and the new Chief Minister restored order by putting people in their places. However. SERVING POLITICAL MASTERS The political leaders are wary about the law and the judicial system. the system has failed to reset its priorities and formulate its objective. The trend of the police being committed to political leadership has continued.

On his retirement from service. falsification of records and misappropriation of over Rs. A case of cheating. 25 . Only in July 1995. The attitude of the Supreme Court to the Jain hawala case is a case in point. the judiciary is doing exemplary work by taking action to counter the criminal elements. Suddenly. Karnataka Andhra Pradesh and other states in 1995 for contempt of court and creation of false evidences.35 lakhs by the officials of the Karnataka Home Guards department was unearthed in 1994 and a criminal case was registered in the jurisdictional police station in December the same year.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED spite of his publicly proclaimed moderate efficiency. The wheel of change is slowly turning. In the absence of concern on the part of the political and executive wings of the administration in straightening out things. all activities regarding the criminal case were frozen for the next six months till the police chief retired. a process was set in motion to refer the case to the Corps of Detectives for investigation. supposedly to examine and advice on the reorganisation of the police setup fo the State. the political masters obliged him by constituting a one-man committee for him. but actually to provide him creature comforts at Governmetn expense. forgery. he not an occupied the coveted position of the Police Commissioner of an important city as Inspector General of Police (by removing the holder of the position within six months of the latter coming there). The then State police chief came to know that one of the accused was his confidant when he was the Commandant-General of the Home Guards the previous year. As the amount involved was huge. and issue of nonbailable warrants and refusal of bail to a couple of former Union Ministers this year for allegedly sheltering mafia dons and engineering anti-Sikh riots in New Delhi are other instances. The interest taken by the Supreme Court in the nexus between the politicians. the bureaucrats and the criminals and the Vohra Committee report on the criminalisation of politics are found to have their effects. The scene is not as bleak as it seems to be. The awarding of jail sentence to senior bureaucrats and police officers of Haryna. the case was taken up and handed over to the Corps of Detectives. but also managed to be there for many years by getting the post upgraded as and when he was promoted as Additional Director General of Police and later as Director General of Police at the cost of all other aspirants.

would mean steadfast adherence to what is legal and the law as the word `loyalty' originates from the Latin lex and legalis. This commitment raises their loyalty to the status of a mission. The other owes its allegiance to certain ideals and principles. This is the beginning of the atrophy of the Indian police. A criminal case warrants professional loyalty in its investigation to bring the culprits to book. Disaster strikes when the police function as the private armies of the ruling political party or any influential member of society. The police in India have fallen into this quagmire. The trend has spread like wildfire to ravage the institution. 26 . the administration of justice and the security parameters that ensure it. The political status of the accused and the fall-out are irrelevant to the process of investigation. Loyalty. It is tragic that the Indian police prefer to trade this characteristic for trivial and ephemeral benefits. This is where the police differ from private armies. There can be hope of remedy if there is at least one example of the right model. keeping up the orderly life of the common man and safeguarding peace and security. Isolated attempts to tread the right path are seen as deviations from the mainstream. objectives. denotes fidelity to the sovereignty of the people and necessitates upholding the law of the country. The real threat lies in the possibility of this tendency coming to be accepted as the true character of the police.. tempting others to follow suit. The loyalty needed in a profession like that of the police is of elevated nature and it bestows the qualities of nobility and dignity on the organisation. profession and the chosen path of life. Personal loyalty to political masters takes some people to the top. But none seems to be available. The models created a pattern and the pattern became a part of the system in a setup where individuality and orginality are not sacred. How far the degeneration has spread is evident from the way some important criminal cases of political significance have been handled. The malady is not limited to a particular state or unit. This implies allegiance to one's duties. It lifts the police above factional interests and gives them a cosmopolitan vitality.. Loyalty is of two kinds. THE primary duty of the police is to maintain order which would include enforcing the law and the prevention and detection ofcrime.PRAVEEN KUMAR WHERE THEIR LOYALTIES LIE. the standard of the law. The police ought to be concerned about the interests ofthe general public. This may not take long to happen if the present goings on are any indication. One is pure and simple fidelity to the master. The genesis lies in the promotion of career prospects and other perks dumb loyalty brings to individuals.Policing. The strength and the trust born out of this superior form of loyalty stand the police force in good stead in its hour of risk and crisis. as a profession in a democracy. Loyalty is the foundation on which the police organisation is built up. its vitality and profesionalism pushed to the background. responsibilities.

Assessing the political trends and suitability of candidates in different constituencies during elections and reporting the activities of politicians within and outside the ruling party are now wrongly seen as legitimate functions of the intelligence units. A recent example is from Tamil Nadu. Public opinion about the professional loyalty of the police is rather low. It is a common practice in some States to change key officers when a new dispensation takes over the rule. Politicians believe that all those in the police are commodities that can be bought and ``loyal'' policemen to make a substantial difference to their political fortunes. 27 . the Research and Analysis Wing or the Central Bureau of Investigation. The damage already done to the country's public life cannot be repaired until the police are brought back on the rails of loyalty to their profession. whether it is the Special Protection Group. Hence the mad rush to place favourite police officers in key positions.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED The misconceptions about loyalty with a slant in favour of the political masters and other powerful influence-pedlars have clouded this vital aspect of policing. head and shoulders above even the Chief Secretaries in States and the Cabinet Secretary at the Centre. the police ought not to be subservient to the political masters whose future is unpredictable. And this is not an isolated case. In the circumstances. The police going loyal to transient political interests certainly will damage and debase the system itself. Their relevance to the country is more abiding than that of the politicians in power. This importance is a reward for the lengths to which these officers would go risking their personal and career safety and indulge in illegal acts to oblige the political masters. the rule of law has suffered and the administration of justice is crippled. Thus politicians exploit the weakness of the organisation. The intelligence unit is the most abused section and its chief is the most willing tool. the Intelligence Bureau. The usefulness of the intelligence units as political tools is so pronounced in India that they are brought under the direct control of the Chief Executive of the Government from the traditional Home Department and the chiefs are the main advisers of the Chief Executive. The culprit here is the perverted loyalties of the police. With the result. But misplaced loyalties restrict the scope of the intelligence units which are seen as the lackeys of the ruling parties and their leaders. Intelligence officers have a responsibility to their organisational objectives and they ought to work towards meeting their objectives. survive the transient political masters and their political groups in power. The police. Telephone tapping and shadowing political rivals of the ruling party leaders are only minor prevarications these loyal police officers indulge in to keep themselves in the good books of their political masters. What is termed as political interference is patently the making of the police by their personal loyalties. It reflects the attitude of the political leadership towards the professional loyalties of the police.

former Prime Minister. in response to a question on the Jain hawala case during the 11th Lok Sabha election campaign. The duty of providing the right guidance and direction to the police lies with the political leadership. Ironically. with their loyalty fixed to their duties. judicial activism. said the investigation of corruption cases was the job of a Police Inspector and not that of a Minister. The police being the executive edge of the administration. in a periodical review of the progress of investigation of some cases of national importance. That answer would be right in an ideal situation where the police function professionally. 28 . It has no relevance in a situation where policemen are loyal to individuals or groups in power. Chandra Sekhar. Factional loyalties have the singular potentiallity of eroding fairness and impartiality. is a welcome step although in normal circumstances such a judicial review would have amounted to interference in the independent functioning of the investigating authority. the police force has become an object of ridicule by being asked to investigate certain affairs of the politicians with whom its absolute loyalty lies and who twist policemen around their little fingers. In this context. A mature and sober political leadership can set right the fractured loyalties of the police organisation. They make professional loyalty seem meaningless.PRAVEEN KUMAR Mr. their loyalties make all the difference to the quality of administration.

This was the beginning of corruption of Indian police. it has been attracting only the second best among youth who otherwise would be left in the lurch. to the State. Professional dignity and integrity have been brushed aside leading to corruption. in the Indian police. When there is a vacuum of a drive to carry it onward. even at the higher rungs. is like liver to human body. The department cannot stay untouched while there is marked fall in the standards of diligence and integrity in other walks of life. which once was proud to enforce law.M. Shift in diligence helped to build moneypower while shift in loyalties facilitated proximity to power-brokers. No organisation can exist without a driving force to sustain it. 29 . said “ Three fourths of the police force. the sole objective being money and power. Attempts to suppress and gain complete hold over the bureaucracy and the police in democratic India have affected the police adversely causing a sense of inadequacy. which. Indian police adopted and adapted itself to corrupt surroundings. Policing is more a profession than a job. to maintain order and to ensure peace and security. Priorities in service have been shuffled. in a scathing attack on the Tamil Nadu police after he assumed charge of the State Government in 1996. The police.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED CAUGHT IN THE VICIOUS CIRCLE OF CORRUPTION The Tamil Nadu Chief Minister. it is filled by corruption. Mr. The basic ingredients of corruption in India are money and power. profession entails dedication and commitment to a cause. Crimes. have lost all the enthusiasm as these factors became political and lost their importance otherwise. The development shattered the professional pride of the police and struck a blow to their motivation towards organisational ends. The degeneration spread rapidly with the passage of time as organisational commitments became outdated demode and pragmatism taught that immediate personal interests are for leading a good life. While job involves performing a task entrusted. in the case of the police upholding the rule of law and safeguarding the security of the country.Karunanidhi. How dedicated are the police to this cause in India? Simple observation of criminal activities around and police responses to them give clues to the situation. As Government service.” The remark coming from an experienced chief executive of a State distinguished for its efficient police force until a few decades ago indicates the atrophy that has set in. Organisational objectives have been completely lost sight of. The lack of motivation to achieve organisational goals and show results is a clear manifestation of the fall in professional pride. A major contributing factor has been the gross fall in professional pride among the personnel. has lost its charm in terms of remuneration and status. Grass and insensitive handing of the policemen and police matters by political leaders has eroded the morale and the sense of belonging to the police force. criminals and law and order problems were all subject to political convenience. has become rotten.

While these cardinal goals are met by the mere existence of the police. changing the course of investigation to save certain criminals or deciding the process of arrests and seizures to favour certain individuals or parties. The same is true of stolen articles. make life different for the people involved. The force also helps to absorb the blames heaped on the rulers while things go wrong. This is unbelievable. it is not worth being in existence. On the one hand. coupled with the sensitivity of the job. the police are hand in glove with them. anything in addition. Such characters in police are always cultivated and posted to key positions so that compromises can be easily mached Honest police officers are sidelined. As corruption takes control and spreads to 30 . There is not even a single case anywhere in India of such exclusive markets dealing with smuggled articles being shut down and the illegal activities being brought to a halt by prosecuting the sharks of the smuggling world. with the resources at its disposals cannot collect evidence against the illegal activities conducted openly on such a large scale. If the police. overlooking prostitution. black-marketing and drug trafficking. Flexible elements are useful assets to people in key positions to save their kith and kin as the when they get involved in criminal proceedings. illicit business carried out with police patronage or tacit support make huge grists in which the police naturally have a huge share. Huge sums of money change hands either to avoid arrest. renders the force vulnerable to corruption.open sale of smuggled articles in exclusive markets maintained for the purpose in major cities of India. without paying legal dues to the Government in the form of sales and income taxes and in violation of various rules and laws. the dishonest thrive at the cost of honest professional. The police can be part of such dirty deals without leaving a clue. integrity and honesty become achronisms. Letting gambling dens flourish. The illegal business contributes to the growth of parallel economy of black money in the country. running to crores of rupees each day. the culprits are prepared to pay any price in order to divert the attention of the police. This forms a vicious circle. Corrupt police is the product of a corrupt society and corrupt police in turn perpetuate corruption in society.PRAVEEN KUMAR Let us take an obvious example. The need for police is limited to the need to have an obedient force at the disposal of the rulers for use wherever they feel like. The general perception is that an upright police force is always an inconvenience to the people and therefore is not always tolerated and encouraged. say professionalism. backing the manufacture and sale of illicit liquor. Either the police do not have the professional resolve to bring the illegal activities to halt or the offenders who indulge in them have the police backing in running the business. The common justification of the police for allowing such markets to do business is that no hard evidences to prove offence are available. A fall-out of corruption is. search and seizure or to change the very course of investigation. The leeway involved in the exercise of power. These markets thrive before the eyes of the local police force. The existence of such a force gives the common man a feeling of security. The footpath vendors in specified market areas trade in consumer goods. On the other hand. In other words.

Taking recourse to unfair and illegal means to crush upright officers in also not uncommon.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED all strata of the force. justice and fairness in the social structure of the country. time and uncertainties involved and the history of court judgements render the protection meaningless and force the upright officer to silently bear all humiliations and losses or yield to the pressures. Now. The situation has changed now. upright elements in the force become a minority and also forfeit the coveted position in the organisation as inconvenient candidates. His worry is how to use his new position to further his prospects before he retires in a few months. Freeing the police from the grip of corruption is a priority for rebuilding India. corruption was confined to the lower strata of officials. it originates from the above and percolates downwards. 31 . Though courts of law can theoretically protect officers against such harassment. This is the crux of the problem of corruption. An intelligence chief may drive his unwilling subordinates to adopt all sorts of illegal methods including telephone tapping. A noncorrupt police is the beacon of a healthy society. It is to the credit of Indian police that it has great officers who have withstood all slights without yielding to pressure. In the olden days. It must elevate itself to the heights expected of it as the guardian of the rule of law. As the date of retirement approaches. They are scorned. expenses. what about the subordinates once his business is done. The police can usher in a healthy social life in the country only by first getting itself rid of the cobwebs of corruption and then infusing professionalism in its work. political espionage and other dirty tricks in his attempts to win over his political masters and may even succeed at the cost of more senior aspirants. detested and avoided as moles in the mainstream. his perception of right and wrong blurs in the lust to make the most of the position.

in fact. the administrators have to rely upon their subjective fancies to measure and control policing and assess the work of their subordinates. the effectiveness of policing can never be measured. peculiar to the fields of crime control and security operations. The object of the organisation is preventing crimes and success can be measured only in relation to the extent the efforts pay. a tool to measure policing quality. namely the successful protection of a sensitive target or the creation of a crime-free atmosphere during a particular period. which could not have been achieved by anything less than first class policing. Policing in these fields largely depends upon intangible factors such as luck. The measurement of the quality of crime investigation and maintenance of order are also equally complex for different reasons. moral values. The crime rate or other policing problems do not remain static over a period of time. The major lapse lies in the failure to define organisation objectives and formulate a specific set of actions thereon. SUBJECTIVE FANCIES The police needs. The success achieved in this field will decide the degree to which the Indian police can shed its shoddy image. As the factors of such an effort are unknown after the crimes are prevented. In order to tackle these problems in gauging policing qualities. prices and climate. For example extraneous objectives such as creating employment opportunities often inspire the creation of additional posts irrespective of the organisational needs. as a control device. The police organisation is being run without requisite management principles. 32 . The problem is. which results in the corrosion of job contents and thereby erode the morale of the force. will continue to prevail. is not allocated on the basis of scientific assessment of character and aptitude. Until such a device is invented. A sufficiently active tool to measure policing qualities is therefore the first priority in the task of creating a new shape for the Indian police. Work. Until a scientific device is formulated. wherein a few mealy-mouthed smart guys always corner accolades at the cost of efficient silent workers. the organisation compares developments in the same period in the preceding years. The results that are tangible. often. political conditions. But this is an unscientific method and gives unsatisfactory results for various reasons. either no crime was attempted. quality of leadership.PRAVEEN KUMAR POLICE STRUCTURE NEEDS THE MANAGEMETN TOUCH A major handicap in police administration is the absence of a tool to assess performance. in which case even the least effective police could have produced the same results or an all-out major attempt to commit crime has been prevented. the heartburns and frustrations caused by erratic measurement of work and policing qualities. These depend upon population. complexity of society. economic conditions. none of which follow any formula. can be the outcome for two different reasons. surroundings and the willing cooperation of the public.

At any rate. while a few posts in the police are overburdened with work. Only the meticulous exercise of management techniques will make police administration meaningful. Yet. security exercises or simply administration. manned by highly committed and capable officers who are paid and looked after well by the Government. span of control. Rationalisation of the police structure to bring about a balance among the various posts in the same rank would certainly help to ameliorate the situation. human relationships. information flow. manpower. crime control. the police organisation of the third millennium should be a far smaller unit than now. Naturally. it is a major cause. methods of programming of operations. Corruption is rampant. unit of control. work analysis and contingencies for emergencies must be inherent in police culture whether it pertains to raids. As a result. A systematic growth plan for balanced expansion is essential if the department is to meet the tasks ahead. The lopsided growth of the organisation has spawned acute likes and dislikes for various positions. haphazard growth has resulted. cannot be tolerated in a serious department like the police. time flow. maintenance of order. accountability functional conveniences. control methods. MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES The police organisation of India would do well to formulate actions and operations in line with the latest management principles and practices followed elsewhere. It would also help to eliminate the wastage of Government funds on unnecessary posts. motivational aspects. Organisational sensibilities such as workload. have resulted in their being dumped a few days after commissioning while even some of the basic needs are yet to be met. It may either constitute an efficient cell of management experts to advice or hire a management consultation firm for guidance. The creation of such posts. intelligence collection. The last three decades have seen a tremendous expansion in the Indian police. 33 . probity and objectivity are sacrificed in favour of survival and protection of career interests. The instinct to study and plan operations in terms of layout charts. effective and less demanding in terms of time. INSTINCT For the administrators. This may not be the sole reason for the falling standards of policing. equipment and other resources. span of control and information flow are never given the attention they need building an organisation. For the lack of an organisational plan and the foresight to assess future demands. investigation. place. the knowledge of modern management principles makes policing and related operations cheaper. purposeful and useful in giving the personnel direction and content.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED Sophisticated equipment purchased under modernisation schemes without creating the infrastructure for their operation or analysing their relevance and their relative merits to the organisation. there are many which have no work or accountability. in order to accommodate unwanted elements.

Indian is yet to develop a system to assess the needs of modernisation in the police and to devise techniques to speed up the process. no serious though is given to the need for quick response. India of the third millennium will require its police force to be equipped with helicopters as an aide in emergencies. The Bangalore city police spent liberally in 1991 on modern communication gadgets. What is at issue is not only the knowledge of law and procedures but a deeper insight into their applications. A face-lift to police stations and offices with the latest office equipment and general facilities will go a long way in boosting the morale of the policemen. Otherwise. This has resulted in enormous wasteful expenditure towards the acquisition of gadgets. including inservice training. The result is spasmodic efforts without the logistic support to sustain modernistion. weapons and office equipment system and the simultaneous creation of the necessary infrastructure for their operation in advance alone will make the police force rise to the challenge of elite criminals who are armed with sophisticated equipment. There are training programmes. Instances of such wasteful expenditure on modernisation are available in other parts of the country also. The response time of the Indian police to a crisis call is unduly long when compared to international standards. from the constabulary to the ranks of the Director-General must possess sound professional and general knowledge at all levels. 34 . necessary in diverse circumstances. computerisation of fingerprints is yet to reach a satisfactory phase. but they lack in substance and quality. is the primary cause of this failing . but this did not improve its speed of response. Professional knowledge is vital in the field of policing too. A genuine and effective effort to achieve modernisation would be indispensable in the future. India is yet to make full use of advanced computer facilities for policing. either in actual performance or in supervision. Efforts to shorten it. A mind. seldom attend to this salient need. in Delhi and few other places where terrorist strikes made shocking impacts did bring about some improvements.PRAVEEN KUMAR The present policing system in India has too much of paper work with hundreds of registers maintained in each station or office with tens of forms filled up at each stage. alert to its surroundings with an inexhaustible curiosity to know what is afoot and triggers each development and its likely impact on policing in general and the worker at hand in particular. The modernisation of the police force with the latest communication. This entails special efforts to update professional and general knowledge at all levels. INTELLECTUAL ANALYSIS The passion for modernisation is not met with an intellectual analysis of the needs for modernisation. A detailed study of the need for paper work should be taken up to eliminate its need so that time is saved. The use of helicopters for policing remains a dream. transport. A healthy police setup. Computerisation is also a possibility not far away. These are only exceptions. The modernisation programmes which should pave the path for improving the response time. Distant hearing and night-watch devices are also unknown. They fail to impart the right knowledge to the trainees and induce attitudinal changes in them. The lack of commitment to work. is essential for efficient policing.

is a lowly-paid. modestly educated. the sub-inspectors will occupy the lowest rank in the setup. on first appointment. may have avenues for special promotions in addition to the two provided in a time scale of say 25 years. The promotion of constabulary in exceptional cases to the ranks of PSIs and above 35 . So every police constable retires at least as an Assistant Sub-Inspector of Police. as Superintendents to make the career more attractive. Field of specialisation. has to be stopped to make selection meaningful. Diligent efforts at the highest level in the organisation to create a force characterised by integrity. Constables up to the level of Assistant Sub-Inspectors of Police should be limited to the duties of assistants without police powers and responsibilities. 25 years. performing all subordinate functions including beat patrolling and investigation of minor cases. The fearsome authority sans empathy. a Sub-Inspector as a Deputy Superintendent of Police and an Indian Police Service Officer as an Inspector General of Police. Officers. non-elite mass of workes in uniform. CONSTABULARY The constabulary which forms the backbone and cutting-edge of Indian policing and wields real authority over the populace. The managers have their image development tools limited to issuing occasional press statements when actually image development has become a highly advanced. The prevalence of police administration over general administration in the survival of a nation as a democratic and disciplined country may necessitate changes in the recruitment and service condition rules to attract the best talent.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED Though efforts have been made to redeem the image of the Indian police nothing substantial has been achieved thanks to amateurish handling of the affair. This will require a huge army of subinspectors while the contabulary stands to be severely spruced in strength. The Indian police of the 21st century will require sub-inspectors with their present scale of education and status in society as the primary unit of policing at the cutting-edge level. WORK ASSESSMENT The system of assessment of work for promotion has fallen into utter misuse. though not to districts directly. This foible in the extant setup makes policing more complex. respect and legitimacy decidedly proves a deadly substructure for an organisation and people certainly resent an organisation with this unhealthy attribute. on the basis of a written examination and on an overall assessment of their career of 25 years by high-power committees formed for the purpose. Subjective assessments of corrupt influences must be replaced with periodical promotions in a time scale of say. commitment and intelligence may be the foremost need of a police organisation of the future. With the removal of the constabulary from the hierarchy. Each police station works under a police inspector assisted by a host of sub-inspectors. in exceptional cases. The authority they wield makes them fearsome while their low status in society stands in the way of their getting empathy and respect. And dual recruitments as in vogue now. The officers of the Indian Police Service may be posted.

36 .PRAVEEN KUMAR should be screened by the All –India Police Authority and the promotion of an IPS officer as the Director General of Police and above should be approved by a Central Cabinet Committee headed by the Prime Minister.

above all. including India. is not inspiring either. Its record has never been satisfactory in the North –East or with the naxalites. India’s human rights record is particularly bad in Punjab and Kashmir. The most important lies in the police culture itself-its inability to look beyond certain barriers it raises around itself. Africa and Latin America prominently figure in these reports. The third is what are the limits within which violations are confined. and the record of the countries in the Indian sub-continent. its scant respect for means (in achieving the end) The result is the police siding with the wrong-doers in the clashes between individual and national or other social interests. The factual reports have embarrassed Governments and their police outfits. This is an example of the fence grazing the crop. 37 . with the human rights commissions at the regional. Where does one draw the line between the larger interests of the country and the violation of human rights? Blame is shifted from one level to another whenever the police is pulled up for human rights violation during action. It is an irony that most incidents of human rights violations have their roots in the police.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED POLICE AND HUMAN RIGHTS – DOES END JUSTIFY MEANS? A basic tool man devised to preserve his common rights is the police. leading to popular condemnation of the police. The second is whether such violations are justified in the cause of such interests. It is distressing to note that developing countries in Asia. must reread its recent human rights record. national and international levels on their toes to detect. in particular. The top brass blames the field officers for excess while the latter blame the bosses for exerting pressures to show results without any guidelines to protect human rights. Right thinking people are aware of the predicament and sufferings of their fellow-men. and social interests are thoroughly corrupt. immoral and unworthy of any trust? Answers are desperately needed. What would be the situation if the police who indulge in human rights violations to protect national. its deviant interpretations of its role in the rule of law and. Pakistan and Sri Lanka. The reasons are many. and who imposes these limits and by what mechanism. The basic question is whether human rights violation is sine qua non with safeguarding national and the larger social interests. report and protest. investigate. India. human rights violations have become a highly sensitive issue. Thanks to the revolution in the communication sphere. its failure to see a human being as he. its incapacity to see its relevance to the common man outside the power structure. its inveterate indulgence with powerplay.

Human rights become a sensitive issue only when they clash inter se and invite a decision on basic issues. Once on a dangerous course of action. Are acts of human rights violation effective in crime investigation or in controlling a troubled situation? The answer is no. Human rights take precedence over national and social interests and transcend religious and moral issues. The legislature. it is an issue between the helpless them and the arm-twisting Government. on the other. It is a crisis and the tendency is to somehow overcome the situation irrespective of what the future might hold. It is a do-or-die situation. considering the dangers they face in carrying out the task. The police indulge in human rights violations on suspected elements to bring the situation under control either by eliminating them or by forcing them to reveal their plans. least of all during actions which expose them to tremendous risks. It is basically the use of power beyond the scope of law for certain ends and is not committed for any noble end. A temporary lull may be created. say. rape and torture in custody are common in many developing countries. The human rights is the spine of policing must be made an integral part of the police culture. in emergent situations. the illegalities of human rights violations have either no impact or have just 38 . The legislature by promulgating laws and the courts by interpreting them delineate what natural rights constitute inviolable human rights violations are an issue between the legislature and the judiciary on the one hand and the executive. Fake encounters were first contrived and staged by the Indian Police. when separatists or terrorists are active or dangerous operations of foreign agents are suspected. and its administrators are to be blamed. Crime investigations account for a large share of human rights violations in the developing countries where third degree methods are employed in the interrogation of the people detained.PRAVEEN KUMAR The truth is that the police. in a democracy. Such violations are common in secret service operations. decides how much of such rights could be surrendered in common interest. that none among the police and their administrators really bother about human rights and their violations. Moral questions such as human rights violations and the public agitation likely to follow do not matter. The question is who is to judge such basic issues. the sole aim of the police is to succeed in the operation by whatever means. This is absolutely necessary. In simple terms. The authorities up the hierarchy also believe in succeeding somehow rather than play by the rules. This gives a legal slant to the issue. This is the crux of the matter regarding human rights. For the fearstruck citizens. Only such emphasis restrain the police from indulging in violations. The administrators know that excessive checks and moral fears blunt the killer instinct in the policeman and affect the chance of his success in the field. The violations may be committed in the acts of execution. NATURAL AND BASIC Human rights are the natural rights of the human race as well as the laws that help make social life possible. but in the world of organised crime. Death. which is the police. human rights violations involve violating the basic rights of life. Certainly the decisions cannot be left to the whims and convenience of the police. confinement or torture. at all levels. liberty and human dignity beyond the limits of the law.

Secret service is a world apart and its dramatis personae are inveterate in criminal games. That is why the violation of human rights is on the rise as efficient and ingenious policing is less preferred. in the process relegating to the oblivion the need to find lasting solutions. It is left to each state to draw the line depending on the sensitivity of each problem though it cannot openly declare that it is promoting and guiding the secret acts even remotely. The criminals are mentally and physically prepared to face any threat to their basic rights. though law and morality demand that such violations in any form and for reason are bad. a petty criminal comes out as a hardened criminal. This is what happened in Punjab. extortions and rape. individuals from enforcement agencies as well as terrorist outfits may take advantage of the situation and indulge in killings. This is true about managing law and order issues as well as investigation of crimes. Devising alternative plans to counter police action is only a minor diversion in their massive operations. HARDENED CRIMINALS Another reason why acts of human rights violation will not put an end to crimes is the criminals get hard and wish to take revenge and embarrass the establishment. Another impact of the violation of human rights by the state is the loss of fear and respect for the authority of the state.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED the opposite impact. Inhuman and outrageous acts perpetrated by established Government agencies have an electrifying impact on the common man whose sympathies are in favour of the victims. The danger lies in committing excesses that endanger the safety and the well-being of innocent people not involved in the game in any way. they enjoy fighting the Government on equal terms with no legal or moral inhibitions. Yet it is a cardinal duty it must perform. A government devoid of moral authority cannot rule at all. This is how resistance grows. A well organised outfit actually contrives to create a situation to earn the sympathy of the public. India saw it happen in Punjab and Kashmir and even in the North –East where personal scores wee settled. In the atmosphere of violence. with the official sanction to play them. in Kashmir and in Vietnam in the Sixties and the Seventies. The tragedy about Indian law –enforcers is that they are keen on the immediate show of results to earn the appreciation of the higherups. Once subjected to third-degree methods during interrogation. It becomes a no-hold barred fight then onwards. Secret services indulge in dirty tricks involving human rights violation in national interests. In fact. Criminals have their own code of conduct. Another dimension of human rights violations is its commission for personal ends in the garb of fighting a social cause. Their resolve to fight the Government with all the resource at their disposal is only strengthened. the law-enforcers losing their initial advantages and the edge of civility and decency. The legal and moral relevances become immaterial to the citizen. 39 .

The problem is laying the emphasis on results irrespective of the means. In policing. taking possession. be it individual. do great harm to individuals and society. controlling movements and the use of weapons. the only conclusion one can draw from rampant human rights violations is that the enforcers are utterly devoid of professional skill and the instinct to do effective policing and hence resort to lawlessness as a short-cutmethod. Protection. impounding. search. or the rights of the nation for survival. the problem being acute in non-democratic countries. each means is an end by itself. entrusted with the responsibility of protecting rights. organisational or social. Policing by its very nature. arrest. These methods when not employed discreetly and moderately.PRAVEEN KUMAR Laws are formulated and promulgated by the government keeping in sight the needs of the country and the responsibilities of its enforcing machinery. prevention and investigation are the tools available for achieving these ends. to suit the needs of the field. are doing a disservice to the profession and humanity in violating human rights in the discharge of peripheral duties. Committing an injustice in the name of justice cannot be called a service in the cause of justice. involves extreme measures such as detention. The heart of police responsibilities is protection of rights. The need to go lawless in order to enforce laws arises only when the law-enforcers perceive that the laws are inadequate or their abilities are inadequate to meet the challenges in the field. Human rights make up the essence of the privileges man enjoys in the social setup. forced entry. corporate . The laws being what they are. Perhaps in no other organisation is means as vital as in the police. The police. 40 . The police and the governments of almost all the developing countries suffer from the syndrome. But this is not unique to Indian police. seizure. framed from time to time.

Personal attributes such as probity and professionalism are essential. thanks to the open aggressive moves of its energetic Director.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED RESTORING CREDIBILITY TO CRIME INVESTIGATION The last decade of this century sees the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) becoming the Indian version of the U. The arrangement provides for a separate bureau of investigation. criminal procedure. duties privileges and the liabilities of the police officers of an area in the investigation of the offences committed there. The organisation. But does the CBI meet all these needs? The seventh Schedule of the Constitution has the police and public order. The trend altered the judiciary which became active. administration of justice and judicial proceedings under the Concurrent List. The CBI. The superintendence of the special police force lies with the Central Government and the administration with an officer whose grade is on par with State police chief. under the State List. and criminal law. Being the highest authority of the country in crime investigation. Federal Bureau of Intelligence(FBI) headed by J. in the process. The legal authority of the CBI is defined by a short six-section Act of 1946 titled “Delhi Special Police Establishment Act. shed its meekness against powerful politicians and proved it was a force to reckon with. The special police force enjoys all the powers.Edgar Hoover in the middle of the century With one difference. The FBI became a key component and much feared public institution. The Central Bureau of Intelligence and Investigation figures in the Union List. The last section of the Act states the special police force cannot exercise its powers in an area without the consent of the Government of that State. had to discharge its professional responsibilities and this saw many skeletons in the cupboard tumbling. 41 . while the CBI gained notoriety as a pawn in the political game of chess used to bring rivals down on their knees. the CBI must contain the best investigation brains vested with the power to execute the work.S. closely watched by the judiciary. 1946” which provides for the constitution of a special police force by the Central Government for the investigation of notified offences in any Union Territory and in any area in a State where the jurisdiction of the police force is extended by the order of the Central Government on the consent of the State Government. except for the deployment and use of forces of the Union.

in its present form. Does the CBI. The political head gains this leverage by becoming instrumental in the appointment of a particular police officer who would never have dreamt of making it to the top. 42 . This attitude renders the CBI part of a political game plan tarnishing its image and degrading the merit of the investigations. Otherwise. has come across several States giving and withdrawing consent depending on their political and parochial conveniences. the Act has to be amended. in 50 years. the CBI. Arrests. seizures and chargesheets are all subject to political convenience. Only insiders know the turns and twists it undergoes depending upon who is what in the case and in the Government Right from taking up a case for investigation to the stage of filing a chargesheet and later. India. Its prime position as the investigator of all important and sensitive crimes has brought it to the centre-stage in the public life of India. Again. why should the head of the premier investigating agency be named according to the whims and fancies of the politicians in power? The power of appointing the head of the CBI should be taken away from the Centre. The agency will then have its credibility restored. investigation methods and the powers and privileges given to the investigators. decisions on bails. and his power and conscience are at the convenience of his political boss. judicial proceedings. The restraint on the CBI from exercising its powers and jurisdiction in any area in a State without the consent of the government of that State is a great handicap. searches. The Act provides for the appointment of the head of the CBI by the Central Government. the people assume that the law will take its course. anything may happen at any stage depending upon the political dictates. It is the national character of the CBI that makes it stand head and shoulders above the myriad crime investigation department. which involves politicians.PRAVEEN KUMAR The preamble of the Act speaks about the need for the constitution of “ a special police force in Delhi for the investigation of certain offences in the Union Territories and to make provision for the superintendence and administration of the said force and for the extension to other areas of the powers and jurisdiction of the members of the said force in regard to the investigation of the said offences”. Once a case is referred to the CBI. The grateful chief knows to whom he owes his coveted position. as an investigating agency. A case may be investigated and chargesheet filed within a few weeks or months or just shelved for decades. fully qualify to be a premier investigating authority? The answer is no. The CBI should be empowered to extend its tentacles to all areas of the country and investigate all types of offences classified crime. is on par with any other crime investigation department regarding the law. Now. The Act has to be amended to that effect. This is an arrangement of mutual benefit.

There is no guarantee that the CBI chiefs who make merry in the company of their political benefactors will behave better when left free. The solution lies in liberating the CBI from the grip of the politicians and bringing its top brass to their senses about professional responsibilities. building up cases around flimsy evidence such as entries in diaries and inconsequential photographs sans corroboration have all eroded the status of the CBI. By quitting. the Jain hawala case. in this context: “ talking too much outside and also carrying documents” in the pockets) and leaks about politically sensitive cases make the agency suspect. the sword of abrupt removal from the post is held over his head. Now he has no option but to go against his conscience and professional will unless he is prepared to sacrifice his job.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED When the new chief dares to challenge the will of his political patron. in taking up or completing investigation of politically inconvenient cases. Making the CBI autonomous is not going to achieve anything. “My CBI Days” refers to the harassment he underwent for pursuing investigation according to his conscience. So he would rather join the race. the telecommunications scandal. What exactly has brought about the situation? Delay. sometimes running into years. prompt execution when the political climate is congenial.Madhavan. the Indian Bank scam. the urea scam. the enormous powers he and his political masters enjoy is the other. The charge that the CBI is more interested in trying the cases in the media than in courts cannot be answered squarely.N. Going to the press about chargesheeting key political personalities even before statutory permission is obtained for the purpose (the Supreme Court observed. he does service to nobody: after all. the Lakhubhai pathak cheating case. The malaise lies in the legal framework inherited from the Act the provided for constituting the special police force. Chances are that they may run parallel 43 . decision to oppose or allow bails on political considerations. former Joint Director of the CBI. Reverting officials to the base is always a possibility. The case of the Bofors gun deal drags on. the anti-Sikh riots case of 1984 and the case of harbouring terrorists and mafia associates has dealt a blow to the credibility of the CBI. Mr. Mr. If the appointment of the CBI chief is one side of the coin. the JNN bribery case.K. The public no more trusts the CBI.Singh. there are others waiting to distort professional decisions at the command of the politicians.Kitts forgery case.K. another Joint Director. the handling of the St. preferred voluntary retirement. This is how the agency chief is brought down on his knees. Professional investigation by an upright officer can always be scuttled and the officer abruptly removed if he is found too inconvenient. When a series of sensitive cases against prominent political leaders was referred to the CIB in the Nineties. the agency stood exposed by its meddling. in his book.

The function. about the appointment and removal of the CBI chiefs. liabilities and responsibilities of the panel have to be clearly defined in order to avoid clashes with the CBI. privileges. rights. The crux of the matter is “ a method based on checks and balances”. one of them as chairman and the CBI chief as member-secretary. The constitution of the panel as part of the body of the CBI shall be the second step. The panel may consist of a dozen senior most retired judges of the Supreme Court as permanent members. The panel may be invested with the power to appoint and remove CBI chiefs on the basis of their performances. that it was not in favour of making the prime investigating agency totally autonomous. 44 . The panel may advise the agency on taking up cases. seizures bail and chargesheets. on a simple majority. A suitable amendment to the ”Delhi Special Police Establishment Act 1946” is the first step. arrests. searches. promotions and transfers of officers of an above the rank of Assistant Director. Appreciation and an atmosphere free of bureaucratic hassles and pulls and pressures will help the elder members of the judiciary discharge their responsibilities in guiding the CBI in the right course. A statutory panel constituted of men from the judicial profession as advisor to the agency may fulfil the need for “checks and balances”. Only a full panel with a minimum of 80 percent quorum must be empowered to decide. The advice has to be statutorily binding on the process of the investigation. 1997.The Supreme Court pronounced on May 5.PRAVEEN KUMAR political manoeuvres to build a base for theselves. but would like to evolve a method based on checks and balances so that it could function independently in accordance with the law. The panel has to be free to monitor the process and the pace of the investigation. And the third and most crucial step will be suitable administrative measures to ensure that the panel discharges its responsibilities in a fair manner. The key is the appointment of the chief of the agency. The membership of the panel must be awarded to the senior retied judges including chief justices.

Huge unbudgeted and unaccounted funds at the RAWs disposal make the appointments highly lucrative. Free India . The shift saw an expansion in the vista of policing worldwide. in spite of its moral values and abiding faith in the Gandhian philosophy of truth and honesty. The other reason is political interference in postings and transfers of the RAW officials. moulding and controlling the affairs of neighbours after setting up the Research and Analysis Wing (RAW) to handle covert operations in foreign countries. the Soviet Union and Britain before and during the war and the U. secularism. and Israel after it perfected the techniques. containing the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam. nonaligned movement and mixed economy. the most important being clandestine operations for national security. trust and absolute secrecy are vital and draw the line between life and death. Lanka and Pakistan and to a somewhat lesser extent in Afghanistan. checkmating Pakistan in Kashmir and controlling the terrorist misadventures of international Sikh communities against Indian targets have earned it worldwide accolades. This is an extremely dangerous trend in a security apparatus where commitment. Nepal. Postings to the RAW with opportunities for foreign assignments have become an obsession depriving the job of all its substance and spirit. Though attempts were scratchy in the beginning India made significant breakthroughs in penetrating. The reasons are many. Sri. It is in fact political connections rather than security screening and clearance and aptitude for clandestine operations which decide the issue.S. Its role in the creation of Bangladesh. The establishment of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) in the early Fifties from the remnants of the office of Special Services( OSS). This in spite of the fact that the Indian secret police is a lightweight performer in the arena of international clandestine wars and its overall performance is unimpressive for the size and resources of the country. Covert operation blossomed as a full-fledged institution and was recognised as a tool of statecraft only during and after the second World War (Germany. Another reason is the moral atrophy experienced by the police after independence leading to a setback in the professional approach.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED WHAT AILS THE INDIAN SECRET POLICE It is significant that the history of the police of sovereign India begins soon after the turbulent years of the second World War. Bhutan. 45 . Burma and some of the Gulf countries are equal to the best in the world. found covert operations indispensable for survival. democracy. The first is the lack of commitment to the national cause and ideologies such as integration. Its operations and performance in Bangladesh. with an exclusive division to handle clandestine operations abroad (sometimes domestic operations also) marked a milestone in the history of intelligence.

India is yet to learn its lessons from these developments. The people who fought a mighty power to liberate this country from the yoke of foreign rule just half a century ago have not bothered to start a public debate on the subject. oversee and mastermind national security policies and its operations. Israel and Russia have efficient outfits at the political level to formulate their national security interests. India’s approach to national security is always piecemeal. Security threats are always treated with short-term face-saving responses which never contribute to the real long-term security needs of the country. There are instances of black acts being committed against the legitimate policies of countries in the garb of national security. Indian security now is left at the mercy of time and it is sheer luck that democracy has escaped the hungry wolves waiting to prey on it.PRAVEEN KUMAR LACK OF PERSPECTIVE Clandestine operations require highly specialised skills. The U. Whether in foreign. Another important reason for the retarded growth of the Indian secret police is the general lack of security consciousness in the country and the inability to see and place the imperatives of a national security policy in the right perspective. defence or economic policy. It is creditworthy that the Indian secret police has remained subordinate and loyal to its legitimate authorities. Most developed countries have created their own systems to mastermind matters touching national security with the power to override the decision of other departments. Ignoring this need means compromising and betraying the organisation’s operational efficiency and exposing the country to dangerous security threats. has the National Security Agency (NSA) doing yeoman service as the national security advisor to the President and enjoys more powers than the CIA. The Inter-Services Intelligence )ISI) has indeed taken upon itself the responsibilities of national security. LOYALTY. The excessive concern for national security has led to the creation of parallel governments and power centres in some countries. trade and commerce. Pakistan is an example of a constitutionally-elected government living in the shadow of fear of its secret police. Security policy is the essence and unifying factor behind all the policies of most developed as well as developing countries. the policies are all oriented to national security. a positive aspect of India’s poor concern for secret interests is its clean slate regarding the existence of secret parallel governments and clandestine power centres. incoherent and casual. science and technology or human resource development. Most developed countries have exclusive super agencies reporting directly to the head of government to advise it on. industry. It does not have a sound and well-conceived national policy. These glitches end up in security breaches. 46 .S. A POSITIVE ASPECT In the context.

Its secret police are yet to make proficient use of the country’s impressive strides in satellite launches and other space innovations.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED The field of operation for the security agencies continues to be confined to traditional methods which ignore the needs of a modern integrated approach in consonance with the national policies and programmes. The role of these special branches in providing skilled recruits to security agencies at the national level has remained a dream. VIP PROTECTION In India. Occasionally. The former have become tools of the ruling parties which spy over their political opponents and the field situations. these contacts are misused to promote favourite subordinates. Efforts made in this direction are rather sketchy. expertise. These exercises are meant just to oblige and gratify political masters. advising the head of government in national security matters. manpower resources.conceived and half-hearted. organisational efficiency and motivation factors. The state of affairs is even worse in the special branches or intelligence units of the States and Union Territories. India is yet to fully utilise the service of world-class mercenaries. India lacks a regimen of long range security programmes to make its security operations meaningful and purposeful. are few and are mostly confined to local newspapers for the purpose of disinformation and to keep track of news dissemination. it is not the plank on which national security stands. National Security Guards. ill. security is not high on the priority list. The institution of an apolitical agency with a permanent core group of experts whose integrity is proven alone can change the situation. for all practical purposes. India cannot afford to treat its security concerns according to the whims and fancies of the people who come to head the Ministries and their political and personal ideologies. While the safety of national leaders is important. save some routine VIP security exercises which do not call for expertise. hi-tech equipment. This nucleus will act as the guide. In short. 47 . Law and order is pushed to the background. This is because of the lopsided loyalties and aberrations in understanding professional objectives and responsibilities and a tendency to trade off professional responsibilities and services for promotions. Except perhaps in the case of Pakistan. This explains the existence of the Black Cats. Special Protection Group and so on. they are rather ill-equipped for the task in. As far as internal security is concerned. It is high time work was done in earnest to form this comprehensive agency. Their contacts with the news media. It is lagging far behind the world standards in hi-tech ultra-secret espionage operations. national security. is synonymous with VIP security and the police refuse to look beyond protecting individuals. a vital link in intelligence operations.

All matters concerned with national security are highly sensitive and should be treated as such.PRAVEEN KUMAR The VIP security has become a public farce with all kinds of people demanding and obtaining security classifications depending on the money and power they have. however influential and important they may be. With the VIPs busy trotting around the country. 48 . throwing normal work out of gear. it has become a serious threat to routine police work. It should not be degraded into a mean exercise for the benefit of a few persons. Each VIP visit to a region ends up with the entire law and order wing of the police force drawn out for protection duties. They get the cover of highly trained police personnel as a mark of their prestige and social standing.

What is actually happening is a great betrayal. 49 . The job culture and peer pressure play a major role in setting the standards in an organisation. be it crime-prevention or investigation. But the people knew who were behind it all. A gambling den was raided by the police and the owner spoke lowly of the DIGP whom he said was taking “ mamools” from him every month. The police as a collective force operated to wreak vengeance on the newspaper for factual reporting. Self-seeking tendencies express themselves at all levels of policing and management of organisational matters. provider of security ad dispenser of justice. The matter was reported by a local newspaper. the tool. A country of self-seekers naturally has a self-seeking police force and the consequence is lawlessness. The symptoms are crime. Though a case was registered with the local police station and the owner of the newspaper moved heaven and earth to bring the culprits to book. though somewhat indiscreet. The reason is the general collapse of the professional instinct. As far as policing is concerned. As professionals. The Deputy Superintendent of Police of the sub-division in which the range headquarters was situated joined the fight and a gang ransacked the office and the press of the news paper a week later. This situation is not quite happy regarding the Indian police now. An incident that took place 16 years ago in Chitradurga district of Karnataka will illustrate the kind of professional commitment Indian police pursue. is only an ideal situation. But going on a rampage. self-interest has role to play. This infuriated the DIG and the police turned its ire on the newspaper. their only interests are the laws of the country and its enforcement at all costs including personal safety and self-interests. however highly placed the officer in question could be. nothing came out of it and the case went undetected. however. Society gets the police it deserves. is there to enforce law and provide security. This. Indeed. Such episodes shatter the trust of the public who cannot look upon the police as the guardian of their rights and interests. Basically. This is the malady India suffers from. namely the police. lapses lie more in the concepts than in individuals. Much more disquieting is the attitude of the public about the development and their complete dependence on the police as the protector of their legal rights. It’s expression in crime management is too obvious a matter.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED POLICE UNPROFESSIONAL Policemen are executives of law and executors of the rule of law. The most disturbing aspect of the present Indian police is the slow and steady process of replacement of the passion for law. making a mockery of professional objectives. collection of intelligence or management of internal security or maintaining law and order. But it has become the handmaid of the rich and influential and serves the interests of the people in that stratum of the population. disorder and insecurity that have kept the country and its people in a stranglehold. in nothing but. caused by the degeneration of values. justice and fairness by a single-pointed indulgence of self-seeking tendencies as the drive of the police system.

his personal staff was harassed and his subordinates were encouraged to disobey. 50 . first. The Home Secretary and the chief of the unit ( in the rank of DGP) made sure that the commandant of the college faced the consequences for recommending action on their favourite official. This continued until the officer who found functioning impossible went on leave. The fact is both are important to create a conducive environment of professionalism. More surprising is that such incidents take place in the open without any attempt to keep it secret or discreet. Greating an ambience of professional pride is a sure way of nurturing and promoting high professional standards and efficiency. For administering the medication. In the process. he is harassed through other means. His vehicle was withdrawn. It is immaterial whether high professional pride creates high standards. India definitely needs such a professional environment in its police force to strengthen its democratic traditions and the roots of the rule of law. Posts with no job content are created in various ranks primarily to accommodate officers who refuse to fall in line with the higherups for reasons of conscience and professional integrity. An organised effort is on in the Indian police to force its members to fall in line at the cost of individual brilliance and creative abilities. Law and order has become a tool in the hands of the politicians and the policemen make themselves available for such games. The organisation follows the principle of nipping talent in the bud insisting on unquestioning servitude. The policemen are starved of innovative steps. telephones were disconnected. It an upright officer takes a sinecure posting in his stride and refuses to part with his principles. The result is lawlessness spawned by the absence of effective policing and wrong models as the protectors of law. The parochial instinct of the police expresses itself in the management and organisational matters.PRAVEEN KUMAR While intelligence collection is becoming a politically oriented function. The latter was accused of involvement in a fraudulent act involving several lakhs of rupees. Under the cover of discipline and the need of tacit obedience. The talk of the top brass on public platforms about the need to nurture excellence and the outstanding qualities is a farce. He reported back to duty only after he was transferred out. Recently the commandant of a training college pressed his higherups and the state Home Secretary for the removal of a functionary of the college from his important postion. Organisational processes such as promotions and transfers are widely used to achieve personal ends. honest policemen suffer and the morale of the system receives a serious setback. topmost police leaders of the country need to be convinced that the police of present India are really ailing with serious problems and the system really needs treatment. Most leaders prefer status quo at the peril of the growth of the organisation so that their interests remain undisturbed. the game of favouritism is wilfully played on the one hand and any resistance is ruthlessly crushed on the other. internal security operations are no more than providing cover to political bigwigs and other influential people at the cost of more pressing problems of national magnitude. Professional pride is the panacea for the malady of self-interest in professionals.

freedom of thought and independent judgement. These extraordinary powers are tools of the police in serving the interests of justice. people involved and related events. Interference of the court often is to little. The police play umpteen roles as executors at the grassroots level. There is nothing tangible in their service to inspire a commitment to the noble cause. They can forcibly break-open. The policemen perform their duties with normal flair and loyalty while put in service of justice. It signifies a heightened mind bound to a heightened cause. basically faith. fair exercise of their powers to ensure that no harm is done to the process of justice. A policeman with his loyalty can do an exemplary job in the administration of justice. sans stirrings in the conscience. Only they lean towards the rich and the powerful. The fact is lost sight of by present administration of justice. Loyalty to a value or a just cause is always a great virtue. search and seize when the need arises. is exempted from the process of justice by the law itself. selflessness in the arbitrators of justice as well as in those who are in the service of the administration of justice. as the cutting-edge of governance. They can prevent. as the means of justice. The role of the police in the administration of justice comes under scrutiny in the context of their part in the investigation of crimes and maintenance of law and order. There is virtually no way to force them to comply with the needs of objectivity and fairplay in work save their own interpretations of laws and actions. It cannot be isolated from its environment. confine or arrest erring people. A weak economic position and opportunities to make easy money render them prone to corrupt practices. The only loyalty desirable for those in the service of the administration of justice in addition to the loyalty to the cause of justice and other virtues is loyalty to conscience. The same cannot be said about loyalty to individuals of whatever importance. Individual loyalty in the service of the administration of justice is self-defeating. The lack of a sound mechanism of supervision and the poor position of the policeman in society. future. enjoys enormous powers. check. They have no organisational pride. Field orientations distract them from high human values. restrain. present. Justice necessitates an integral vision. diverse issues. Objectivity and justness seldom give company to those who act to show results. Expecting selfless traits in policemen is akin to waiting for rain drops to fall from bright white clouds. They may use weapons to hurt and kill. past. 51 . The relevance of the police in the administration of justice is two-fold: one. The police. enter. prohibit. regulate. Loyalty to justice is a noble cause. The achilles’ heel lies in loyalty. This presupposes a passion for objectivity and justness and above all. It means delving into the heart of an issue and delivering justice taking into account all related issues and matters to the rightful entitlement of all. a blind faith. Passion is the normal trait of action. too late to be meaningful.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED LAW AND JUSTICE Justice begotten at a cost is justice lost. They are basically performers. mediocre education and a deviant job culture inhibit the police from performing at levels commensurate with their responsibilities. actual doers in the field. The police.

political rivals are investigated and charge-sheeted on flimsy grounds while cases of national significance drag on. This is true of the police too. Most cases of dispute never go beyond the police stations. In the process. The cause of failure of the police lies more in the system’s failure. Police in an inappropriate milieu may turn into a monster. The police is a fence which. You seldom find a policeman confessing to a wrong or an excess committed. every third-degree method. Making justice a costly affair gives another dimension to the issue. The enormous powers confer special responsibilities on it to protect innocent people from a rash exercise of powers. reasons and justifications. with its extra-ordinary powers. It is irrelevant how the justifications appear to outsiders. Every encounter. Every act of a human being has its own logic. These days the executive heads of government opt for their own men in the police force to head premier investigation agencies.PRAVEEN KUMAR Shallow policing is responsible for all the mishaps and turbulence of the first half century of independent India. the character of its main players. The police is reduced to the state of a tool of political revenge in this power game. the police loses its credibility as a nonpartisan player and an infallible tool of establishing justice. Every person thinks he is right and every criminal is just in his own assessment. every illegal arrest and every excess committed by the police has its own justification. Another factor is the exercise of their special powers without going against justice. Commissioners have explained away the gunning down of innocent citizens by subordinates in broad daylight as a case of mistaken identity. Courts come on the scene only in a far later stage. We have any number of cases of senior police officers colluding with subordinates in destroying evidence of lock-up death cases. however. 52 . The police is the first line of defence. Good police certainly symbolises effective administration of justice more than courts and prosecution department together do. Effectiveness of the police lies in its ability to make justice an easily and cheaply dispensable commodity. every wrongful confinement. can ruin the crop it is asked to protect. deviant job culture and wrong leadership than in the concept of policing. every lockup death.

The police administrators in this country refuse to realise the basic psychological imperative of good policing. They know that nothing works as fear does. The police force is a tactical tool that can be of immense help to check the interference of the law. Suspensions and disciplinary actions are common. SCAPE GOAT An upright officer of the rank of Additional Director General of Police of a State and a scholar in diverse fields was known to refuse to bend against his conscience and this fact made him unpopular among his superiors.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED POLICE MORALE ERODED BY POOR ADMINISTRATION The basic ingredients of good policing are professional pride and good image. transfer to humiliating jobs created just for the purpose and keeping the person waiting without a job. responsibilities to society can be discharged only from a position of strength. status. The Government ordered an enquiry by the 53 . This attitude produces a weak and confused police force with a low self-esteem. telephone and other facilities. True policing is impossible in the absence of the strength of pride. even at the cost of professional pride. Good image brings in its wake public cooperation and enhances the social recognition of the police personnel. he addressed his government about the tragic security lapses in a major prison in the State headquarters and sent proposals to improve the situation. denial of promotions. A weak police cannot do a good job. and enlightenment. Police personnel humiliated in career can never face the people from a position of strength and do good policing. a mafia gangwar that ensued in the State capital led to the murder of a gang leader by a prison inmate. They now that the advantages of a policeman out-weigh the risks of breaking the spine by whatever means and that policemen so reined-in can be made to perform any job even at risks to his own life and honour. In the closing months of 1995. when disciplinary action would include such indecent measures as withdrawal of vehicles. Sadly to meet personal ends. This is why the administrators spare no effort and lose no opportunities to beat. The tragedy lies in police administration. breaches its pride and shatters its image. The police are aware of this aspect. Its vanity belittles the police. This is true at all levels including the highest ranks. While he was the Chief of State prisons in 1995. terrify and bully policeman of whatever rank. No action was initiated on the report by the government. Pride is linked to morale. they crush professional pride whenever and wherever it is seen raising its head. Perhaps staff in no other government department suffer humiliations as in police. A good image boosts professional pride.

The sweep of arrogance is so strong that it has not patience for rules. the likes of which can be found anywhere in India. The officer was removed from his position and was not given an alternative posting for atleast three months. not only did the ADGP become a scapegoat for the lapses of the government. codes of conduct. it was the government for not acting on the report of the ADGP. moral values. Newspapers carry report of how promptly and actively regional and central IPS associations respond to all the decisions touching their career. not only that hear. incompetence and corruption within the Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) helped the process. We never hear these associations taking up any cause in matters purely professional. This new breed is interested in nothing beyond meretricious schemes for promoting its career interests. If anybody was to be held responsible for the lapses in the prison. Rules required that the full guard provided to his at his own bungalow be shifted to the Police House. but also in the next ten years while his juniors superseded him.law and order. They only think of more perks. He shifted to the police house and took up the renovation of his own bungalow just a few months prior to his retirement. In this case. who had obtained several sites from the government through false claims in the names of his wife and himself and a spacious house in a posh area of the State capital refused to occupy the police house allotted to him and continued to stay in his own bungalow for the first three years of his tenure till the end of 1989. but also an easy target for police officers who found his integrity inconvenient. Thoughts about how the schemes would affect the police structure in the long run never bother these people.PRAVEEN KUMAR Home Secretary. The latter who found the ADGP a thorn in his flesh found a golden opportunity in the enquiry. creating new posts to improve avenues of promotion and fighting for parity with other services. An illustration of how low the police administrators of independent India can stoop is provided by this instance. A police chief of a State between 1986 and 1990. The indifference. laws. Power breeds arrogance. security or crime investigation. Police administrators wield power over the state authorities. The UPSC in its perverted competence has created a new breed of administrators in the police and other administrative classes. The matters are left to the care of those down the line. 54 . natural courtesies and human diginity. This infuriated the police chief so much so that the Deputy Commissioner was not selected for the vital All-India Service. SELECTION DENIED The Deputy Commissioner of Police in charge of the armed police force committed the serious error of shifting one head constable and four constables from the bungalow to the Police House instead of assigning a new team to the Police House and keeping the old guard in the chief’s house under renovation to keep vigil over the construction material.

the stress and strain of policing and the psychological factors throw up problems unique to the organisation. The distinct culture and service conditions of the police. Administration.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED Administration is a highly specialised field requiring extra-ordinary skills but the state of affairs in the police field is archaic. No growth and coordination studies. No organisational initiatives. On the one hand. on the other. money. Unfortunately. motivation and above all the mental wellbeing of the personnel. The involves balancing many contradictions inherent in the human psyche. There are no long-term plans. the police force has to preserve its professional pride. Threats and suppression form the essence of manpower management . efficiency and character are inconsequential. is human resources management. This renders police administration a specialised field to be handled by experts having insight into the working conditions and the psychological pressures of policemen. it has to be taught to accommodate in its character the instinct to obey. Reasons for this deterioration are many. the contribution of the Indian police administration is absolutely nil. The organisation takes care of itself depending upon the need factors. the present chiefs of the civil service are unequal to the task. The agency in charge of selection. The responsibilities of any administration are two –fold providing the body and shape required to fulfil the objectives of the organisation within the limits of the extant laws and providing the right ambience to boost the morale. It has to be tuned to be faithful 55 . What is required is highly intricate organisational policy imbued with specialised skills and insight of the highest order to inspire. The complex psychological factors involving policing in diverse social conditions and social imperatives of a policeman’s life require dexterous handling of affairs to promote morale and right motivation in place of the rule-of-thumb approach adopted now. Quality. motivation and mental well-being of the manpower are concerned. The extra-ordinary nature of the police setup and its working conditions render the latter responsibility a sensitive field warranting specialised study and application. materials and machinery through laws. Accommodating the desires of the higher-ups in official and political circles and powerful people on a quid pro quo basis is the accepted norm. namely the UPSC is now manned by people unequal to the task. for the most part. Actually. Restructuring the UPSC with professionals of competence and integrity can tone up public administration. decisions and directions. Waste of human resources and mandays is the general rule. As far as morale. motivate and get the most out of the manpower at disposal. Administration as a service in spirit and governance deals with men. there is no administration worth the name. There is leadership crisis at the administrative level. Assessments are unheard of. rules.

The police have to be tough and fearsome to criminals and law-breakers. In short. the task of balancing these contradictions is the real challenge for the police administration. 56 . and gentle and friendly with the public. They have to be the model law-abiding citizens even while dealing with hardened criminals.PRAVEEN KUMAR to authority while its ultimate loyalty must rest with its professional objectives and the rule of law. they should learn to treat all as equals and exercise authority over people at the top level in society. While they are accustomed to the interplay of ranks and status in the rigid hierarchical order of the force.

But.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED TIME TO IMPROVE THE QUALITY OF CIVIL SERVICE India wanted its All India Services of the post-independent era to break away from the British legacy and as a first step altered the names of the services. efficiency. HUMAN RESOURCE The basic source of manpower for these services has to be boys and girls below the age of 16 years who have completed secondary education. perfect training and exposures to the highest standards of professionalism and character to sustain it throughout. The UPSC must be made responsible for grooming those recruited. technocrats and creative minds of proven calibre can be the candidates. nor does the Indian Foreign Service bears a resemblance to the Indian Political Service. The agency incharge of selections. The services should not be treated as an employment opportunity to the elite. It is an irony that the process led to and marked a dilution of quality. is manned by people unequal for the task either in their professionalism. The guiding principle here is drawing the best talents from whatever sources without restraints of any kind for the best results. Reasons for this deterioration are many. passion for brilliance or basic character. but as the foundation and pillars of the government. The cell must get busy scouting for best talents from whatever source for direct absorption to the All India Services at the appropriate levels after initial training. The old All India Services was built on the tripod of faultless selection and recruitment. Nothing short or brilliance and highest potentiality to handle the affairs of the country should find a place in the wing that is responsible for constituting the nerve-centre. and the present Indian police service lacks the vigour of the good old Indian Police. The selection must be made part of the final secondary examination. Outstanding professionals. The first is inherent lack of passion for quality and excellence. the Union Public Service Commission. new India just failed to give these factors the importance they deserved. 57 . Identifying the best talents of the country at higher age groups has to be the goal of the Establishment Cell created within the UPSC on the lines of the Establishment Officer of the Home Department of the British Raj. How can the process be reversed? Merciless pruning of the extant services to create a compact and highly responsible core of administrative potentialities to handle a few sensitive key positions in the colossus of the administration is needed now. The commission must handle their further academic studies at the government’s expense for the next seven years to meet the demand of the services. The administration must be kept beyond the purview of extraneous constraints such as reservation of any kind and even age restrictions by way of multiple point entries for different age groups. The present Indian Administrative Services is not even a poor shadow of the old Indian Civil Service.

with all its brilliant ideas and administrative wisdom. created the All India Services. The latter refused point blank on the ground that the law did not allow it. The Government took care of all their personal needs.PRAVEEN KUMAR Every recruit has to be put in independent charge of a subordinate job for two years under the supervision of a competent senior officer. The onus of implementation of the programmes must be left to the departments concerned. Overhauling the present mediocre Union Police Service Commission to create an efficient and responsible set-up capable of handling the enormous responsibilities under Article 320 that compels attention to arrest the degeneration set in. asked the chairman of the Central Board of Revenue to show him a particular income-tax file. was his superior.B. 58 . The acute frustration and demoralisation caused led to the break-up of family life of one of the promising trio and subsequent divorce. India. Subjects taught have to be updated every year by experts and made challenging even to the brightest among the members of the services unlike present training programmes which are intellectually impoverished. Mr. British India. CREDIBILITY OF THE UPSC A recent case is from Karnataka where three promising officers from the state cadre were denied selection by the UPSC to an All India Service for no obvious reason for ten years from 1990 while their juniors scored the elevation. irrelevant to the time and do not help tune attitudes to higher levels. powers and opportunities to carry out their responsibilities.T.Krishnamachari. It recruited brilliant people for the services. His performance in this sphere must from a vital ingredient in the annual assessment. he contended that he himself could see the file as the chief of the Income-Tax Department while TTK could not as he was not directly involved with the department. in the set-up that led to blunders in identifying talents and managing the services. Another need is making the promotional tests mandatory and of a high standard.K. provided them with many opportunities for growth and bestowed on them a halo of invincibility. While he agreed that T. in his memoirs “ Nice Guys Finish Second” refers to an incident in 1950s wherein the then Finance Minister T. Five years of regular service after the field training must pave the way for the first promotion. exposed them to the highest standards of the profession and presented them the best of trust.K. The trainee must be judged at every stage at different levels to decide his or her suitability for various jobs. The training programmes for the services should be relevant to the time and highly advanced in content. imparted the best possible training to them.Nehru. in the pre-independent years needed brilliant people to handle its administration. This must function as a natural filtering process as those fit should be promoted in the mainstream while others get elevated to higher ranks in the related subordinate departments to man posts covered under the Central Services. their secretaries must formulate programmes including drafting appropriate laws and rules to channel the government objectives and policies. While the Ministers must lay down objectives and policies.T. India needs such spirit.

supervise. appointed strictly on seniority. study. The objective can be achieved by suitable amendment to Articles 316 and 317 to ensure that only right and sensible people become members and chairman of the organisation and remain in the saddle only till they retain their moral and professional calibre. However. Sensitive posts in the governments and public undertakings have to be identified in advance for the All India Services and once it is done. one should be prohibited from taking up any private or other government jobs while in service or after retirement or even after resignation from the service. punishment and placements invested with it. Chief Commissioner of Central Vigilance Commission and Speaker of Parliament as members and the Vice-President of India as the Chairman to clear the names for appointments as members and chairmen of the UPSC for a fixed tenure and initiate actions for their removal by an appropriate procedure in fit cases. once confirmed in the service.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED repeated violent behaviour by him in public leading to public humiliation and ultimately involvement in a murder case ending in his arrest and conviction. every officer should be entitled to all the benefits as in service for life even after retirement. Changes to this effect in Articles 316 and 317 plug the loopholes in the existing provisions that provide too much scope for political interferences in the selection of members and chairman of the UPSC. these exceptionally 59 . study. control and manage every affair pertaining to the Services at its own collective wisdom and discretion with powers of rewards. placements have to be left to the wisdom and discretion of the apex board. All India Services as the nerve-centre of the administration has to be made responsible to an apex body called All India Services apex board. The country should take cognisance of all the legitimate needs of these officers and provide them with the best possible living standards. These safeguards should be relaxed only by the apex board. The answer to unprofessional transgressions by the UPSC lies in transforming it to a highly professional outfit managed by people of unimpeachable character. The final decision on such requests has to be left to the judgement of the apex board based on its constant research. This can be made possible by the constitution of a committee comprising the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. Under the new scheme one should be committed to service for life unless one offers to retire on health or personal grounds or forced out by the apex board for valid reasons. enquiry and assessment. The best bet for professional resolve and high commitment in such an apex body is having senior most officers of the All-India Service in fine fettle as members of the apex board under the seniormost member as the chairman. efficiency responsibility. It is these members with tow-thirds majority who must be empowered to bar a competent senior officer from becoming a member or remove an existing member of chairman from the board by recording sufficient reasons for the act. Instead of salaries. Except in cases of retirement on request before the age of 60 years for nonmedical reasons or removal by the apex board as a punishment. The board should oversee. The governments concerned and public undertakings as employers must keep the apex body constantly and periodically informed about the performances of each official placed under it and request changes wherever necessary with reasons therefore.

the Government should realise that a strong civil service is mandatory for the survival of India and act fast. The Government is doing nothing to arrest the decline of the All India Services on all fronts.PRAVEEN KUMAR brilliant officers must be allowed to decide and draw emoluments against performances every month on their own assessment which include liberal perks such as free education for children in any kind of educational institution. It may warn or take whatever action found necessary. free supplies of daily needs and other movable properties. help to earn permanent assets. free medial aid of whatever kind. 60 . free foreigh tours. free club membership and other entertainments. Each officer must submit to the apex board a periodical report of his performances. The board must study each report to judge the officer. But. free educational supports. India is preoccupied with myriad issues of economic and social developments and perhaps the rapid deterioration of its All India Services does not seem important. free housing and transportation of whatever kind.

detain. the powers by themselves ruin the social fabric of the country and bring anarchy. have a great burden on its flabby shoulders to prove to the world that democracy as a form of government can stand up to any dissipating influence and hold disparate geographical. certainly ruin society and the country. makes man increasingly self-centered and more and more adventurous and violent in his appropinquation to reach his self-appointed narrow goals.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED INDIAN POLICE NEEDS HEALTHY JOB CULTURE Policemen are social doctors and policing is a surgical operation of the society to systematically remove cancerous growths from its body. Though it is the people of an organisation au fond who build the job-culture of the organisation. Communal hatred. ethnic clashes. certainly poison the atmosphere to the extent of comminating the very foundation of the democracy 61 . ethnical. Human nature being as it is. religious. The police. ethnic divides. The work culture builds and moulds vitality to meet the general atmosphere around. racial. an honest and efficient person in a degenerate culture is bound to atrophy sooner or later. cultural and economic factors syndetic in its pandemic prise of liberal benevolence and serve the cause of the unity of the sovereign country at all odds. wield tremendous powers for the public good. as one of the foremost and largest democracies of the world. Liberalisation that forms part of democracy. cultural bickerings and threats to the national security are orders of the day rather than exceptions with the trends betraying the indicia of dangerous chorisis. cultural interests and national aspirations. The gauntlet India faces in this regard is made kenspeckle by the locus standi or the country in terms of its position as a ranking leader of the developing countries. is a fertile ground of such degenerate tendencies because of the trust democracy lays wrongly on the basic nature and general abilities of common man. when invested in dishonest hands. linguistic. hit and even kill may prove pernicious in the wrong hands. Otherwise. Ergo. the emerging atmosphere of commercialisation and material comforts vis a vis accrescent concours for limited resources of the Earth . in spite of myriad benefit and comforts it brings with it. What if the band of doctors itself is infested with serious cancerous growths? This is the position of the present. Powers to search. seize. Powers to decide who has done wrong and how to prosecute them. arrest. The trust is wrongly laid for the reason that democracy fails to take into account the reality of the limosis in man which creates all which creates all havocs and assesses man as just a needoriented simple animal. as the enforcers of law and protectors of the public interests. How these powers are exercised depends imprimis on the work-ethic of the organisation. in cahoots with material interpretations of life. Democracy. It is true of all social divisions including religions. Such powers to interfere with the life of the citizens must be invested only in people of high probity and conscience. linguistic barriers. India.day Indian police. Even a degenerate caractere turns honest and efficient in an honest and efficient environment. building up a proper job-culture is the bedrock of a perficient police organisation. direct. unfortunately. language groups. it is this job–culture of the organisation that creates a person in the organisation at a given point of time. unless his individual strength superates the vitiating work-culture of the organisation. remove. Similarly.

It being the ultimate executors of the laws. India’s experiments in democracy are sui generis and stand apart from similar experiments otherwhere by the non a such characteristics of the country. security and law and order of the country. It is in this perspective. Though the process of adaptation to democracy was not guided by any deliberate plan to be different. needs and aspirations. clash of interests therein is an expected feature. 62 . district and state police administration. its people. India’s very own situations dictated terms to the shapes to be moulded specific to its values. Indian police are continuously starved of freshness and creative innovations as the result of shutting itself to the creative sparks and other precious attributes of its human resources. Though the retouches made their appearances from the field realities. its efficiency. Indian police too have most of its external patterns modelled after the police organisations in other countries rather than evolved ab intra. Such a wastage of available human resources can occur only in a government setup of a developing country like India. It is true about the gestalts and protocols of India’s own Research and Analysis Wing or Intelligence Bureau or Central Bureau of Investigation or Paramilitary forces or crack-forces or anti terrorist-squads or organisations to fight narcotics and other economic offences or normal police station. The growth of India’s police remained faithful to these shapes more suo. This is where the police comes to the picture to control the situation and save the democracy from its own vices. In post–independent age because. The utility of Indian police to India depends upon the direction and degree to which Indian police have taken to this process of adaptation and also how successfully and efficiently. the ideas and models are algate modelled on parallel machinery in other countries. In the atmosphere of 20th and 21st centuries’ unified world. their aspirations and historical background. rules and regulations that form the chemistry of a rule of law. a machinery to show people their limits and punish devious elements in sine qua non. The police forms the master-axle that runs this vital engine of the administration. secure world of unquestioning servilitude down the line. Indian police in its foreign jacket goes perforce Indian in its soul with concomitant advantage and disadvantages of Indian spirit. independent India’s new rulers continue with the system left by the British except for spasmodic retouches here and there in response to time to time compulsions of the realities in the fields of crime. like all other social and administrative apparatus. whatever be the other attributes of an administration. In an atmosphere of self-rule by the self-centred people of the present commercial world. What surprises is the extent to which the organisation goes to nip in bud excellences to perpetuate the interests of its old. Democracy basically being the rule of the hoi polloi. In pre-independent era because. It is not to say that Indian police is tout ensemble alien to Indian situation just because of its tramontane jacket. the role of the police in reconstruction of India.PRAVEEN KUMAR and the unity of the country. This is true in pre-independent era as well as in postindependent age. the democracy evolves for itself. It is a fact that an organised effort is on in Indian police to force its members to fall in with its line of profile at the cost of individual brilliance and creative height. the then rulers namely the British modelled Indian police on the patterns of their own police back in England. because Indian police works in Indian situation and ispo facto adapts to Indian needs and spirit. quality and success tout a fait depend upon the merits of the police. expectations from it. Far from it. The police in a democracy is the watchdog of the democracy. actual chevisance and its import on national life are discussed.

To add salt to the injury. Mendacity was spread in words of mouth that he could not manage responsible posts while actually he was never given a change and tested in holding such a position. a fight without a tinge of mercy or sympathy where all fall as one against the lonely prey till it is neutralised. it would be a fight sans moral or legal scruples. His creditable works as a poet and reputation as a no-nonsense intellectual sperred their manoeuvrability to achieve this end. Though courts of law can theoretically protect against such harassments. A distinct case is of a senior police officer and poet of outstanding calibre and excellence from a southern state of India whose uprightness cost him his career prospects. render the protection meaningless and force the upright officer to face all humiliations and losses in silence or yield to the pressures. Most leaders of the Indian police at heart desire continuation of the status quo at the peril of the growth of the organisation so that they and their interests remain undisturbed with unquestioning and dull-witted subordinates down the ladder at their personal beck and call. Nothing attract and bind them together so fiercely as the possibility of new thoughts surfacing in the organisation and somebody down the ladder leaving a trail of blaze of brilliance that may cloud their organisational superiority. The officer withstood all these insults in good stead because of his natural superior qualities.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED All loud talks of Indian police leaders on public platforms about the need of infusing excellence and outstanding qualities to the police organisation are shenanigans meant for the consumption of the ignorant public. On the other hand. He was though greatly feared and highly respected for his superior and four-square qualities. time and uncertainties involved and the history of court judgements being dodged or rendered ineffective by administrative sleight. He was year after year denied decent postings. To top it all. His appeals against the reports were prevented from reaching government. What ensues is a fight jusqu au bout. His disinclination towards flexible ways made him unpopular among those higher in the hierarchical ladder. Unfounded abuses and lies were heaped upon him and recorded in his annual confidential reports year after year. They did what they could. Most senior police officers took him as a thorn in their flesh and joined hands to tarnish his image. The reason is self-interests. expenses. proven reputation and the strength of personality. Repeated attempts were made to discredit him and sully his reputation by any means. his colleague thus given promotion in 1990 was brought over him as his senior in 1995 just to humiliate the upright officer. Any indicia of threat to the perceived security? Any brilliance of new concepts or interpretations about the functioning of the police? Lo. most heads come together and join hands in scrupleless cabals to undermine the source of brilliance. most of those senior to him were uneasy at his presence. He refused the advice of sympathetic superiors to approach the court of law against the repression as there was no guarantee of redressal from the courts even after a time-consuming legal battle. the accurst police officer addressed the Chief Secretary of the state government in 1995 and explained the situation with a request to institute an enquiry against him which if found him culpable of committing any major or minor wrong at any time in his career or life or if anywhere found inefficient in discharging 63 . It is to the credit of Indian police that it has great officers who withstood all slights without yielding to pressures. he was consistently denied promotion from 1990 for the next ten years and scores of his mediocre juniors were brought over him in the career ladder sinsyne.

functional requirements and appropinquation that while the police function as law enforcers while discharging law and order responsibilities.PRAVEEN KUMAR his official duties. telephones were disconnected. in that enforcing the rule of law. It is the watchdog of the administration. against all legal and administrative proprieties. assisting the judiciary in dispensation of justice and functioning as the watchdog of the internal security of the country. one thing that holds all works and responsibilities of the police together is its importance as the spine of the rule of law. Another reason for this sad affair may be that they are unqualified to assess. It is why the blind rush and impatient race among rulers to control this vital lever. they almost declared a war of nerves on him in 1996. Or while they function only as a factfinding machine to the judiciary. his personal staff was harassed subordinates were encouraged to disobey and even access to office stationeries was denied. The three responsibilities do widely vary in their scope. The police officials are so indifferent to the performance of their subordinates and their work turnout that they are absolutely in the dark about the standard of work turned out under their supervision. the senior officers. desperate as they were. professionalism and probity in public life disturb the immoral indulgence of the corrupt lot in police and related departments. most professional competencies crack and most concerns for probity in public life just disappear under unrelenting pressures from above. are the real dispenser of the rule of law as well as the guardian angels of the country. Surviving such repressions as above is only a rarest of the rare exceptions. ears and noses of the administration. While even these measures were not proved feracious in bringing the upright officer to heels and instead the honest officer grew from strength to strength by his distinguished and impregnable strength of personality. in enforcing the rule of law in their capacity as the investigating authority. but the very tool of the country’s well being and survival. honesty. talent withers and opportunists overtake high-calibre workers on the hierarchical ladder. as ultima ratio. Most consciences do breach. divested him of all his official powers he naturally exercised virtuti officii in an effort to isolate the upright officer tout ensemble. The police is the cutting edge of the administration. eyes. In spite of these wide variations in the nature of the works and responsibilities on their bold shoulders. The police is one of the most important levers required in running the machinery of the statecraft. This situation leads to random assessment when a senior is statutorily bound to assess and in the process. they may sometimes be called to break laws though surreptitiously as the watchdogs of the internal security of the country. It is a tragedy in Indian police that there is no relation between the efficiency and performance of an official and his standing in the organisation. The responsibilities of the police as an organisation basically is three fold. he could be removed from police service. Such harassments are common when a few officers with awakened conscience. He was refused all normal benefits entitled to his rank: his car was withdrawn. 64 . Even this extreme step failed to draw any response from the government. makes the police not only the arms. A yardstick to measure an orgnaistion is the degree of success of the organisation in meeting its raison d’etre. This vital place in the administration of the country. When his superiors in unholy alliance found that none of their customary methods work with him. They. they may be called to enforce laws as enforcers of law and order. legs. This scope of the police often renders it to appear like the odd-job boy of the statecraft.

65 . A police officer of a state in southern India succeeded in cornering the coveted post of Police Commissioner of the State Headquarters a few years back by the support of politician known in the then political parlance as the “ Father. The police Commissioner was intimated about the developments. The police in new dispensation forgot the cardinal principle that they are subordinate to the rulers faute de mieux and their profession dictates them to exercise policing duties even against those rulers if the laws of the country find them doing wrong. the politician in inebriated state was arrested with his associates while fleeing in a car late night after involving in a sex scandal involving a budding film star. But. Adaptations to political masters as a bargain to secure key posts prove fatal to the dignity as well as professional values of the police setup. also damaged political system. He caught the uniform collar of the Police Commissioner in front of the shocked lowly officials of the Police Station and shouted at the Police Commissioner in his inebriated voice whether he made him Police Commissioner to arrest and bring him to the Police Station through his juniors. Mother ‘ of the Chief Minister of the state. The Police Commissioner later rose to become the Police Chief of the state and retired now. Two factors helped the process. In the rulers because it is natural for anyone to take advantage of the tools that make itself available for use and rather preposterous to expect rulers to shut their eyes while the police willingly offers itself for their personal behoofs. social values and the credibility of Indian democratic process.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED The reasons lie in the rulers as well as in the police. The Police Commissioners was seen meekly begging the politician to pardon him. These serious professional lapses not only weakend Indian police. The Police Commissioner promptly made his appearance in the Police Station in the night and ensured immediate release of his political godfather. Such incidents abound in circumstances of Police Officers vying for coveted posts a tout prix and as a consequence. the political heavy weight in temulent state was impacable. One was the wrong type of people at the helm of the organisation as models. And rulers of democratic India douse the police for their personal and party ends to the extent that the first half century after independence has obfuscated the distinction between the national interests and the personal interests of the rulers as far as the use of the police of democratic India elected to subordinate its professional and national responsibilities to the gloria and being the handmaid of the politicians in power. The wrong model led Indian police to forget that their primary obedience is to the laws of the country and rulers surface to the front only as the representatives of the laws of the land and ergo secondary to the sacred police responsibilities. the dignity of the posts lowers and the professional qualities of the organisation suffer. The police official who affected the arrest recognised the identity of the person he arrested only after the arrested persons were brought to a nearby Police Station in the city. Ignorance and lack of interest is part of the Indian public in general and intellectual class in particular in the police system and its time to time devious shifts added to the malady in the form of giving free hand to the police to evolve itself sans restraint and sound guidance. Another was the lack of proper understanding of the concepts like obedience and discipline. The nonprofessional approach of the self seeking police leadership at the helm to subserve the personal and party interests of the rulers percolated downwards in the organisation as a model and sadly accepted as the general rules of conduct by the maffled police down below at all ranks per procurationem obedience and discipline. These two factors together and seperately brought about slowly but steadily the degringolade of professionalism in the police of democratic India. The incident made headlines in newspapers. A few days' afer.

This predicament per se speaks aplenty about the very cause of it. 66 . the flabby and limicolous canvas ab intra speaks of the nonprofessionalism under the sound political patronage. However. Only the canvas held by the framework is flabby and limicolous. Unfortunately. For one. possibly with criminal intent as nonprofessional police approach mostly suggests criminal angle in view of the professional police concerns mostly being focussed on crime control and crime prevention. This adds up to the close links between politics and the police for nonprofessional purposes. it sine dubio proves that the rulers recognised the import of the police in running the administration. the fact that an adequately large and sturdy framework or organisational strength and liberal budgetary provisions available for the police setup is clear caract of the willing political patronage to the apparatus. India has passed a long way in this undesirable links to the lengths of being cannot easily retract its path to cleanse the augean stables of the police organisation now.PRAVEEN KUMAR Present India do have an adequately large and sturdy framework for the police apparatus in terms of organisational strength and budgetary provisions to sustain it.

Often fightings broke out among the contenders in the same post for the loaves of power and other behoofs and such matters made headlines in newspapers.P. To weed out this dreaded disease from public life. but all leading to the same unfortunate end: derailing the rule of law and the loss of credibility of the police. jobs having means of easy money are sought and bought at all costs.in corruption in public life failed because nothing mattered as far as the ill-gotten property is safe a huis clos. 1999" said. Such jobs command money in multiple suitcases in advance to the posting in addition to periodical profferings for keeping the job terms because those payments are proved sagacious investments. Nowadays.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED CORRUPTION : INDIAN POLICE SCENARIO Mr. It is no secret why jobs in select departments in government service are in high demand. Certainly no side is a paradigm of virtues in the extent ratrace for pelf and booty. The sterling question is whether corruption in any form with the concomitant atrophy in administration and public life should be tolerated to disgorge the vitals of the Indian democratic fabric. And within these departments there are specific posts that command high premium on account of their potentiality to generate enormous wealth by unfair and illegitimate means. journalists to the victims of the system while condemning the vicious practice from the public platform accept it as the sine qua non reality of the life. Wealth is seen as wealth whether it is begotten by fair or illegitimate means. Corruption in India has become just a rider of the availability of opportunities to share the res gestae of the power. No more it attracts societal disapproval or contempt. security and administration. All previous measures to rein. "Corruption has been severely affecting the country's economy. It is why such jobs command high premium in the job market. Situation may change tout ensemble after the proposed legislation becomes law and gallows the corrupt of wiping out the very corpus of the corrupt deeds and striking at the very roots of corruption.Jeevan Reddy. the addiction is uniform at all ranks from Police Constables to Police Commissioners save rare exceptions. A south Indian state saw in 1998 several wars of attrition between a Police Commissioner and his political boss about posting of their own favourites to key positions. Corruption unfortunately has become an accepted phenomenon in extant Indian society. It is wrong to heap all blames tout a fait on any one side as corrupt. 67 . It is tragic that the police which is morally and professionally bound to protect the public from the vice of corruption is among the avant coureur in the pernicious race. The corrupt practices take disparate forms in diverse circumstances. we need a bitter medicine". Politicians. the law Commission Chairman while talking on the provision of forfeiture of property illegally acquired by public servants under the proposed bill titled the " Corrupt Public Servants (Forfeiture of Property) Act.Justice B. leading to messy and dangerous situations like more than one police officer being posted to the same key post of profit and all of them holding to it fast for months together. Sadly.

A case of dowry death reported against a retired high court judge and his family in February 1992 was referred to the state investigation agency for investigation. What can be expected from a law and order machinery run with such a symbion. A maffled logic indeed. And each has its distorted justification. but gross abuse and distortion of the rule of law? That is why police is often called the legalised mafia. provided the criminals remain under their control and run the activities pro rata to what they proffer to the police. He used to insist that they were free to allow illegal activities like gambling dens. never to return to the state sinsyne. The press claimed that the subordinate police officers were forced to man the doors of the marriage hall and escort VIPs visiting the place. Corruption has disparate facets. Added to this is those apparatchik at the top making transfers and postings a thriving business. Soon the issue was hijacked by the subordinate police officers of the city who gave press statements that police officials were allotted duties in the marriage a la police duties in a security operation and expressed fears that those who failed to budge would be victimised and likely to be removed from their coveted posts in the city police. Being conscientious brings depth and width to the profession and raises policing to nobler heights. he was very popular among the corrupt . illicit distillation etc. And police wireless and departmental transport facilities were recklessly made use of in the marriage and its preparations. He left the district in 1981 and thereafter luckily went on central deputation. subordinates. The investigation made out a case for chargesheet against the retired judge and five other persons including his wife. Every case of corruption involving the police represents a case of the rule of law and justice harrowed. There is a case of a Police Commissioner whose misuse of the police machinery in the marriage of his daughter in 1998 became a stormy issue in the public eyes after press made it big. Karnataka had a Superintendent of Police in northern district in 1980 who openly encouraged those down the line to take bribes and shared the booty. Corruption in whatever form is the antithesis of this. The mise en scene is complete with the swarms of police officials of all ranks au reste warring inter se with wads of high denomination notes to corner posts potential of generating unlimited illegitimate wealth. prostitution. Serious and committed policing is conditio sine qua non for professional policing and professional policing presupposes duties and responsibilities taking precedence over personal comforts and safety. The Police Commissioner openly defended his action in the interview to a private TV channel saying that every father puts his heart to celebrate his daughter's marriage a grands frais as his parting gift and he was not an exception. Naturally. security and well-eing of the hoi polloi. Imaging the extent of the distortion of the rule of law and justice and the betrayal of the hoi polloi by the police machinery that apportions in some cases a crore of rupees a year to middle-ranking official as the illgotten money. CONSCIENTIOUS POLICING Conscientious policing is raised on the bedrock of committed and non-corruptible policing. two daughters and another person The chief of the investigating agency in the rank of IGP being egregiously corrupt and close to the retired judge. dragged 68 . in their respective areas.PRAVEEN KUMAR Police is an institution in the service of law and order. It pulls down the police from its elevated position as the national asset and insurance against the atrophy of national values. son.

The police in a democracy is the guardian of public interests and public safety unlike in the raj where the police protected the interests of the raj. It would thus be factious and a villain to the hoi polloi. The problem was simple in British India where ruler and ruled were distinctly bifurcated and ipso facto the loyalty of the police was perspicaciously defined unlike that of the Indian republic of the democratic genre where people rule themselves through elected representatives. The possibility of being open to the pressures of the rich and powerful deprives the police of its credibility. 69 . Pressures often render the police to commit crimes under the veil of authority either by protecting criminals or more dangerously. The IGP who tried to stall the wheel of the legal process subsequently succeeded in gaining entry to a sensitive police organisation like the CBI and held the job till 1997.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED his feet from further proceedings in the case. to chargesheet the case as the logical step of the investigation process cost him his post and he was transferred in July 1992 to the State Home Guards as the head of its training wing. They very idea of being receptive to pressures and interferences is sysptomatic of lack of will for objectivity and justice. The aberration of professional objectivity is the Achille's heel of the police of independent India. How can a police that stays loyal to personal. The insistence of the Superintendent of Police. But. arrests in the case were prevented and chargesheet was unduly delayed from above. Criminal elements take advantage of such opportunities to drive the police and the policing on the wrong rails. The case remained frozen sans chargesheet for more than 1 ½ years sinsyne till the IGP was transferred out of the organisation in 1993. India and its people must now abraid to the situation and spawn a police that behooves to the trust laid on it. familial or party interests ever discharge its functions objectively to law and general public? What can its locus standi be when a different person or party comes to power? A sequacious police is an asset to any individual or party and no sensible individual or party distances it in the name of the professional ethics. The Superintendent of Police who was supervising the investigation of the case wanted to take the investagation to its logical end. by replacing them with innocent people as criminals. This distinction is forgotten in independent India where mental fetters are yet to be broken and legacies of the British rule continue inveterated. The dropped names were later included in the chargesheet on the orders of the judge trying the case. This infrangible obligation is thrown to the winds in the maelstrom of career advancements by the self-seeking gendarmerie of the Indian republic. PROFESSIONAL OBJECTIVITY A police organisation open to public pressures can do no policing worth the name. a party or an ideology at the cost of the general public is an apostasy from the inviolable professionalism of the police. The case was later chargesheeted in March 1994 with the retired judge and his two daughters dropped from the chargesheet on the basis of the evidences tampered at later stages. a family. Here the loyalty of police to the public and public law is the professional ethic: misplaced loyalty to an individual. Does democratic India need such a police force to perpetuate the tyranny of the poor and helpless by the rich and powerful? Democratic India tolerated such a police in the last five decades. A police force that works at the behest of the rich and powerful safeguards the interests of the rich and powerful only. It is the paravant duty of the police not to breach the edifice of the police organisation and its spirit by misprising its professional standards.

Motivation to achieve organisational goals and show results being weakened is the inevitable manifestation of the fall of professional pride. who in turn were left in lurches in the service to mend themselves. Attempts to suppress and gain complete hold over the police in democratic India affected the force adversely and injected a sense of inadequacy in the force. Organisational objectives were completely lost sight of. This started a mad rush to the res gestae of pelf and power at the cost of professional dignity and integrity. Shifts in diligence helped to build money-power while shifts in loyalties moulded proximity to powerbrokers in efforts to maximise individual behoofs after throwing professional ideals to dogs. such a judicial review would have amounted to gratuitous interference with the independent functioning of the investigating authority. The police which once prided in enforcing law. The neoteric judical activism. as far as periodical review of the progress of investigation of some cases of national importance is concerned. A major factor responsible for the corruption of Indian police is the gross fall of its professional pride since independence. none can vouch that police responsibilities would be carried out strictly on merit of each case. Once the centripetal force that bound the force together was squandered. The situation led to corruption and brought shifts in the concepts of diligence and professional loyalty and rearranged the service objectives with priority to filling the coffers of money and power. Crass and insensitive handling of the police and police matters by political leaders frustrated the high morale and sense of belonging of the police force. This was the beginning of corruption of Indian police in a big way. lost all its enthusiasm for these ends as they became factors of politicking and lost importance 70 . centrifugal forces took over and dissipating attitudes behaviors and influences ruled the roost to bring the Indian police to the present triste state. CHANGING VALUES Corruption of Indian police quite possibly is consectaneous of the degringolade of values in Indian life of the post-independent era. A mature and sober political leadership can make up for the Achilles' heel of the fractured loyalties of the police organisation. India finds itself with. though in normal circumstances.PRAVEEN KUMAR In the perverted situation of India where the loyalty of the police to those in power rather than to professional ideals is a reality. Indian police cannot stay sequestered from developments around while there are marked falls in standards of diligence and integrity in other walks of life. maintaining order and ensuring peace and security of the hoi polloi. It adopted and adapted to the corrupt surroundings and the result is extant corrupt police. As government service even at higher rungs lost charm in terms of monetary comforts and prestige and power. The basic lures of corruption in Indian context are money and power. Indian police needs a sober organisation above to bring it on rails of carrying out its responsibilities. The degeneration spread in leaps and buonds with the passage of time as the organisational commitments became demode and pragmatism taught that immediate personal interests are the center of leading a good life. it attracted only the second bests or the lesser from the crème de la crème of the country's youth. is a welcome step. It renders professional loyalty meaningless. Factional loyalties have the singular potentiality of blasting fairness and impartiality.

The man was held in illegal confinement and exposed to umpteen threats while arrangements were made to call the influential man to rejoin his daughter. the Central Vigilance Commission. The responsibility of senior officers in assessing the work of the subordinates that forms the major embarrassment of the present Indian police dispensation must be limited to giving opinion about the performance of their subordinates to the Core Group. Indian police find in corruption a way to sustain itself in absence of any organisational objectives to drive it onward. The result is a vacuum of a drive to carry the police onward. criminals and law and order and their handling by the police became accrescently tools of political convenience. the expert Core Group must process the opinion by its own research. work assessment. expertise and discretion and take responsible decision on its own research. A daughter of an influential man in 1986 eloped with a man against the wishes of her parents and was hiding in the neighbouring state of Karnataka. No organisation can exist sans a driving force to sustain it. The man in confinement was set free only after the influential man reached back his home with his daughter. job analyses.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED independent of political relevance as crimes. expertise and discretion and take responsible decision on its own. Institution of such a Core Group to oversee the career development of police personnel without personal bias may bring revolutionary changes in police by committing it to its workethics and professional ends with single mindedness. The development shattered the professional pride of the police and struck a blow to their motivation towards the organisational ends. The Group must be made responsible for all development plans of the police. The intelligence machinery started to work in festinated zeal and the couple were traced in Bangalore and were separated. A working arrangement is to be devised by which the Authority becomes responsible directly to the legislature and functions independently a la the judiciary. STRUCTUAL CHANGES: The first and foremost job to do to bring back the police on rails is to extricate the police from the unhealthy influence of all hues by making it responsible to an independent Authority with absolute powers to take decisions on matters of policing and police organisation. The Authority should be a professional body of men and women of proven probity and competence. the Comptroller and Auditor General or the Chief Election Commissioner. Creation of a Core Group of people adept in assessing men and character within the aforesaid Police Authority helps to create a feeling of confidence and job security in police and prod to discharge duties fearlessly. recruitment and management of human resources etc. who reached a stage from where they need not sacrifice their convictions to appease those in power as members. The action of the police in this case perspicaciously is against the law of the land and violated the basic rights of a young couple. 71 . The couple were in their twenties and decently employed. This Group that oversees the work of police personnel from a distance should be ultimately responsible for all career decisions in the police force. The chief of intelligence of Karnataka was sought assistance to trace the couple and ensure that the daughter rejoins her parents. The vacuum is filled by corruption. Myopic and maffled approaches of the police often lead to untold miseries and blatant violation of basic rights of simple individuals.

Once police miss the bus of justice and the rule of law. security and well-being of the country. their political patrons will discard them like used condoms. security and well-being of the public remain a distant dream. It is not the hand-maid of politicians in or out of power. Justice and rule of law are the litmus tests available to achieve the ends. Doing anything violative of its raison d'etre like sabotaging the course of justice and the rule of law in the cauldron of corruption will prove fatal to the relevance of the police to the society. 72 . The fear that the police inspire can not take it far in the absence of credibility. respect and sympathy of the public. Police would forget this need only at their own peril. so essential for effective and proficient policing. their goals of safety.PRAVEEN KUMAR Police is not an odd -job boy of the government. They lose the credibility and respect of the public. Once the police lose their usefulness in political and power gameplans consequent to losing public credibility. The best bet for the police is to be professional and committed to their responsibilities towards the administration of justice. Police is an organisaion of professionals committed to the safety.

where power and wealth in themselves stimulate mutual growth to the exclusion of all other dimensions of life. smartly brought these weaklings to absolute submission and hold them on a tight leash to be their personal watchdogs and personal gendarmes in requital for favourable job placements. POLICE AND CRIME It was a hop and skip for the police from the plangent world of politics to the mysterious world of crime and the underworld. They thus made good use of the decreasing strength of character of the police in forging a nexus 73 . They refuse to look beyond their political masters with their dispensations of job favours. unsound social background. the police is the cutting edge of the state power and its ultimate bearer. The politicians. POLICE AND POLITICS The story of the police is somewhat different. the police enjoy tremendous power over vast fields of human activities with responsibilities to life and death of the hoi polloi as well as dignitaries. Their greed.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED POLICING UNDER POLITICAL PATRONAGE In a blinkered system like ours. In the process. lack of commitment to good values and failure to partners in whatever politicians do or intend to do. national interests and even conscience. professional ethics. morality. otherwise common to any human being. have become invalid nonsense to them. This is how politics and crime knit together in the fabric of Indian public life. decency. No power can be its own sans the police on its side as an executioner and loyal watch-dog. As the catchpole of the nation’s administration. The police became a weapon of politicians to bring about the subjugation of the crime world to prise their resources for the political ends. where the principle of the survival of the fittest operates to its immane logical end and where the basic needs of survival and decency can be assured only with power and wealth. justice and morality become casualties and criminality raises its ugly head as an instrument to achieve otherwise impossible objects. the people of this poor country succumb to the trappings of power and wealth at the cost of all virtues. justice. righteousness. human dignity. people naturally go all out to ramp the ladder of power and wealth by whatever means and cost. dignity and human decency. The police of independent India has become an easy prey to the power-baits of smarter politicians by the reason of their failing strength of character and talent. common good of people. it is no wonder. pride. is no more than a country dog which is what the Indian police has become in free India. This is why politicians felt the need for wooing police to their side in their activities. where power and wealth are the ultimate virtues. In this sense. sans sound character and personal integrity. Nothing is valued higher than this largess and its dispensers by the new police of India. The police. and so law. inebriated with new power. In an increasingly competitive and complex world where every day more mouths are added to share limited resources. values. undue promotions and other largition from time to time. It is how the police was involuted in the conspiracy against decent public life of India.

quality and excellence can make no dent on is at all. giving way to the elements which are more suited to what is required in the field. Immediate selfish interests and a parochial outlook continue to be the driving force of all its actions and decisions. sari. stock and barrel into the lucrative crime world. CRIMINALISATION OF POLITICS Whom should we blame for this hapless position? Certainly not the politicians or their auxiliaries like criminals and police who are unfortunate by-products of the grind. In most parts of India. whether it be on the matters of national importance or personal concern. They are created by the situation arising from a system which is misfit to the people to whom it was devised. It is how politics has become a pit of junk from a class of dedicated and virtuous leaders. comfort and power for 74 . The blame lies either on the Indian people who are impair to the democratic system evolved for them. And politicians easily led the police to the despicable cul de sac of the nexus with criminals. It is yet too immature to take decisions about the interests of the nation and see how national interests are closely linked to its personal interests. the police is only too pleased to follow the footsteps of its political masters as the cardinal principle of policing. who found survival difficile. because of their unenlightened and venal consciences which is so dimwitted that virtues like honesty. with the instruments meant to protect them mowing the field. It is yet to broaden its perspective to include the life of the nation as an integral part of its own. service. With a week spine to hold itself and hapless in the face of odds. It is an open secret that an election is an opening for a candidate to invest money to reap wealth. seeking personal interests. This is how the nexus between the police and crime world was established. How can the avenir of this country be safe in the hands of such an electorate and its elected leaders? How can an indifferent and irresponsible electorate provide honest and efficient leadership to the nation? This weakness of the electorate has ultimately left Indian politics in the heath of violence and manipulative extortions. The credibility which is the pith of any political life is the biggest casualty political institutions and the percentage of the electorate that takes the trouble of going to polling booths to cast votes is steadily decreasing from election to election.PRAVEEN KUMAR between the police and criminals in furtherance of their own telos. Saner elements in politics. fear of landlords or the blazoning propaganda of a candidate that influence it to decide as to whom to vote for. have left the field. With politicians as the custodians of power en arrier to the hilt to support. Long term and rational decisions are alien to its nature. discipline and subordination which form the basic connecting link of the police hierarchy. the very people whom both are supposed to control and bring to book for antisocial activities. or it lies with the political system devised for them which failed to take their psychological makeup into account and ipso facto led to the problem of maladjustment in national life. how can we explain criminals and goondas winning elections with impunity even while rioting and murders were committed at their behest on the eve of elections itself. Otherwise. patriotism. lost all their shades of meaning and are interpreted as dunny and blind subservience to those who have power. the Indian electorate lacks of foresight and vision to understand the consequences of its irresponsible decision. threat. The fact is that the chance of winning an election often is pro rata to the aura of a tough image built around the candidate. In changed circumstances. Obviously. it is money. It is these people whom the Indian electorate prefer to invest with powers to safeguard their interests. the police plunged lock. arrack. the consectaneous wealth and comforts were in no way less sweet than the hard earned money of law–abiding society.

particularly those from organised syndicates are personal friends of its political masters and it is no match for the criminals in terms of wealth. in its links with politicians on one hand and with criminals on the other. they are thus emboldened to commit more daring and ruthless crimes that endanger the life and property of the plebeians. is in its new avatar as the protector of vested interests with no more commitment and passion for law and justice. Only crimes that disturb politicians foment police to galvanic and meaningful action. the trifling wealth and the concomitant “big-man” image of others appear to the present police as more appealing than its own awful police authority. arrest and take to court if they deviate from their rightful path. This blunting of the crime card of the police has made it less awe-inspiring and less deserving of respect from the criminals. 75 . there is no way out in the existing system but to resort to pulling strings and pursuing other more deadly methods. the criminals or the police who are responsible for these dastardly acts. a willing instrument of power-brokers in a ruthless and violent cabal of power-games with no heart for the common man and the common cause. If he is ambitious and intends to promote his career interests. It has become a discredited force. rap and blackmail. comfort and power again is not a mystery at all. It is corruption and misuse of public money. No more does it look at crime control and maintenance of order as its first duty. Other crimes receive no priority . involving the supporters or relatives of politicians. the concern for crime control received a setback and crime control and investigation have receded to the last priority except when politicians are interested in them for a specific purpose. criminals and police in furtherance of a political cabal are other usual forms of crime that result from the vicious nexus. Cases of rioting assault. The police has more and more realised that criminals. kidnap. criminals and police are employed to create disturbances or inspire sensational crimes in furtherance of political goals. the Indian electorate gets for letting its political system putrefy by its nonchalance and irresponsibility. the conception of the police about its own role has undergone a large-scale change. This is the requital.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED the next five years. Sadly. The self-image of the police as ‘ a fearless arbiter of crime’ is changed to a solicious servant in attendance at the pleasure of a politician-master. The political patronage and the nexus with police desensitize criminals to the process of law and justice. And how he reaps the wealth. influence and social standing. Those crimes which are tolerated by politicians are no more crimes. With this. POLITICAL PATRONAGE The unhealthy nexus often leads to and facilitates other forms of crime. CHANGED ROLE With the increscent involution of the police with glidder politicians. It is unfortunate that the police of the present days has never realised its infinit stature as a law-enforcing agent vis a vis all others including criminals and politicians whom it is empowered to search. They find it absurd to act with authority against the immarcescible criminals who are too high for the small stature of the police. The police. The men of the police see those criminals on equal footing with their political masters and learn to treat them with awe. Often. The losses of life and property involved in the wily schemes seld touch the conscience of either the politicians. The very definition of the gravity of crime is adapted to suit the new concept. often with the active collusion of the officious criminals and police.

This leads to a position wherein the police department becomes a chessboard on which politicians move their pieces to checkmate their adversaries and win the political game in their favour. This is the standard of people who are chosen by politicians to lead post independent Indian police. It is not surprising that power-esurient politicians more and more grab powers that are legally and traditionally invested with the police department when the top brass lack the strength of character and conviction. Undeterred by the unjust scorn heaped of him by refusing promotion in preference to his less qualified and less competent juniors. Most of them obliged and this bright junior officer ended up with a series of unsubstantiated adverse remarks repeated time and again in his annual confidential reports. He 76 . under him marry a girl from the family of a rich arrack contractor of his range. It is to the credit of the young officer that he remained unbroken and continues in police service while his far less competent colleagues have superated him on the career ladder and the young officer was successively denied important postings though there was not a single thing in his career to justify such a treatment. A police chief in a state was taken to court with his wife after retirement in 1990 February for defrauding the public and a spastic society by sale of charity tickets in name of the spastic society and pocketing huge amount of money. This police is not the police and what it does is not policing in the proud sense of the term. All his appeals were never allowed to reach the government. His next annual confidential report of young officer showed the junior as a liability to the police department and misfit as a subdivisional police officer.PRAVEEN KUMAR POLITICISATION OF POLICE The extant system of selecting the police chief is erratic at best and motivatedly amoral that meets the political ends of the rulers at worst. A POLITICAL INSTRUMENT In an atmosphere where placements and transfers are decided by the needs and wishes of self-seeking politicians. The parents of the young officer fearing undue pressure got their son married in desperation to a girl of their choice. the police sans effective leadership is becoming more a handmaid of politicians by moving away from its sacred role as the guardian of law and justice and protector of the society and the common man. CRIMINAL TENDENCIES A Deputy Inspector General of Police infamous for his epinosic and corrupt activities in 1982 while holding charge of Eastern Range in Davangere in Karnataka desired a young Deputy Superintendent of Police. He also prevailed year after year upon other officers who wrote confidential reports of the young officer to incorpse similar or more deadly remarks. In other words. no police can efficiently function nor can it be free from the vice prise of the politicians. he later addressed the chief secretary of the state government not to consider him any more for the promotion. The credit of bringing the police from its height of power to the present level of absolute submission should go to the superior strength of personality of wily politicians who bent the police on their own terms with selective use of stick and carrot. This antagonised the Deputy Inspector General.

devoid of any decency. Their honest and professional approach becomes a disaster and unpopular everywhere. This is the calibre and integrity of extant Indian Police Service. The Superintendent of Police reached back state headquarters through another route that night. both in private and public life. The new Director of the organisation in 1987 in the rank of Superintendent of Police failed the Director General of Police by his principled stand in this regard. Their courage in face of odds loses character amidst popular sound ad fury of the misinformed. When all the efforts failed. As corruption takes control and spreads to all strata of the force. the cabal of the senior officer came to nought and the Superintendent of Police. expenses. Though courts of law can theoretically protect against such harassments. the Director General of Police decided as the dernier ressort to play a drama of searching the Superintendent of Police in public before invited press and public in an induced case of trapping on suspicion while the latter was returning from raids in northern parts of the state. sugar. was saved from the gratuitous humiliation in public while inscience of the welcome set for him on the way by his senior. It is of interest to note that the Director General of Police who stopped so law in his police career was posted as an advisor to the Governor of North-East state during President’s rule after a few years. There is a case of a Director General of Police in charge of Crimes and Special Units in 1987 in a Southern State in India who as head of the Food and Civil Supplies Enforcement cell of the state under a Director was accustomed to getting free supply of quality rice. time and uncertainties involved and the history of court judgements being dodged or rendered ineffective by administrative sleight.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED took this unprecedented autophagous decision in utter contempt of the corrupt and immoral departmental heads and government functionaries who crushed his career prospects. objectivity and fairplay. render the protection meaningless and force the upright officer to face all humiliations and losses in silence or yield to the pressures. They are scorned as removed from ground realities and detested and avoided as moles in the mainstream. This enraged the latter to the extent of hounding the young Superintendent of Police and seeking opportunity to publicly humiliate him. Vested interests inside and outside the police let loose false propaganda and spread distorted versions of events against such officers and suborn character assassination to keep own reputations on right sides. postliminary to his retirement from police service. upright elements in the force become a minority and also forfeit coveted positions in the organisation as inconvenient candidates. He followed the young officer wherever the latter went for raid hoping that he would get some opportunity to fix the latter. It is to the credit of Indian police that it has great officers who withstood all slights without yielding to pressures. This is the reason why Indian society prefer tolerating social maladies to approaching police manned by such people. depending his calculations entirely on the humiliation engendered by the publicity of such suspicions and searches by a very senior officer coram populo. Taking recourse to unfair and illegal means to crush upright officers is also not uncommon. The Situation becomes really distressing when superior officers partake in the game on the side of vested interested for consideration and join hands in an unholy alliance to bend and silence the upright among them. 77 . pulses and other commodities from traders to his house through the latter organisation. However.

Every passing year sees a new phase and a new trend in this nasty connection between the important players of the national reconstruction to take the country by some miracle at the last moment. the players become more and more bold with the passing years and go with their nasty collusion at the cost of the nation’s interest with impunity for mutual relief and benefits by subornation. As the people become more and more attuned to the nefarious nexus and resign to the assuefaction.PRAVEEN KUMAR It is an irony that the political leadership which supposed to take the lead of reconstructing India is colluding for mutual selfish ends with the police which is supposed to be the tool of the reconstruction and thereby strike at the foundation of the strength and orderliness of the country. 78 .

concessional hostel facilities for working men and women. concession in or exemption from application fees for jobs. took a number of measures. but may also block the existing opportunities. easy housing schemes. like removal of untouchability. and from the Rann of Kutch to Arunachal Pradesh under a single rule. Such measures are not only the compensation India must pay for having deprived some of its children of their growth opportunities. Perhaps. they have to be provided with easy finance. The policy of job reservation in civil service carries the danger of undermining the quality of the steel frame and deprive India of its main binding force.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED QUOTA SYSTEM CAN WEAKEN CIVIL SERVICE It is a historical fact that India was never a single nation at any time till the 20th century. But the cardinal question is the direction such measures must take. It may weaken the country’s social fabric and pose a real threat to even the existence of India as a country. Hence. But this definition applies principally to the political system and not to the civil service which is expected to be the spine of democratic rule. free advanced medical treatment. prevention of atrocities. an apex development bank with branches in all districts exclusively for their financial needs of a non-consumptive nature has to be set up to provide funds at a nominal rate of interest. They need easier access to educational opportunities to prepare them for higher slots in life. The victims of the age-old stratified class system deserve many more special privileges. a wider network of board and lodging facilities for students. Basically. reservations in jobs and providing educational opportunities. whether for higher studies or business ventures. Wrong policies in such matters may not only fail to make the measures efficacious. To remove their poverty for which Indian society is historically responsible. both constitutional and legislative. democracy signifies the rule of the common man. special vocational training for men and women. the need for reservations in educational institutions. A sound civil service draws the boundaries of governance within 79 . If India is a single nation today the credit should go to a large extent to its distinguished civil service of the early and middle 20th century which was rightly called the steel frame of India unity. it has to be again mainly through the grit. strength and quality of its civil service. as a welfare state. Liberal scholarships. Post – independent India. without in the process affecting the quality of its governance. to erase the sins perpetrated on the unfortunate sections of society. The worst curse for India is the classification of people on the basis of birth with the lower strata being denied equality of opportunity for growth and a decent life. etc are other schemes for the underprivileged that may help to bring them on par with the rest of society. Should India continue as a single nation. they are also a kind of remorse the country suffers for its past sins. Neither Asoka of the Maurya dynasty nor Samudra Gupta or Chandra Gupta of the Gupta dynasty nor Akbar or Aurangzeb of the Mughul dynasth could boast of binding al the regions stretching from Kanyakumari to the Karakoram pass.

fairness. discipline. The well-being of the repressed classes of the India depends upon the survival of India as a single nation and therefore on the quality and soundness of the civil service. The interest of the country lies in marshalling the best talents of the country to run its administrative services. Several opinion polls point to the diminishing attraction of the civil service for the Indian youth who prefer jobs in foreign and private industrial houses and banks. 80 . This trend deserves to be noted by those who are interested in the survival of India as a nation and a democracy.PRAVEEN KUMAR which the democratic system must function and also inspires a sense of moderation. It absorbs the shocks of political follies and helps the political leadership in taking sound and intelligent decisions. Measures like job reservation are bound to be counter-productive by weakening the civil service structure. Any allowance to mediocrity leads to flight of quality and excellence till mediocrity completely takes over. Quality and excellence are inseparable from pride. legality and reasonableness in the political leadership. The apprehension that the steel frame of pre-independent India has crumbled into a mediocre set-up because of wrong policies of selection and recruitment needs serious attention. This is what is feared about the present India civil service thanks to the reservation policy.

However. The FBI became a key component and feared public institution through Hoover’s open aggression. privileges and liabilities of the police officers of an area in connection with the investigation of offences committed in that area. Naturally. as a prelude to the constitution of the CBI and its inclusion in the Union List. administration of justice and judicial proceedings under the Concurrent List. and criminal law. Hence the enactment of the Delhi Special Police Establishment Act 1946. police and public order provisions under the State List cannot meet the needs of a central agency. The dependence on state clearance is a great handicap. The force enjoys all the powers. We have seen umpteen number of states providing and withdrawing consent to the CBI depending on political and parochial conveniences. with the consent of the state government. This is a dangerous trend that renders CBI functions and jurisdiction subject to political manoeuvring. criminal procedure. 1946. The result is the growing criminalisation of politics.Edgar Hoover in the middle of the century-with one difference. The CBI is the premier investigative agency of India. A premier investigative authority invested with powers extended to all areas is a sine qua non for maintaining the rule of law. duties. while its Indian version gained eminence by the open. The CBI. it specifically lists the CBI under the Union List.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED EMPOWERING THE CBI The last decade of the century sees the CBI becoming the Indian version of the FBI under J. The legal basis of the CBI is provided by a short six-section Act of 1946 titled the Delhi Special police Establishment Act. It must have adequate leadership. So the CBI started working. This naturally alerted the otherwise somnolent judiciary and the result is the proactive judiciary of today. Naturally. which provides for the constitution of a special police force by the Centre for the investigation of notified offences in any Union Territory and in any area in a state where jurisdiction of the police force is extended by the order of the Centre. marked by exemplary personal attributes like probity and professionalism. the CBI does not measure up. under the nose of the proactive judiciary. and lowers its images. meek submission of its spineless Director to his political masters. The last section of the Act specifies that the force has no jurisdiction in any are in a state without the consent of its government. with cases against political leaders stacked on its shelves. and shed its vulnerability to the political class. The remedy lies in spreading 81 . except for deployment and use of forces of the Union. under the State List. But are these needs met by the CBI at all? The seventh schedule of the Constitution brings police and public order. had no option but to steadfastly discharge its responsibilities. But sadly. it must command the best brains in the country and should have wide-ranging powers.

The panel may monitor and take decisions on cases as a full panel or constitute sub-panels with the CBI chief as member-secretary for each. promotions and transfers of officers of and above the rank of Assistant Director. The panel’s functions. It should advise the CBI on whether a case merits investigation and decide on arrests. at its collective discretion. The membership of the panel must come to the senior most retired judges. unless an eligible candidate opts out in writing or is incapacitated by age or illness. by law. seizures. liabilities and responsibilities have to be clearly defined to statute to avoid clashes with the main body of the CBI. the panel. barring contingencies. This power must be taken away from the Central Government. Due recognition and an atmosphere free of bureaucratic pressures will help the members discharge their responsibilities properly. whose members are assumed to be nonpartisan. and assess their work. The panel has to be free to monitor the process and pace of investigation and must constitute a statutory part of the CBI at the highest layer. The CBI is the spine of the criminal justice system.PRAVEEN KUMAR the tentacles of the CBI. even in the current atmosphere of degraded values in building an institution. to bring all on par. By the same majority. ratified by a two-thirds majority in the panel. with one among them chosen as chairman on the basis of seniority. The question is of immediate significance because of degraded political and public morality. bail and chargesheets. searches. as a matter of right. The solution lies with the judiciary. The panel may consist of a dozen senior retired judges of the Supreme Court as permanent members. not political decision. acting as advisors to the agency. including retired chief justices. The CBI should be subjected to the supervision of a statutory panel constituted of men of the law. deprive the party in power of an unfair advantage and give the CBI some credibility. Fides punica leads nowhere. There is no alternative to trust. only a full panel with a minimum 80 per cent quorum can decide by simple majority on the appointment and removal of CBI chiefs and decide on deputations. will help them to be true to their conscience. Life membership. privileges. followed by the constitution of the panel. and the CBI chief as member-secretary. to every area of the country. on the basis of performance. The derailment of the CBI is reflected in public life. Considering the importance of the CBI. It is an irony that the situation created by a weakling CBI led to circumstances wherein it is 82 . may force out one of its extant members in the interests of justice. rights. And the third and most crucial step will be administrative measures to ensure that the panel discharges its responsibilities with commitment. and fragile coalition governments. and a shattered spine leads to umpteen complications. The Act provides for the appointment of the head of the CBI by the Centre. However. it is natural to wonder whether the choice ought to be dictated by the politicians in power. Its advice has to be statutorily binding. The appointment of the CBI chief has to be a professional. in political uncertainty. with blanket powers to investigate all classes of offences. So also in the appointment of the CBI chief. An amendment is the first step. The panel has to be invested with powers to appoint and remove CBI chiefs.

The sooner out leaders realise the gravity of the situation and infuse new life in the CBI by amending the Act. 83 . the better. The CBI is metamorphosing into a Frankenstein’s monster. the country or its criminal justice system.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED in a position to dictate terms up political parties. This is not in the interests of the CBI.

No militancy having deep roots depends for its survival on a few leaders. A bomb blast near the Indian Youth Congress office in Delhi on September 11. A lull in militancy for a few months or years should not lead to conclusion that terrorism is out. complacency even on part of ordinary government functionaries can be accepted. But how authorities responsible for security functions ignored the prime tenets of internal security. preceded the more daring venture.1993 killed eight persons though Youth Congress president M. and slackened their guard in respect of Punjab terrorism is something difficult to answer.S. A minor blast in a car in proximity to chief minister Beant Singh near Dholewas Chowk in Ludhiana. the fear of the government or the resolution of minor issues. it is unreasonable to presume that the blaze of terrorism which raised its head with the Akali-Nirankari clash of April 13. It is simplistic to presume that transfer of Chandigarh to Punjab and settlement of water and territorial disputes of Punjab with Haryana and Rajasthan would have banished militancy. the USA. the UK and Canada through committed cadres withered away just because an elected government was restored. Firstly. The fact remains that there was no social base to militancy in Punjab even at the best of times. 1978. died down immediately after an elected government came to power. 1995.Bitta survived the attempt and the son of Ram Niwas Mirdha was kidnapped by the Khalistan Liberation Force. Such developments may only bring about an ephemeral lull in their activities. Issues like Chandigarh and water and territorial disputes with neighbouring states scarcely 84 . Complacency on the part of the general public is understandable. The assassination vindicated the axiom that superficial calm in a situation of serious conflict can be deceptive. Beant Singh as chief minister knew this better than anybody. Terrorism has its own cycles of rise and fall. or militants were overpowered. He often spoke about the continued threat of militants and called for a joint security zone to fight them. Sukhdev Singh Babbar. after being caught at patiala in August 1992 Such assessments are far from ground realities. reached its crescendo in 1985 and continued with undiminished vigour upto 1992. Ironically. Thirdly it is rather foolish to believe that a movement which dug deep roots in countries like Pakistan. the hub of previous terrorist activities.PRAVEEN KUMAR THE GUN STILL SPEAKS The complacency over peace in Punjab was shattered by the bomb blast that killed Punjab chief minister Beant Singh in front of the Punjab and Haryana secretariat building at Chandigarh on August 31. It was often claimed by political observers that terrorism in Punjab in general and the activities of the Babbar Khalsa International in particular came to a virtual end with the death of Babbar Khalsa leader. before it finally withers away with a loss in emotional fervour. The close family links of Sikhs and Hindus with often both religions coexisting in a single home and family render the demand for Khalistan rather unrealistic and shallow.

500 Sikh immigrants from Europe and trained them. There are reports of a working relationship of late among the militants and their Pakistani masters. In a desperate bid. human rights violations and its efforts to rouse Sikh sensibilities by its programmes on Sikh traditions and culture give evidence of Pakistan’s dishonest intentions. There were no signs of Pakistan beating the retreat. Failures on the fronts of analysis. the UK or Canada. signs of terrorism lurking in shadows were already there. to recruit youths from Ludhiana and surrounding areas. The KCF leader made no headway in his efforts. and seized from them a document called ‘ Policy paper’ of Punjab militants. It is wrong to presume that these activities represent the aspirations and fervour of the common people around them. which is the handiwork of a few activists who form a farthing part of the local population. the ISI mobilised about 1. 85 . Intelligence agencies had information about plants to use human bombs to eliminate those involved in the 1984 anti-Sikh riots and leaders like Beant Singh and Bhajan Lal. Rather. It is a blunder to interpret this disinclination as signs of terrorism being uprooted from Punjab. extortions and rapes which the terrorists indulged in rubbed off the sheen of martyrdom from their names. Wadhawa Singh of the Babbar Khalsa International and Wassam Singh Zafarwal of the Khalistan Commando Force are still hiding in Pakistan. finance and peace having been shattered by 15 years of insurgency and insecurity. Virulent attacks of Pakistan’s government controlled electronic media on the Indian government’s alleged repression of minorities and popular movements. they collected courage to express their disinclination towards terrorism. the people of Punjab found that they were not under terrorist pressures. This silent majority becomes a hostage under inevitable pressures. This lull in terrorism cannot be presumed to be the end of terrorism. there was every indication of Pakistan going radical in rousing Sikh passions. research and use of intelligence also contributed to the complacency over Punjab. To trained eyes. though in reduced frequency. Most of the top terrorist leaders fled Punjab in fear. Indian security agencies did intercept Sikh militants crossing the Indo-Pak border in 1994. The Inter-Services intelligence of Pakistanmet its cul de sac in recruiting Sikhs after antiinsurgency operations were strengthened in 1992. Pakistan’s efforts to persuade Khalistani leaders hiding there to resucitate terrorism in India failed badly. should have lead those in charge of anti-insurgency operations to conclude that terrorism was alive and may come out of its shell. wherein plans to resuscitate terrorism were laid down in detail. The continued terrorism after restoration f popular government in 1992. Sukhdev Sing Babbar confessed during interrogation in 1992 to the toal disillusion of Sikh militants about Pakistani intentions.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED arouse the passions of the hoi polloi among Sikhs. but the immigrants lacked the enthusiasm to carry out tasks in India at the behest of the ISI. Some other leaders operate from the USA. The ISI deputed Parmjit Singh Panjwar of the Khalistan Commando Force to Punjab in 1994. they are keen to establish themselves in an atmosphere of peace. Prominent leaders like Pritam Singh Sekhon of the Khalistan Liberation Force. Lives. The murders. Once.

as the officer originally transferred to the post was reluctant to hold charge and went on leave. The very fact that the human bomb. good investigations cannot compensate the provision of adequate protection. His security arrangements were next only to that of the Prime Minister. intelligence agencies should have possessed vital information about the future of militancy. These developments do not speak highly about administration in a security apparatus. speaks volumes about what really our ‘ A plus’ security cover is. they did it in the Rajiv Gandhi assassination case. It is a dismal commentary on anti-insurgency operations that Indian security forces could derive no benefit from it. The new chief took charge of the post just the previous evening of the assassination. Indian police always do it. the police do make appreciable head-way in investigating and detecting the case. a rank outsider in a police constable’s uniform. Once terrorists strike. 86 . could reach Beant Singh. the Indira Gandhi assassination case and the Mahatma Gandhi assassination case. Through this process. was provided the highest grade of security cover available-‘Z plus’. It is a shocking commentary on the security system that chauffeurs of such heavily protected personages as Beant Singh used to drive his official cars to their houses for lunch. after the post being vacant for a period. Beant singh being perceived as extremely valuable to terrorist strikes. However. His security chief was transferred out sans measures in advance to expose the incumbent chief to existing security compulsions.PRAVEEN KUMAR Sikh militants crossing over to India were arrested and subjected to interrogation.

where power and wealth are the ultimate virtues and where power and wealth in themselves stimulate mutual growth. The police of independent India have become. where the principle of the survival-of-the fittest operates to its logical end and where the basic needs of survival and decency can be assured only with power and wealth. lack of commitment to good values and failure to comprehend police virtues in the right perspective. professional ethics. to the exclusion of all other dimensions of life it is no wonder that the people of this poor country succumb to the trappings of power and wealth at the cost of all virtues. No power can be its own law without the police on its side as an executioner and loyal watch dog. They refuse to look beyond their political masters and their dispensations of job favours. This is why politicians in their activities feel the need for wooing the police to their side. by reason of their failing strength of character and talent. POLITICS AND THE POLICE In a blinkered system like ours. national interests and even conscience-otherwise common to any human being-have become invalid nonsense to them The police. As an important part of the nation’s administration. dignity and human decency. unsound social background. Criminality too raises its ugly head as an instrument to achieve otherwise impossible objectives. The story of the police is somewhat different. JUSTICE. justice and morality become casualties. are no more than country dogs. inebriated with new power. where every day. So law. more mouths are added to share limited resources. sans sound character and personal integrity. In this sense. human dignity. righteousness. the police are the cutting edge of the State power and its ultimate bearer. Their greed. make them willing partners in whatever politicians do. morality decency. A CASUALTY In the process. the common good of people. This is what the Indian police have become in free India. people naturally go all out to ramp the ladder of power and wealth by whatever means and cost. or intend to do. smartly brought these weaklings to absolute submission and held them on a tight-leash 87 . pride. the police enjoy tremendous power over vast fields of human activities with responsibilities towards the life and death of the hoi polloi as well as dignitaries. values. justice. This is how politics and crime knit together in the fabric of Indian public life. easy prey to the power baits of smart politicians. In an increasingly competitive and complex world. The politicians.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED CRIME.

discipline and subordination. made good use of the decreasing strength of character of the police in forging a nexus between the police and criminals in the furtherance of their own ends. how can we explain criminals and goondas winning elections with impunity. even while rioting and murders were committed at their behest on the eve of elections itself? 88 . The police have become a weapon of politicians to bring about the subjugation of the crime world to use its resources for political ends. In these changed circumstances. With politicians as the custodians of power en arriere to support. They are created by the situation arising from a system which misfits the people for whom it was devised. stock and barrel into the lucrative crime world. It was a hop and skip for the police from the ugly world of politics to the mysterious world of crime and the underworld. Nothing is valued higher than this largesse and its dispensers by the new police of India. the police are only too pleased to follow in the footsteps of their political masters. Otherwise. Because of their unenlightened and venal conscience.PRAVEEN KUMAR to be their personal watch dogs and personal gendarmes-in-requital for favourable job placements. thus. The blame lies either on the Indian people who are unresponsive to the democratic system evolved for them. or it lies with the political system devised for them. and ispo facto led to the problem of maladjustment in national life. FALL OF CHARACTER Politicians. patriotism. the resulting wealth and comforts were in no way less sweet than the hard earned money of law-abiding society. quality and excellence can make no dent in it at all. which form the basic connecting link of the police hierarchy. With a weak spine and no principles in the face of odds. This is how one nexus between the police and crime world was established. Whom should we blame for this hapless position? Certainly not the politicians or their auxiliaries like criminals and police who are the unfortunate by-products of the grind. It failed to take their psychological make-up into account. which is so insensitive that virtues like honesty. the police plunged lock. undue promotions and other largesse from time to time. And politicians easily led the police to the despicable cul-de-sac of the nexus with criminals-the very people who are supposed to be controlled and brought to book for antisocial activities. service. have lost all meaning. It is how the police were involuted in the conspiracy against decent public life of India. and are interpreted as blind subservience to those who have power to serve personal interests.

IMMATURE ELECTORATE It is these people who win elections and rule this country. People are more and more disillusioned with the extant political institutions. has become a pit of junk. The credibility. It is yet to broaden its perspective to include the life of the nation as an integral part of its own. 89 . comfort and power is again not a mystery at all. sari. from a class of dedicated and virtuous leaders. comfort and power for the next 5 years.on the matters of national importance or personal concern. It is yet too immature to take decisions about the interests of the nation and see how national interests are closely linked to its personal interests. arrack. have left the field. fear of landlords or the blazening propaganda of a candidate that influence its decision as to whom to vote for. It is an open secret that an election is an opening for a candidate to invest money to reap wealth. Long –term and rational decisions are alien to its nature. The percentage of the electorate that takes the trouble of going to polling booths so cast votes is steadily decreasing from election to election. It is these people whom the Indian electorate prefers to vest with powers to safeguard their interests! Obviously. giving way to elements which are more suited to the field.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED The fact is that the chance of winning an election often is pro rata to the aura of a tough image built around the candidate. who found survival difficult. How can the future of this country be safe in the hands of such an electorate and its elected leaders? How can an indifferent and irresponsible electorate provide honest and efficient leadership to the nation? This weakness of the electorate has ultimately left Indian politics in the hearth of violence and manipulative extortions. is the biggest casualty in Indian politics. it is money. threat. And how he reaps the wealth. which is the pith of any political life. It is how politics. the Indian electorate lacks the far sightedness and vision to understand the consequences of its irresponsible decision. with the instruments meant to protect them mowing the field. Immediate selfish interests and parochial outlook continue to be the driving force of all its actions and decisions. In most parts of India. Saner elements in politics. It is corruption and misuse of public money.

The unhealthy nexus often leads to and facilitates other forms of crime. POLITICISATION OF CRIME What we see today is just the tip of the iceberg. criminals and police are employed to create disturbance or inspire sensational crimes in furtherance of political goals. rape and blackmail. criminals and police in futherance of a political cabal are other usual forms of crime that result from the vicious nexus. there is no way out in the existing system but to resort to pulling strings and pursuing other more deadly methods. They are emboldened to commit more daring and ruthless crimes that endanger the life and property of the plebeians.PRAVEEN KUMAR If he is ambitious and intends to promote his career interests. kidnapping. Often. They promptly grab the opportunity to their advantage and show how useful they can be to politicians in their career-promotion designs and in the wreaking of personal vendettas. in their links with politicians on the one hand and with criminals on the other. The losses of life and property involved in the wily schemes seldom touch the conscience of either the politicians. involving the supporters or relatives of politicians. the criminals or the police who are responsible for these dastardly acts. apart from the security and protection from the police that ensure from the association. The experience and professionalism of criminals come in handy to politicians to execute their nasty operations without attracting the stigma attached to them. There are more things hidden in the latter than are seen. assault. They have become a discredited force. 90 . are in their new avatar-the protectors of vested interests with no more commitment and passion for law and justice. in turn. This is the requital the Indian electorate gets for letting by its nonchalance and irresponsibility-the political system putrefy. This is soon realised by the opportunist Indian politicians who seize the first available instance to enlist the support of criminals and underground operators for their nefarious designs. is a god–sent opportunity for criminals to restore their lost credibility and social standing with the help of their association with the custodians of power. The political patronage and the nexus with police desensitise criminals to the process of law and justice. Often with the active collusion of the officious criminals and police. The police. a willing instrument of power brokers in the ruthless and violent cabal of power-games with no heart for the common man and common cause. Cases of rioting. This.

Ergo. This shows the sway held by criminals over politicians in the Indian situation. This has given a sense of confidence and security to politicians. in return. gambling houses. Politics and crime have become the 2 faces of the same coin in the present state of affairs and a saying goes that there cannot be politics without crime and no crime without politics. Thus. ever let down the criminal? This symbiosis of politicians and criminals which has emerged from the extant Indian political system. The crime world also provides hoodlums as volunteers to perform challenging tasks during the election campaigns of their political patrons. It is a fact that no syndicate of organised crime in small and big cities anywhere in the world can survive even for a day without political patronage. pay a good percentage of their criminal gain to the protectors. the only way to survive is to have comfortable political protection at the right levels.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED The vast army of criminals has become ready resource for them to use whenever need arises. No criminal can take lightly the need for political patronage in running his crime syndicate. challenging and competitive environment. politicians have so much relied on criminals that the latter have become their most trusted lieutenants. who are otherwise vulnerable in their highly uncertain. apart from liberally financing these campaigns. Often. In the present Indian situation. 91 . with the police as bystanders. Is the root cause of all the complications discussed until now. Be they smuggling syndicates. narcotics dealers or plain hoodlums. The very fact that politicians are prepared to risk their reputation rather than distance themselves from the crime world. even getting elected to legislature with their help and blessings. it is true that the lotus of politics can blossom only in the offal of crime. where prominent politicians have refused to disown their notorious criminal friends in public even after reaching the vortex of their political career. How can a politician. all syndicates of organised crime and their menace are the direct outcome of the nexus between politicians and criminals. it is an arrangement to mutual advantage. shows how highly the world of crime is regarded by the politicians in their scheme of things. MUTUAL ADVANTAGE The crime syndicate. There have been instances in India. after gaining power with the help of a criminal.

no police can efficiently function nor can they be free from the interference of the politicians. The self-image of the police as “a fearless arbiter of crime” is changed to a solicitous servant in attendance at the pleasure of a politician-master. The leads to a position wherein the police department becomes a chessboard on which politicians move their pieces to checkmate their adversaries and win the political game. With this.PRAVEEN KUMAR In an atmosphere where placements and transfers are decided by the needs and wishes of self-seeking politicians. The very definition of the gravity of crime is adapted to suit the new conception. CHANGED ROLE With the increasing involvement of the police with crass politicians. In other words. This blunting of the crime card of the police has made it less awe-inspiring and less deserving of respect from the criminals. The police have more and more realised that criminals. The credit of bringing the police from their height of power to the present level of absolute submission should go to the superior strength of personality of wily politicians who have bent the police on their own terms with the selective use of stick and carrot. The police is not the real police and what is does is not policing in the proud sense of the term. the concern for crime control has received a setback and crime control and investigation have receded to the last priority-except when politicians are interested in them for a specific purpose. Other crimes receive no priority. It is not surprising that hungry politicians grab more and more powers that are legally and traditionally invested with the police department when the top brass lack strength of character and conviction. Those crimes which are tolerated by politicians are no more crimes. Only crimes that disturb politicians foment police to galvanic and meaningful action. the conception of the police about their own role has undergone a large-scale change. the police sans effective leadership is becoming more a handmaid of politicians by moving away from its sacred role as the guardian of law and justice and the protector of the common man. No more do the police look at crime control and maintenance of order as their first duty. particularly those from organised syndicates. are personal friends of their political masters and they are no match for the 92 .

custom and adverse reaction. Criminal thought is a part of the natural function of a healthy mind as is the moral restraint that prevents the criminal thought from being acted upon. It thereby decides the proliferation or suppression of crime. In the existing nexus of politics. and the proporation of gain to be made in committing a crime outweighs the risks involved in the balance sheet of the operation. arrest and take to court if they deviate from rightful path. They find it absurd to act with authority against the high-profile criminals who are too high for the small stature of the police. SOCIAL ACCEPTANCE It is the social situation which controls the external restraints to make committing a crime an asset or a liability. All living beings are criminals in varying degrees. They are a crossselection of people from all fields of life who have moved beyond a commonly accepted degree in their criminal tendencies. violation of foreign exchange regulations. Politicians love to befriend criminals rather than bring them to book because the society they live in makes their lives more comfortable with criminals as friends rather than as adversaries. the lure of crime increases and the deed is accomplished. reinforce the inner restraint to prevent the committing of crime. as the force of external restraints weakens for diverse reasons. the trifling wealth and the concomitant “ big-man” image of others appear to the present police as more appealing than their own awful police authority. human nature being what it is always. Sadly. External restraints brought about by the fear of law. Criminals are criminals because society gives them easy openings to thus meet their needs. 93 . crime and police. On ultimate analysis. Criminals should not be construed as a separate block of citizenry. crime is an asset to criminals and criminals are an asset to politicians and police.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED criminals in terms of wealth. The remedy for the proliferation and endearment of crime lies in changing the social dynamics to make crime a liability to criminals and criminals a liability to politicians and the police. However. crime is a universal phenomenon. Criminality may be prolific in certain civilised fields like commerce and industry in the form of tax evasion. The men of the police see those criminals on equal footing with their political masters and learn to treat them with awe. influence and social standing. It is unfortunate that the police of today have never realised their infinite stature as lawenforcing agents vis-à-vis all others including criminals and politicians whom they are empowered to search. Policemen find the crime world sweeter because it is how things stand for them. hoarding etc.

CRIME AND NATIONAL ECONOMY A word about the effect of the nasty nexus between politics. the honest man is lost forever. Society easily accepts the example of the wealthy and powerful for making an easy buck to lead comfortable lives in the world where life is becoming increasingly difficult because of the spurt in black money. More dangerously. Crime begets money. the need of survival forces honest citizens to accept crime as a way of life as the last resort. and destroys the country’s moral fabric. The indulgence of the rich and powerful in crime popularises criminal activities by bringing an aura of status to them and negating all inhibitions in the popular mind. thereby inducing it to more daring and innovative criminal activities. while honest men have to toil hard for an extra quarter. The only telos of the nexus is gain by synergy. comfort and everything. The increasing incidence of easy money. knowledge of the involvement of politicians and police in this nasty world stirs the public conscience for the reason that they are supposed to be the people on whom the public relies to save them. crime and police on the national economy. In the crush. The ocean of criminal 94 . It is a fact that Indian public life is a vast field of criminal activities and politicians and police. Unity gives strength. which brings confidence and courage to the troika in its nefarious activities. and more money gets power. it results in polarisation of the society into criminal rich and honest poor. Easy money and easy wealth have a tendency to inflate. criminals and police lead the country. caused by proliferation of crime. However. though the custodians and protectors of Indian public life. It is true about this nasty nexus also. Government servants too come under this category of criminals because of rampant corruption in public life. Criminals tend to spend lavishly. This ends up in a spurt in prices of land. buildings and essential commodities. While decent life becomes impossible by honest methods. the proliferation of crime invariably results in inflation and the weakening of the national economy. from part of the crime world. This would be where politicians. material comforts and political power of the criminal rich ultimately leads to internal strife and popular terrorism.PRAVEEN KUMAR Such crimes are generally not taken seriously in spite of the public awareness of the crimes and the social standing of the criminals remains unaffected. This results in proliferation of crime is illegal gain and the incidence of crime is directly related to increase in black money in the national economy. and money begets more money.

which is beyond even his wildest dreams. to make the renaissance of Indian police and Indian public life possible. but there certainly are noble elements yet surviving as exceptions among them. self-righteous. where it is disguised as political ideology. It is what we have seen in Punjab. in faraway Sri Lanka or even in Naxalism. once innocent people. frustrates him and ravages his sense of morality and righteousness. who create the demons. However. It turns him violently against all human values and decency. crime can be suppressed by appropriate restraints. What restraints and how they are to be applied are ironically decided by politicians and the police. leading him to a world of crime and violence. If they come out of their indulgent interests to commit themselves to their professional objectives. It is true that crime cannot be eliminated from any society as the tendency to commit crime is ingrained in human nature. they can certainly save India from the present predicament. fall to the bullets of the grievously hurt. Kashmir.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED wealth around him. 95 . It is an irony that politicians and the police. The question yet to be posed is: Will the inveterate vested interests let these sacrifices bear fruit? Let us hope for the best. Assam. if necessary. It is said that even the dacoits in Chambal are symptomatic of this social and economic malady. Not that every politician and very policeman can come out to achieve this noble task. who should take up cudgels in favour of the Indian polity and sacrifice their lives and careers.

Nothing. what was once an exception has now become the rule and what was the rule once has become the exception. governance of the State by popular leadership. whose help criminals sought to save themselves from the police. by definition. Though the nexus between criminals and the police is not a new phenomenon. While faulty financial and social policies forged by short-sighted politicians are responsible for forcing many helpless people to a life of crime. Today criminals on the one hand overawe a weak police force with their connections with powerful politicians and lure the police with easy money and comfort on the other. The famous Chambal experiment initiated by the late Jaya Prakash Narayan had some success in spite of the machinations of certain politicians in the area. brought the police and criminals closer to each other.PRAVEEN KUMAR CRIMINALISATION OF POLICE Organised violence is so much a part of Indian politics that all politics parties have created youth and volunteer wings to accommodate young hoodlums as a fighting and street-smart force to be used when violence is needed. it appears. these same policies often drive sensitive people to revolt and to embrace terrorism and violence. If some are born criminals. Not that politics is all bad. The malaise of today’s politics lies in its tilt to populism at the cost of leadership and more dangerously. It is. Those who sand out in courage and toughness rise fast and reach the top and today a very high percentage of Ministers in the Indian Government are these people. their real aim is to lessen the pressures of the police on themselves. POLITICAL MISHANDLING Though criminals play their political cards with adroitness. thus tilting the balance to their advantage. Sikh terrorism. Naxalisim. populism is being considered an investment to earn returns in multiple proportions. the ULFA movement. It is ironical that politicians. India has seen isolated political attempts in the past to save people from the clutches of crime and to rehabilitate them. some choose the path of crime consciously and some others are constrained to follow it. building a bridge between them. Kashmir separatism. 96 . The understanding reached between criminals and the police is to a great degree responsible for criminalising Indian public life and blunting the effectiveness of the police. Hindu and Muslim militancy and even the sympathy in India for the LTTE cause are direct results of political mishandling of national issues. means as much to the Indian electorate as money to prod them to cast their votes for a particular candidate.

Many other jobs. But. corrupt practices that rope in criminals and police are bound to follow. It is a sad commentary on today’s police force that while low-ranking police do these jobs as an unavoidable duty. This image of the police is effectively made use of by politicians for all conceivable personal and official purposes. police force both with an eye on the spoils of the crime. which can be had only though political patronage. It functions as an instrument politicians use to bring criminals to them. even when they are fully aware of the criminal antecedents and police histories of some of their benefactors. These jobs have no potential for illegal earnings.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED VICIOUS CIRCLE The history of independent India makes it clear that honesty. When the system itself made the election a venal mechanism. which will earn many times more in a short period of time. But alas. The role of the police as a law-enforcing agency and its hold over criminals makes it a handy instrument for politicians to use. In this situation. Only those who correctly grasp the inner dynamics of this and adapt to its mechanics can hop to make any headway. It can be categorically said that the business of crime cannot survive anywhere if politicians and the police join hands to bring the crime world to heel. which in turn is equated with money and power. weak. this is not to be in a world of opportunist politicians and a corrupt. they are caught up in a system which does not let them come to prominence unless they come terms with it and adopt the venal proposition of wining elections to make money to win the next election. This they do. messengers. patriotism. excellence and even charisma have become casualties vis a vis money and power on the Indian election stage. political poser is equated with electoral popularity. high-ranking officers compete and fight among themselves to attend to the odd jobs of their political masters. service. sadly. The vicious circle has helped to create a class of extortionists who manipulate the passive public. on the other hand are known as punishment postings and are largely detested. This is considered an investment. The police force is the weak link in the troika of power-brokers consisting of politicians. SAD COMMENTARY The police is the executioner and odd-job boy of the Government. watchmen etc. Others are bound to sink. Jobs are judged for importance in the police force on their potentialities for illegal money from crime. quality. gunmen. And jobs with potential for such gains are most sought after and are often paid for in lakhs. high-ranking police officers are used for the same jobs at higher levels. 97 . Politics too has its honest and patriotic people who are committed to the welfare of society. While low-ranking police are used as bodyguards. criminals and the police.

transportation and weaponry are concerned as criminals have the best of all these. misuse of the facilities of confidential assessment of subordinates and the degeneration of control and supervision machinery have resulted. it is criminals who invisibly control the police rather than the police controlling the criminals. Its members find themselves at the mercy of criminals whom they are supposed to bring to book. The Indian police is sane enough to quickly realise that its interests lie in silence while entangling with the crime world may invite a host of complications. How can the people of India depend upon this sort of police force for security. INCOMPETENT LEADERSHIP Consequently. social status. sundry comforts and a pension. The understanding between criminals and the police is that both will confine themselves to their respective fields a and avoid embarrassing each other. It is also at a disadvantage as far as communication. The present Indian police force is utterly unmotivated and police jobs are considered only as devices that provide rank. Unimaginative planning uninspiring guidance and lack of leadership and conviction in the top police ranks has led to utter chaos. In other words. Dangerously ineffective recruitment policies. The responsibility for the present state of the Indian police rests solely on its incompetent leadership rather than on anything else. As a result the police in India is no longer keen to intrfere with the activities of the underworld. power. Increasingly powerful and modernised crime syndicates have made a farce of crime control by the police. Its growth has not kept pace with population growth. Many factors place the police at disadvantages. protection and law and order? 98 . The police is paid for its passiveness while stray troublemakers are silenced. The police is no longer confident that it is mentally and organisationally equipped to do its job.PRAVEEN KUMAR It goes without saying that judging jobs on the basis of the challenge or the opportunity for service that they provide is a thing of the past. This reversal of function has a lot to do with the low morale of the present Indian police. poor training programmes. police fatalities in encounters with criminals and terrorist groups are increasing. It is the crime world that decides the importance or otherwise of different police jobs and in actual fact controls the type and calibre of officers in each job.

POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED

THE INDIAN POLICE:
MALADIES AND REMEDIES
Crime, politics and the police are the 3 sides of the vicious triangle within which
democratic India and its free people are inexorably caught today. Though wealthy industrial
and commercial houses form the 4th dimension of this unfortunate situation, their
manipulative strategies are as yet limited to trying to influence politicians in pursuit of their
interests.
It is their wealth that operates as a catalyst in reducing the normal life of free citizens to a
welter of uncertainties and unending hardships. However, their role is rather distant and
indirect, unlike that of criminals, politicians and the police.
Politicians protect criminals from the law while criminals reciprocate by acting as their
henchmen in handling underground activities. The police goes to the politicians for job
protection while at the same time it strikes an understanding with criminals. Thus works this
nexus of vile power brokers who prey on innocent people and suck the blood of the hapless
masses.
The trio of criminal, political and police manipulators is a dangerous force to reckon with,
in the Indian democratic situation. A tight-knit power-bloc, they have permeated into all
conceivable facets of Indian public life with the sole intention of garnering all the benefits of
an inefficient public administration. The tragedy here is that this evil is perpetrated by those
whom the public trust as their benefactors and protectors.
The amoral side of this operation does not seen to have affected either the police or the
politicians in any way and the vile cabal against, the Indian public works on indifferent to
everything except its own self-interest. It seems that all the actors in this tragic drama think
that the Indian democracy is a free-for-all, where they should try to grab all that they can in a
world where each person has to look after himself.
This approach is certain to undermine not only the democratic set-up of the nation, but
also its social fabric. The blame for this sad state of affairs should be squarely borne by the
ugly troika of politicians, criminals and the police.
All the maladies of the police today emanate from the politicians who are only concerned
with winning the next election. Until it extricates itself from their grip, it cannot hope to rise
above its present mediocre level.
An immediate need is to streamline the organisation. At present, the growth of the police
department is not really much more than a spasmodic reaction to various stimuli and as a
result it lacks the benefits of an integrated approach. Operational facilities, counter-balances
and counter-checks are inadequate.

99

PRAVEEN KUMAR

The constitution of a permanent cell of organisational experts under the direct control of
the police chief to redefine the police organisation is required to make it more meaningful
and need-based.
This could help in streamlining the hierarchy by identifying and eliminating redundant
posts, by rationalising workloads and preventing their duplication and by redefining duties
and procedures and thus the rights and responsibilities at each level. As a consequence,
police functioning would be made more cost-effective and efficient.
UNATTRACTIVE SERVICE
The accusation that no talent breeds and grows in the wilderness of the police set-up
cannot be easily gainsaid. The Indian Police Service continues to be an intellectually poor
and unattractive service in the spectrum of the All –India services with only misfits opting
for its.
The constabulary, which forms the bulk of the service, is largely constituted of people
from the lower stratum of society who are psychologically handicapped when it comes to
exercising their police powers against the more enlightened people in society.
A tendency to sideline superior intellect and excellence, a general reluctance to adopt
modern techniques of policing and management, a dogmatic approach to personnel and
public relations and a lack of insight into human nature are other factors responsible for the
unfortunate state of affairs in the force.
These problems can be overcome only by capable police leadership at all levels. The
organisation is bound to experience a glissade until objectivity, reasonableness and good
judgement become a part of the police administration.
The annual assessment of men and officers in the police has become a travesty of what it
was originally meant to be. In no way, under the present circumstances, does an ACR reflect
an officer’s qualities or capabilities or lack thereof. Many therefore believe that the
department would be better off without this pernicious evaluation process that encourages
corruption and favouritism in the force.
It must, however, be said that the evils of the ACR are not inherent in the process itself,
but stem rather from the calibre of those who write them at various levels. What
characterises the rite of the ACR today is a distinct lack of objectivity: it has become a means
to personal ends, a medium for the advancement of individual interests and even the
settlement of personal scores.
Servility is its inevitable consequence and it would not be wrong to say that eliminating
the ACR altogether would certainly be a step towards commune bonum in the police force.
A Deputy Inspector General of Police in a range wanted a young Deputy Superintendent
of Police to marry a girl close to him. The self-respecting DSP chose to marry a girl of his

100

POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED

own choice. This antagonised the Deputy Inspector General. His next annual confidential
report showed the junior as a liability to the police department.
The senior officer also prevailed year after year upon other officers to incorporate
adverse remarks in the confidential reports of the junior. Most of them obliged and this
bright junior officer ended up with a series of unsubstantiated adverse remarks in his
confidential reports.
All his appeals were ignored by the Government. As a result, the young officer was
denied selection to the IPS for the next 9 years while his far less competent colleagues
superseded him on the career ladder, though there is nothing in his career to justify such
treatment.
Undeterred by the humiliation and career setbacks intentionally heaped on him he then
requested the Chief Secretary of the Government not to consider him any more for the IPS.
He took this measure to show his utter contempt of the corrupt departmental heads who sit
above him to decide his fate.
There are numerous instances of unhealthy practices at the highest levels in the Indian
police. Karnataka produced a police chief who, together with his wife, was taken to court on
the eve of his retirement, from service by a prominent social worker for allegedly defrauding
the public and a spastic society by siphoning off huge amounts of money, collected for the
spastics.
It is a different story that the officer concerned succeeded in silencing the social worker
through police pressure and ensured that the case fell through for lack of evidence. The
incident betrays the levels to which occupying high positions in the Indian police stoop to
make a few bucks.
In such an atmosphere with the maintenance of law and order in the hands of unprincipled
police personnel. Queer things take place. Long ago, a dacoity was reported in the house of a
person of doubtful character in Dharwad district in Karnataka.
The dacoity was actually committed by the illegitimate son of the concerned person
after a serious quarrel. The complainant later settled his feud with the illegitimate son and
decided to settle the case of dacoity to save his family name.
He successfully arranged for an ex-convict of Stuartpuram to be picked up and shown as
the accused. A mangalasutra recast from the gold recovered in some other case was shown
as property seized from the criminal !
Such developments make a mockery of criminal justice. What a serious breach of public
trust it is for the police to involve a person, albeit an ex-convict, in a crime which they knew
he did not commit. The incident reveals the levels of criminality to which the Indian police
has sunk.

101

PRAVEEN KUMAR

INHUMAN TORTURE
In another instance in 1981, police officials in charge of Koppal sub-division in Karnataka
picked up a poor goldsmith from Gadag in a neighbouring district for interrogation about
receiving stolen property. They subjected him to inhuman torture in the Gadag tourist
bungalow for 2 nights to make the innocent goldsmith confess to crimes which he had not
committed.
The wife and children of the goldsmith, who found him in the tourist bungalow after
endless running from pillar to post, were chased away from the place though they could hear
his agonised shrieks. The goldsmith succumbed to the torture on the second night.
The news of the lock-up death, as such deaths are popularly called, was splashed in local
and other newspapers. The wife of the goldsmith filed a complaint before the local court
about the cold-blooded murder of her husband.
The district Superintendent of Police and the Range Deputy Inspector General of Police,
whose protégé the sub-divisional police officer was, rose to the occasion to save him.
They visited Gadag and entrusted the investigation of the case to the compliant Deputy
Superintendent of Police of a neighbouring sub-division with oral directions to finalise the
case as “not proved” before the magistrate, who had received the wife’s complaint and taken
cognisance of the plaint.
The Deputy Superintendent of Police complied with these directions and sent his
investigation report to the court for action u/s 210 of the Cr.PC. Thus ended the case of coldblooded torture and culpable homicide of an innocent goldsmith.
Such stories of cruelty and criminality make the police appear like demons. What right
has the police to investigate and prosecute criminals while it protects its own killers?
Though it is difficult to extricate the police machinery from the clutches of the
politicians, it is an important measure that has to be undertaken at al costs in the overall
interests of the country
If policing is to be effective in the years ahead, specialisation is crucial. Three distinct
police services with separate recruitment and training are needed. These are:
1. Regulatory police or uniformed police in charge of law and order
And other regulatory duties.
2. Mainstay police in charge of crime investigation, crime prevention,
Security and intelligence operation.
3. Social police in charge of prevention and investigation of all social
Offences and implementation of social legislation.

102

POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED

All the 3 wings should have their own individual organisations up to the district level
with independent superintendents and staff as required. They should function in tandem in
much the same way as the army, navy and air force do.
At the apex could be a specially constituted body called the State police authority with
police chiefs of all the 3 wings as members and the Chief Secretary to the Government as its
Chairman.
A PANACEA
Creation of an all-India police authority at the Centre, responsible only to the President of
India, with regional police authorities in each State as subordinate bodies, may prove to be
a panacea to most of the extant maladies of the Indian police.
The all-India police authority may be headed by a Supreme Court judge with the Union
Home Secretary and Central Cabinet Secretary as members and the senior most police officer
of the country as the member-secretary.
The arrangement is likely to bring to an end the undue interference by politicians in
police affairs, thus enabling the police to function in an independent atmosphere. The Indian
police may hope to function well in the new age if these measures are implemented.

103

PRAVEEN KUMAR

THE CRUMBLING STEELFRAME OF INDIA
The All India Service were once called the Steel Frame that held India, a country which
consisted of diverse political systems, comprising British Indian and many other big and
small princely States, together. If India is one today- though in truncated form-the efficiency
of its vintage. All India Services is as much responsible for this as the might of the British
Empire.
The credit for India having made impressive progress, both in the domestic and
international fields and having survived the uncertain, initial years of democracy, under
leaders who had no experience of ruling a country of India’s size and diversity, also goes to
the original All India Services- to its traditions and efficiency, that continued to survive for
some years even after Independence.
The sterling performances of Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel in the unification of India and
the brilliant achievements of Jawaharalal Nehru in the international field are as much the
success stories of their civil servant secretaries and advisers as of the leaders themselves.
The fall in standards of the All India Services, in the values of their officers and in their
efficiency and performance, is symbolic of the fall India itself has experienced.
The All India Services experienced a setback after Independence. This deterioration was
in depth of ideas, quality of performance and honesty of convictions of their officers. With
this deterioration, to All India Service are no longer in a class of their own. Its members can
no longer claim a distinguished standing in society as the All India Services have been
reduced to merely good careers.
The Civil Services had inherited, as a result of their exclusive place in the higher levels of
administration, high pay packets and good perquisites, attractive service conditions and an
awe-inspiring tradition. But since this was not accompanied by superior performance, the
consequence is that the reins of democratic India are now in the hands of people who are in
no way superior in terms of intellectual worth, administrative skill or human qualities. This is
a tragedy for a democracy struggling to progress.
The British created to All India Services to handle the administration of the country.
They recruited talented people, imparted the best possible training to them and invested
them with the trust, powers and opportunities to carry out their responsibilities.
They took care of all their personal needs, provided them with many opportunities for
growth and surrounded them with a halo of exclusivity by endowing them with high social
status and providing them with generous creature comforts.
Independent India needed brilliant people to handle its complex administrative problems
and to implement its developmental schemes. It is tragic that India after independence not

104

POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED

only failed to realise the importance of maintaining its Steel Frame and improving upon it,
but positively contributed to its collapse in a very short span of time.
Indian leaders wanted the All India Service of independent India to break away from the
British model they had originally been based on and they gave expression to this desire by
altering the name of the Services. It is ironical that the change in name also initiated a steep
fall in the quality of the Civil Services.
At present, the Indian Administrative Services is not even a pale shadow of the old Indian
Civil Services. The Indian Foreign Service stands nowhere near the brilliant Indian Political
Service and the present Indian Police Service lacks the backbone and professionalism of the
good old Indian Police.
A major cause for the disappearance of excellence from the All India Services of
independent India was the secret tendency of the new leaders to look at the All India Services
as their rivals in running the country, rather than as the backbone of the State. A subtle fear of
the All India Services inherited from British India days accompanied by a sense of awe that
the services inspired because of the halo worn by its predecessor, stirred the new leaders who
made every effort to cut the Civil Services to size and show them their proper place.
SORRY STATE OF AFFAIRS
This occurred together with a fall in the standards of management of the Civil Services
because of the failure to recognise the importance of the Civil Services in administering the
nation. This fall succeeded in bringing the All India Services of the post Independence era to
its present state.
This brought the Services closer to the people of India in a way, while stripping it of all
its brilliance, excellence and efficiency to give India a mediocre All India Services to handle
its administration. And the result of this is the present state of the country.
The poor state of the Civil Services attracted people of poor calibre. This led to all kinds
of evils including corruption, opportunism and lack of moral strength to stand by one’s values
and convictions.
This situation led to loss of face and subordinated the All India Services to the ambitions
of the political leadership. Its has been a long journey from the bold and awe-inspiring All
India Services that existed at the dawn of Independence to the present meek and servile All
India Services without any backbone to stand erect and hold its head high.
The reasons for the fall and the mechanism that brought about the change, are not far to
seek. Everything that made the All India Services of the British days a powerful adminicle
for the administration was just swept away while its new avatar in independent India was
brought into existence.
The glory of the old All India Services was built on the 3 basic strengths of faultless
recruitment, perfect training and the maintenance of the highest standards of professionalism
105

The Indian Civil Service. mediocre people came to fill the slots and in the process. The Steel Frame of the IAS has nor become a gilded plastic frame with its steel conscience crumbling into a plastic conscience in the present uncertain political atmosphere. As the selection of members of the UPSC became politicised. Menon. The reasons for this deterioration in the Civil Services are many. REASONS FOR DETERIORATION The grand structure of British rule was to be mercilessly demolished later by independent India. The agency in charge of the process of such selections. selections to the All India Services suffered. supervision and control of highly qualified professionals in the field. now produces in its new avatar of the IAS and Allied Services only pigmies without voice or strength of conviction. corruption and parochial considerations rarely interfered in the process. The primacy British India gave to the process of selection of people of high calibre to the All India Services is perhaps the single major factor that made the Civil Services among the best in the world. These strengths held the Steel Frame of India together for nearly a century. they could not avoid the obligatory quid pro quo. This continues to be the state of affairs today. as Britain was not prepared to compromise and accept anyone less than the best in the higher levels of administration. made the All India Services of British days. Corruption. a really superior cadre. which were poorly conceived and unskilfully executed became the order of the day. Rarely was anything other than exceptional merit considered in the process of selection and human weakness like nepotism. they are like those in the crippled institution of the union Public Service Commission who select them. Since members owed their memberships or chairmanship to their political leaders. the Union Public Service Commission. A Steel Frame Civil Service would never have permitted such a degeneration. But independent India just failed to give these factors the importance they deserved while constituting its version of the All Indian Services.P. In this matter. after all. is unfortunately increasingly being manned by people unequal to the task either in terms of their professionalism. unlike in the British period. namely. These people were.PRAVEEN KUMAR and character t sustain it throughout. narrow considerations and caste and economic reservations corroded the foundations of the newly-constituted All India Services as time passed. Promising people with maturity and intellectual superiority were selected young through a vigorous and efficient filtering process of a carefully devised elaborate public civil examination process under the guidance. The first is the general lack of passion for quality and excellence in the Indian psyche.S. to sit on equal terms with them and help in administering the country! These high standards in the process of selection and recruitment. efficiency and passion for brilliance or in their basic character itself. Unimaginative and messy selection and recruitment procedures. 106 . which once produced giants like K. nepotism.

POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED The degeneration is manifeast at all ranks in all services. Its members either as Chief Secretaries of State Governments or as Secretaries of various ministries of departments. engineering. strength of character. the foreign service. whether it is the administrative service. width of human interests or noble qualities. it is supposed to bring distinguished and brilliant people to the job of administration of the country and thereby ensure good government to the country. Thus develops a vicious circle that promotes the degeneration of the Civil Services. or cadres of specialists in the fields of judiciary. as a pool of the cream of the people. independent India also knows it. moral values. How can we get back the original ideas. Also. the police service. THE REMEDY Any dilution of the high standards of these services is certain to throw the country to the wolves. Whether it is a cadre of generalists as the Indian Administrative Service is. economics. the central services or the specialised services. Sturdy and sterling All Indian Services are indispensable for the survival of democratic and united India. This brings us to the quintessential question as to how the Civil Services can be brought back to their original standards and glory. police etc the existence of All Indian Services functions as the basis of governance of India and adds to the emotional bonds binding the country together. 107 . the forest service. But it does nothing to arrest the dangerous fall in the standards of its All India Services. All India Services are a precondition for the survival of India. India is preoccupied with myriad issues relating to economic and social development and perhaps the rapid deterioration of its All India Services does not appear to be important in comparison with these burning issues. are at best paper-pushers and mindless approvers of reports incompetently prepared by subordinates down the line. It does not have its own voice or any originality. The degeneration is uniform everywhere. British India knew this and perhaps. whether at the sub-divisional or provincial level or at the highest levels of Central Government. the Civil Service of the post-Independence era are third rate. India must realise this fact and act fast. But such a feeling is wrong. health care. foreign service. Imagine people of such calibre presiding over the entire Civil Services. quality and performances and honesty of convictions that existed earlier? The first and foremost task in this regard is pruning the Civil Services to a small brains trust of brilliance and commitment which will steer the country in the right direction by giving competent advice on statecraft and actually running the administration to political leaders. intellectual heights. Whether it be in creative genius.

another of the trio was an officer of enormous inner strength as well as a poet and an intellectual of the highest calibre. Only brilliance and the highest potential should be the criteria for membership in this nerve-centre. CREDIBILITY OF THE UPSC In a recent case. efficient and highly responsible core is a priority task. for ensuring best results.PRAVEEN KUMAR A TINY SELECT GROUP Merciless pruning of the extant services to create this tiny. but as the foundation of the Government. This brains trust must be kept beyond the purview of extraneous constraints like reservation of any kind and even age restrictions. He weathered the frustration of the 9 years to rise 108 . The acute frustration and demoralisation caused by this led to the break-up of the family of one of the promising trio. 3 promising officers from the State cadre of a southern State of India. Violent behaviour by him repeatedly in public led to very embarrassing public humiliations. This has led to blunders in identifying talent and in managing the Civil Services. This is how a reckless and irresponsible UPSC ruined a promising life for no reason at all. INTELLECTUAL CALIBRE The training programmes for the services have to be made relevant today. However. irrelevant to the times and which in no way help ensuring the right attitudes at the higher levels. unlike present training programmes which are intellectually impoverished. Another need is to make the passing of a promotional test. mandatory for promotion at every level. of a very standard. held by the UPSC or a similar Central agency. and ultimately involvement in a murder case led to his conviction. were denied selection by the UPSC to an All India Service for no obvious reason for 10 years from 1990. in the set-up. Only such tough measures will keep the Civil Services fit and productive as is required for the sound health of the administration of the country. while their juniors were elevated. TONING UP THE UPSC Overhauling the present mediocre Union Public Service Commission to create an efficient and responsible set-up capable of handling the enormous responsibilities under Article 320 of the Indian Constitution. The guiding principle here is bringing together the best talents without restraints of any kind. is essential in order to arrest the degeneration that has set in. Matter taught has to be updated every year by experts and made changing evento the brightest among the new recruits. The services should not be treated as an employment opportunity for the elite.

This objective can be achieved by suitable amendment to Articles 316 and 317 of the Indian Constitution to ensure that only suitable people become Members and Chairman of the organisation and remain in the saddle only as long as they retain their moral and professional calibre. This can be made possible by constituting a committee comprising the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED to a very high level in individual achievement and public esteem to the shame of the irresponsible UPSC. The Vice-President of India should be the Chairman and clear the names for appointment as Members and as the Chairman of the UPSC for a fixed tenure. Appropriate changes to this effect in Articles 316 and 317 of the Indian Constitution are likely to plug the existing loopholes that allow too much political interferences in the process of the selection of Members and Chairman of the UPSC and thereby in its fair functioning. The incident created much resentment in the State against the recklessness of the UPSC and considerably lowered its credibility. These people should also be empowered to initiate actions for their removal by an appropriate procedure in fit cases. 109 . the Chief Commissioner of the Central Vigilance Commission and the Speaker of Parliament as members. Such transgressions are common these days with the present state of affairs in the UPSC and the overhauling of the organisation should be aimed at preventing such irresponsible actions that can have such tragic consequences. REORGANISATION OF THE UPSC The way to prevent such unprofessionalism on the part of the UPSC lies in transforming it to a highly efficient outfit managed by people of unimpeachable character and efficiency.

As internal security is a condition of national survival. the Indian police is yet to realise this fact. The first parameter for preparing the police for the future challenges of the internal security is selecting right people with right aptitude. is geared to meet these challenges. The faster it is done. terrorism and security risks are not phenomena. right abilities and right background. Further . in its stiff hierarchical order and discipline. training and manpower resources to be able to do so. the inability of the police in successfully handling security challenges is resulting in fatalities almost every day. It has no alternative but to overhaul its passe system. its organisation and resources. Choosing the right man from the motley to inclip him to the ergon forms the foremost need of preparing the police for the impending challenges. For. training and on-the field experience programmes stress upon the elements required to tackle those problems.PRAVEEN KUMAR INDIAN INTERNAL SECURITY BUILDUP The police force in India was raised imprimis to tackle crime and law and order problems. Internal security being a highly sensitive and secretive job. The survival of the police in coming years depends upon its ability to meet the needs of internal security. the better. no law. each less than right man inside is a positive risk to security operations. operational methods. It should be realised that the need of such people to the police overweighs the need of the police for these extra-ordinary species. Ergo. pro tempore. Sabotage. due to the dangerous spurt in security threats. Never. approach to work. avoiding people less than right for the job is as important in recruitment as selecting the right person. no directive principle nor any social welfare ideologies should interfere with the recruitment of the right people. The glitches of the Indian police in internal security are obvious by the fact that Indian soil has become a fertile ground to breed and feed terrorist organisations. And threats to internal security. In spite of these excessive strains on the Indian police. necessary to suppress a loosely knit mob of wankle law-breakers. The aptitude required to protect targets from determined esoteric strikes by terrorists is antipodal with the aptitude required for the show of strength. such people are a drain on the efficiency and effectiveness of the organisation. No effort was made to overhaul the police even after security challenges have superated in their primacy in police functions. This requires thorough job analysis in the requirements to handle the pertinent responsibilities. The Indian police organisation. They are here to stay and the police must know to meet the situations they engender. organisation. unless the soft belly of the terrorist outfit is subtly hit embusque by intelligent operations. Every corner of India has its own terrorist outfit and each of these outfits has proved itself a pernicious challenge to the Indian police. There is little scope in the present police for the growth of an aptitude other than for these déjà vu function. it unfortunately has failed to abraid and overhaul its system to face the new challenges. by all means will assume demonic proportions as time advances. Its recruitment. no fundamental right. It should be borne in mind that the demands on the police to meet security challenges are tout a fait distinct from the demands to which the Indian police has long been accustomed. 110 . Sadly. even by chance has the Indian police shown that it can control a terrorist outfit. The fact is that even all armies of the world together cannot bring a terrorist outfit to heel.

place. Indian security plans lay stress on covering targets with armed men and preventing people from approaching the threatened target. Even the best of the snipers protecting a target would be at a disadvantage in feeling a terrorist-to-strike who has all the advantages of time. It must be a sacred duty of the security operators to ingest such rara avis to the organisation wherever they are found and with whatever sacrifice. bright professionals with a flair for results. A human wall around the target is an infructuous show of strength in an age where there are powerful weapons and ammunitions that can penetrate several such layers in a single stroke. patience. the indraught to the fold must be agraste with respect and behoofs in form of liberal purses and perks apart from more than generous promotional and deathcum-retirement benefits that behove to the compulsive commitment sine qua non for the job. Internal security. This helps to widen the latitude of choice by promising a belle vue which is puerile to its demands to the aspirants to this difficile career. A well-planned terrorist attack fully prepares for all these odd contretemps. knowledgeable. They must be sensitive people with a high commitment to their responsibilities with the mental and physical ability to fulfil the task. A profound sense of patriotism is an added qualification.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED The people who fit-in to internal security responsibilities must have an innate trait to give themselves to the job that they take up. In the circumstances. not many people having these rare qualities are readily available. more often than not. They should be moulded to be highly motivated. A resourceful terrorist plan can facilely circumvent this with money connections and influence. Such a training needs a carefully drawn-up training programme with creative inputs. In absence of adequate penetration into the source of threat. 111 . determined to reach his target in circumstances where a police force remiss and ineffectual at best and corrupt at the worst is in charge of screening as spotters. none of these tactics can have any impact on the capabilities of a terrorist to strike his target. They must be taught to operate without plangent attention and get maximum mileage from minimum basic action. Training high-calibre. However. It is possible only if recruitment to these places are made a postern affair at the highest level without throwing recruitment open to competitions where all types of people sneak in for various reasons. Having suitable manpower is one thing. The emphasis here is to raise the innate traits of the trainees to desired levels. aplomb and perseverance have to be immanent in their nature. In sensitive jobs like internal security. the gravity of the task gets further compounded by the addition of another dimension to the responsibility. If the training is to prepare them for sensitive job like internal security. his job is facile and custom-made for his aptitude. sensitive people is a much more responsible and arduous job. grooming manpower including recruitment and training is more vital than the job itself. It is here that training comes into picture. Another important strategy of the Indian security machinery is screening people before permitting proximity to the threatened target. Men of high intelligence quotient. is an envious profession wherein life is committed to its objectives. There are infinite ingenious ways available to a resourceful and imaginative man. surprise and the mental and physical reflexes to superate both his target and armed protectors. Preparing them for the future challenges is quite another.

dynamics of various factors that have bearing on the internal security and possess an insight into minor developments that may blow up into serious security risks at some future date. courage to take responsibility for action decide the success or otherwise of the security build-up. And key intelligence does not come freely. It has to be extracted at great risks from closely guarded sources by resourceful intelligence operators. These operations are potential comminations to the mutual relation and ergo intelligence operators are left to their own fate by employers when the operators are caught. It requires a huge army of highly-paid and expensive operators and agents to cover places and groups that are potentially security risks. The age-old police traits like a criant show of force and a strict adherence to hierarchical order have a mis-alliance with the needs of security operations where patience. Collection of intelligence involves huge expenditure to maintain organisation and communication reticulation. calculating mind and imagination was to foresee developments. weaponry and other security –oriented systems. information.PRAVEEN KUMAR The Indian police system lays emphasis on dashing qualities rather than on mental qualities and planning that form the elan vital of security policing. In an age of bitter concourse to win over or withhold a piece of intelligence. speedy physical and mental reflexes. support the logistics of the operations and at times to affect outright purchases as well. The success of security back home tout a fait depends upon the quality of the intelligence sent back. high commitment to the work in hand. The situation necessitates keeping an ey on these operators from a distance. 112 . Often. The raw inputs from intelligence sources have to be winnowed. An effective security build-up perforce stands on the foundation of strategic intelligence. wherein facts and fancies are completed beyond recognition. Collection of vital intelligence forms the pith of perficient security operation. Raw intelligence throws the national security to the winds by raising a maelstrom. perseverance. classified and processed if found to have security relevance. such an operation may require years of patient preparation by an undercover to cultivate dependable insiders to the cause. not collecting them at all. (b) process and assessment of security risks. if not worse than. This body must have a flair for research and analysis and knowledge of the internal situation of the country. initiative and above all. A security organisation of neoteric age cannot survive without an effective intelligence wing as a backup unit. and (c) field operation. unbreachable sang-froid in adverse situations. The ferocity of security basically depends on the quality of intelligence as an input. these human qualities have to be reinforced with neoteric security equipment including latest communication. Indeed. The organisation must have three full-fledged wings in charge of (a) collection of intelligence. Intelligence collection sans processing is as good as. The possibility can be avoided by creating a nerve-centre. a command post in the security organisation to process and assess intelligence inputs anent ground realities. double crosses or even triple crosses are au naturel. Intelligence is a venal commodity and its price can be fixed in monetary terms. It blunts the sensitivities of the sleuths and excoriates targets to real danger. past history and known facts. It must be constituted of carefully chosen professionals with proven records of eximious work and a deep sense of patriotism and commitment to their work and should be directly responsible to the chief of the organisation and work as a high-power advisory body in all matters pertaining to the security. transport. This organisation must be manned by people au fait and capable of reading between lines to arrive at right conclusions as well as invenit strategies in the interests of the internal security.

perks and expenditure accounts. The people who are chosen for the job must be able to provide security to men. machinery. the geographical position of the country. A thorough knowledge of the adversaries includes an in-depth knowledge of their long and short term objectives. a security machinery devised to meet specific demands of the specific circumstances. 113 . Only people with exceptional courage and perseverance and dare devilry can behove to this job. This arduous job has to be performed with great care and caution for the quality of internal security of the land depends upon the work turned out by them. Yes. the dynamics of ethnic. If intelligence operators must have alert eyes and ears. high motivation and liberal compensation in the form of generous pay. often years or decades in advance to keep an eye on developments. All internal security operations must be part of a raisonne security plan that is drawn out in advance after through research and study of the best available intelligence on internal and external affairs. no security operation can make much headway. Other activities in the organisation are just postern backups to the field operation that forms the mainstay of the security organisation and inclips a vast portion of the organisation’s manpower. They have to be pollent-willed people with the precinct to risk their lives for the sake of achieving goal. security analysts must have smart mental faculties and field-operators must have smart reflexes inter alia. having a bearing on the security matters. equipments. strategies. sources of support. efficient training. Any security build-up must stand on two basic requirements. communal and linguistic interaction within the country and scientific advances in weaponry and other gadgetry. up-to-date knowledge of the security risks and their starategies and secondly. the demands are too high and this necessitates careful selection and recruitment. likely change of strategies and their analyses to assess the possibility of security threats and likely targets. The people who play with their lives to meet the objectives of the internal security have to be treated well for the risks to which they willingly submit themselves in the interests of the country and its internal security. Yet. objects and intentions of neighbouring countries. it is worth the cost and trouble in the interests of the national security and a far more intelligent and meaningful use of human and material resources than spending them to criminals after they accomplish their pernicious job. likely shifts in foreign relations. their time-to-time aberrations. expertise. Without this groundwork. friends. Screening people for these traits is not a facile job. Resourceful people with energy and willingness to work hard in tramontane circumstances. The security plan must foresee likely sources of trouble inside and outside the country and cultivate undercover operators at sensitive spots either by its own resources or through agents. money. feed intelligence and control situations by infiltration to strategic positions. while themselves remain in shades. rare single-mindedness of purpose and devotion can alone be successful in the dangerous world of field operations. places and structures. known to be sensitive and comminuted by enemies. time and other resources. firstly. Speed and surprise are their chief attributes. enemies. the internal and external economic situation.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED Field operation is the cutting-edge of the security build-up. Investigation of terrorism-oriented crimes serves practically no purpose and makes no impact on the plan and strategies of a well-planned terrorist outfit. it is a stupendous task involving huge manpower and other resources a grands frais. Indeed. Resourcefulness to do jobs which appear impossible is their mainstay. modes of operation.

PRAVEEN KUMAR A security build-up is infrangible only if it is specific for each circumstance depending upon the needs as assessed by security experts from time to time. A good and pollent security plan should not have an open set-plan which by all likelihood would be used by intelligent terrorists to their advantage. perspicacity and ability to take even a well-prepared and resourceful terrorist operator by surprise. with open mind and closed heart . 114 . Security must essentially be an esoteric operation with open eyes and ears and closed mouth. Intelligent terrorist operators prefer to strike in this gust of light which is what security tends to be. It must be a shadowy operation rather than a gust of light blinding people around. The pollicitation of a good security plan depends upon its secretiveness.

India too has several legislations that have become Acts to protect its women folk. imbalance is motion and progress. They ended up as the weaker half of society by their very nature and are naturally handicapped in a world of men. for rape and unnatural. a woman is at a great disadvantage. for men. Section 314 makes causing miscarriage without women’s consent. This part of woman is symbolised in tradition by calling her as the Mother Earth who bears all sufferings. She must live at his mercy and on his charity.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED INVESTIGATION OF DOWRY DEATH CASES Nature created women different from men with a definite purpose. The Criminal Law (Amendment) Act 1983 (No. Atrocities against women in India are mainly rape and unnatural offences. abduction and kidnapping for various purposes and outraging their modesty apart from minor acts like various marriage offences. natural attributes of woman which renders her less fit for survival than man.43/83) provided for in camera trial of rape cases and also enlarged the scope of rape cases by placing the burden of proving innocence on the accused persons apart from making penal sections more mordant. by men. women’s organisations. The Suppression of Immoral Traffic in Women and girls Act 1956 with the Suppression on Immoral Traffic in Women and Girls (Amendment) Act. Dowry death cases have become sensational topical issues these days with the public being highly sensitised to the menace of the offences with the unfortunate swelchie of cruel practices and circumstances deliver an innocent girl at death’s door. The cardinal principle of the survival of the fittest applies to the weak. All institutions of society including the government. particularly in cases of custodial rapes by public servants. outraging the modesty of a woman in section 354 and insulting the modesty in section 509 being offences. causing miscarriage without consent and prostitution. women find themselves at the receiving end. In a world where strength commands charity and weakness receives cruelty. She has suffered all types of cruelty and humiliation all along centuries with patience and in silence. a punishable act. Balance is stillness and stagnation. dowry and other harassments. silently bearing all his atrocities unless and until society in an enlightened mood comes to her rescue. In an enlightened age such as this people in public life are sufficiently sensitized to this issue and more and more legislation come up to stop stronger people from riding over the weak and meek. offences. dowry deaths. judiciary and police handle dowry 115 . Most of these offences are punishable under the Indian Penal Code : in sections from 375 to 377. abduction and kidnapping girls for various purposes being punishable in sections from 364 to 369. In the process. The immane approach of the stronger world to its weaker counterparts has to be countered with strong arm methods of the state power. 1986 and rules framed by states u/s 23 of the Act deal with offences relating to immoral traffic in women and girls. press. insulting the modesty. offences related to marriage being subjected to penal provisions in sections from 493 to 498. Nature designed life and action by means of the imbalance brought about in the traits of men and women.

PRAVEEN KUMAR death cases on a special footing. In the circumstances. or burning. Dowry death investigation has to address certain problems in the field in collecting evidence and examining witnesses. drowning. Sometimes. Sans proper briefing from the latter. These offences take place within the family circle. Each such case outrages the patience of thinking people and rouses passion and outcry against the perpetrators of the offence. the offencers being the custodians of the dead body and the scene for many hours after the death till they volunteer to make its occurrence known. Investigation of dowry death cases has special links with the science of forensic medicine because of the special nature of the investigation. how many hours thereafter the first symptoms of poisoning were noticed. a gradual reconciliation would be the normal tendency. he may succeed in collecting some. be it asphyxia. The next stage at which he would find himself would be the girl’s death. Therefore. have all the time in the world to eliminate or tamper with any clues. in a poisoning case. sound evidence is rarely forthcoming and difficult to sustain. Again. It must be borne in mind that no investigation can succeed without public cooperation. Dowry death being an offshoot of the relationship of wife and husband and veiled in a shroud of secrecy. There 116 . With this in view. particularly people aggrieved by such unfortunate incidents. the investigating officer may overlook the importance of recording the time when the deceased ate last. If the investigating officer is lucky. may prove to be post-mortal. the investigating officer may not realise the importance of noting the profusion of bleeding or marks of inflammation in deciding whether wound is antemortal or not. can contribute to the progress of investigation of they have knowledge of its due process. no outsider including the investigating officer can have any knowledge about the circumstances and events that led to the death. In most cases. the mode of death noticed. And the public. salient features and parameters of dowry death investigation are outlined in this work. The police too give special importance to the investigation of these cases and closely supervises the investigation process. the investigating officer is completely at the mercy of medical experts to interpret the cause of death. Thus. evidence of cruelty. Secondly. though blood relatives of the deceased volunteer evidence in the heat of trauma. what were those symptoms and how many hours thereafter death occurred. Often. Dowry deaths are figuratively called bedroom deaths. The success of the investigating officer in investigating dowry death cases largely depends upon forensic medicine experts. In the circumstances. an insight into the investigation of dowry death cases and proper understanding of the spectrum of challenges posed and how they are met is in the interests of both the public and investigating officers. Only forensic medicine can provide decisive proof to the investigating officer. ipso facto suggesting homicide in place of suicide. even the parents of the deceased may be unaware of the hardships the deceased underwent at the hands of her husband and his relatives in the process of the dowry death. the interaction between the investigating officer and forensic medicine experts is crucial to give the investigation a direction.

It is in these circumstances that investigating officers have to trace witnesses. the words ‘ relative of her husband’ that figure in Section 498A of the Criminal Procedure Code. The presumptions made easy the investigation of these otherwise impossible cases. independent witnesses refuse to involve themselves. ‘ The same word ‘ connection’ brings in a similar impression while defining ‘ dowry death’ in Section 304B of the Indian Penal Code and Section 113B of the Indian Evidence Act while declaring ‘ in connection with demand of dowry’ ipso facto rendering the incatenation between the offence of dowry death and dowry’ demand uncertain and open for discussion. A dowry death case being primarily a family affair. Law by sections 113 (A) and 113(B) of the Indian Evidence Act relieves the investigation of cases of death of girls within seven years of their marriage from the special nature of difficulties by the reason of the crime being committed in the intimate circle of the offenders. Another important term that defies full comprehension is ‘ likely to drive’ in Section 498A of the Indian Penal Code. Section 304B of the Indian Penal Code and Section 113A of the Indian Evidence Act in no way provide exactly what is intended to be defined. Clues on the dead body and surroundings are likely to be tampered with by the offenders.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED would be an absolute void in-between with no clues or evidence of what happened or no eyewitnesses to vouch for that . conduct purposive examinations and undertake directional recording of statements after proper analysis of the offence and likely charges. The term ‘ in connection with the marriage’ while defining dowry in section 2 of the Dowry Prohibition Act is unspecific about the flexibility of the word ‘ connection’ and gives way for its subjective interpretations as well as that of the term dowry. The dowry death cases are offences primarily under central Acts namely the Dowry Prohibition Act. 1961 with its amendments of 1984 and 1986 and certain sections of the Criminal Procedure code. section 113 (A) is applicable to prove abetment to commit suicide u/s 306 IPC within seven years of the marriage. The scope for divergent interpretations of these terms in the comparatively new acts do create problems during investigation of the cases until convention assigns them definite meanings. In spite of attempts during amendments to avoid ambiguities in some sections of the earlier Acts. While the presumptions under section 113(B) of the Indian Evidence Act is applicable to prove dowry death cases u/s 304 (B) IPC. In the same sections. Investigations are witness-oriented. The latter presumption benefits investigation of cases while a girl commits suicide under harassment for reason other 117 . where the word ‘like’ by its very meaning is indefinitive and open for subjective interpretation. 1973 as amended by Criminal Law ( 2nd Amendment) Act. it is patent that there are still several louche terms that need interpretation by the court. the phrase ‘ soon before her death’ raises the question. The law provides that the court trying the case may presume that the accused persons committed the offence if it is proved that the victim was subjected to cruelty by the accused persons inter alia. 1983. how soon before? Similarly. And partisan witnesses are too polarised to be credible. the scope of the words there is too vast and includes even the blood relatives of the deceased as they are also relatives of the husband after the marriage.

Per case. death of the most unfortunate of them by felo de se or homicide because of the grind of the circumstances has become an unfortunate phenomenon. The entire process of social legislations and their enforcement is only a distant link in the whole catena of luctation warranted to achieve this end. 118 . An integrated approach to all these symptoms of adjustment problems to which a girl is suddenly exposed while her persona is yet unprepared to meet the gauntlets alone can bring deliverance to the fairer sex of the human genre. Amendment of concerned laws may be necessary to avoid this loophole in law. It is an irony of nature and social customs that it is the girl who is delicate in nature rather than the man who is selected for this difficile gauntlet of transformation in the process of familial socialising. In the process.PRAVEEN KUMAR than dowry also by her husband or in-laws within seven years of the marriage while the benefit is available for cases of suicide under the same circumstances and homicide for dowry reasons under the same circumstances. Marriage is often called the second birth in a girl’s life. Dowry is only one though primus interpares among various immane manifestations of adjustment problems to which the tender psyche of a young girl is exposed after her marriage. no criminal can fool him and deflect him from the right line of investigation. This renders investigation of cases of homicide of girls by husband and in-laws within seven years of marriage which poses the same difficulties as suicide cases under the same circumstances an impossible task and there are any number of such homicide cases that were acquitted which would have been convicted by the benefit of the presumptions u/s 113(A) of the Indian Evidence Act if they were suicide cases. the gentle and amenable character of the female breed expose her to the natural selection for the purpose. it brings an entire metamorphosis in the form and contents of her life and in the process exposes her to inopinate adaptation problems. If the investigating officer adequately employs his common sense and intelligence during the preliminary stage of the investigation while examining the dead body and the scene and collects all incriminating clues and evidences without restricting himself to the apparent cause of the death.

reservations. Should India continue as a single nation. the credit should go to its distinguished civil service of early and middle 20th century vintage which was rightly called as the steel-frame of Indian unity. and Rann of Kutch and Arunachal Pradesh under a single rule to give meaning to the concept of a single nation. The worst curse on India and its people is the classification and stratification of humanity on the basis of births and adoption of rigid codes of social conduct to rule the relationship between those in different strata. no cultural similarities. If India is a single nation today. no unity of civilisation. Post-independent India. took innumerable measures. No military strength. both constitutional and legislative. The lower strata being condemned to be treated less than street dogs and denied equality and any opportunity of growth and decent life. as welfare state. towards absterging the sins perpetrated by its past practices of ages on the unfortunate sections of the society. handicapped certain accurst social This cancer in Indian social life develops a major moral responsibility on India not only to get rid of the nasty disease. in jobs and 119 .POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED TOWARDS SANE SERVICE It is a historical fact that India which is characterised by its unity in diversity was never a single nation at any time in its long course of history of several millenniums. Any tampering with the quality of the civil service and doing anything that may mangle the ‘steel-frame’ grade of Indian civil service certainly go fatal to the very existence of India as a single nation. but also to rehabilitate the victims of the age-old social bevue. of atrocities. no linguistic resemblances nor geographical proximities at any time before succeeded in forging a single nation out of the vast land masses south of the Himalayas. The removal of untouchability. though in its rather moth-eaten form. strength and quality of its civil service alone. no religion. it has to be through the grit. Neither Asoka Mourya or Samudra Gupta or Chandra Gupta nor Akbar or Aurangzeb of Mughul dynasty in Indian history can boast of binding all the regions stretching between Cape Camorin and Karakorampass. This curse for several millenniums permanently groups from breaking away from primitive way of life. prevention educational opportunities to quote but a few. till the feat was achieved in the 20th century.

The necessarily need easier access to educational opportunities to prepare them for higher slots in life. exclusively for their financial needs of nonconsumptive nature at nominal rate of interest a la rural or agricultural banks may prove a significant step in this direction. wider network or board and lodging facilities for students.PRAVEEN KUMAR Sine dubio. democracy signifies rule of common man and rule of mediocrity and ergo. such special treatments alone can somewhat remedy the inhuman treatment and delour meted out to some without an iota of fellow-feeling and kindness for generations after generations. Institution of liberal scholarships. This will wipe out the achilles’ heel from the face of Indian social structure to make Indian society civilised without affecting the quality of its governance and parameters of survival. Perhaps. but may also block the existing opportunities too. etc are other welfare schemes for the unprivileged classes that may help to bring them on par with others. Wrong policies in such matters may not only fail to make the measures efficacious. though belated and inadequate as they are. The apollyon in question is the policy of job reservation in civil service which may eat up the quality and steel-frame toughness of the setup to disintegrate and balkanise India sans its only binding force namely a sound civil service to keep the country united in its diversities. Basically. They are also a kind of remorse the country suffers for its past sins. application fee for jobs. concession in or exemption from. institution of an apex development bank with branches in all districts or taluks of the country. The victims of the age-old stratified class system actually deserve many more special privileges than delivered to them at present. It was Winston Churchill who said democracy is the worst type of governance except for all other types of governance. free advanced medical treatment facilities. free higher studies. the need of reservations in educational institutions. easy housing schemes. Such measures on special footing are not only compensations India must pay for having deprived some of its children of their growth opportunities for so long. It may also further weaken the social fabric of the country and ipso facto pose real threat to the very existence of India as a country. 120 . special vocational training for men and women. more dangerously the rule of hoi polloi or mob. concessional hostel facilities for working men and women. But the cardinal question is the direction such measures must take. Hence.

A sound civil service as amicus curiae draws the metes and bounds of governance within which the democratic system must function and also inspire a sense of moderation. strong intellect right attitude. It absorbs the jerks and shocks of the political follies and helps the political leadership in taking sound and intelligent decisions at right times. it is high quality and excellence. discipline. The fear that the steel-frame civil service of the pre-independent India vintage have crumbled into a mediocre setup now by wrong policies of selection and recruitment in independent India needs serious attention it deserves. India is venturing to the folly of cutting its own s trunk. This tendency renders maintenance of the tempo of high quality and excellence a difficult task. This is what is feared about present Indian civil service thanks to reservation policy.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED This definition applies principally to the political system of the democratic governance and not to the civil service system which is expected to be the subtle spine of the democratic rule. it is not happening in India now. A democracy without sound civil service slumps like a mass of flesh without a spine to support it. Real merit and competence emerge from exemplary unity of diverse human faculties like sound character. Stracient damage has already been done by this in the last five decades. Doing 121 . Any allowance to mediocrity leads to a sustained flight of quality and excellence till mediocrity completely takes over. By the policy of job reservation to civil service. No distraction like reservation of any kind must deter the criterion of genuine merit and competence in civil service. The well being of the repressed class of India depends solely upon the survival of India as a single nation and therefore on the quality and soundness of the civil service. Unfortunately. In this sense. This trend deserves deeper concern than at present in those who are interested in the survival of India as a nation and democracy. Excellence has a distinct tendency of light from mediocrity and regrouping otherwise at its own level. legality and reasonableness in the political leadership of the system. Several opinion polls point to the diminishing attraction of the civil service to crème de la crème of the Indian youth in preference to foreign and private industrial houses and banks as job opportunities. commitment and devotion to work. Civil Service is the trunk of the tree of democratic governance and breaking the trunk itself is self-defeating for all national goals including justice for all. If there is anything scanty in the present world. The interest of the country lies in marshalling the best talents of the country in service of maintaining the country as a nation and democracy and that need must get the first priority over all other issues including developmental and welfare vintage. fairness. They are such a rare commodity that even slight distractions in the swink to cultivate them end up in their disappearing in thin air. a sound civil service structure is sine qua non for running a democracy and the strength of the democracy depends entirely on its soundness and quality.

so fast is served India’s best interests. The intentions of reservation is beyond reproach . 122 .PRAVEEN KUMAR anything to subvert these virtues in civil service in tantamount to wrecking the interests of the country. The fault lies in its pursuance. How early India realises this fact. Reservation of any kind in civil service clearly proves to be wrong means to reach the right end. It is not that somebody wants to subvert the interests of the country by hoisting job reservation policy on civil service.

It marks the end of the 88-year history of policing on modern lines under the Brithish Raj which began with the enactment of the Madras District Police Act of 1859 and assumed countrywide acceptance with the enactment of the Police Act of 1861. PLAYING SAFE It is to the credit of Indian Police that the primier investigation agency of the country. 123 . both at the Centre and in regions. particularly while form and contents maintain their stead.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED LACKING VIGOUR Independence half a century back marks the greatest turning point in the history of Indian police. It patently is against jus naturale to expect a colonial police transform to a democratic set-up overnight with the awakening of the country at midnight. Spirit is never known to be a quick-chameleonic. what a powerful instrument an investigation agency can be in national affairs and how resourceful chiefs of investigation agencies can hold even the heads of governments of their countries to ransom. Otherwise. in discharge of its legitimate duties. Change in spirit is the natural outcome of changes in ambience leading to metamorphosis of value system and attitudes by rapid exposures to changed trails and tribulations to ripen the spirit to its new avatar. The hitch lay in its spirit.Edgar J Hoover in the US showed to the world around the time of India’s independence. But. India never realised the importance of crime investigation in national affairs until very recently. While national security gained currency in India after the country became independent. Crime investigation is a task as important to police as national security is. It is a different matter that in the recent years the CBI is forced by the judiciary to proceed against ranking political leaders including former union cabinet ministers and prime ministers. The first fifty years of independence of India marks this period in context of the spirit of Indian police maturing to democratic traditions in the hands of Indian rulers. Nonetheless. Independence marks the beginning of the history of Indian police under Indian hands in a democratic milieu unlike of yore though in form and contents they were its continuation. crime investigation along with law and order duties was the mainstay of Indian police from periods long before it. they believed in the sanctity of political leaders and their associates as beyond the laws of the country. the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) and the Criminal Investigation Department (CID) in states and union territories never harboured such ambitions till now. the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) of Mr. kept themselves away from interfering with the affairs of political leaders and their kith and kin for most parts of the period in the last fifty years. Otherwise. Indira Gandhi and her kin in 1977 for emergency excesses. Indian investigation agencies. in the contradictions of the intentions of a colonial police and the traditions of a democratic police. save dictated for limited actions by the ruling parties for political purpose as in the Classic Computer case of 1993 in Karnataka or cases against Ms.

This is true in the field of Indian politics as well. Unlike spirited investigations of corrupt leaders in countries like Italy. For every action. Indian counterparts adopted only the form and not the spirit of the Scotland Yard and thought it best in its indigenous wisdom not to stir the hornet’s nest by going active and radical after the FBI of the US LACKLUSTRE PERFORMANCE Recent developments in the national crime scene of India like the CBI investigating top political leaders of the country for involvement in various scandals of national importance has not changed the situation of investigating agencies of India. It is significant that after the Supreme Court of India took active interest in the investigation of crimes involving top leaders of the country. an investigation agency doing its legitimate duties under the pressures of the judiciary cannot be an adequate compensation for doing the same works with a missionary zeal of professional commitment. there is an equal and opposite reaction. Indian police leadership is too steeped in slef-promotion to be bothered by the spirits pro bono publico. Until investigation agencies exhibit professional commitment and develop a passion to deracinate evils from the society. There seems to be no scope of Indian police catching up with the spirit in near future if the first half century of the democratic rule in India is any indication. This was true in 1993 and again in 1996. Japan and Korea in the recent past. as if to counter the pressures of the judiciary on the investigation agency.PRAVEEN KUMAR Criminal cases filed against those people invariably fell through for lack of purposeful investigation and the trend led to the belief that powerful people are beyond the reach of law. Indian investigation agencies at both the national as well as regional levels are far from any professional zeal and investigating skill seen in internationally acclaimed investigation agencies like the Scotland Yard of England which provided the model for the CBI and other regional investigation agencies of the country. The professional and social commitments seen in those countries are a far cry from Indian police of the independent vintage. exercises like judicial reviews of the investigation process cannot really make substantial differences. 124 . Sadly. a new trend has surfaced with the post of the CBI chief being invested on somebody from the cadre of the state from which the chief executive of the government hails. But. either to investigation agencies or to crime investigations. in spite of periodical judicial reviews of the investigation process Investigation agencies enjoy tremendous leeway in carrying out investigations in desired directions in spite of judicial scrutiny of the cases. Crime investigations continue to be a factor of political decisions. Indian investigation agencies dither and drag their feet back to handle cases of political corruption in spite of judicial compulsions on it. Recent judicial activism changed the myth and infused a new vigour to the judicial and law-enforcing systems of the country.

JUDICIAL ACTIVISM The recent judicial activism in the investigation of important crimes and scandals of India is not confined to the Supreme Court of India. lack of professional commitment. including the law and order police. nor is it limited to the cases investigated by the CBI. Dishonesty. High courts and even session courts these days are taking lead from the Supreme Court. It is not a rosy picture to have of a police force which is more than a century old and is now reaching half a century mark of existence in a free country. While investigation agencies honestly and professionally discharge their responsibilities towards fair investigations. The judicial activism of the Supreme Court on the other hand is not restricted only to the cases investigated by the CBI. The investigation agencies and the public are aware of the extant situation in investigation agencies and therefore the interferences of the judiciary in investigations are not only tolerated. The very fact that there is the need of judicial interference in the legitimate works of investigation agencies strongly suggests that the investigation agencies are seriously ill. While this truth has been realised by people in states like Bihar and UP it is eating up the vitals of the country 125 . anti. The basic issue is why judiciary should do the legitimate works of the heads of investigation agencies in safeguarding the objectivity of the investigation process. The Investigation was transferred to the CBI in 1996. Perhaps.Sikh rioting case of 1984 and recent cases of harbouring notorious mafia leaders involving prominent political leaders wherein the courts have taken tough stands either in summoning top leaders for examination or in refusing bails. but also welcomed by all sections of the people. no judiciary can even afford to cross the sacred halls of their legitimate duties in violation of the sensitivities of the investigation agencies and invite righteous wrath of the public opinion. extra-professional loyalties and unchecked corruption are the albatross that commonly affect the Indian police at all levels. democratic rule in the country has not done any good to Indian police. as evident from the court proceedings in cases under trial in lower courts like Lakhubhai Pathak cheating case involving an ex-prime minister. The nexus of police with criminals and politicians is smothering and squeezing the country and its public life out of its vitality to a stage of paralysis. SYMPTOMS OF ATROPHY The serious maladies witnessed in secret police and investigation agencies of India are actually common symptoms of atrophy observed in all wings of Indian police. The deterioration of Indian police is steep after independence. the Supreme Court directed that the chief of the state CID investigating the case should not be transferred out form the CID without the permission of the court. In a recent case of investigation of medial seat scandal involving prominent political leaders in a state.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED The new trend only makes clear that everything is not well in the administration of the investigation agencies of the country and pressures and counter-pressures have a great say in the process of investigations of those investigation agencies.

PRAVEEN KUMAR

in other states too. The talk of private armies doing recent elections in UP and Bihar is an
indication of the confidence Indian police inspire in public after fifty years of self-rule.
Indian police in 1990s appears like a century old giant tree rendered hollow by the termite
of corruption. Unless something is done fast to return the vitality of professional pride and
commitment, Indian police may irrevocably fail the country in leading it forth to the
century-mark of India’s independence.

126

POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED

PROFESSIONAL PRIDE
OF THE POLICE
The basic needs of police and policing are professional pride and a good image. The
police force capable of doing its duties are carrying out its responsibilities with devotion and
self- sacrifice. But it needs its sacrifices and devotion to work to be appreciated. A good
image entails public cooperation and enhances the
social recognition of the police
personnel. Pride and a high morale are necessary in manpower oriented organisations like
the police, particularly those which have to deal with the public from a position of strength.
Police personnel shamed and humiliated in their career can never face the public and do good
policing.
The tragedy lies in police administration. Its vanity belittles the police, breaches its pride,
shatters its self-image and destroys its good public image by unscrupulous and selfish
interferences in police affairs. Suspensions and disciplinary action are a common
phenomenon in the Indian Police. When no grounds are available for disciplinary
proceedings, they resort to unfair and indecent measures like withdrawing vehicles,
telephones and other facilities, denying promotions, transfer to humiliating jobs created for
meeting such eventualities, keeping on prolonged compulsory waiting without a job etc.
These humiliations weaken their position before the public as well as subordinates whom
they are supposed to control and guide with the strength of their leadership qualities.
ARROGANCE OF POWER
A factor responsible for maladministration becoming the abracadabra of police
administration is arrogance of power. The police is the real power, the crux of the state
power. The police administrators weild power on the enforcers of the state power. Power
breeds arrogance, ultimate power, ultimate arrogance. The sweep of arrogance is so strong
that it has no patience for rules, laws, codes of conduct, moral values, natural courtesies and
human dignities. The only goal of the police administration in the ambience of arrogance is
proving its invincibility as tout prix.
A serious lapse of police administration in India is its presumed virtue of indifference to
other’s predicaments. The compulsions of being led deprive government officials the great
human gifts like freedom of thought, originality and creativity and drain off feelings and
sensibilities. The humble situation is spawned for government officials by themselves by
their zeal to conform.
This is the position in which the police administration finds itself. The need of making
virtue out of irresponsiveness leads to mendacity and dishonesty. Normal human courtesies
are unknown there. Evasion is the stock reply for queries. Vanity is the hallmark. Approach
to all except higher-ups is always brusque and stroppy. Normal man-to-man interaction is
impossible unless one is capable of gratifying. Public relations is an unknown concept,

127

PRAVEEN KUMAR

McGregor’s need hierarchy and such management, concepts are nonexistent in their
vocabulary and thoughts.
A CUSHY JOB
The police administration provides a good cover to meet long cherished desires and is
therefore considered a cushy job. A police administrator like the Home Secretary of a state
can avail for himself from the police organisation all benefits inherent to the police job like
the best available transport and communication facilities and orderly services at will. The
police network throughout the country would be at his personal service wherever and in
whatever way he desired it. This is an invaluable asset, for him and his kith and kin. In the
name of various studies concerning the police, he can visit foreign countries at his will and
convenience at government expenditure.
The prevarications of the police administration from the right path in most cases is not
even to achieve right professional ends. They mostly are pure and simple means to selfgrandiosity and personal gains. Show them elements of personal grists. Files move fast.
Discussions and meetings are held day and night. Decisions are taken overnight. Procedures
are cut-short to ease the process. Ordinary situation turns to an emergence. Administration
becomes a hub of incessant activity. Lots of energy and thought go to the process of
administration. The result is that work is done irrespective of the relevance and importance
of the work while more pressing and vital, but less remunerative works rot in files for years.
Selection and recruitment of men in the age of unemployment and purchase of heavy
vehicles in the ambience of commissions play a pivotal role in the administration of police
and related safety-oriented organisations like the fire force. Recruiting men in thousands and
purchase of scores of heavy vehicles at a single go in the name of expansion of an
organisation involves subterranean change of hands of crores of rupees in a short span of
time. It is a dizzy amount to be pocketed.
Decisions were taken by the administration for expansion of the organisation with fresh
recruitment of thousands of men and sub-officers and purchase of scores of heavy vehicles.
A police officer in a sensitive juncture of his career who could be compromised was put in
charge of the organisation and the selection and purchase processes. The setup worked out by
the Home Secretary worked to his satisfaction. The result was that the police officer in
charge was rewarded by quick and easy promotions. The organisation concerned saw rapid
expansion. Thousands of unemployed youths got jobs. Manufactures of heavy vehicles got
business. And the Home Secretary got what he wanted. Thus all are happy and contented.
This is how administration works in India.
Most ills of the present Indian police emerge from the malaise of the morbid handling of
the police administration at different levels. Be is in handling of the body and shape of the
organisation and its functions of managing the spirit and the soul of the force, the police
administration can play a major role either in building or marring the prospects of raising a
healthy police outfit for the country. As of today, police administration failed the country and
its police by indifference on the one hand and crass handling of the organisation and its
affairs on the other. The only solution to this serious malady lies in rebuilding the police
128

POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED

administration with people of character, integrity, devotion, efficiency, ability and above all,
deep insight to human nature and its problems.

129

PRAVEEN KUMAR

NEED TO REVITALISE THE POLICE
In a disciplined organisation like the police where subordination and role play forma
crucial psychological necessity, rigid inheritance of the style of functioning has become sine
qua non in the vacuum of independent and creative thinking. This is the seed of the frigidity
of the Indian Police set up. More dangerously, blind faith in the inherited style of functioning
as the only way out to the exclusion of all other open alleys deprive the Indian police of the
richness of variety and growth opportunities while cementing ranks and bringing a sense of
unity and belongingness that create a sense of strength about the organisation in outsiders.
The stereotype style of functioning irrespective of merit, suitability to a given situation and
options available makes the police functioning largely mechanical and stripped of any
intellectual or creative contents in it. Any deviation from the beaten-path is considered with
contempt and suspicion and birds of the same flock come together to bring the prevaricator
to the required path. Until then, he is labeled and condemned as pout of the mainstream. That
is why an imaginative and creative soul newly entering the Indian Police feels absolutely
stifled and either follows the flock at the cost of his convictions or just withers away fighting
a loosing and humiliating battle outside the mediocre mainstream. Winning such a battle to
effect a couple of changes in the mental makeup of the giant organisation is an extremely
rare phenomenon and not worth to an individual to have that try.

These features bring distinct characteristics to the organisation. Indeed, the police have
people come from all walks of life with their distinct personal features and styles. But , once
they enter the police organisation, the grind of the system takes its toll and creates a common
profile in its members. Though such a grind is common in many other organisations also, it is
not as complete and clear as in the police. The process is not consciously man-made and ergo
incidental to the policing system. The standardisation so brought by the process has its own
advantages and disadvantages. In case of the police, it appears that disadvantages as the
standardised style of functioning cut through the growth process of the organisation in
efficiency and excellence. It also grievously destablises dignity of the service and stifles
professional values. There is inveterate servilitude in the style of functioning evolved in the
police by this prices. This often exposes the police to gratuitous risks in performance of
legitimate duties.

POLITICIAN- POLICE NEXUS

Adaptations to political masters as a bargain to secure key posts prove fatal to the
dignity as well as professional values of the police set up. A Police officer of a state in
southern India succeeded in cornering the coveted post of police commissioner at the State
capital a few years back with the support of a politician known in the then political parlance

130

POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED

as the ‘ Father, Mother’ of the state Chief Minister. A few days later, the politician in an
inebriated state was arrested with his associates while fleeing in a
car late night after being involved in a sex scandal involving a budding film star. The police
official who affected the arrest recognised the identity of the person he had arrested only
after they were brought to the nearby police station in the city. The Police Commissioner was
intimated about the developments. The Police Commissioner promptly made his appearance
in the police station in the night and ensured the immediate release of his political godfather.
But, the political heavy weight in a temulent state was impeccable. He caught the collar of
the Police Commissioner in front of the shocked subordinate officials and shouted at the
Police Commissioner in his inebriated voice asking him whether he was made the Police
Commissioner to arrest and bring him to the Police station. The police Commissioner was
seen meekly begging the politician to pardon him. The incident made headlines in news
papers. The Police Commissioner later rose to become the Police Chief of the state and is
now retired. Such incidents abound in circumstances of Police officers vying for coveted
posts a tout prix and as a consequence, the dignity of the posts lowers and the professional
qualities of the organisation suffer.
An important reason at the derriere of this failing of the police lies in their general
inability at assessments. A rather queer characteristic of the police is its dithering as far as
assessments in any form are concerned. It is an organisational failing in the police and the
police have found an easy way out of this failing –falling in line with the general trend and
precedence sans application of mind. An officer once wrongly rapped as difficult to work
with, would be seen so forever by all so much that he himself would begin to trust it as true.
Though this trend strengthens the sinew of collectivity and collective responsibilities for
whatever purposes in the organistion, it considerable weakens the intellectual credibilities of
the police and tears to pieces the fabric of objectivity and fairness in the organisation.
Once in service, independent thinking becomes a disaster and metabasis as a mechanical
part of the flock becomes a crude habit. While this tendency in the organisation brings the
elements of collective acceptance within the danger of a person or situation or event once
wrongly interpreted, never again to be seen in right perspective, destroys its strength and
credibility. This lessens the possibility of seeing things at anytime rightly thereafter. The
result often is perverted assessments. In the police, where assessments of men and events
form a crucial role, this failure proves fatal to the organisation as well as to the society. This
fomented with generally low intellectual qualities of the police, confines the police to
mediocrity and restrains it from rising to excellence in performances and promoting high
calibre in its personnel.

SENSE OF COLLECTIVITY
There is a sense of collectivity for good or bad in the police. None in the police
normally get a spark to see a thing from a new angle and give their own interpretations or
judgement ectogenesis to the view already held. The sense of rectitude becomes secondary
when the sense of collectivity is at stake. Though the police profession demands fairness,

131

PRAVEEN KUMAR

justice and rectitude as its primary concern, passion for the values in the police is
surprisingly feeble. The commitment to do things legally and rightly is superficial.
A fall-out of corruption in the police is build-up of a dynamics which promotes the
interests of corrupt in the system at the cost of those who retained the pristine value of
professionalism. The flexible elements who can be manoeuvred to required moulds through
the juste milieu of pelf and position are useful assets to people in key positions to save the
interests of their kith and kin as and when they get involved in criminal proceedings. Such
characters in the force are always cultivated and posted to key positions so that striking
compromises, when situation warrants, becomes easy. This strategy ends up in honest police
officers being sidelined and promotes corruption. The dynamics which helps influential
individuals to evade the long arm of law, harms the interests of the country, its police and
the rule of law. Police officers of plastic conscience are preferred to upright professionals to
key posts even in national level police agencies like the Central Bureau of Investigation and
the Intelligence Bureau. Police officers known for professional approach are spurned and
distanced as inconvenient elements. In the situation, competence plays no role in preferences
while honesty, integrity and professional commitment play negative roles. A history of
bending backward on professional considerations always becomes a qualification in obtaining
preferences to more sensitive jobs in important police organisations.
A case of dowry death reported against a retired judge and his family in February 1992 in
a state as referred to the state investigation agency. The investigation made out a case for
charge-sheet against the retired judge and five others including his wife, son, two daughters
and another person. The chief of the investigating agency in the rank of IGP being close to
the retired judge, dragged his feet from further proceedings in the case. The Superintendent
of Police who was supervising the investigation of the case wanted to take the investigation
to its logical end. But arrests in the case were prevented and the charge-sheet was unduly
delayed. The insistence of the Superintendent of Police to charge-sheet the case cost him his
post and he was transferred in July 1992 to the Home Guards department of the state as the
head of it training wing. The case remained frozen sans charge-sheet for more than one and
a half years, till the IGP’s transfer in 1993. The case was later charge-sheeted in March 1994
with the retired judge and his two daughters being dropped from the charge-sheet on the basis
of evidences tampered at later stages. The police officer who tried to stall the wheel of the
legal process subsequently succeeded in gaining entry to a sensitive police organisation at the
national level and later in his own state.
An extension of this style of functioning is their complete absorption in their service to
the exclusion of other dimensions of life including family life. Nothing interests them
outside the police except specific popular entertainments to counterpoise the tension of the
quotidian police work. The result is the family life of most police officers being disoriented
and their children more then often betraying criminal tendencies because of the lack of
paternal care and attention. The lack of attention to personal habits manifests in very few
police officers leading a happy and normal retired life.
It is in the interests of the police to come out of this pernicious grind of the style of
functioning, to breach the accretion and break out to the fraicheur of the invigorating open

132

We can only hope that such a development comes soon and saves the Indian police from further degradation. But the adnate growth over the police system is so thick that no trickles of fresh air survive through it. This is general experience and concomitant conviction.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED world of endless possibilities. 133 . that something cataclysmic from outside should shake the system and bring it to its senses to show it how and why it is wrong and what retards the growth of the police to its full bloom to efficiency and excellence and how returning the style of functioning can flush new life to the Indian police. Anything ab intra cannot ruffle the complacency of the constricting system.

gambling houses. Criminality may be prolific in certain civilised fields like commerce and industry in the form of tax evasion. Politics and crime have become the tow faces of the same coin in the present state of affairs and a saying goes that there cannot be politics without crime and no crime without politics. narcotics dealers or plain hoodlums. hoarding etc. Thus. it is an arrangement to mutual advantage. Politicians love to befriend criminals rather than bring them to book because the society they live in makes their lives comfortable with criminals as friends rather than as adversaries. crime and police. The very fact that politicians are prepared to risk their reputations rather than distance themselves from the crime world. The crime syndicates en revanche. pay a good percentage of their criminal gain to the protectors. It is social situation which controls the external restraints to make committing a crime an asset or a liability and thereby decides the proliferation or suppression of crime with human nature being what it is always. Policemen find the crime world sweeter because it is how things stand for them. Criminals are criminals because society gives them easy openings to thus meet their needs. The crime world also provides hoodlums as volunteers to perform challenging tasks during the election campaigns of their political patrons. violation of foreign exchange regulations. Criminal thought is a part of the natural function of a healthy mind as is the moral restraint that prevents the criminal thought from being acted upon. UNIVERSALITY OF CRIME On ultimate analysis. shows how highly the world of crime is regarded by the politicians in their scheme of things. In the existing nexus of politics. Criminals should not be construed as a separate block of citizenry. after he gains power with the help of a criminal. 134 . custom and adverse reaction reinforce the inner restraint to prevent the committing of crime. In the present Indian situation. All living being are criminals in varying degrees. as the force of external restraints weakens for diverse reasons and the proportion of gain to be made in committing a crime overweighs the risks involved in the balance sheet of the operation. The remedy for the proliferation and endearment of crime lies in changing the social dynamics to make crime a liability to criminals and criminals a liability to politicians and the police. crime is a universal phenomenon. apart from liberally financing these campaigns. crime is an asset to criminals and criminals are an asset to politicians and police. Be they smuggling syndicates. They are a cross-section of people from all fields of life who have moved beyond a commonly accepted degree in their criminal tendencies. How can a politician.PRAVEEN KUMAR HOW CRIME AFFECTS NATIONAL LIFE No criminal can take lightly the need for political patronage in running his crime syndicate. External restraints brought about by the fear of law. However. it is true that the lotus of politics can blossom only in the offal of crime. the only way to survive is to have comfortable political protection at the right levels. ever let down the criminal? This symbiosis of politicians and criminals which has emerged from the extant Indian political system is the root cause of all the complications. the lure of crime increases and the deed is done.

They promptly grab the opportunity to their advantage and show how useful they can be to politicians in their career-promotion designs and wreaking of personal vendettas. The vast army of criminals has become a ready resource to them for use whenever need arises. a part from affecting the quality of crime by opening up new avenues for operation. crime and police on the national economy. There are more things hidden in this world than that are seen. the proliferation of crime invariable results in inflation and the weakening of the national economy. material comforts and political power of the criminal rich ultimately leads to internal strife. thereby inducing it to more daring and innovative criminal activities. emeute and popular terrorism. CRIME AND NATIONAL ECONOMY A word about the effect of the nasty nexus between politics. Form part of the crime world. But. Often politicians have so much relied on criminals that the latter have become their most trusted lieutenants even getting elected to legislature with their help and blessings. it cannot be because they are also part of the society which makes public life a nasty affair and nourishes it. knowledge of the involvement of politicians and police in this nasty world stirs the public conscience. The only telos of the nexus is gain by synergy. The experience and professionalism of criminals is handy to politicians to execute their hasty operations without attracting the stigma attached to them. Government servants too come under this category of criminals because of the unconfined corruption in public life. challenging and competitive environment. it results in a polarisation of the society into criminal rich and honest poor and destroys the country’s moral fabric. raw world. for the reason that they are supposed to be the people on whom the public relies to save them. This results in proliferation of crime. There have been 135 . Unity gives strength. More dangerously. who are otherwise vulnerable in their highly uncertain. This has given a sense of confidence and security to politicians. This increscent incidence of easy money. As the ultimate end of all crimes in illegal gain and the incidence of crime is directly related to increase in black money in the national economy.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED such crimes are generally not taken seriously in spite of the public awareness of the crimes. However. though the custodians and protectors of the Indian public life. the synergy which brings confidence and courage to the troika in its nefarious activities. POLITICISATION OF CRIME The overworld is just the tip of the real. with the social standing of the criminals remaining unaffected. It is true about the nasty nexus also. It is a fact that Indian public life is a vast field of criminal activities and politicians and police. apart from the security and protection from the police that ensues from the association. This is turn is a god-sent benison for criminals to restore their lost credibility and social standing with the help of their association with the custodians of power. This is soon realised by opportunist Indian politicians who seize the first available instance to enlist the support of criminals and underground operators for their nefarious designs.

who should take up cudgels in favour of the Indian polity and sacrifice their lives and careers. What straints and how they are to be applied are ironically decided by politicians and the police. This ends up in a spurt in prices of land. Kashmir. all syndicates of organised crime and their menace are the direct outcome of the internchant nexus between politicians and criminals. It turns him violently against all human values and decency. 136 . the need of survival forces honest citizenry to accept crime as a way of life as the last resort. It is an irony that politicians and the police. indeed with the police as bystanders. where prominent politicians have refused to disown their notorious criminal friends in public even after reaching the vertex of their political career. Easy money and easy wealth have a tendency to inflate. in far away Srilanka or even in Naxalism where it is hidden in the guise of political ideology. building and essential commodities while honest men have to toil hard for an extra quarter. It is said that even the dacoits in Chambal are symptomatic of this social and economic malady. The ocean of criminal wealth around him which is beyond even his wildest dreams frustrates him and ravages his sense of morality and righteousness. SOCIAL POLARISATION The indulgence of the rich and powerful in crime popularises criminal activities by bringing an aura of status to them and negating all inhibitions in the popular mind. they can certainly save India from the present predicament. Criminals tend to spend lavishly. Ergo. However. honest man is lost forever. criminals and police lead the country. to make the renaissance of Indian police and Indian public life possible. if necessary. comfort and everything. once innocent people. caused by the proliferation of crime. It is a fact that no syndicate of organised crime in small and big cities anywhere in the world can survive even for a day without political patronage. It is what we saw in Punjab. This shows the sway held by criminals over politicians in the Indian situation. This would be where politicians. The question yet to be posed is whether the inveterate vested interests will let these sacrifices bear fruit. Let us hope for the best. leading him to a world of crime and violence. Assam. While decent life becomes impossible by honest methods. selfrighteous. If they come out of their indulgent interests to commit themselves to their professional objectives. eat their own pies by falling to the bullets of the grievously hurt. In the crush. It is true that crime cannot be eliminated from any society as the tendency to commit crime is ingenerate in human nature. crime can be suppressed by appropriate straints. Crime begets money and money begets more money and more money gets power.PRAVEEN KUMAR instances in India. Society easily accepts the example of the wealthy and powerful for making an easy buck to lead comfortable lives in the world where life is becoming increasingly difficult because of the spurt in black money. who create the demons. Not that every politician and every policeman can come out to achieve this noble task. but there certainly are noble elements yet surviving as exceptions among them.

Professional ideals of police are rooted in the terra firma of the rule of law. urge to cashin on the ignorance and weaknesses of the ignorant people around and indulgences in unprofessional works in the name of discharging legitimate police duties. A profession loses its raison d’etre while attitude in the job prevaricates from professional ideals. It is confounded about its goals. Police organisation is basically responsible to the constitution of the country and the government constituted and the laws enacted in accordance with the constitution. objectives. They get clouded in the smog of practical turn-arounds in the field and ultimately lose their edge in the spin of attitudinal aberrations. procedures and practices that carry it forward in the field in attending professional duties. protection of security interests etc are too generic terms to carry any meaning and significance during the process of actual policing. Performance of any profession depends upon three factors: professional ideals. The result is a pollent hold of attitude in deciding the direction of an organisation. It is distressing 137 . profession. they help moulding job culture a la immanent attitude in the job. Police lose its relevance to the country when its professional attitude goes against the cardinal ideals of the profession. honest and highly motivated leadership alone can crack the etui encompassing it. government and the public.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED NEED OF ATTITUDINAL CHANGE IN POLICE The major problem that confronts extant police is its attitude to work. Practices and procedures being the primary vehicle of attitude. the issue of excesses and inactions. Job culture is spawned of constant interaction of professional ideals and actual practices and procedures in the field. tendency to bend rules and laws to achieve perceived ends in the hour of need of upholding the rule of law. justice. The crux of the problem of Indian police lies here. responsibilities. Basic to these efforts is a realisation among the top-brass about what constitute right and wrong attitudes. Only efficient. it considerably affects the future performance of an orgnisation. The challenge of a police organisation lies in moulding professional attitude as required by the ideals of the profession. objectives and ideals to pursue. A profession like police naturally has its own goals. Wrong attitudes inveterate in extant practices and procedures of policing are shaped by self-interests. Police develop wrong attitudes in its absence by erroneous interpretation of the situation around. job culture and actual practices and procedures. job culture. loyalties. organisation. Once it is done. Perficient policing is possible only in the ambience of well-rounded and clearly defined specific guidelines for action that help moulding professional attitude in the organisation. professional ethos. adoption of immodest vectors in policing. ignorance and tendency to pursue easy and shortcut methods: they are hard to be broken and survive under most odds. building a new set of right professional attitudes is relatively a simpler job to a committed leadership. In the wilderness of undefined roads. order and the security of the country and its citizens. The consequence is clashes of loyalties. Indian police grope for perspicacious directions to reach professional ends. prevention of crime. Though basically is a product of the past. Popular phrases like maintenance of order. This is what happens to Indian police now: wrong attitudes and concomitant confusion about performing legitimate duties. enforcement of law. misconceptions. investigation of offences.

Present Indian police lack of hardihood of professionalism and the selfconfidence ensues from it. Tendency is to avoid risky responsibilities of policing while hawks outside are avizefull to make the maximum out of the weakness of the police and pledge policing responsibilities to those who sit above them in exchange for secure career prospects. justice and rule of law to easy and shortcut avenues of selfish interests. the latter are not professionals and their advice. Every attempt is to do minimum required so that the chances of being caught committing 138 . The result was happened in police as in other government departments. the vice in which Indian police is caught is too pollent to be breached. This happended in police as in other government departments. bureaucracy or the judiciary. Policing powers served as a tool of maximising self-interests and personal comforts at the cost of professional policing. This requires change of attitude.PRAVEEN KUMAR to note that the top leadership of post-independent Indian police is responsible for the prevarication of the organisation from its professional attitude of absolute commitment to public order and safety. Somebody cornered or placed in an insignificant slot has nothing to lose by standing up to his superior and no need to go servile to anybody unlike somebody in a coveted spot and therefore not required to protect his position coute que coute. It was during this period that Indian police lost its track in professional policing and exposed itself to the luxury of dancing to the easy and soft tunes of convenience by yielding to pressures of political and other vested interests. the country suffered and police lost its face. Secondly. Without it coming soon. For every piece of work under its sphere of decision. Policing worth the name is possumus only while the glissade in professional resolve is arrested. men of inadequate calibre and merit occupied key government posts. No more. But. Tendency is to show the amount of labour put to a job rather than showing results. For one. The change percolated downwards. It is more a symptom of immanent servilitude and lack of spine than anything else. Not that police officers do not know these facts. Policing is not a job dependant on outsiders like politicians and bureaucrats. subjecting policing to their advice. security. They lack the professional resolve to uphold the purity of the principles of policing au reste being unsure of themselves. guidance and direction from the political leadership. justice and the rule of law. The result is downward slide in professionalism and perpetuation of servilitude and dependence. it looks for advice. Indian police realise itself as a master sui juris. traits of excellence and high personal merits. so essential to run public and national affairs at the top. A major handicap of the extant Indian police is its dependence syndrome. A serious handicap of present Indian police is its noncommittal and causal reliance on mechanical procedures sans passion for professional objectives. In the rush of Indians replacing the British to sensitive government positions on the eve of independence. There is no true passion to reach goals and achieve professional objectives of safety. The change is not easy to come in present vicious circumstances. Indian police has no deliverance. In the process. That is shy meekness and servilitude of police officers in India is pro rata to the importance of the posts they hold. guidance and directions in re policing are unlikely to be sound. The result was corrosion in leadership qualities. guidance and direction while they themselves are subjects to policing discipline is unlikely to be in the best interest of the professional policing. It is impossible for an upright officer to land in key jobs like chiefs of police forces in states or the centre save in disturbed provinces like Punjab and Kashmir. The dependence syndrome has to be replaced by professional resolve.

Professional investigation is not meant to proceed in this fashion where possibility of a prima facie case and quality of evidences precede every thing else and decide the course and pace of the investigation process and chargesheet. When sound evidences are not available. interrogations etc so that law bites only the hors la loi and innocent citizens go absolutely unharmed. objectivity. This has to be the attitude of the police during crime investigation. In the process. Politically sensitive cases are taken up for investigation only when people in power decide in favour. anything that goes for evidence is trumped up. Indian police lack the maturity and poise. The problem lies in wrong attitude. Risk-taking which is a common trait of good policing has become a rarity and a scarce commodity. CBI went for anything available to feed its fanciful interpretations. Reversing the trend is the first priority to bring Indian police on the right rails. truth and justice is the foundation of the professional policing. It is the minimum common denominator that counts in present policing environment. When direct evidence was not available. truth and justice would have saved the country from the quite unnecessary hardships. Need of corroboration was thrown to the wind. A manifestation of this wrong attitude is evident in investigation of crimes. Once polictical bigwigs calculated that investigation of the case was in their interests. Fair chance to persons under investigation to prove their innocence goes a long way in unearthing truth and solving crimes justly. Procedures and practices form the staple and there is no spark for creative policing. many heads rolled on the block of the political gameplan. The dependence syndrome of the premier investigation agency of the country prevented it from investigating the case sans clearance from political masters. searches. The infamous Jain Hawala case is a case in point. truth and justice become tragedies in the process. rule of law and justice is seldom felt in Indian police of the present vintage. Professional police display extraordinary scruple in exercise of policing powers like arrests. Sensitisation to fairplay. bails. People caught in the web of criminal laws deserve sympathy and kindness until they are proved guilty beyond doubts. The reason for the problem lies in the environment in which investigators function. They need to be treated with gentleness and courtesy that behoves to interpresonal relationship in a civilised society while the process of investigation continues with all efficiency and ruthless exactitude. 139 . Professional attitude to investigation with a passion for fairplay. This basically is a problem of wrong attitude. They are prosecutors of another kind in real terms in Indian police environment and work to collect evidence of whatever merit to prove that the persons accused of crime had committed the crime rather than unearthing truth. The case was cold-stored for years. Court of law exonerated the politicians for lack of evidence. Investigation has become a one-way track of somehow raising evidences and chargesheeting. The passion natural for those in police for public security and order. It is not the case in Indian police now. and investigated with a particular end in sight and chargesheeted on the basis of whatever little could be gathered in the name of evidence. in the field of committed policing has become the mainstay of the Indian police. The atrophy set in. Political leaders were tried on the basis of initials and numbers entered in a diary. seizures. CBI proceeded full-steam to prove the case. Truth and justice have to be their goal. CBI probed for circumstantial evidences.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED mistakes are minimal. objectivity. Policing has become a mechanical process sans substance. Persons under investigation are treated as criminals and harassed. When circumstantial evidence failed to prove anything. Police as investigator is not invested with powers to punish for the crimes committed.

Mechanical enforcement of gratuitous rules and laws constrict the freedom of people for no specific purpose and weaves an unnecessary web of constraints around them for nobody’s good. Police forget that rules and laws are just tools in the larger cause of peace and order of the society and sadly handle laws for law’s sake.PRAVEEN KUMAR A serious Achilles’ heel of Indian police is its perverted attitude towards rules and laws. The realisation is rarely found in the present police. Objectives are primary Rules and laws must follow them only as tools to that end. Inviolable commitment to human values and rights is the foundation of good policing. The shift in attitude needs to be from blind and blanket-policing for the policing’s sake to discreet and enlightened policing to reach professional objectives. Policing is just an instrument to the cause of protecting human values. social relevances. Human concern is the raison d’etre of good policing. The exercise have to be intended to provoke police personnel to think about their profession without dogma and arrive at desirable conclusions about professional policing and impress them on the ingredients of good policing by constant exposure. The shift must see police taking risks in the interests of the profession and doing intelligent policing rather than indulging in manoeuvres of personal security. discussions. The shift has to be from the use of policing powers to maximise professional goals. Discreetness in their constraint. What constitutes perficient exercises of attitudinal change in a massive organisation like the police? Police organisation is a tough and hard-to-crack candidate for any manipulations. Human touch is sine qua non for professional policing. The attitude is fatal to fair and professional policing practices and needs to be corrected on priority to make application of rules and laws need-based in reaching professional targets. subject human values to immane policing methods in the name of policing. Forcing police away from vicious practices and procedures and undesirable job culture through the attitudinal change is an arduous and time consuming exercise even for experts in the field. A few ideal cases as models have tremendous impact on the cause of creating eight attitudes. Police oblivious to this fact. the story of an off-spring eating its creator. means and ends. briefings. The process warrants massive exercise in attitudinal change. Another dimension is its blind application sans sense of proportion and discreetness while self-interest is not an issue. Malfeasances do not behove to the cause of human values. Studies and 140 . objectives. Professional objectives suffer and police become an object of detestation consequential to this perverted attitude. Third degree methods are the point. Means are as important as ends in policing. Bending rules and laws to suit self interests is one dimension of the spiel. Another field where police need to change its attitude is its contempt for human values. pressures. researches and inservice training involving analyses of policing. seminars. The only way to bring it to senses is intensive and extensive appeal to its reason and emotion to convince about the need of change. Pursuing unjust means for the cause of justice is the spiel of the frankenstein. Police rely on past practices and procedures. It looks for the job culture to aemule. psychological aspects of policing etc. Rules and laws are invested on police like weapons as the dernier ressort while all other avenues are shut. its ideals. studies. It is seen in enforcing laws and maintaining order. It is a no nonsense outfit. The exercise has to be a multi-pronged attack on inveterate misconceptions and wrong notions in extant policing by extensive exposures to talks. methods. policing environment. It operates laws for law’s sake by relegating organisational objectives to oblivion.

It is again a question of ill-conceived job culture and attitude which need to be corrected as it is tangible to the standards of policing as all organisational matters are. professional needs and relevance to the environment of policing to affect attitudinal change in right direction by way of conviction. Demolition is the beginning of the construction. The primary target of attitudinal change is the higher wrungs and the top-brass. The immediate need is inducing doubts about the soundness of existing attitudes to encourage discussion on the topic. when the demand from above is to frame an innocent man and obtain his confession by subjecting to torture. Their attitudes change shape from case to case to meet the demands trickle from above. Indeed. those down the level do just that with vengeance. Those down the ladder are loyal followers and obedient operators in the path and policy laid above them. While things to wrong. The conundrum is who behoves to handle the highly responsible job while the leadership of the police itself is mired in wrong attitudes to the job of policing. Once the realisation of wrong dawns upon. the whole exercise has to be planned and executed in detail by highly efficient leadership in the police. reconstruction becomes possible. they just do that with dedication for the sake of a well-earned pat of their omniscient superiors.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED researches on policing and policing methods provide a sound foundation to these exercises. 141 . When the demand is to let out a rich and powerful criminal with royal honours. The key lies in the realisation that something is wrong in the present mode of policing. This is what is required in Indian police now. introversion becomes sine qua non for healthy growth. These attempts provide both inputs and insight to the behavioural pattern of the police in field under different situations and stress patterns as differentiated from what are desired. Others follow and fall to place. Deliberate guiding through structured mental exercises to desirable end forms the latter part of the task. The stiff hierarchical order and command-obedience pattern of functioning make the lower wrungs irrelevant in matters of job attitude. A police organisation interested in improving its quality and performance cannot go without sound study centres and research projects on the issues of policing. self-analyses and inward-looking tendencies do not come easily. Police being an extrovert and action-oriented outfit. Problem of attitude basically is a problem felt at higher wrungs in top-brass of the force. They bring both gestalts to contrast in terms of their perficiency.

higher functions of administration are invested in government at stratified levels while lower functions are burdened on higher levels of the organisations. In police. be it service or management.PRAVEEN KUMAR PRECEPTS OF POLICE ADMINISTRATION The word ‘ administration’ originates from the Latin administrare and administratum which would mean ‘ to serve’ or to be an aid to. Though political leadership is there as policy makers and executive heads of both the organisation and the government. 142 . The ethos and character of a police force are shaped by these key figures of the police administration. organisation. Administration in its pristine form denotes service or aidance though in modern parlance it stands for management or governance of affairs. is immanent in organisational operations of all levels. Non obstante the metachrosis of the word. The heads of the organisations join hands with the secretaries of the departments and higher authorities in the government to run the organisations. POLICE ADMINISTRATION Administration. control and guide the police by administrative controls. The interim levels bridge the gaps in between. supervision and guidance of the government in the form of home department and higher levels. The police chief ab intra and home secretary and chief secretary in states ab extra form vital links of police administration. It is also in the police. Administration manifests at diverse levels with its lower strata rooted in higher levels of the organisation. administration even in its modern avatar is service and aidance in essence though from managerial level. Police stations as grassroot policing units go away with a large slice of the police administration. it is these three configurations as innards of the setup. In government organisations. elements of administration are inherent at all supervisory levels beginning from head constables upwards. the levers of police administration at lower levels are handled by the police chief and his staff while the home secretary in charge of police in tandem with higher echelons of the government handles it at higher levels. supervision and control mechanisms. head and shoulder above political heads. While the police organisation en semble is responsible for policing. The springboard of police administration within the organisation is the state police headquarters in a state with all important decisions of policing and police administration emanating from there under the control. It normally is a distinct field of activity while being a part of the organisation en attendant and stands above the latter by holding overall charge of the affairs. So are district police offices in districts and police commissionerate in big cities with the unit headquarters as the apex body of police administration within the organisation. Administration even now is serving and aiding an objective or commitment through suitable planning.

a lifeless machine performing police job. It is easily said that policemen ought to perform their duties en regle on merit. The fact is that a policeman cannot be a creature abstracted from his surroundings and shut to natural human passions. they are required to investigate. the status enjoyed by the police as enforcers of the rule of law and the fear they inspire among the hoi polloi are some compensations and solace for the malaise. he cannot be a human being. perform the unpleasant task of disciplining and using force against fellow citizens. its status in society and the nature of job it performs. The tragedy is that these apparent benedictions themselves create problems of complex social adaptations to make up for the imbalance caused by their real social status nowhere coming near the importance they enjoy in society as law-enforcers vi et armis. The unpopular job does not bode well to the psychological well-being and for leading common life in a society that exoterically fear and esoterically hate them. As senior-most police officers of premier investigation agency of the country. Police. A policeman is a human being imprimis and 143 . Added to it. materials and machinery through the means of laws. social position and enlightenment. Of these. as a son arresting his erring father or as a brother in pursuit of his criminal brother etc are mere fairy tales invented for films. Sine dubio. Such a living is not conducive to healthy mental fettle of human beings what policemen are. but a mere robot. ISSUES IN POLICE ADMINISTRATION The problems of police and policing are inveterate in the contradictions immanent to the organisation. If did. This renders police administration a specialised field to be handled by experts having insight to and realisation of the special nature of policing conditions and the psychological pressures on policemen on the off duty in the organisation. arrest and chargesheet men of the standing of the Prime Minister of the country and similarly placed high dignitaries. The organisation is primly stratified with a serve hierarchical order and stern discipline to the boot. The strains of such responsibilities preposterous to human nature and natural human tendencies of respect to social stations cause can only be imagined to be believed. Administration for most part is human resources management in a manpower oriented force like the police. the stress and strain of policing and the non a such psychological factors unique for the organisation crop up issues unseen otherwhere. feelings and familial attachments. money. As constables of limited education. its distinct culture and service conditions. emotions. men form the most vital ingredient of management and governance. The embarrassment is common to all ranks of the police. Images of policeman as a father shooting to kill his fleeing criminal son. This is especially so in organisations entirely dependent on human resources to meet objectives and goals. There is no love lost between the two and no real mutual respect. they are required in streets and police stations to handle people of far higher social status and standing from a position of strength. The position is not as easy and joyous as it appears ab extra. The police live in society in the ambience of sempiternal fear. the feeling of insecurity bred by the potentiality of wrath and revanche of highly placed people pregnant in upright police actions further flummoxes the matter for the mental peace of the police. suspicion and hatred against them. The special problems of the police setup. preposterous to a free human nature. decisions and directions.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED A SPECIALISED FIELD Administration as a service in spirit and governance in manifestation deals with men. rules.

The cardinal task of balancing these contradictions in police is the real challenge of the police administration. There is no scope for inteneration of their mental makeup. A BALANCING ACT Responsibilities of any administration are two fold-providing the body and shapes required to fulfil the objectives of the organisation within the limits of the extant laws and providing right ambience to boost the morale.of –thumb approach common to Indian police. The police have to be tough and fearsome to criminals and law-breakers while it has to be gentle and friendly to the plebeian. The police in field perforce perform as robots against their natural human sensibilities and sensitivities on orders from above to show results. the need of perfect obedience to the verge of servilitude in a stiff hierarchical order. motivate and get most out of the manpower at disposal. the mental wellbeing of the manpower of the organisation. the police force has to be steeped in professional pride. They have to be led to be law-abiding model citizens while day and night deal with hardened criminals requires to break the latter to submission. It has to be tuned to be loyal to authority while its ultimate loyalty must go to its professional objectives and the rule of law. they have to be compelled to treat all as equals and exercise authority even on the people at highest levels in society while performing duties. This ingredient of policing has great impact on the psychological makeup of the police. Human relations here are slender and easily snap under the weight of job-related surquedry. motivation and above all. What is required is a highly intricate organisational policy imbued with specialised skills and insight of the highest order to human nature to inspire. This involves balancing in police many contradictions inherent to human psyche. taught to accommodate in its character. The extra-ordinary nature of the organisation of the police and its working conditions render the latter responsibility a sensitive field warranting specialised study and application.PRAVEEN KUMAR the human nature makes him a good policeman. while on the other hand. Added to this. It is said that policemen at all levels live with a sword of danger algate dangling over their heads. 144 . Ruthlessness is a fact of man management in police administration. He is not a mere robot to unwind in the blinkers of professional duties and responsibilities. the unending oppression and fear of disciplinary actions from higher-ups for a wink of an eye common in police makes the police life suffocating. While they are attuned to the interplay of ranks and status in the stiff hierarchical order of the force. In one hand. The biggest tragedy of police life is the absence of human concerns around it. The need renders police administration a specialised field. Police administration needs to take these special features of police life and psyche into consideration in running the organisation. The complex psychological factors involving policing in diverse social conditions and social imperatives of a policeman’s life perforce require dextrous handling of affairs to promote high morale and right motivation in the place of present crass rule. The list goes on endlessly. Endless interaction with ruffians inside and outside the organisation deprives policemen their natural sweetness and gentleness. He sans human nature and its sweet failings cannot be a real police stuff.

Accommodating the desires of higher–ups in official and political circles and the powerful people in consideration for quid pro quo is the accepted norm of Indian police administration. Recently. the national newspaper did not dare to make an issue encore. No growth and coordination studies. Wastage of human resources and man-days is the general rule. WRECKER OF PRIDE AND GOOD IMAGE The basic needs of police and policing are professional pride and a good image. supposedly to study crime and traffic problems. the study gratuitous and the foreign tour during the holiday season of those countries without first obtaining the assurance of cooperation of the host countries in the study venture as outrageous and cried for stopping what is called a pleasure trip. This is an invaluable asset for him and his kith and kin. They refresh the organisation. In the name of various studies concerning police. No long term plans. The maximum. The police network throughout the country would be at his personal service wherever and in whatever way he desires it. Threats and suppression are the staple of manpower management in police.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED FIELD SITUATION While police administration is a highly specialised field requiring extra-ordinary skills the present police administration in India is archaic at best and maladministration at worst. The newspaper called the intentions of the study apocryphal. the contribution of Indian police administration is absolutely nil. Personal behoofs are the centres of all decisions. These are the breath of policing and oxygen for the lungs of the police organisation. Police administrators believe that they have no role to play in the morale and motivation of the police organisation. A CUSHY JOB Police administration provides good covers to meet long cherished desires and therefore considered as a cushy job. motivation and mental well-being of the manpower are concerned. Quality. When the home secretary visited foreign countries again after six weeks for the same purpose. The organisation takes care of itself depending upon need factors. As far as morale. its system and personnel after back-breaking and dangerous policing above the oppressive life-style in the police ambience. police administration in India does is controlling initiatives and works o of the police by throwing hurdles to prove existence. efficiency and character are inconsequential. No organisational initiatives. A police administrator can avail for himself from the police organisation all behoofs inherent to police job like best available transport and communication facilities and orderly services at will. Assessments are misnomers. a regional edition of a leading national English newspaper raised a hue and cry on its front page for several days followed by a flood of letters to the editor against a visit of the home secretary of the state with a huge contingent of inconsequential police officials to a few western countries. its 145 . Its hullabaloo proved infructuous and the contingent completed the tour malgre tout. Actually there is no administration worth the name save some mechanical motions and unintelligent convulsions to provide body and shape to the organisation as time to time responses to day to day challenges. They infuse entrain to the organisation. he can visit foreign countries at his will and convenience at government expenditure.

shatters its self-image and destroys its good public image by scrupleless and selfish interferences in police affairs. low morale. Suspensions and disciplinary actions are a common phenomenon in Indian police. Pride and high morale play decisive role in deciding the quality and efficiency of work and discipline in the organisation. particularly those which have to deal with the public from a position of strength. It only wants sacrifices and devotion to work natural to it are appreciated. the crux of the state power. Good image entails public cooperation and enhances the social recognition of the police personnel. These humiliations weaken their position before the public as well as subordinates whom they are supposed to control and guide with the strength of their leadership qualities. ARROGANCE OF POWER A factor responsible for maladministration becoming the abracadabra of police administration is arrogance of power. The police is the real power. This is true of all levels including the higher ranks in police. denying promotions. A good image boosts its professional pride and adds to its sense of belonging.PRAVEEN KUMAR system and the men to take on gauntlets in wait and attend to with commitment and efficiency. that they crassly indulge in exactly the opposite. low motivation and servile complexes sans confidence and public approbation. Sadly to meet personal ends. breaches its pride. the enforcer vi et armis on the field. Ergo. True policing is nonpossumus in the absence of the strength of pride about work while discharging responsibilities to the society from a position of strength. The irony lies in that. keeping on prolonged compulsory waiting without a job etc are the common scenario to face even by very senior level officers in Indian police. transfer to humiliating jobs created for meeting such eventualities. Who are not aggraced by appreciation? Police force is capable of doing its duties and carrying out its responsibilities with devotion and self-sacrifice. What else the society can pay to the police for its self-sacrificing devotion to the well-being of the society? The professional pride and the sense of belonging to an organisation widely respected and appreciated by the public spur the police to do better and better every time. telephones and other facilities. Perhaps men in no other government departments suffer humiliations for humiliations’s sake as in police. What leadership one can have while he himself is wronged and humiliated from above for no apparent reason? This is the atmosphere in which Indian police. Police personnel shamed and humiliated in their career can never face the public from strength and do good policing. police the crime world. Indian police administrators are too unenlightened to realise this basic psychological imperative of good policing. Pride is the root of morale. Its importance naturally is very high in manpower oriented organisations like the police. The consequence is a weak and confused police force with low self-image. Its vanity belittles the police. The tragedy lies in police administration. Commercial enterprises know the fact and use the knowledge best to derive maximum out of their human resources. Good image is the air that sustains the fire or the zeal of the policing. Pride is the fuel of policing. resorting to unfair and indecent measures like withdrawing vehicles. not on papers as most other government agencies are. that is crushing the professional pride wherever it is traced raising its majestic head in the police. police 146 . The pride adds to its high morale which is sine qua non for good policing and healthy discipline in any police organisation. When no grounds selon les regles are available for disciplinary proceedings. A weakened police organistion and its personnel put to aidos can do no good policing . Police administrators wield power on the enforcers of the state power.

issued instructions for providing the senior officer an alternative posting forthwith. that how a police officer at whatever rank can insist disciplinary action when it has decided against it for whatever reasons. He went on indefinite leave. This is the source of the unamated arrogance of the police administration. It is why common human sense treats odd to find intellectuals poets. This is how police administration is run in India. originality and creativity and drain off feelings and sensibilities. Power breeds arrogance. The thinking of the administration was that. The insistence of the senior officer in writing for departmental procedures against the subordinate inconvenienced the administration. An outcome of the ambience is administration going heartless and mindless. falsification of records. breach of trust etc involving misappropriation of about Rs. by legal or illegal means. resisted the instructions of the Chief Secretary till the latter’s retirement later. codes of conduct. doubting the mental well-being of the perpetrators of the harassment and requested to save the department from the prise of psychopathic tendencies of the concerned. dry and irresponsive to the core to its 147 . The machinery of administration ground is so hard that the senior police officer found continuing in his position practically unbearable and impossible. The compulsions of being led and the sequacious tendencies cap-a-pie gratuitously deprive government officials the great human gifts like freedom of thought. Neither the well-being of the police administration nor the upkeep of laws of the country have any say in choosing the means to achieve this end. ultimate arrogance. The humble situation is spawned for government officials by themselves by their overzeal to conform. The only goal of the police administration in the ambience of arrogance is proving its invincibility a tout prix. ultimate power. Police administrators going hors la loi for this vain goal is the rule in the country. cheating. En attendant. moral values. The Chief Secretary of the government after hearing him in August 1996. A recent example is a senior police officer in a state who insisted for suspension or transfer of a subordinate after a criminal case of forgery. he addressed the head of the government. It decided that the recalcitrant senior police officer had to be brought around and taught to conform with its decisions. the subordinate with criminal charges continued bien chausse in his cushy job. It was only after the principal secretary of the chief minister took interest in the case that files moved against the wishes of the home secretary and the four month vanavasa of the senior police officer came to an end. laws. rather forced to do so. The sweep of a arrogance is so strong that it has no patience to rules. natural courtesies and human dignities. The police administration in a show of rare defiance.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED administrators enjoy the temulence of holding the ultimate power. artists or genius among government officials. The insistence of the senior officer in writing for departmental procedures against the subordinate inconvenienced the administration. HUMAN RESOURCES STIFLED A serious lapse of police administration in India is its presumed virtue of indifference to other’s predicaments and idee fixe to distance from noble human values. The latter’s good connections in the higher rungs of administration prevented any further disciplinary actions imperative in such circumstances.36 lakhs during discharge of official duties was registered against the subordinate in the police station by his department. His harassment was so acute that at one juncture. The new Chief Secretary in the beginning dove-tailed to the depraved home secretary against the sound judgement of his predecessor on the ground that he never had an opportunity to know the senior police officer.

rank and status an inconvenient candidate for his esoteric urge of bringing police to submission.PRAVEEN KUMAR surroundings. particularly while his report on the matter was ignored by the government . This is the position in which police administration finds itself. They know that nothing works on police as fear at whatever ranks. its commitment to the profession. because of his sequacious job culture. The recent example is an upright officer of the rank of Additional Director General of Police in a state. finding a genius or creative soul at any level in police administration is like finding a pepal tree in a desert. Evasion is the stock reply for queries. In the process. status and enlightenment though they know well that they are sacrificing the interests of the professional pride of the police. This is the reason why police administrators spare no efforts and lose no opportunities to beat. a mafia gangwar ensued in the state capital led to murder of a gang leader lodged in the prison. Ironically . efficiency. Police administrators know this secret as none else. Public relations is an unknown concept McGregor’s need hierarchy and such man-management concepts are nonexistent in their vocabulary and thoughts. finding people of character and integrity. he cannot be held responsible for the security breach in the prison. terrify and cow down a policeman of whatever rank. They know that the advantages of a policeman broken of spine and reined-in easily outweighs the risks of breaking his spine by whatever means and that the policeman goes to any extent even at risks to his life and honour to gratify and pander to the needs of his master. They find the greatest virtue of administration in ruthlessness. While arrogance of power adds to this. No actions were taken on them by the government. the interests of the rule of law and national interests at the altar of their personal grists in doing that. The need of making virtue of the irresponsiveness leads to mendacity. Approach to all except higherups is always brusque and stroppy. The ADGP was immediately removed from his position and refused any posting for the next 3-4 months though as the state prisons chief. Government ordered an enquiry into the matter by the home secretary of the state. He found a golden opportunity in the enquiry. A scholar in diverse fields. organisational interests. human resources wither and gargantuan wastage of manpower becomes a common phenomenon of the police. he addressed government about tragic security lapses in a major prison of the state and sent proposals to government for improving the situation. Breaking and bringing on knees individual policemen is a clavis to this end. No normal human concerns nor common courtesies for fellow beings deter them from pursuing their evil designs. Normal human courtesies are unknown there. the situation becomes worse. While he was holding the post of state prisons chief in 1995. If anybody was to be acted on a highest levels for lapses in the prison. Service rules and jus naturale are arriere concerns to them in exercise of their governmental powers to chevir this goal. BREAKING THE SPINE Police force is a vital instrument that if brought on knees can be of immense help to stave off the interferences of the rule of law and its enforcers and help to lead a good and comfortable life sans the fear of law and law–enforcers. This rendered him unpopular to the police administration. Vanity is the hallmark. he is known not to easily bend against his conscience. dishonesty and immunity. these negative qualities are accrescently pro rata to the heights in the ladder of the police administration. it was the home secretary for not acting on the 148 . Efficient management of human resources is a fool’s paradise to them. Normal man to man interaction is impossible unless one is capable of gratifying. In the closing months of 1995. The latter who algate found the ADGP of his same age. Finding honest and dependable people there .

Recruiting men in thousands and purchase of scores of heavy vehicles in a single go in the name of expansion of an organisation involves subterranean change of hands of crores of rupees at a short span of time. integrity devotion. Procedures and cut-short to ease the process. As far as purely administrative reasons are concerned. They mostly are pure and simple means to self grandiosity and personal grists. The setup worked out by the home secretary worked to his satisfaction. Selection and recruitment of men in the age of prolate unemployment and purchase of heavy vehicles in the ambience of commissions play a pivotal role in the administration of police and related safety oriented organisations. Who knows how the monster may react while they loosen or tighten a screw or a nut here and there. As on today. Who wants gratuitous risks? It is the reigning thought of Indian police administration in normal times. Thus all are happy and contented. If it is the position of officers at highest ranks in the police in the hands of police administration. the communi consensu among police administrators is for letting the police carcass boil in its own broth uninterfered. ability and above all. Lo. Files move fast. efficiency. and let it do so as long as possible. 149 . who wants the risks of awakening the sleeping monster? Somehow the police function.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED report of the ADGP. Ordinary situation turns to an emergency. Most ills of present Indian police emerge from the malaise of the morbid handling of the police administration at different levels. police administration failed the country and its police by indifference on one hand and crass handling of the organisation and its affairs on the other. Be it in handling of the body and shape of the organisation and its functions or managing the spirit and the soul of the force. Show them elements of personal grists. police administration can play a major role either in building or marring the prospects of raising a healthy police outfit for the country. The concerned organisation saw rapid expansion. After all. Lots of energy and thought go to the process of administration. Administration becomes a hub of incessant activity. Thousands of unemployed youths got job. A police officer in a sensitive juncture of his career who could be compromised was put in charge of the organisation and the selection and purchase processes. The result is that work is done irrespective of the relevance and importance of the work while more pressing and vital. And the home secretary got what he wanted. Decisions were taken by the administration for expansion of the organisation with fresh recruitment of thousands of men and sub-officers and purchase of scores of heavy vehicles. can only be imagined. ROLE OF PERSONAL GAINS The apostasy and prevarications of the police administration from the right path in most cases is not even a malfeasance to achieve right professional ends. It is a dizzy amount to be pocketed with little risk. The only solution on this serious malady lies in rebuilding police administration with people of character. how precarious is that down the ladder. This is how administration works in India. The result was that the police officer in charge was rewarded in oodles. deep insight to human nature and its problems. Discussions and meetings are held day and night Decisions are taken overnight. colour of everything changes and risks become sine qua non of the administration. but less remunerative works rot in files for years. Manufacturers of heavy vehicles got business. The fact is that police administration seld goes to any length of initiatives and risks for purely administrative reasons unless some elements of personal gains are involved.

man management. Human aspect is the fulcrum of policing. criminals laws organisational pattern. training. Its leaders cannot afford any more the exuberance of complacency if the police must stand up to its expectations as the peace-keeper of society and assert to resile to its deeper human strains. policing would become a meaningful and relevant service to the society. The process of showing the police its roots which are obfuscated by the lounderings of time and its own working methods must begin anon. A decision to furbish its image as a humanised setup though late. The present Indian environment of ruthless concours impleached with a degringolade of values has made human resources management a farce in India.PRAVEEN KUMAR HUMANIZING THE POLICE Though policing is a human service au fond. 150 . self-image. its methods often are strikingly inhuman due to poor leadership and failure of police leaders to tread pari passu with the requisites of man management and other rightful policing techniques. adopting suitable measures in police techniques to make it a more civilized operation and shaping the police environment to make it sensitized to inhuman exposures. in-service role-play. Out police system has grown to be a monster deprived of any strains of humanism because of its perennial exposure to inhuman methods of both the criminals and the extant policing system. Policing is primarily latitant human interaction in the perennial luctation to safeguard the security and rights of the common man and the human quality in the force determines the effectiveness and vitality of the performance. It is true that association moulds character. The tenor of immunity obfuscates the strains of humanism in police. honour and property. environment. living and working conditions of the personnel. Human resources policy as a device of selecting human stuff needs careful handling at the highest level to attract right people to the fold. The issue can be dealt on two fronts. Should the police conform to the standards of humane comportment and methods a la its desinent goals. is not intempestive as policing is yet intact with its relevance to society though its inhuman methods are fast eating up its credibility. policing methods. exposures. The wherewithal of affecting the transformation is varied and covers such disparate avenues as recruitment. incivility and inanity as guardians of their life. public relation techniques etc. work pressures. The wherewithal of human resources management like recruitment. The querimony that the feral methods of the Indian police are more dreadful and antisocial than the criminal acts they are supposed to control cannot be dismissed glibly as inaccurate in prevailing circumstances. The tragedy of the Indian police is that its means and ends do not amate. It is a wonder how people manage to accept the police whom they perceive as an embodiment of bestiality. The test of the police as a humanised organisation is its acceptance by the societyas a couthie associate so that no child is scared of hearing the name of a policeman and no illiterates take to their heels at the mere sight of one. A police leader should cover all these aspects in his plan should he wish to see his police verily humanised. tremendous organisational efforts are necessary to reinstate humanism in the police. Indian police has cohabited long enough with its disrepute. As the police leaders themselves are victims of this infaust mould of mind.

content and character in favour of humanised policing practices in inevitable to keep the police excubant against the depravity of the modern society. Artistic activities counterpoise the damage done to the man by the role-pay of policing and open him up to the halcyon clime of the ideal and imaginary world. ORGANISATIONAL MEASURES An earnest effort from the highest level to infuse the crème de la crème characterised by genuine human stuff. transfers.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED promotions. The social service activities as a form of servilitude to mankind and a voluntary involvement with the people abserge the temulence of power and abraid latitant human tendencies in the policeman to bring to the surface his pristine self . There has to be a psychology faculty in the centres to build character and strengthen human fibres. An overhaul of the extant training facilities in terms of quality. rewards. The chief cause of the police seldom being humane in Indian is its ineffective training facilities. This is to ensure that only those with a deep natural humane disposition step into the police so that the arrogance and savagery bred by the environment do little harm to the public and the tenue of humanism continues alongside policing work. Self-interests have undermined quality and character and organisation interests are subordinated to personal behoofs. Exposure of the police to social service activities acts as the celestial surgeon to enrace mellowness and dignity to the police . It is left to the police leaders to include social service 151 . Interaction with people from the plane of oblation sinks the policeman from his inflated self to the roots of his genuine feelings and concerns and conditions him to respond to the vicissitudes of the environment. exposure to poetry and fine arts. In spite of adequate infrastructures available for police training in India. far removed from the hard and brusque realities of the police life and make his life richer. It opens up a new vista of feelings and experiences that make life richer and meaningful au reste sensitisation of the self. A measure of creative activities like literary interactions. musical performances etc besprent in the precious spare-time between policing hours intenerate the man behind the police façade and resiles him to his natural human tendencies. The prevalence of police administration over general administration in the survival of a nation as a democratic and orderly country necessitates changes in recruitment policy. its adverse effects are kenspeckle in police as the line-system of the organisation makes the ingenuity of the human resources management a factor having direct and immediate bearing on the efforts of humanising the police. EXPOSURE TO LIFE OUTSIDE THE POLICE The strenuous nature of policing hardens the police in spirit and mind . punishments etc are no more employed for maximum benefit of the organistion. The training centres should lay emphasis on attitudinal change in recruits and develop the skill of humanised policing. these centres largely fail to offer quality training to humanise a recruit adequately to stand up-to the challenges of the temulence of the arrogant and feral environment that policing breeds. The training centres should give the impression to the public of being temples dedicated to humanising the police apart from actually being so. Though this proclivity is prevalent in all fields of present India. probity and commitment is the foremost need of the police.

An ingenerate sense of regard to people. acts and communicates in terms of his complex self-image leads to adjustment mechanisms”. contempt and scorn drive him to catharize his frustrations and indignities on both those lower in the hierarchy and the members of the public who come to his doors au desespoir for redressal. although an extra force to the system. change. Violent methods like employment of third degree in interrogation to obtain quick results in preference to the tedium of swink’t investigation weaken the image of the police already weighed under by pressures of work. Solley and Murphy analyse this when they say” He perceives. tenderness. The fact that policing is a human service au fond does not justify adoption of feral methods in policing. the more he tends to drop the false fronts with which he has been meeting life. can be generated in the police by instilling a mortal fear of inhuman acts through exemplary punishments. should not find recognition by the police if the means adopted are mean and deplorable. FACTORS OF ATTITUDINAL CHANGES Motivation and deterrence are opposite facets of the same coin that pay for attitudinal. responds. A policeman. IMPORTANCE OF SELF-IMAGE Rogers in “ On Becoming A Person”. dignity and fairness resiles his self to its pristine charm of innocence and couthie disposition. however eximious they be. The spite and the feral indiginities he inflicts on those at his mercy would be pro rata to those he is subjected to by his leaders. says. An atmosphere of respect. All inhuman acts by the police should be met with heavy punishments and an atmosphere of social ostracisation of such elements should be created in the force. liability should be made crystal clear. On the other hand. “ The more fully the individual is understood and accepted. oblivious of their locus standi in the social ladder. The conviction of fair treatment and concern for human dignity in the policeman deeply affects his comport beneath. Efforts to humanise the police call for the apposite employment of deterrence to inhumane acts by way of exemplary punishments. is an effective wherewithal in materialising mobility in an intended direction as an addendum to disparate motivation factors. A policeman shabbily instated in his organisation develops a poor self-image. and the more he tends to move in a direction which is forward”.PRAVEEN KUMAR schemes in their human resources development programmes in an endeavour to humanise the police. Adoption of violence and savagery by the police gives legitimacy to such methods in the public eyes and thus weakens the orderly fabric of the society. proud of his self and work is created by respect to his individual dignity that develops a confidence about humane strains subjacent in his persona and dares him to betray the human responses that are so natural to his entrails and makes the police environment in the country besprent with the milk of human attributes like kindness. 152 . Deterrence. The realisation that the police are ordinary people and no criminal acts committed in discharge of official duties would extricate them from the ensuing. elegance and civility. the strains of humiliation. The ends. The prevalence of means over the ends should be made the cardinal principle of policing.

Intelligent adaptations in the extant criminal laws to interdict inhuman policing methods and provide wherewithals for facile crime administration are the needs of the hour. Such outre measures may bring an end to shocking inhumane acts committed in the similitude of policing in some quarters and save the Indian police from acute public resentment. These progressive measures are inherently controversial in nature and their enforcement by the police weakens its credibility as an agency of serious business and peremptory order. All discretions with police and judiciary regarding bail should be taken away with only a select few offences of enormous gravity made nonbailable. This will restrict both the police and the judiciary from showing favours to some criminals en revanche to favours and bring mechanical accuracy to bail provisions. It is plauditory to conceive of the police as a vehicle of progressive measures. A genuine effort at humanising the police should begin with methods to instil sophistication and accuracy in policing. This measure may be found a path-breaker in preventing the misuse of criminal laws and the inhuman play of favours to some and disfavours to others among the criminals. It is emphatically so with social legislations which pass out of our legislative homes sans cohibition. Also. however. Vigorous efforts to mundify old nasty habits should find priority as a substruction on which the edifice of the efforts of humanising the police should be built. CONTRIBUTION OF CRIMINAL LAWS A few glaring anomalies and erroneous provisions of the extant criminal laws in India contributed to the easy fredaine of criminals from the clutches of the law in many cases and the harassment of innocent persons by the police in some other cases. The loopholes in the criminal laws have to be plugged if crime administration is to be humanised and command a semblance of public respect and confidence. is certain to put both its credibility and professionalism in jeopardy as these social legislations lack the depth and gravity required to enforce them and brings an aura of commitment to certain sections of the society or people against the universal image 153 . The policeman or the judicial officer under whose custody a person is kept under detention must be made responsible by name for the timely release of the detenue with the provision that if detention exceeds the period provided by law. the police.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED ADOPTION OF SCIENTIFIC TECHNIQUES Adoption of scientific techniques in policing helps in humanising the police. Old habits die hard. all cases of violence and physical outrage committed in police custody should be made punishable with exemplary penalties by special legislations. In the process. It saves the police from the antilogy of committing criminal acts to meet the ends of justice. the concerned officer is liable for proceedings for the unlawful detention sans the privilege of exemptions for acts performed in official colour. IMPACT OF SOCIAL LEGISLATIONS The propensity of weighing the police with the responsibility of enforcemetn of all types of legislations has become a major hazard to effective policing. All efforts to humanise the police prove infructuous until the police continues to be at the mercy of violent methods for results.

Assiduous enforcement may be perceived as inhuman acts of high-handedness and harassment of certain section of the society. Humanistic propensions in a hierarchical setup like the police should permeate from above should the organisation be humanised and its power-strata identify it with their organisational self. The process of building a humanised image ab intra requires the assistance of skeely image-building technicians and adroit operations by police leaders.PRAVEEN KUMAR enjoyed by the police as a profession. An in-service image as a humane setup is de rigueur if humanising the police is to grow as a tradition. the police also should appear humanised. The present Indian police managers have their image development wherewithal limited to issuing occasional press statement while image development has become a highly advanced field of specialisation with perennial scope for further advancements. This necessitates the exposure of the police to the latest public relations techniques at regular intervals to imbibe the skill of civility in interacting with the public. While public relations professionals can handle the job from the organisational level. It does not suffice if the police is humanised. IN-SERVICE IMAGE AND ROLEPLAY The proclivity for role –play is a major driving force in the process of motivation. Policing is an exercise revolving around the fulcrum of humanism while humanism is the foundation on which the edifice of policing should stand. This forms the desinent and vital stage in humanising the police. People who enter a new setup. the wherewithal of image building in the police is required to be updated with the latest techniques applied by professionals in the field. The very reputation of the police as a humane setup limits the options of the insiders against acting antilogous to its reputation and thus exert an invied pressure to rise to the expectations of the organisation that owns them. It is not in the interests of the process of humanising the police to expose it to civil contecks. This measure will exeme the police organisation from unwarranted pressures that add to the dehumanisation process also enhances its legitimacy as the guardian of the order and security of the human interests. In view of the considerable significance of the image for successful police operations. The exclusion of social legislations from the ambit of normal police work will save the police organisation from the embarrassment of handling issues for which it is not equipped either mentally or professionally or organisationally. look to their new environment for the role they should assume and the setup tenders them homo coloris in conformity to its own image. Policing is a crime sans human concerns to 154 . People joining a humanised organisation play the role of humaneness to fulfil their esurient urge to identify with the setup. The in-service image of an organisation is a powerful springboard that sets it to actuate that image. nothing substantial could be achieved due to amateurish handling. an insight to the police about the rudiments of public relations is sine qua non if it is to appear humanised to the public eyes. The police leaders should set standards of human comportmetn for others in the organisation to make it the substruction of organisational behaviour. IMPORTANCE OF PUBLIC RELATIONS Though efforts are en train to ameliorate the image of the Indian police.

the moment it sinks its concerns for people and its policing activities become a depravity. 155 . The infaust polarisation of dulcet human propensities from nefandous policing activities in the present police setup is a serious organisational malady that renders the very policing system of India counter-productive and as a perpetuator of the licensed crimes. The police loses all its claims to power. pure and clear. Policing powers are a trust invested in the police for exercise in the general interests of the people.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED support it.

sabotage and 156 . “ There are no rules in such a game.PRAVEEN KUMAR INDIAN POLICE AND SIXTY YEARS OF INDEPENDENCE Independence circa half a century back marks the greatest turning point in the history of Indian police. in justfication of postern operations. The most kenspeckle of them is clandestine operations in international scale for national security. It patently is against jus naturale to expect a colonial police transform to a democratic setup overnight with the awakening of the country at midnight. RISE OF CLANDESTINE OPERATIONS It is significant that the history of police of sovereign India begins immediately posterior to the turbulent years of the second world war which opened up or saw expansion of a new vista of duties for the police worldwide. Following words spelled out by the Hoover Commission during those momentous days form the agenda of secret police service all over the world. the Office of Special Services (OSS). The first fifty years of independence of India marks this period in context of the spirit of Indian police maturing to democratic traditions in the hands of Indian rulers. said. expanded and received worldwide plaudite as an established tool of statecraft only during and after the maelstrom of the second world war with Germany. We must learn to subvert. Independence marks the beginning of the history of Indian police under Indian hands in a democratic milieu unlike of yore though in form and contents they were its continuation. If the US is to survive. particularly while form and contents maintain their stead. Change in spirit is the natural outcome of changes in ambience leading to metamorphosis of value system and attitudes by rapid exposures to changed experiences. the Soviet Union and Britain before and during the war and the United States and Israel after. it flowered. We must develop effective espionage and counter-espionage services. in the contradictions of the intentions of a colonial police and the traditions of a democratic police. with an elaborate Plans division to handle gray clandestine operations abroad (sometimes domestic operations also) marked a long step in the history of international twilight operations. longstanding American concepts of fair play’ must be reconsidered. Hitherto acceptable norms of human conduct do not apply. perfecting the techniques. It marks the end of 88-year history of policing on modern lines under the British Raj which began with the enactment of the Madras District Police Act of 1859 and assumed countrywide acceptance with the enactment of the Police Act of 1861. The commission. The raising of the Central Intelligence Agency(CIA) in the United States in the early years of 1950”s from the crumbs of the old American secret service of the second world war vintage. Spirit is never known to be a quick-chameleonic. The hitch lay in its sprit. Though the history of intelligence collection and covert operations go as far back as human history itself and stand next only to prostitution as the oldest profession practised by man. The process perforce requires a very long period of trails and tribulations to ripen the spirit to its new avatar.

POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED destroy our enemies by more clever. causal and disturbingly unsound. It may become necessary that the American people be acquainted with. India lacks larger horama of the country and its survival needs and goes algate weighed down with ephemeral considerations. Sri Lanka and Pakistan and to somewhat lesser extent in Afghanistan. clandestine operations unlike other police responsibilities require highly specialised skills. Postings to RAW with opportunities of foreign assignments has become a status symbol and lost all substance of challenges and performances from it. This is in spite of the fact that Indian secret police is a feather-weight performer in the arena of international clandestine wars and its overall performance in world events is very unimpressive for the size and resources of the country. understand and support this fundamentally repugnant philosophy”. trust and absolute secrecy form the basics of survival and an unguarded moment may make life and death difference for many. Its chevisance in international events like the creation of Bangladesh. people who fought a mighty power to liberate their country from the yoke of foreign rule just half a century back care nevermore 157 . It does not have a sound and well-conceived national security policy. betraying its operational efficiency and exposing the country to dangerous security threats. Rattan Sehgal episode etc. eheckmating the Kashmir card of Pakistan and controlling the terrorist misadventures of international Sikh communities against Indian targets earned it worldwide accolades. Huge unbudgeted and unaccounted funds at disposal makes the RAW postings highly lucrative and attracts easy going siblings of the powerful to its fold. more sophisticated and more effective methods than those used against us. secularism. India made significant breakthroughs in penetrating. Another reason is the moral atrophy experienced by Indian police after independence leading to decline in professional commitments. These glitches end-up in security breaches of the dimension of ISRO spy case Purulia arms drop case. Foremost of them is lack of commitment to the national cause and national ideologies like national integration. Bhutan. Nepal. Another important reason for the retarded growth of Indian secret police is the general lack of security consciousness in the country and inability to see and place the imperatives of a national security policy in right perspective. in spite of its moral values and abiding impact of Gandhian Philosophy of truth and honesty. democracy. Its operations and performances in Bangladesh. moulding and controlling the affairs of the neighbouring countries after raising the Research and Analysis Wing (RAW) to handle covert operations in foreign countries. Reasons are many. If it is the situation at government level. containment of Eelam ambitions of Sri Lankan Tamils in India. Its approach to security threats are always short-term face-saving responses which never contribute for the real long –term security needs of the country. More important. incoherent. found covert operations sine qua non for survival. COVERT OPERTIONS OF INDIAN POLICE Free India. Though attempts were scratchy in inchoate stages. people who fought a mighty power to the situation at government level. nonaligned movement and mixed economy. Burma and some of the Gulf countries are on par with the best in the world. Its approaches to national security are always piecemeal. The other reason is political interferences in postings to and transfers of the RAW officials. It is political connections rather than security screening and clearances and aptitude for clandestine operations decide the postings in the RAW. This is an extremely dangerous trend in a security apparatus where commitment. ignoring this need in manning the organisation is a sure way of compromising the organisation.

F. It is the essence and unifying factor behind all national policies of most developed as well as developing countries. PARALLEL POWER CENTRE The excessive concern for national security in some countries often led to the creation of parallel governments and power centres ectogenous of the democratically instituted governments. science and technology policy or human resources development policy. Most developed countries have created their own gestalts to mastermind matters touching national security interests with powers invested to override decisions of other departments when national security interests are at stake. which assumed on itself the apocryphal responsibilities of Pakistan’s national security. The US has the National Security Agency (NSA) doing yeoman service to the country as the national security advisor to the president of the country and enjoys powers superior even to the CIA in national affairs. trade and commerce policy.PRAVEEN KUMAR about even saving what they gained then from the internal and external inimical forces by as much as raising a public debate on the subject of the imperatives of national security. Indian security now is left to the mercy of time and it is sheer luck that Indian democracy survived for long decades from the hungry wolves waiting to fall and prey on it. INDIAN SECURITY CONCERNS This does not mean that everything is all right with Indian security agencies. There are instances of black acts committed against legitimate policies of the countries in the garb of national security as in the US. Their filed for operation continues to be confined to traditional isolative methods ignoring the present 158 . industrial policy.Kennedy in 1963 en revanche of the latter’s opposition to the CIA-inspired Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba and pro-peace overtures to the them Soviet Union. defence police. Israel and Russia have their efficient equivalents at political levels to formulate their national security interests. Whether it is foreign policy. they are all oriented with an eye on national security and implemented to boost the national security goals. the ISI. assassinated its young and popular president John. The blackest days of twilight operations in the name of national security were seen by the US when a pollent section of the Plans Division of its own CIA with the cooperation of crime syndicates and Cuban hors la loi.centres are concerned. Most developed countries have exclusive super agencies reporting directly to the head of the government to advise on. It per se is a remarkable accomplishment. NATIONAL SECURITY POLICY National security policy is the craze of super powers of the world today. It is to the credit of Indian police that its secret police remained subordinate and loyal to their legitimate authorities in the last half century since independence. economic policy. oversee and mastermind national security policies and its operations. and civilian governments toppled and constituted at will eo nomine as in Pakistan. A positive aspect of India's’poor concern to security interests is its clean slate as far as existence of secret parallel governments and clandestine power. Pakistan is an example of constitutionally elected government living under the shadow of fear of its secret police. India is yet to learn lessons from these developments.

expertise. Its secret police is yet to make perficient use of the country’s impressive progresses in fields like satellite launches to the outer space and other space programmes. Except for isolated cases as in Pakistan. ill-conceived and half-hearted. SPECIAL BRANCHES This affairs are worse in Special Branches or intelligence units of states and union territories. That is also meant just to oblige and gratify political masters and provide grandeur to their presences. save some routine VIP security exercises sans any expertise in it. organisational efficiency and motivation factors. Efforts made to this end till now are rather sketchy. As far as internal security is concerned. do not weigh high in the national priorities of the country. Security services in India unlike other countries world over. Their assets in news media which is sine qua non for a sound Special Branch is rather impoverished and mostly confined to local newspapers for the purpose of disinformation and keeps track of news dissemination. these contacts are misused to promote favourite subordinates as authors or experts in a discipline. Special Branches have become pure and simple tools of political intelligence of ruling parties with surveillance over political opponents and assessment of field situations for the benefit of political masters becoming the piece de resistance at the cost of law and order concerns accrescently losing importance in the portfolio of their responsibilities. India is yet to fully utilise the services of world-class mercenaries in its clandestine operations as in vogue in almost all major gray operations worldwide. It is high time now that spadeworks are initiated to institute a comprehensive agency in India for handling national security concerns. The ambition of these Special Branches providing skilled recruits to security agencies at the national level remains a far-fetched dream in the situation of gross unconcern for national security commitments. Occasionally. This is a dangerous trend in the present competitive world where even a minor edge over the opponent makes the difference of elimination and survival for a country.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED needs of integrated approach in national policies and programmes. they are rather passe and ill equipped for the task in manpower resources. hi-tech equipments. It is lagging in hi-tech ultra-secret espionage operations far behind world standards and nowhere comes near even to the old U-2 spy plane of the US of 1950’s . India lacks in a cadre of long range security programmes to make its security operations meaningful and purposeful. 159 . While even developed countries made all aspects of their national policies subordinate to their security interests. India cannot afford to subordinate its security concerns to the freaks of people who come to head various ministries in government and their political and personal ideologies. PERMANENT CORE GROUP FOR NATIONAL SECURITY Institution of an all-powerful apolitical agency for national security with a permanent core group of security experts of proven commitments to the cause of the country as the nucleus at the highest level as the guide and advisor in national security matters to the head of the government a la the NSA of the US with over-riding powers can alone change the situation for free India and lead it safely to the centennial of its independence.

not in pandering to the superficial needs of a powerful few. it be central police. In the process. because of the powers invested in it to control the daily affairs of the people. National Security Guards and Special Protection Group are raised from time to time. All said and done. these VIP securities are nothing but shams meant only as epideictic ensemble without any substance as far as real protection is concerned in the present age of hi-tech terror. VIP SECURITY AS A SHOW BUSINESS VIP Security has become such a craze in Indian police that it incorporates all wings of the national police force in its body. investigating agency or law and order police. While security of national leaders is an important role of a national security policy. The period saw no substantial progress in expansion and reorganisation of the district police. Policing at this level comes in daily contact with the hoi polloi. striking forces. The power breeds corruption. In magnitude also. and for them police means the district police. Such abuses lower the gravity of national security commitments. and the corruption breeds mad rush to man key positions in district police. It has to be understood that all matters concerned with national security are highly sensitive and considerably grave entities and need to be treated as such. other police functions rapidly lose importance as the pressures of VIP security mount up with the number of dignitaries and their spheres of activities expand with the accommodation of more and more influential people and their kith and kin under pressures as VIPs. That is why units for the security of different kinds of VIPs like Black Cats. 160 . It is public knowledge in India how VIP security has become a public farce with all kinds of people with some lobbying muscle striving and obtaining a security classification depending on the type of money and power they have so that they get the cover of highly trained police personnel as a caract of their prestige and social standing. it is not the only plank on which the national security concerns stand. National security has to be treated and respected as a matter of highest priority and insulated from the trifle fancies of superficial leaders. Special Branch. corruption is rampant in district police.PRAVEEN KUMAR EMPHASIS ON VIP SECURITY National security for all practical purposes in India is synonymous with VIP security and Indian police vocabulary refuses to read for it any meaning much beyond protecting leaders. the district police form the biggest slice of the police force in the country. There are much to be done in the field. The police at this level really form the image of the police for the common man. Unfortunately. both in strengthening the organistion and cleansing it. state police or district police. This is because of the lopsided loyalties and aberrations in Indian police in understanding professional objectives and responsibilities of the police at best and a tendency to trade off professional responsibilities and services for the benefits of career promotions of a few at worst. The strength and relevance of national security to the country lie in its esoteric and purposeful operations. There are many more important and vital roles a national security policy is called to assume and sidelining those aspects for the sake of a single role of political clout is suicidal tot he country’s security interests. it be security police. They should not be allowed to stoop to epideictic exercises for the benefit of a few powerful as witnessed in democratic India.

Indian police may irrevocably fail the country in leading it forth to the centurymark of India’s independence. 161 . lack of professional commitment. it is eating up the vitals of the country in other states ab intra. No part of the country is free from this slow process of sphacelus. Perhaps. Indian police in 1990s appear like a century-old giant tree rendered hollow ab intra by the temite of corruption. The nexus of police with criminals and politicians is smothering and squeezing the country and its public life out of its vitality to a stage of paralysis. It is not a rosy picture to have to a police force more than a century old and now reaching half a century mark of existence in a free country. The talk of private armies during elections in UP and Bihar is indicia to the confidence Indian police inspire in public after fifty years of self-rule.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED The serious maladies witnessed in secret police and investigation agencies of India are actually common symptoms of the atrophy observed in all wings of Indian police including the law and order police. Unless something is done fast to return the vitality of the professional pride and commitment. extra-professional loyalties and unchecked corruption are the albatross that commonly suffer Indian police at all levels. While the virus is coram populo in states like Bihar and UP. Dishonesty. The deterioration of Indian police is steep after independence. democratic rule in the country sinsyne has not done any good to Indian police.

The existing police system is utterly devoid of any adjustment mechanism that keeps it relevant to the zeitgeist. no efforts at updating the organisation can bring about a sempiternal transformation in the setup. Any attempt to disturb the balance of faith. reward and punishment system that follows at the heels.PRAVEEN KUMAR CHALLENGES OF THE POLICE SETUP The hazard of the Indian police lies in immobility of its organisational structure. the system should be organised so as to generate optimism and confidence ex propriis to excudit the magical entrainement. full responsibility and reward and punishment system is certain to fell the organisation into desuetude. Policing has grown of late to be such an independent field of specialisiation that it is impossible for a mortal being to be proficient in even a single aspect of policing. Another important aspect that should weigh lourd in evolving an effective police organisation is evolving a mechanism whereby every police officer or unit is put in charge of a specific job matching his or its competence and aptitude. motive factors should be substructed in the body of the organisation as sound motivation alone can make policing a purposeful activity. Secondly. A systematic study of the policing in India with an adequate pernoctation to screen the latest researches and findings in relevant fields of social and politicial systems and science and technology in reorienting the public organisation and administration is an essential parameter in the vital exercise. Another strategic principle of healthy police organisation is having absolute faith and giving full responsibilities to subordinates with a concomitant. The fact that policing can be successful only with popular co-operation. Also. This should be reinforced with external motive factors that can be infused to the organisation e ra nata. the scope for scholarly and intellectual activities in policing will make policing multi-dimensional and add 162 . Thirdly. A time-to-time review and concomitant updating of the police organisation becomes sine qua non in the circumstances. focuses the attention of the police organisation on the needs of building up its image. A police setup worth its salt should meet the specific needs of the policing. quite obvious of the futuristic kiaugh. the depths of the possibilities are yet to be fully explored and exploited. The present managerial world is increasingly realising the importance of human resources as organisational inputs. It is rather a folly to ween a police officer as being able to handle all aspects of policing though at different times. Hence. The extant concept of collective responsibility through a chain of command has gone passe by its propensity to demotivate the real workers due to the corrupt ambitions of those at higher levels in the chain of command. Unless all-out efforts are made to inhaust to police the crème de la crème of the country with exceptional attributes of probity. particularly while the nascent democracy lounder the policing system of India remis velisque. A scientific approach in this score will make policing tanato uberior. An element of entrain should be brought to policing so that the work in hand can be attended to with genuine involvement by each police officer. intelligence and commitment and impart eximious and purposeful training to bring out the best of each. the need of specialisation-oriented policing. Although efforts are already afoot towards building up the image of the police. The police setup must necessarily be raucle in its frame to be capable of absorbing the shocks to which it would often be exposed.

quite capable of facing the challenges of the future. The futuristic policing of India must have its subordinate police as professionals in a given field of specialisation. The proclivity of weighing the police with reinforcement of all types of legislations has become a major hazard to effective policing. The areas wherein restructuring may be desirable and the thrusts sine qua non to stuff the hiatus valde deflendus to have a featous police setup. The stupendous task of enforcing these legilsations adversely affects the effectiveness of the police and corrodes its credibility. Policing has become a hi-tech affair these days with scopes for further advancements. It is not in the interest of the country to expose its police to such civil contecks and suffer it thereby. by fully devolving on it while saving the police organisation from the embarrassment of handling issues to which it is not equipped either mentally. it is senseless to ween the police as being able to enforce them all. These progressive measures are inherently controversial in nature and their enforcement by the police weakens its credibility as an agency of serious business and peremptory order. This measure will exeme the police organisation from unwarranted pressures and enhance its legitimacy in handling serious security and law and order issues. While the proliferation of legislations in independent India made it impossible even to keep track of their numbers. The fremit reception given to intellectual activities in some quarters of policing may not go down too well with the future police planners. It is plauditory to conceive of the police as a vehicle of progressive measures. The future police organisation and administration should cater to the need of intellectual activities. are discussed below. investigation of crimes. Anfractuosity in any one of these fields of specialisation for life is becoming a requisite as time goes by. say maintenance of order crime investigation. is certain to put both its credibility and professionalism into jeopardy as the social legilsatioons lack depth and gravity to enforce them and assiduous enforcement may ricochet as an out-cry of harassment and high-handedness. The growth of police functions as adnated to present life-style of increasing complexity is enormous of late with policing slinking to the vitals of all streaks of social and nonsocial living. The social policing system as a professional enforcement agency of the social policing system as a professional enforcement agency of the social welfare ministry can do an effective job in enforcing progressive social legilsations with all their nuances. Each major activity of policing like maintenance of order. but in the process. collection of intelligence and security operations have assumed such an independent status of non a such expertise and professionalism that these fields being inhered is neither desirable nor feasible. does shifting a functionary from one field of expertise to the other help his overall performance. intelligence 163 . Policing slinking to the vitals of all streaks of social and nonsocial living. This is emphatically so with social legislations which pass out of our legislative houses sans cohibition. Nor in the circumstances. The present police organisation and administrative system have to be overhauled in the near future as the ineffectivensess of the extant system becomes increasingly obvious with the flaws in the edifice starting to gape wider. proffessionally or organisationally. India can have an independent social policing system under the social welfare ministry to which police officers with a flair for progressive measures may be deputed.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED to its effectiveness.

The chief cause of policing never being a profession in India the ineffectiveness of its training facilities. The process may further deteriorate as security and law and order problems increase in coming years. as otherwise. to patulous disorder and insecurity. Crime investigation should not be allowed to suffer because of disorder and insecurity in the country. detective police. The increased preoccupation of the police with law and order and security issues in view of the growing cataclysmic activities in the country has adversely affected effective crime administration of late. Response time is the hallmark of urban policing where a delay of a few minutes can make a difference between death and life as criminals and terrorists with the most sophisticated communication.PRAVEEN KUMAR collection or security operation with synergy manifesting only at higher levels. The compulsions of urban policing are strikingly different from those of rural policing. So India may have independent law and order police. parallel to the law and order outfit. resoursefulness and speed form the spine of urban policing. This outfit with unlimited resources at its disposal for launching any type of operation within a few minutes of communication may suffice to meet the challenges of maintaining law and order in urban areas in the new age. and in the process. An independent crime outfit in district and state may exquisitely behove to a futuristic police setup by giving crime investigation a boost and insuring it against the peracute pangs of organisational maladies of the future. in the melee. pitted against them in the course of their criminal operations. Further complacency in re own procinct may stifle the very policing system of India. The time of the local police is fordone with immediate issues of law and order and VIP security. Police stations have become registering stations as far as crime administration is concerned. special police and security police each separately recruited and trained for professionalism and expertise in their respective fields. Neither the crime staff at subordinate levels nor the supervisory staff at district and higher levels. This triste development may be effectively dealt with by an independent crime setup. Unity. Officers from all these specialised fields should be eligible to rise to general policing at higher levels on the basis of a pro rata quota system for promotions. The present police station-oriented policing is incomeptent to meet the challenges of the urban criminals either in resources or in organisational ingine. and weapon system and hair-raising organisational accuracy overawe the police. crime investigation has become a casualty. have the will or the resources to divert to crime investigation while the crime rate in the country is assuming dangerous proportions. The control roomcentered policing in urban centres where men and transportation and latest communication facilities that work round the clock in shifts enables galvanic operations to tackle law and order problems. a vicious circle may develop wherein disorder and insecurity lead to fall in investigation and flabby investigation in turn. In spite of adequate infrastructures available for training police officials of various ranks these centres largely fail to meet the quality required to make a recruit a 164 .

An overhaul of the extant training facilities in terms of its quality. The training facilities should be made centres of scholarship and research on police subjects with professionals of national reputation in each subject handling their respective subjects. Policing requires commitment and dedication on the part of its operators. The principles of faith and responsibility must run invisus through the vitals of the policing. shelter. As an integral part of civil living. content and character is inevitable to keep the Indian police excubant to future challenges. its trends and modern techniques helps to bring professionalism in policing.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED thorough professional. The faculty members of the training centers should be exceptionally well paid so as to inveigle the best in the field to join. The police organisation should be reoriented to develop a professional approach to its operations with full faith and responsibility as the hallmark of the delegation of power. The changes warranted in policing may either be deciduous or peremptory depending on the nature of the transition in society. Army officers must handle outdoor classes. The trainees must be exposed to police officers as guest speakers. computers and advanced psychology inter alia as the common subjects of study for all the courses. It is left to police planners to analyse the nature of the flux in the society and locate the areas where decession from the past practices has become sine qua non for policing. Latest training methods should be adopted with management. clothing. Due encouragement for the study of theoretical aspects of policing and its application in the field through in-service training will be a welcome step in this direction. these vicissitudes create. policing must prepare itself to amate the increasing complexities of modern life by modifying its organisational and administrative setups to the demands. The training centres should give the impression of being temples of advanced studies apart from being so. An analytical study of policing. Separate professional training courses should be available in the training centres for law and order police. should it be purposeful and successful. This model helps in instilling the highest standards and expectations in trainees till they become full-fledged officers and orient them to become professional police officers. The prospects of Indian population reaching the mark of a billion and the concomitant luctation of two billion needy hands to grab a share in the country’s limited resources of food. intelligence police and security police with scope for advanced learning with an eye to the latest developments in each respective field. The futuristic challenges of policing would be pro rata to the twists of the future living. apart from distancing them from the moderate influences which are herded to handle police training centres in the present setup. The extant bureaucratic malady that infested the Indian police setup cohibits healthy policing practices. The psychology faculty of the centre should endeavour to build character and infuse right orientation among the recruits. Policing as a phenomenon of maintaining order and security in society cannot afford to be oblivious of the flux in the modern lifestyles. The present emphasis on procedures should be shifted to commitment and result-orientation within the ambit of the rules. electricity schooling. by inviting very senior police officers of the highest integrity and job standards to deliver talks on specific topics. water. crime police. 165 . in theoretical aspects of the policing and its latest techniques. This should be an ongoing process if policing is to retain its relevance as the guardian of social discipline. If police managers succeed in inspiring in police officers an interest. it would be a kenspeckle leap in abraiding Indian police to the challenges of the future.

It would be a fight for survival with less competent and skeigh gentlemen going belive hors de combat. Therefore. The kenspeckle pejoration had already set in from the early sixties. the geometric acceleration of the flux of the coming years may prove to be too much to the extant police setup. 166 . it si high time now that we prepare out police organisation and administration for the future challenges.. human values and concern for fellow men.PRAVEEN KUMAR employment etc. Though the Indian policing system managed somehow to deal with the vicissitudes till now. naturally make life a cut-throat concours and a ruthless adventure devoid of scruple.

Various state and UT police organisations reflect the diversity of India while central police agencies. which do not encourage give and take with state police forces and inter se in any meaningful sense. environment and professional attitude in spite and uniform police structure and goals. it is one-upmanship and immanent passion to corner all recognition. Competition rather than cooperation forms the plane of their mutual relationship. police organisations build barriers around them and work in isolation on common issues of crime. each state and union territory has its independent police force. India has a multitude of police organisations. These organisations jealously retain their identity and character and seldom venture out to interact with others though much is made on paper and public platforms about the needs of border meetings. Crime and law and order being a state subject. Differences of job culture and environment make cooperation and coordination further difficile. IB. CRPF. As a result. These agencies do depend on state and UT police forces for manpower. combined operations and sharing of professional expertise and intelligence. NICFS operate under the direct control of the central government. leading to duplication of work and wasted efforts en face criminals and hors la loi with their tentacles spread all over the country. character and job environment. BSF. Police organisations see each other with suspicion. State and UT police organisations extending from Kerala to Jammu and Kashmir. Yet.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED CHALLENGES OF COORDINATION IN INDIAN POLICE Multitude brings confusion. Differences of identity and character add to the problem. They do operate all over the country. The fabric of Indian police is woven with nearly two scores of police organisations. from Gujarath to Arunachala Pradesh enjoy divergent ethos. They represent unity in diversity with an amalgamation of men. Multitude is the source of contraplex drives. environment and character. held together by same laws. A host of central police agencies like CBI. these agencies have their own identity. They are manned at lower and middle levels of the hierarchy by the people of the concerned regions though officers drawn from the length and breadth of the country head them at the top. necessitating efforts to forge divergent thrusts into a single mosaic. Though a deep feeling of fraternity is a reality in police all over the world. Their stretch is broad covering the length and breadth of the country with opportunities for interaction inter se and outside. taking best advantage of the splintered mosaic. SPG. CISF. RAW. the unitary nature. SIBs. it seldom manifests in cooperation and coordination in working for professional goals. drawn from diverse sources and tested in a single crucible. security and law and order. Multitude breeds rifts. This is true of police also. 167 . NPA. The spiel of central police agencies is quite different. BPRD. The ingrained thirst for recognition and desire to monopolise accolades and policing is the basic thrust of avoiding anything to do with outsiders. ITBP. Precedence of narrow interests over performance and results in central police agencies is not a wholesome affair. procedure and the goal of national interests. Again. identities.

it is individual performances that is recognised and appreciated. An institutional mechanism for cooperation and coordination between various police organisations is the need of the hour in India. Each piece works on its own in artificial isolation from the other. In the mosaic of state police force under a single police chief. training units. Institutional performances have few takers in Indian environment. moving towards the same goal of security and rule of law. Cooperation. not fences makes sense here. coordination and synergy for concerned efforts are the needs here. Every missed beneficial contact is a wasted mutual relationship. armed forces. each function independently and in complete isolation from the other in violation of the call for synergy from above. Lack of coordination is not just an inter-organisational challenge. the dimension of the lost opportunities to do better can only be imagined. Save routine inconsequential papers and reports. The tendency of going alone is inveterate in Indian institutional psyche. It is an intraorganisational problem too. District police units and functional units like the crime branch special branch. It is so also with police training and research agencies. they prove a deadly combination against creating a mosaic of police environment in the country. required in the interests of the organisational goal. Organisational goal is the raison d’etre and has to be reached by all means and resources. This is the tragedy of Indian police. Every failed opportunity lost to do better signifies a failure. Egos of the heads of these governments and ministries come to play in the style of functioning of the police forces. Old habits die hard. working in their own ivory towers abstracted from field requirements. interact and cooperate. And each looking shilpit and weak sans mutual support in the process. Reasons are many for these barriers. This is what is happening in Indian police: police forces failing to pool together their immense potentialities by each going its separate way. Such beneficial contacts being infinite among police organisations. intelligence agencies to cabinet secretariat and most of the other agencies to the home ministry. Together. Police forces work under different governments and ministries headed by politicians of their own political and ideological agenda. this is not true of organisations forming the splinters of gestalt dedicated to common goal like policing. as there is neither the institutional mechanism nor the will to come together. Added to this is the bloated egos of the heads and chiefs down below the line of these organisations. CBI reports to the ministry of personnel.PRAVEEN KUMAR Synergy for better policing is briller par son absence in the mosaic of Indian police. State and UT police forces follow the agenda of their respective governments. There are instances of such an institutional mechanism being prove ineffective. Every failed opportunity to interact with a potential source is an opportunity lost to do better. Every wasted mutual relationship signifies a failed opportunity to interact. Good fences make good neighbours. police research and administration units. Symbiosis. intelligence agencies and elite security and protection groups of the country work in isolation from each other with no coordination to speak of. the prospects of shared recognition and appreciation are deeply resented. Cooperation and coordination though spawns better performance. Ultimately. 168 . Among the central police agencies. An apex intelligence coordination committee to bring all intelligence agencies under a single umbrella has not met with much success in independent India. But. myraid subordnate units pull apart from different sides and defy the compulsions of cooperation and coordination inter se.

Bangalore serves as such a retreat for most terrorist groups including Naxalites. as a result of jealously and one-upmanship. The immanent prevarication of the police from the professional path and the ingrained slant to self-agrandisement make it easier said than done. They serve as hiding places for the criminals. The police may use the criminals to raise crime rate at particular areas in the neighbourhood or create law and order problems there for strategic benefits. They may leak intelligence about outside police organisations operating against. The remedy lies in restoring organisational objectives to their rightful place in the ambience of police. police. Local police avoid acting against them unless compulsions dictate otherwise.ULFA. medical care and strategic meetings. The other. do not actively assit the law-breakers in their nefarious activities outside. Subha and their associates hid in and around Bangalore after assassinating Rajiv Gandhi. The criminals are allowed free to operate anywhere outside the jurisdiction of the local police. often they are meaningless exercises conducted for the purpose of record. This manifests in two forms: One. In an active collaboration. In a passive collaboration. LTTE. The reason is that the utility of these forces in controlling unruly mobs overshadows the problems of ego-clashes and recognition. Joint operations by neighbouring police units are rare to the extent of being unheard of. instrument and the other.Kashmir separatist and radical Akali cadres. The combined operations of 169 . Border meetings are rare. Sivarasan. So also other terrorist groups. Criminals in exchange for the latter refraining from stirring water at their ponds. Police in a region collude with lawbreakers of the region wherein the law-breakers restrain from creating problems in the region in exchange for trouble-free life from the local police. both the police and the criminals or one of the parties actively assist the other. Just that the police knowingly shut eyes to the existence of the criminals in exchange for the latter refraining from stirring water at their ponds. training units etc is also evident. Karnataka in general and Bangalore in particular is used by them as a retreat for hiding. Naxalites are often noticed taking medical treatment at various private clinics in Bangalore. Mutual indifference is just one side of the problem and simpler in that. special branch. more complicated face of the problem is inter-organisational rivalry and attempts to sabotage the works of each other. In return. as a self-surviving. More than that. so that dogs in slumber are allowed to continue to sleep. The hors la loi on their part may use their criminal skills to the advantages of the police in sabotaging the interests of the rival police organisations apart from sharing the res gestae of their operations with the police. rest.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED Recognition and appreciation get precedence over organisational objectives in the present environment of Indian police. The terrorists avoid striking anywhere in Karnataka and unnecessarily stirring the police there. Even in case of cooperation and coordination as a state policy. Resentment to take advantage of the specialised units like crime branch. The only exception is the services of the armed police in states and the paramilitary forces at the centre. Criminals use the places for retreat and rest. The police may assure and actually provide protection from potential troubles. The arrangements can other passive or active. Criminals need such places of retreat and rest to fall back after their activities outside. coordination may become a casualty in the absence of purposefulness and commitment.

The problem can be overcome by two methods. Work curlture in police force must encourage it. Tamilnad is considered to be relatively soft to the brigand while Karnataka. Nine years of combined operations yielded no results. such isolated inspirations seldom make abiding impact. Mutual suspicion builds barriers. it is not to be the case. is after his blood. he strikes inside the borders of a state and escapes to the forests of the former state after striking inside the borders of the other state. Au reste. Sabotage of mutual interest is not a problem confined to Indian police only. A compulsion brought about by law for cooperation and coordination will go a long way in improving the situation. There is no rhyme or reason in their mutual relationships.PRAVEEN KUMAR Karnataka and Tamilnad police often with the help of BSF in the forests of M. The game is going on and the police of both the states are frustrated on end. It is a universal problem and manifested in the police of even enlightened countries like the United States. the intelligence brethren of the United States government. As a strategy. that lost many of its officers and men to the guns of the brigand. One devising an institutional machinery for such cooperation and coordination between different police organisations with a rider of making their use binding in all relevant case. Absence of an institutional machinery for affecting coordination and efforts to define the scope of such a coordination adds to the problem. no concinnous music. There is discord and cacophony. however. Approach of the police of the two states to catch the brigand is presumed to be at variance.M. have to be made the bedrock of policing and police character. Each Police organisation in 170 . A perfect coordination between the police of the two states should have made the operation easier and more feracious. Lack of professionalism and single minded commitment to organisational goals is the root cause of the problem. But. Second. do not make them en regle in Indian police. There are instances available of the CIA and the DIA. In the ambience of absence of the spirit of cooperation and coordination. The case of Veerappan clearly shows that border areas where coordination between different police units are called for for effective policing. Absence of coordination in police makes it so. Hills region along the Karnataka-Tamilnad border against forest brigand Veerappan is a point. Such instances in the police of other countries. Different police forces do not match with each other. Indian police now is more a collection of splinter groups than a mosaic. encouraging and cultivating the spirit of cooperation and coordination in the police culture. trying to steal sensitive assests and useful agents from each other’s furrow and undermining them when failed to win over. are havens of criminal operations. The so called border meeting and occasional seminars and conventions are informal and far-between measures on individual inspirations of a few. Careful overhaul of the selection process to absorb right people and a training programme devised to strengthen the characteristics of coopertion and coordination will go a long way in building an environment of cooperation and coordination in Indian police. absence of bureaucratic and operational coordination between the police of the two neighbouring states and survives in his exploits sans souci. Coordination at higher levels in key operations and exposure of the lower levels to their success stories will bring necessary changes in the psyche of the Indian police. Leadership qualities that realise cooperative and coordinated efforts into reality and pave the the path for it. at best. Lack of coordination among Karnataka and Tamilnad police is often stated as a source of the glitch.

Unless this foundation is laid. Unfortunately. Threat to peaceful and orderly life is prolate. Kashmir and North-East. Commitment to professional policing is fractured. Dacoities are rampant. Only that can save India and Indian police from the present maelstrom. the edifice of Indian police is bound to crumble and collapse one day. A sense of belonging and oneness among all police forces is sine qua non for effective policing.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED the tapestry of Indian police works for its own end at its own wavelength. energy and work wasted by seepage through weak joints. How such a motley crowd can perform the job of national interest together? The disharmony cost India a Prime Minister and an ex-Prime Minister in the hands of assassins and terribly suffered the country in the hands of the extremists of Punjab. no serious thought was given to this matter of utmost importance in the last five decades of independence. Crimes and steadily accrescent. It is high time now that Indian leaders realise the bevue and make up for the lost time by giving their full attention to this nonfeasance. the money. time. Public fund invested on the police goes down the drains. The resurrection of Indian police must be built on the foundation of cooperation and coordination between diverse police forces to make concerted policing possible. Once this problem of cooperation and coordination is fully attended to. energy and work saved are enough to take the police to the heights unimagined before and infuse new life and vitality to it. Security is shaky. 171 . A fractured police setup as in India now is a dangerous drain on the public exchequer with unimaginably huge money. time. No attempts to resurrect Indian Police will ever succeed unless this basic need is fulfilled. A semblance of unity in diversity in the mosaic of Indian police is the need of the hour. spawning a picture of disorderly melange.

means pursued to achieve them. its administration and policing system as well. its English root is “policy” means statecraft. This is au reste the individual pride in the force about being a worthy member of a worthy institution. Policing the police involves self-policing. Its value system. A protector. public image.PRAVEEN KUMAR POLICING THE POLICE The work police or policing is derived from the Greek roots polis means city and politeia. But their role as servants of laws needs deeper probe about how far they are subject to and guided by the laws in force. therefore require policing. Internal vigil against lawlessness within in the form of prevention. plan or course of action especially in statecraft or administering the laws. sense of fairness in assessing performance and granting recognition determine the orientation of a police organisation to rein in itself to the consuetudes within the bounds of law. This is gratuitous in police for the simple reason that police organisation is capable of handling police responsibilities within as effectively as outside. enforcement and protection motivated by a sense of commitment to law and justice is its pith. The elements of policing the police are embedded in the organisational culture and the managerial dynamics of the police setup. attainments. Such commitment presupposes professional pride. strengths and weaknesses. A law-abiding police is a boon to the country. The vectors of policing the police rely on the moral convictions of the police force and pro rata decide the effectiveness of policing outside. They do act as masters in enforcing them. conditioned by high morale spawned by clean professional culture of high values. sound reputation and standing of the profession in society and the sense of achievement and recognition. Latin politia and French police means polity. Police and policing imply administering the laws of the country in the process of the statecraft. Creation of a distinct arm within the police setup to police the organisation a la military police in army is another techinique. efficiency of managerial vectors. Policing the police is administering laws to police and bringing violators to book selon les regles. objectives. justice and popular acceptability. investigation. Their sensitivity to their image and reputation helps to strain every fibre to keep up to public expectations and avoid unfair practices. The individual and organisational prides interact to create an ambience of high morale and great professional pride to serve as the greatest tool of policing the police from within. guardian and enforcer in one has two facets: he is a master as well as a servant at the same time. the reticulation of human relationship. This is what is expected of police in regard to laws. The spectrum of the meanings of the word ‘police’ and ‘policing’ swings from ‘city’ in one extremity to ‘statecraft’ and administering the laws in the other. Police deal with laws as part of the administration in shape of its enforcement and detection and investigation of its violations. the profession induces. The very concept of policing the police is pregnant with the suggestion that police do not necessarily limit themselves to the bounds of the laws. The issue is whether police serve the laws in the capacities. It is a measure of fencing the fences to prevent them from themselves looting the crop. The only block to the process is natural fellow-feeling and sympathies to erring 172 .

A true effort to arrest lawlessness in the country must begin with pernoctation against outlaws within the police and drastic measures to snap their connections with outside criminals. vigilance organisation can hardly be an answer for the problem of policing the police. Their close interdependance and symbiosis make them sine qua non for each. Third stage is creation of right ambience of job culture within the service. An extension of this sensitisation is willingness of the police administrators to track down unlawful and criminal elements within the force and efforts to deracinate hem from the system as fast as possible. Efforts at policing the police must begin with right recruitment policy to ensure that only right people enter the job. Police hors la loi while act as harbourers and pillars of support to outside criminals and create havoc in the law–enforcing system. Obstacles to policing the police are numerous. Rules therein couched in procedural hurdles and usual governmental loopholes can scarcely be effective in providing the vigorous drive needed for the efforts of policing the police.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED colleagues. Fifth is sensitising the top brass of the force about the need of policing the police too make policing meaningful and purposeful. system of rewards and punishments and resolve to cleanse the system. Service and conduct rules that guide the conduct and activities of government servants are too weak an instrument to meet the needs of policing the police. They are not meant either to 173 . The pith of such a vigilance organisation being constituted of police personnel. The issue can be handled through appropriate administrative measures au reste adequate sensitisation to the threats of unlawful and criminal activities ab intra. This allay reflects in recruitment. they mutually influence and the lawlessness and criminal tendencies of the society outside seep into the police system to allay its resolve for self-policing. and corrode the process. They boost the confidence of criminals and help the spread of criminal activities. In the circumstances. The arrangement is simply inadequate to meet the needs of policing the police for the simple reason that the scope of a vigilance organisation is more or less limited to activities related to corruption and that its jurisdiction is so widely spread on all government organisations that it can hardly do any meaningful work to cleanse the police even on the single agenda of rooting out corruption. It is a fact that these rules achieve no more than keeping the government business going. chances of sympathies for criminal colleagues are more than incidental. Vigilance organisation does keep tab on all government organisations including the police. It is easier said than done in actual practice. That is why. Concomitantly police lose moral right to policing anywhere. This brings the need of policing the police to the forefront. Next important stage is right training. no meaningful policing is possible. Police is a part of the world outside and cannot exist in complete isolation from it. Fourth factor is institution of a right system of rewards and punishments on the basis of actual performance. ranging from clever use of loopholes in the system and laws to circumvent the arm of legal authority to use of external pressures to extricate from impending disciplinary proceedings. job culture. Criminal and other unlawful activities of the law-enforcers destabilise the democratic foundation as well as the judicial system of the country. training.

Corruption of police badly affects the hoi polloi and their trust in police. it went by the name of police. Further. A corrupt and lawless police makes lives of plebeian a hell. The police of U. judicial system and honesty of the government. Politicians hold criminals and police together from above for obvious reasons.P.PRAVEEN KUMAR inculcate true fear or induce motivation towards any end. Power corrupts. It needs higher commitment and resolve as a foundation to meaningful policing otherwhere. Policing by a lawless and corrupt police is just a mockery played on hapless people. Judiciary is a disinterested and uninvolved observer of the field trends unless it is forced to interfere in the overall interests of justice. The ethos of judiciary prevents it from close and day to day scrutiny of the police functions unless it resorts itself to pro-active mode in select cases when warranted by the atrophy set in as in extant India. Policing must begin from within and spread outward. perfectly suits the police setup of some major states of North India like Bihar and U. enjoy enormous powers. Bihar is a distinct example of how police. An outside agency that can substitute for the lack of self-regulation in police is judiciary. a clean environment inside only gives strength to cleanse the world around. judiciary lacks the infra-structure required to perficiently police the police.P do not lag behind much. Police organisation is not only ineffective there. The true clavis of policing the police lies in breaking the noxious nexus. The misease is a common phenomenon in India. it foots the bill of being a setup of criminals in uniform. The present provision of protection given for acts done under the colour of 174 . Police cannot look to them for sustenance of its need of policing the police. The claim of justice Mulla of the Allahabad High Court in 1968 that if there was an organised force of criminals in India. As only a flame within can shed light outside and only a conviction within can spread confidence outside. add to the atrophy of the public life rather than bringing a sense of discipline there. Though Punjab police did commendable job in containing terrorism in Punjab the police in the job there at the time were almost sans selfpolicing. The conundrum is how to bring it about. Self-policing must constitute the core of activities of a police organisation worth the name. Both are closely-knit in the cause of the administration of law and justice. This is just about to remind police about what is right and what is expected of them rather than effectively policing the police. In the circumstances. Self-policing is the primus of the responsibilities of any effective policing setup. absolute power corrupts absolutely. Police organisation is functionally subject and subordinate to the directions of the judiciary in the dispensation of justice and the rule of law. putrid at the core. Police as the arm of the state power structure. Incidence of corruption is natural in the circumstances. The point is that the same goal could be achieved with better self-policing in part of the Punjab police. policing the police from below becomes meaningless and purposeless even in the unlikely even of efforts of self-policing within the police. A cardinal measure in policing the police is making the unlimited power of police accountable. Judiciary is best suited to give jolts once in a way on selective basis. Its ethos prevent it from being an effective tool of policing the police save in rare and far-between circumstances like the recent ones wherein handling of investigations of politically sensitive cases came to public scrutiny and popular condemnation. Nexus of criminals and police in Bihar is too striking to be ignored.

No proper mechanism is evolved to demarcate what to what degree constitute acts done under the colour of office. The real power of police is its moral strength and the image it presents to the outside world. respected and patronised by everybody. Anything done in performance of official duties including unlawful acts and often those done outside the ambit of official duties too are carried piggyback under the clause of official protection unless the acts draw the public scrutiny and become too hot to be defended by the birds of the same flock in uniform and their godfathers above in government. so that the feeling of security that one can save himself from whatever irresponsible and unlawful act by bringing pressure from outside remains no more available to schemers and worng-doers. A sense of certitude about penal action for a given failure has to develop in the organisation. Leaving the matter to official superiors from the same flock may only serve the travesty of justice. What is required is willingness to police the police to make the organisation condign of policing responsibilities. Punishment has to be pro rata to the gravity of the mens rea and adequate to deflect others in the organisation from pursuing the path in future . The foremost need is forcing police out of this protection to bring it en plein jour to accountability for every evil committed by it. Intelligent employment of conventional stick and carrot method can certainly cleanse the police setup and make policing purposive. immoral and illegal means. No organisation with such powers. An important safeguard to strengthen the process of policing the police is insulation of disciplinary and rewards system from outside influences. its members rarely let down each other as any of them may find himself in a similar situation at any time in the prevailing prolate disregard for law in police . The power of police does not lie in its numerical strength or the arms it weilds. nothing from outiside should deter the process. This step itself helps police force enormously in weakening the prise of money and political clout on the police force. A suitable machinery manned by disinterested persons of high standing can be instituted to oversee the benefit of official protection is justifiable. A sense of exactitude and promptitude has to be injected to the system and objectively is made the abracadabra of the process. honest and professional police have galvanic effect on the public as well as law-breakers. This is an environment. loved. The positive step of encouraging right personnel by proper transfer and rewards policy adds to the benefit. These subtle measures can do wonders to the efforts of policing the police. Once weightage is given to right people in the organisation in posting to rewarding jobs and selection for medals and other rewards instead of those with illgotten money and political clout. They are feared. Protection have to be an exception rather than a rule for actions done in honest discharge of official duties. meaningful and effective. The outcome is a police force with unlimited powers and protection against its misuse without any purposeful accountability. the measure itself works as an enormous boost to the morale of the police force and brings its members on right and lawful tracks. like transfers and selections of police personnel for medals and other rewards. There are informal measures too. protection and lack of accountability can develop any respect for law.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED office is largely misused. Also. most 175 . A clean. Police being a closely knit organisation. More important. Presently these measures are careened towards money and political clout one enjoys which is earned always by corrupt. The first step here is bringing an end to the present policy in favour of money and political powers. the usefulness of police render them protected for their misdeeds by the bureaucracy and the politicians.

so much easier for the country to build a healthier nation by the time India will celebrate the centenary of its independence. The major task in reforming and building a new police force to India is restructuring it with an inbuilt mechanism of effective self-policing. A clean and professional police is possible only with an effective tool of policing the police. How fast it is done.PRAVEEN KUMAR conducive for perficient policing. Clean and professional police help the cause. 176 .

interests have undermined quality and character and organisational interests are subordinated to personal behoofs. Self.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED MAN MANAGEMENT IN POLICE Man management is the point d’ appui around which all organisations revolve. vitality. the damage done by egregious management of human resources in the police cannot be exaggerated. Salient parameters of a sound man management policy in police organisation though vary e re nata. more prominent of them can be discussed to lay the matter in right perspective. its adverse effects are kenspeckle in police organisation as the line-system of the organisation makes the ingenuity of human resources management. with his wisdom and capacity for ceaseless labour. Among man. Ergo. man management is the fulcrum of any organisation’s process of survival. is no more employed for the maximum benefit of the organisation. The strength. Though this proclivity is prevalent in all fields in India of late. it is man with his skill and creative ingine. material. with the rise of urban pockets. a factor having direct bearing on the quality of the policing. While is becoming a dynamic part of the governance in urban areas. A police organisation sans right man management policy is bound to crumble in a welter of discontentment and demotivation. commitment and intelligence may be the foremost need of a police organisation of the coming age. punishment etc. The declension may go patulous with the passage of time if frack measures to arrest the depravation in human resources management are ignored. Diligent efforts at the highest level in the organisation to create a force characterised by integrity. rewards. manifests in excelsis in any organisation structure as its real spine. For. with his thinking faculty and intelligence. 177 . This is more so in a police organisation where policing a fond is a human resources orientated profession with boundless need of motivation for successful operation and therefore substructured tout a fait on the merits of man management. The Wherewithal of human resources management like recruitment. promotions. HIGH MORALE The present Indian environment of ruthless competitions impleached with the degringolade of values made human resources management a farce in India. quality and real test of any organisation depend upon its human stuff and the process of its man management. man in an organisation stands for totality of his motivation to the organisational objectives and totality of motivation a toute force depends upon the grade of man management in the organisation. transfers. machine and money. The prevalency of police administration over the general administration in the survival of a nation as a democratic and orderly country may necessitate future changes in recruitment and service condition rules to attract the very best talents of the country to the police organisation with extraordinary care to ensure that anything less than the best with clean antecedents does not step into the organisation.

178 . wither after braving for a while the brusque and insensitive conduct of their higher ranks. Therefore. The strains of the environment cause inquietude in nature’s balance and leads to the obfuscation of a few precious sheens from its innards. HUMAN ASPECTS The human aspects is the fulcrum of policing. An element of lightness in work makes the work environment dulcet and provides an adequate mental space to devolve on the exuberances of human comportations. These recruits continue thereafter to be constant enemies of the higher ranks and the department for which they must continue to work for the next three to four decades. An important measure in humanising the police is to scale down the work-pressure on it to a bearable level. A police department constituted of such members. The recruits who enter the fold with open sensibilities and high expectations. cannot turn out eximious work. This work-pressure adversely affects the mental balance apart from depriving those tasks from the due attention. The process of warming-up is based on the psychological needs of human nature. Human comportment teethed with authority to compesce the human mass forms the essence of police activities. Indian police impresarios failed to understand such finer nuances of administration when they copied the system of the British Indian police. It manifests in loss of human factors in man and his mental space turns intenible of human qualities by environmental strains such as work-pressures. It is impossible to expect a man bogged down with responsibilities and tasks to spare his time for the niceties of human qualities. A sense of confidence and belonging to the organisation and an ingenerate love and respect for the higher –ups are the substruction on which discipline grows. It is a tragedy that India neither spawned a police force of its ain superior values nor copied the police force of the British vintage in its entirety with its finer points. Efforts to inculcate disicipline in a void a like waiting for rain from the autumn sky. thanks to the shabby approach of the insensitive higher ranks in this most impressioanble period of the former’s carrier-life. Policing essentially is human interaction. but cultivated instead a burlesque of the rough and mediocre aspects of both. The Indian police is weighed down with an impossible quantum of responsibilities and tasks.PRAVEEN KUMAR WARMING-UP PROCESS The period of initiation is the most important and impressionable period in the career-life of fresh recruits to the police department. And so we now have a police system where discipline is insisted on subordinates sans the conditions requisite for the discipline. It is the human quality in the force that determines its effectiveness and vitality. WORK PRESSURE All creations in their fraicheur and the nature’s bounty are kind and tender and elegant. New entrants must be handled with utmost care to give them confidence and a feeling of belonging at the incipient stage itself. latitant in unending luctation to smite criminal and anti-social elements.

The interaction between the police and the public can be a sound substruction for humane policing. The police organisation functions effectively only when a reasonably good living standard is made affordable to all ranks. They begin to see the world in a better light. often at odd hours. An effort to humanise the police cannot ignore the need to improve service conditions to make the police proud to be enraced in the vocation. A low living standard retards the police image and esteem in society. It is necessary to make the police financially bein by adequately compensating for the risks and hazard factors of their jobs to attract the best men to its fold apart from securing them against financial distractions. It involves round the clock duties. HOUSING Policing is a risky profession that draws antagonism and hatred by its very nature. Their work constantly exposes them to danger. A low living standard retards the police image and esteem in society. A feeling of condign compensation and contentment is certain to raise the police above physical and security need levels to give free expression to natural human tendencies. Retaliation by criminals is a constant risk under which policemen live. A feeling of condign compensation is certain to boost the commitment and efficiency of the police. The very nature of their duties necessitates their being treated on a different footing to others in the government. The sense of contentment generated by the service atmosphere devolves to the public that interacts with the police. the public learns to hold the police in esteem in conformity with its improved service conditions and sophistication. in conformity with the atmosphere around them and try to share these pleasant feelings with those they come in contact with. at odd places in odd circumstances. It is more so in future while more and more of the so-called elite jump into the fray of criminal activities in an increasingly complicated society. The levity of the environment and the absence of strains from the service-front facilitate their opening-up to give vent to their latitant human contents. A delectable service atmosphere mellows their responses to those around them. so that they can deal with anti-social elements from a level of strength and confidence sans the lure of easy booty. This helps to attract the best to the fold of the police organisation. GOOD LIVING CONDITION A resonably good standard of living helps the police to rise above the physical and security need-levels to social and higher need-levels in the need-hierachy outlined by McGregor and have the mental space for wider intersts like human concerns of kindness. tenderness. It may be necessary to make police officers financially bein in comparision to their counterparts in other services with risk allowance and hazard allowance to compensate job factors. The security of housing and other facilities 179 . thrown en revanche to a let-off. that are the essentials of successful policing. elegance and civility. People can afford the luxury of humaneness when they are insulated from the quotidian diversions of their occupational hazards.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED human resource policy in a police organisation needs careful and gritty handling at the highest possible level. apart from protecting them from financial distractions. In addition.

dignity.PRAVEEN KUMAR being genersously available to them is de rigueur. sturdiness and skill in martial art. Much thought has to go into this aspect to make the welfare funds useful to them without giving the impression of charity. The current approach of disbursing money from these funds to needy applicants needs to arouse a sense of pride and dignity even in receiving help from the establishment. If the funds go to them as their rightful share. must attend to this need for its own good health with genuine seriousness. respect and healthy fear in the public with a compulsion to see the police as their own people. UNIFORM A change in the existing police uniform is an issue to be deeply probed into the improve the police image. Indeed the spirit of the ancien regime remains undisturbed in matters of housing facilities for the police. Policing involves performance of tough and physically trying jobs that can only be performed when policemen and police officers are physically and mentally fit. aspiring to a bright future. TOUGHNESS The Indian police is not paying sufficient attention to the need for physical prowess. A change of police uniform to white or pleasant colours may prove to be a measure for the better in removing the negative image of the police. A healthy and sturdy police requires healthy and sturdy men and officers. The overall strategy in selecting a new police uniform should be to infuse a sense of oneness and quality among the ranks of police and inspiring a psychological disposition of friendliness. The need can be sidelined only at the risk of weakening the organisation. 180 . However. capable of taking up gauntlets and defending themselves when exposed to comminations. confidence. they would be put to better use than as a charitable contribution. The police. The police is often required to defend itself in circumstances when unarmed and undefended. The present khaki uniform of police inspires resentment as it is psychologically associated with repression and violence. but invested with the responsibility of a noble task. a much more liberal attitude in providing housing and other facilities to the police is necessary to strengthen the Indian police and make policing more effective. WELFARE ACTIVITIES Police forces administer welfare funds for the benefit of their members. The need for attention to these factors during recruitment. basic training and in –service challenges is tout a fait ignored. A newly structured police for the new age certainly requires a fresh approach to the utilisation of police welfare funds.

intrepidity and four-square qualities in face of odds constitute the bedrock of the police organisation. Only. This is a very serious situation wherein weak and insecure leadership holds reins of the career of thousands of subordinates with many at very senior levels. the potential is not made use of to the full. in posts from where it can affect the career of subordinates. Involving the public and obtaining its cooperation in policing is a necessary art which needs to be carefully cultivated for making policing a success story in India. the need of sound mind is more basic than any other faculty. the force make meaningful impact on the society. Wherever the services are availed. and ipso facto enriches his work and himself. A desire to teach a lesson to the forthright subordinates who make the leadership feel inferior is a natural outcome of this. This makes people of sound mind. For an organisation like the police. This makes retaliation an ever pensile threat to the career of the subordinates. No police can be tout a fait self-contained. The basic tenets of man management in police organisation discussed above are that a person happy. The use of people as traffic wardens to assist traffic police is limited to major cities of India. sine prole is true in the police. and who is to motivate these police leaders to the task by own man management programmes? 181 . And the threat. There is no shortage of people among the public who would volunteer their services. contentful and something to be proud of. Most parts of the country are yet to avail of the services of the people as special police officers. But the conundrum is that the police leaders need to be motivated towards the end. as is provided by police regulations to assist in policing. the police must open its doors to such services and organise a system to make such services really effective and useful. contented and proud of himself makes his work situation happy. trustworthy and tends to take responsibility and if he is treated as such. Should the prodigies of virtues like sufferance. WEAK LEADERSHIP A factor that seriously affects the morale of a disciplined force like the police is weak leadership. that man au fond is good natured. a must in responsible positions in the police. he certainly turns out his best work that if he is convinced that fairness is the rule of the game. The feeling of insecurity in them colour their interpretation of normal conduct of subordinates from their pusillanimous standpoint to interpret foursquare qualities of subordinates as surquedry. often affected by disorders of inferiority complex. he is the easiest social animal to be handled. The system of village police officers also is yet to fledge to take off. normal reporting or explanation appears like an intrigue and tough posture appears like insubordination.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED HUMAN RESOURCES FROM THE PUBLIC The performance of the Indian police in utilising the services of the public is far from desirable. It is left to the police leaders to infuse these tenets in their man management policy to get most out of the human stuff under their charges.

PRAVEEN KUMAR WHERE INDIAN POLICE IS HEADING? History of Indian police on modern lines dates back to the dawn of the 19th century. Enactment of the Police Act. The basic interests of a colonial police is the perpetuation of the colonial rule wherein matters ectogeneous to the interests are treated secondary. 1861. job culture. the foremost objective is upholding the interests of the country. character and objectives of the organisation. security of the people. The shift is basic to the character. Post-sepoy mutiny saw enactment of laws to streamline police organisations at provincial levels. 1861 as Central Act V in 1861 is a major step in streamlining police organisations and their activities at the central level. In a democratic police. The developments Indian police underwent in this period can either be due to the world-wide developments in the field of policing and police system as a 182 . WORLD-WIDE TRENDS The cardinal question is how far Indian police in the democratic ambience worked –out its adaptations to the new situation and zeit geist. The Act seeks to establish one police force under a State Government and its Preamble declares prevention and detection of crime as the objective of the force. prevention of offences and investigation of crimes sit squarely on the sturdy shoulders of a democratic police. Half-a-century should suffice for a fair and complete assessment. the interests of the country and its constitution in a democracy. functional values and the organisational gestalt of the police force. its democratic heritage and the sanctity of the constitution. A MAJOR TURNING POINT Indian independence marks a major turning point in the history of its police. safety of the national properties and interests. The event marks the transition of India police from a colonial heritage to a democratic character. East India Company controlled police activities in areas under its charge through Village Police Regulations. its people. This is a formidable responsibility. rule of law. law and order functions came to centrestage in the charter of priorities of the police duties at the cost of the objectives of prevention and detection of crimes. In the process. Its allegiance shifts from the rulers in a colonial rule to the people. The change has momentous impact on the spirit. POLICE UNDER BRITISH CROWN Periods sinsyne saw ascensive use of the police force for suppressing freedom struggle and maintaining law and order au reste prevention and detection of crime. Maintenance of order. Indian police metamorphosed to a law and order outfit in the next nine decades au contraire to the proclamations of the Preamble of the Police Act. British Raj ruled India on the strength of police force during the turbulent periods of the independent struggle. The Act which calls itself as “ An Act for the regulation of police” preconises at its Preamble that…”it is expendient to reorganise the police and to make it a more efficient instrument for the prevention and detection of crime”.

SECURITY CONSCIOUSNESS Indian police could not lag behind. at the cost of prevention and detection of crimes. Advances in science and technology made national security a high-tech field. Police shed their uniforms and threw laws and morals to the wind in pursuit of national security policy. police on the duties come in contact with them everyday and present the image 183 . or better. They became international players. organising violent protests etc in the interests of their own countries. meeting security gauntlets with the show of muscle power. Satellites. a festive assemblage. spreading. The situation breeds corruption and encourages partisan policing. Tragically. A craze for VIP and VVIP securityis the Indian manifestation of the new security consciousness. VIP security has become a fanfaronade. Motto is countering security threats with counter threats. This is how law and order police become law for themsleves or for their political masters against the raison d’etre of a law and order machinery. forging passports. it is happening at the cost of law and order functions and more so. National security activities gained primacy neck and shoulder above the crime and law and order functions. Obvious powers and tremendous avenues for illgotten money make law and order jobs hotly sought after posts. better the security. World-wide rise in terrorism gave way for specalisation in anti-terrorist operations all over the world. The consequence was the rising prominence of security activities at the cost of both the prevention and detection of crimes and the law and order functions. MUSICAL CHAIR The situation is tardier in law and order functions. In Indian ambience.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED continuing process or due to the adaptation of Indian police from the colonial heritage to the democratic vintage. Crackforces became the spine of the security police. overthrowing governments. laser beams . committing murders. Here too. Law and order duties being closely interlinked with the everyday life of the people. Result is the desperate concours of police officials of all ranks to aggrace politicians and people in power to corner right spots in the musical chair. The international developments only marginally touched Indian police for lack of will to be a major player in international clandestine warfares. computer technology etc made national security highly advanced and comlex operations. shipping weapons. With it came the grey areas of clandestine operations across the countries. Anti-hijack squads were organised as an elite force of the police. in number in place of efficiency and in display where subtle moves were en regle led to the grave failures. a procession of sound. hopping from country to country in disguise. The approach is the antithesis of modern perceptions and theories of security policing. The evolution in world-wide policing practices and police system in the latter half of the 20th century itself is portentous. training rebels. light and motions. The ragmatical situation leads to law and order functions losing the edge of fairness and objectivity in efforts to keep right people in right side. Moving pari passu with the world trend is basic for survival. The popular axiom of Indian police to this day is that larger the number. high resolution photographics. Indulgence of Indian police in form in lieu of substance. performance did not match the concern as many of its important leaders including those occupied top positions of Prime Minister and Chief Minister fell prey to assassins. Politicians and people in power are the bestowers of these jobs on favourite few. modern communication systems. night vision systems. The only real concern of Indian police more suo in the last half century was VIP and VIPs security. disaffections.

searches. The malfeasance itself is a black-mark on Indian criminal justice system. Preventive techniques saw no updating from the mechanical motions of the pre-independent vintage. People were forced to pursue illegal and unwholesome means in their dealings with the State and the police for survival. CHARTER OF PRIORITIES The pressure of law and order functions and importance of VIP security sidelined prevention and detection of crimes to a minor responsibility in the charter of priorities of the Indian police. attacks by Naxalites. Laws as means of the state power became loathsome objects for the commonman. pace of investigation and timings of the chargesheet or final report are subject to the equation between the head of the investigating team and the head of the government. investigations are hijacked by political and money muscles. Administration process became a scelerate and police lost credibility. Third degree methods are adopted for easy results. Violent protests led to violent suppressions by the police. Corruption and political pressures lead to miscarriage of justice. This is where India stands today. these are the cornerstones of the epinosic image. Inaction in some cases in part of the apex investigating agency of the country led courts to monitor investigation of the cases and warn of contempt proceedings for noncompliances. The people and the police found themselves pitted against each to break the other. LOSS OF CREDIBILITY Fences itself grazing the field in law and order policing led to the debasement of moral values in public life. Frauds and corruption became lucrative business. corruption. lawlessness in Bihar and UP or enlevements by ULF activists speak of the symptoms of the same malady namely lawlessness in the law and order police that divellicate from its raison d’etre. The apex court of the country 184 . inefficiency. Money power became the effective counterpeise against the arms of the law and the state power. Prevention is forgotten in the pressure of other works. Cases are taken up for investigation. Intentions of chargesheeting political heavyweights were declared to media before legal compulsions of such a sensitive act was met. arrogance and immanity to the hoi polloi. Work-pressure leads to cursory investigation. CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM Too many cases under investigation with investigators is a serious misease of Indian crime investigation field. This is the situation at all levels including the premier investigating agency of the country. Cases of political significance were chargesheeted on filmsy grounds and later equitted by the court. Indian police come to picture only after a crime is committed for detection. arrests. Making money by any means became the secret of success. This spread unrest and protests and violent agitations became the order of the day. Here again. gangawars in Bombay and Bangalore. Violence by dalits. terrorism in Punjab and Kashmir. the law and order police spawned for the benefit of the Indian police. insensitivity.PRAVEEN KUMAR of the entire police force. Bails. investigated and chargesheeted according to political conveniences. Hatred spawned hatred and violence begot violence. Case diaries were tampered at highest levels before sent to courts. Governance was commercialised and State power became a venal commodity. meekness before the mighty. The hors la loi image.

No country can afford to have an apollyon in its midst in the shape of a corrupt. self-serving decisions. the law and order machinery could infuse in a country of India’s size itself is a matter of credit and pride to Indian police. organisation. The unshaken trust of the plebeian on the criminal justice system of the country nonobstante the extant maelstrom in the field per se is its apogee and speaks volumes about the utility of police investigation in controlling crime. directionless directions. apocryphal infrastructure. Indian police must boil in the broth of its own ignominy. Their failures and mischiefs in managing human resources seriously affect the interests of an organisation based on human resources like the police. be it planning.” When the head of the agency was removed from his position for misdemeanour. non-existent inter-branch coordination. Incompetence is writ large in their approach to police administration. So to lesser extents are the successes in containing activities of LTTE cadres and Sikh and Kashmiri militants. Occasional good works are there. The walls of the womb are hard and thick in police. INDIFFERENT POLICE ADMINISTRATION There should be a single root for the general fall of standards in Indian police. corruption in selection and recruitment procedures. Such a leadership in police should rise ab intra from the very womb of the degenerate system by rupturing the womb. perverted assessments and farcical research and modernisation programmes have all added to the poor standards of Indian police today. Huge budget allocations made for police are want-only frittered away without accountability. cooridnation. control or research and development mechanism. deviant control mechanisms. The fear of law and a semblance f order. the egregious Union Public Service Commission. That is why the apotropaic process takes a long time. 185 . sham training practices. the apex court was constrained in the matter to observe that his removal should have come earlier. Haphazard organisational growth as responses to the time to time pressures sans elements of foresight and detailed planning. inefficient and disorganised police force. The cause of atrophy lies more in negative schemings than in lack of a positive face. It is insensitive and indifferent police administration. GLIMMER OF HOPE Not that all is bad. lacking in all branches of administration. The role of Indian secret police in liberation of Bangladesh is the tour de force of Indian clandestine operations. India showed considerable presence of mind in Afghanistan front also. What is distressing is that what is done is far short of what is expected from Indian police. execution. The culprits of these shoddy affairs vary from the top-brass of the police to the fonctionnaire in the government to the so called professional outfit. Right leadership at the top can be the lever de rideau to bring the system to its professional senses. Precious human resources are wasted away with frivolous and mischievous games in career planning programmes sans thought or seriousness. This is the egarement to which Indian police condemned its criminal justice system.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED observed about the conduct of the heads of the premier investigating agency of the country that “there appears to be too many officers bitten by the publicity bug…Inefficiency appears writ larger than performance. the media of the country fished in the troubled water to sensationalise the issue. Till then. direction.

specially trained to handle serious lacunae of Indian law and order police is that no special training facility is available for its staff for actually dealing with the quotidian law and order issues. The strategic timing brings them to the centre-stage of crime management in the eyes of common people and wins them their trust and confidence. These are striking forces. help and support of the law and order police have become sine qua non in the ambience of prolate fruad and unruly tendencies in public life. He sees their presence in well-nigh all state and public gatherings. Non obstante unvcivil methods and mouvais ton. the law and order police provide a rare praxis of symbion with the law with each limiting and protecting the other unlike security police ectogenic and crime police subservient to it. in beats and villages. checking history-sheeters. As a part of the law and order staff. Furthermore.PRAVEEN KUMAR LAW AND ORDER POLICING IN INDIA Amidst the diverse functions the police perform. It is rather crude to expect the police to depend on past experiences and untrained personal faculties to meet professional law and order challenges. As far as public deals are concerned. the plebeian identifies the police with maintenance of law and order. There cannot be laws sans the law and order police and no law and order police sans the laws. ordinary citizens consider the law and order police as a necessary evil and the pith of the public order. The image of law and order police decides to them the image of the police in general. The law and order police steeped in corruption makes them believe that the police force en semble smell rammish and its good performances earn their unqualified plaudit to the entire force. The hoi polloi have learnt to see the law and order police as their saviours in hours of need malgre restrictions involved in the latter’s methods. traffic police in white uniform are visible controlling and regulating traffic during rush hours. He sees them conducting raids on vice dens and restricting his actions and movements in the name of public interest. The strategic position of the law and order police in crime scene is patent from the fact that it comes to picture right in time of a crime to prevent its commission as the true strain of law and order policing while other wings are involved either too early as in the case of security police or too late as in the case of crime police. This is the ‘secret of the matchless relevance of the law and order police to the orderly life of the country. It enjoys a special place in the psyche of the people as a hated saviour and a constant compagnon in public life. He sees the police in uniform intervening the incidents of his everyday life beginning from a simple street quarrel to mob violence. The lapse leads to arbitrary handling of law and order situations sans sound and uniform policy save peripheral measures to be 186 . ABSENCE OF COMMON POLICY Police stations are pillars of the law and order police reticulation with district police offices in districts and police commissionerates in major cities at regional levels and state police headquarters at provincial levels beholden to the responsibility. Intermediary levels like circles. Armed forces are maintained as reserves at regional and state levels in addition at the centre to assist the law and order police in highly disturbing situations. controlling crowd and maintaining order. subdivisions and ranges coordinate the work interterritorial.

But. and ipso factor creates chaos. Law and order policing has become a contrivement of bending and interpreting rules and laws to the convenience of rich and powerful who can pull strings at right places. The strategic position of the police is more pronounced in law and order policing. career promotions. management of law and order issues anywhere requires handling situations without inviting gratuitous problems. peaceful life and and lucre. at the cost of law and justice. PULLS AND PRESSURES Pulls and pressures are sine qua non in a democracy. a pure maelstrom. the matter seems overstretched in Indian ambience. Sadly law and order policing in India imprimis is management of pulls and pressures in the wilderness of rules and laws. The situation is to the benefit of the police as the shocks of possible disturbances by the prevarications are always absorbed by the powerful on whose favour the police acted and the interests of the police are safeguarded avec acharnement by them. This complicates situations during actual actions by depriving the elements of mutual understanding among the police and the subjects as a natural and essential factor of successful policing. trade off their high powers to the mighty people for the limited gains of the easy process of policing. at the cost of professional objectivity like in extant Indian law and order machinery which believes in calm at all costs. This is patent in the working of Indian police. This is a tacit arrangement between the police and the powerful wherein the police are really lower partners in the high-stake game played for the benefits of the powerful bloc. The situation can hardly be called as professional policing of law and order. This is an irony of democracy. The only help available to an official on the field is the general guidelines of his seniors who are equally illequipped to handle those situations. those who are adequately insensate to go to that length by placating powerful trouble-makers only win races for coveted law and order posts in Indian ambience. But.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED adopted before and during use of weapons and opening fire. These prevarications go conspicuous in acts of political avatars and subject the police to serve public censure. UNDUE STRESS ON PLAYING SAFE The current abracadabra of Indian police in managing law and order issues is letting sleeping wolves sleep and avoid further troubles. the police sacrifice the sacred objectives of its profession. make handling of law and order in India. Not ruffling feathers unnecessarily is indubitably a priority. occupy a strategic position in the interpersonal and public life of the citizens and makes success and failure or life and death differences to them and their ventures. Sine dubio. Who meet the requirement are hailed as the best law and order hands. Pressures of influential and powerful blocs is an accepted phenomenon of the working of a democratic government. Otherwise. The consequence of the apostasy is that the law and order policing in India has become progressively a nest of playing favouritism with utter contempt for professional character. Those with a sense of objectivity and professional probity self foot the bill as their 187 . In the process. Police as an agency that limits the liberty of the people pro bono publico and discipline those who prevaricate. The police with their little statute and easy contentment. The uncertainties of each law and order issue added to it. this should not be in shape of a compromise. it is a mute affair as the police algate are on the vocal side of the rich and influential against dumb and helpless plebeian with none to fight the latter’s cause against the risk of the wrath of the police save isolated cases of courage and commitment.

Most of these powers save in specified emergent circumstances are circumscribed by the need of obtaining appropriate magisterial orders for exercise. Powers are two-sided weapons employed for punishment as well as patronage. the importance and the width of powers of the law and order police per se are its real bane. controlling rowdy activities. This in itself creates angry frustrations among wronged people and leads to group rivalries and clashes. The answer definitely is in negative. The dependence of the common man on this wing of the police and the fear. create troubles to those who dared not to favour them. The conundrum is whether being a part of such a vice system is as inevitable to the law and order police as it appears. The powers enjoyed by the law and order police amate to their enormous responsibilities and perhaps rank first in range and the width vis a vis other wings of the police setup. The incessant rush of people on the doors of the law and order police for patronage creates farthing power-centres at lower levels. Marriages made in Police Stations are not uncommon in states like Karnataka and Tamilnad. The maintenance of law and order in large cities is facilitated by investing the magisterial powers with police commissioners. use weapons to hurt and even kill to force compliance etc. The sleight leads to a vicious circle that perpetuates the wily interests of the powerful at the cost of weak and dumb in the hands of the law and order police by hoisting corrupt and lither elements in key law and order jobs. Human nature being what it is. levy collective fines. often delegated upto the level of DCPs in charge of law and order. regulating meetings. and other activities in public places in the interests of the maintenance or order. Favouritism abounds and rules and laws are sidelined at will in these arbitrary arbitrations. Thus the police are integrated as an inseparable component of a deteriorating law and order situation. quelling mob violence etc. the police use its wide powers more as tools of patronage than as tools to check rowdyism and vice dens in absence of professional commitment and motivating 188 .PRAVEEN KUMAR professional uprightness falls foul with powerful lobbies who in tune with the thoughts and fears of the higher echelons of the law and order police. An understanding of the trickery en train in the system and a little toughness and resolve to stand up to the challenges of the powerful certainly help to solve the riddles. The police are invested with a spectrum of powers which include powers to arrest. maintenance of public order. the police inspire prompt him to gratiate the police by all his means. enter and take possession of private places and buildings. search seize impound. Unfortunately. INTOXICATING POWERS Important responsibilities of the law and order police include prevention of crimes. giving an image of feudal lords to the chiefs of police stations who dare to preside over and pass judgements on small local disputes irrespective of their relevances to maintenance of order and other police duties. prosecute. The real question is whether the law and order police really want a solution to the riddles or is it contented with what is there as its own making. detain. controlling crowds. enforcement of laws. All available data point to the fact that the law and order police of India enjoy what is there as its own making that provides them security and patronage. checking the spread of vide dens. TOOLS OF PATRONAGE Powers enjoyed by the police to control and contain vice dens and rowdy activities provide a new dimension to the importance and manoeuvrability of the law and order police. processions.

The importance of the police being what it is for the survival of these organised crime syndicates. This in the long run. this leads to huge amounts changing hands to ensure that particular police officials are posted to particular law and order jobs. caught. He was lured by the gang to pursue a criminal into the strongholds of the gang in the port area. Only they do not know how they are looted ab intra and their unsuspecting character is taken advantage of and ravaged by the conspiracy of criminals and criminal-baiters namely the law and order police. More distressing is how upright officials who choose to fight powerful crime syndicates without yielding to the temptations of easy and comfortable life feel isolated when seriously let down and compromised by their own organisation by denying support at the behests of the powerful crime lords on the mendacious plea of maintaining peace. Though criminal cases were registered later. leads to resentment and breeds resistance against the establishment and the system which conspires to perpetuate the weak and 189 . The police tend to favour the rich and privileged few in interpretation and exercise of powers to the disadvantage and outrage of the weak and dumb majority. In a case more than a decade old. the importance of having right police officials in key positions for these gangs cannot be overemphasised . Once the police come to terms with the crime gangs again. Organised crime syndicates vie inter se for the favour and patronage of the police that ensure the smooth sail of their anti-social activities and protection to the gang. SIDING WITH THE PRIVILEGED A major cause of law and order disturbances is the absence of objectivity. This way a living lesson to upright police officers who dare to take on powerful crime syndicates. It is a rather triste affaire of Indian police that the resolve or the killing instinct to go tough with the crime syndicates that play the police by their little fingers is just not present there. The hoi polloi too are contented because there are no major disturbances and crimes with the underworld crime lords on the right side of the police. horrendously tortured in captivity and later lynched. fairness and sense of justice in the police in handling important issues. nothing came out of the case. The end–result is happy and secure crime syndicates in highly lucrative vice business under police patronage at the cost of unassuming citizens and a contented and richer law and order police running the show without a fluster of major law and order scene.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED factors to guide them on right lines. situation returns to normalcy. LACK OF CONCERTED DRIVE Any shakeup in key positions of the law and order police leads to the problems of maladjustment among the crime syndicates for superiority and between the police and the crime world with gang-wars and ascensive criminal activities creating real problems to the police. Refusal by a four square official in a key law and order slot to cooperate with crime syndicates invariably leads to further disturbances till the official is either brought to heels or transferred out to placate the disturbed powerful gang-lords. a young Deputy Commissioner of Police in the port city of Calcutta in West Bengal fell foul with a powerful crime syndicate operating from the port area and patronised by a powerful politician in power in the state. The gang that gains upper hand in the race rules the roast till the key figures in the police responsible for the patronage remain in power with the tacit understanding that the gang operatates within certain limits to save the police from undue embarrassments plus a subterranean arrangement to share the res gestae.

The riot control weapons used by Indian law and order police are yet age-old lathi and tear-gas shells. stratified use of police powers at differential situations. it is the highly irresponsible and most detestable handling of the law and order situation by its corrupt police. This by no means is justification of lawless life and meant only to show how police by their greed and irresponsible handling of situations add to the growth of crime and lawlessness in the society. application of latest psychological techniques to field situations or rehabilitation vectors. the impact of Indian police on the management of law and order scenario cannot be called satisfactory. Indian police have no in-build advantages of researches to various types of law and order situations. resources. academic input and creative genius. The district and police station level machinery devised for the purpose are illequipped for the enormous job because of their limited size. Nor is there a perficient machinery to gather information and intelligence pertaining to law and order issues. which the hoi polloi find worse than the Chambal dacoits and Bihar and UP mafia gangs. They soon learn that riches and powers have no laws and morality and the police bought with it have no weaker legal and moral authority. strategies and tactics of operations and techniques of mediation or warning. If there is a reason for this highly deplorable moral degringolade in the country. The fact that Indian electorate send ex-dacoits and criminals as their representatives so state assemblies and parliament show the sympathies the criminals enjoy with the people who are in touch with field situations and know how weak and helpless people perforce run away from the society and go hors la loi by the outrageous acts of rich and powerful with the police licking boots at their feet and letting loose brutality on whoever dare to oppose the feudal lords. law-breaking tendencies and identification of and communication with potential law – breakers. The law and order police often depend on the state intelligence unit which with a scope different from the local law and order needs. Phoolan Devi and her associates from the Chambal valley and UP and Bihar maifa gangs proved that criminality pays in India. The whole range of law and order management techniques of Indian police can be formulated in a few crude catchwords like mediations or warnings followed by use of force. such common weapons like water jets and plastic bullets are beyond the reach of police in most parts of India. The notorious Chambal dacoits are the makings of the social evils and the police patronage to its privileged perpetrators. the methods employed are rude at best and arrogantly provocative at the worst. The lex non scripta of the police that whatever the rich and powerful do is right convince the poor and disadvantaged that the extant system is not for them. The Indian scenario is based on a few age-worn cliches devoid of professional expertise. that the police patronage is pro rata to the riches they earn and share. it pays wealth and fame as well as political power and love and respect of the people.PRAVEEN KUMAR unprivileged position by denying just and legal dues. Nor their performances are up to the expectation in traditional contrivances like effective use of weapons. may fail 190 . POORLY ORGANISED All said and analysed. psychological variables of divergent law and order issues their social and political potentialities and group dynamics. en revanche. That is why the ranks of rowdy gangs and organised crime syndicates surface almost everyday in India to go rich and powerful at the earliest. The situation prompts wronged people to meet the system by its own coin by going rich and powerful by means outside the system to force the system and its police crawl before their riches and power for their pro-rich slant. expertise and professional training.

A striking recent example of such a failure of intelligence is the Veerappan case wherein the combined forces of Karnataka and Tamilnad police failed to humble and bring to book the notorious forest brigand Veerappan who operates from the forests bordering the two states.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED the law and order police. the failure of the efforts for ten long years speak volumes about the strengths and weaknesses of Indian law and order police. 191 . the police are protecting neither their job interests nor the interest of the country and its people. Once this trust and respect are breached by immoral and illegal slants in discharge of responsibilities lucri causa and other selfish causes. Though the operations by no means are easy. the police are exposed to the wraths of the public and the assaults of its foes and those crowds wronged by it. they realise the bevue they commit and may pursue a path befitting the diginity of their great profession. nor their personal interests are protected as no gains made at risk to the life is worth the trouble. The trust and respect ensue from this. Indian police seld book so long and open eyes to look around. take the police along way to success in its professional endeavour and protect it from enormous professional hazards and risks common to the job. impartiality and the sense of justness and fairness bred from such a professional commitment endear the police to all including its friends and foes. The intelligence failures of the law and order police contributed for eruption and spread of law and order disturbances in many instances. The selflessness. By prevarications. The most precious aes triplex of a law and order police is its professional honesty and commitment to the objectives of the profession. Once they stop to shed their professional arrogance and see the mine-fields underfoot.

On closer scrutiny. Slack. In the atmosphere of liberalisation where economy is less regulated and controlled with fewer rules and laws to tie the hands and legs of the market forces. inefficient and casual enforcement process laced with corruption makes economic activities possible in India. the Indian economy is sweltering under the heat of economic crimes. laws and regulatory authorities shut.PRAVEEN KUMAR INVESTIGATION OF ECONOMIC CRIMES With liberalisation. The plans are always mega-schemes running for hundreds or thousands of crores of rupees of the gullible public. Bribes play key roles in keeping rules. illegal activities find avenues to surface to the detriment of the open market. Rules and laws being not tightened to meet the challenges of the liberal atmosphere. The sounding of finance minister. Stringent enforcement of relevant rules and laws to prevent illegal activities is the need of the hour. When preventive machinery fails in its task. Enforcement has two faces: preventive and investigative. and not more and more rules and laws. shady transactions and corrupt practices. laws and law enforcing system to handle and control economic crimes go a long way in keeping away the extant maelstrom and making liberalisation a more relevant and meaningful direction to Indian economy to pursue. When preventive measures collapse. This is true of Indian economy also. unscrupulous elements have a field day in playing with the public money either to intentionally defraud or experiment in risky projects.Chaidambaram in June. As far as preventive measures are concerned. What manifested is organised frauds to loot the public its money by clever use of the financial environment and the innocence of the hoi polloi. illconceived financial rules and laws and slack financial practices and procedures evidently failed to carry the weight of the liberalised economy. When preventive machinery fails in its activities is the need of the hour. the present rules and laws are adequate to bring any financial operation to a standstill. laws and controls. The need is desperately felt in the atmosphere of liberalisation. the demands on the investigating 192 . Educating the public about the nuances of a liberal economy and preparing them for the risks immanent in the system as well as strengthening the reticulation of rules. the investigation agency comes to the force.P. the aboideau of scams and financial irregularities is thrown open and Indian financial market is flooded with all conceivable kinds of frauds. Mr. The problem of India is their enforcement. Corruption in government and public life ease the process. waiting to make best use of the laissez-faire. small fraudulent dealings were born with man and bound to continue as part of his nature till the imbalance of supply and consumption haunts his existence. What India needs is efficient enforcement. The people who were inured to protected economy and state control cannot easily adapt to liberalised economy where all sorts of worms and creatures creep. The problem lies in the liberalisation process having taken-off without adequate infrastructure of checks and counterbalances to sustain it. As long shadows of mixed economy receded from the four decade old sky of the Indian Republic. 1977 after CRB scam came to light that law enforcers must ruthlessly deal with economic offenders is too small coming too late to have any meaning or impact on the atrophy already set-in. it is obvious that Indian democracy and administration are overweighed with myraid rules. regulations. Not that economic crimes are new to human generation or India. in Indian economic labyrinth.

any of the three credit rating agencies of the country. vouchers. Localised investigation leads to unfair and partial justice. non-banking finance companies form the spine of such frauds on the gullible public. Symbiosis is the sacred hymn of the operations. Investigation of economic offences is a specialised job requiring special skills far removed from the needs of investigating bodily crimes. the auditors who audit the company or all of them in synergy as in the CRB scam. balance sheets. Demands per se do not meet the needs of efficient investigation. Such constituents may include commercial banks. contracts. A point central to both economic crimes and their investigation is the willing cooperation and participation of several related agencies and individuals in the operation. the Ministry of Finance. correspondences. The aspect is popularly forgotten in the investigation of scams and scandals in Indian environment. interpret the meaning and significance of these documents. Large scale economic crimes need their cooperation in shutting eyes to willful violation of inconvenient norms and regulations of financial discipline and active connivance in issuing official favours against rules to ease the passage of defrauding the public. As CRB scam made explicit. Investigation of an economic crime must cover the role of these agencies. Indeed. Commitment to the job is one side of the need. An investigator of economic offences has to be well versed in the intricacies of financial transactions. all others contribute as and when required. records. the quid pro quo involved etc and support each fact with sound evidences. An essential feature for the successful investigation of an economic crime of large dimension is constitution of a team of experts drawn from all related agencies to assist the investigator. It is a time consuming drudgery far removed from the glamour attached to it. The RBI. Other constituents in the play necessarily include key government agencies responsible for regulating financial activities in the country and its key officials. Localised investigation limited to the main front-man of the fraud is a simple job that can be completed in a short duration to everybody’s satisfaction including the clever 193 . The other side is the skill of investigating economic offences. procedures. the key officials involved and the mens rea. The work necessarily requires willing cooperation of the agencies concerned to provide related documents as evidence. there is a main player to whose initiative and plan. audit reports. The investigators require guidance from these experts about evidences and the course of further investigation to build up the case. registers and other documents. explain the related practices. rules and laws regulating and controlling the financial market and the finer aspects of auditing and accounting apart from a sound analytical disposition to interpret the data and evidences during the process of investigation. This is a formidable job that cannot be handled by one investigator and a handful of his assistants. He should command indefatigable patience to scrutinise and interpret stacks of bills. the SEBI. They call for group-work involving meeting of mind and synergy towards the main goal. minutes. rules and laws and provide inside information pertaining to the commission of the fraud au reste volunteering to be witnesses to the crime. Other ministries and agencies involved in activities related to financial matters may also form part of such fraudulent operations. Investigation of any economic crime cannot be fair and square unless the investigation covers all aspects of the crime.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED machinery increases to bring the hors la loi to book. the dynamics of the market forces.

In an intelligently planned. Solution to this problem lies in integrated single investigation with the cooperation and active participation of the concerned financial institutions as expert advisors in the investigation team. The crux of the investigation of economic crimes in tracing the end-users of the fraud and reaching the persons responsible for planning and organising them. do so in their own names and get caught while their venture with the public money dooms. an ability to delegate and decentralise work. An investigator should be familiar with these nuances of the crime. ability to trust right people. In the absence of this basic familiarity. It is so arranged in such frauds that all books and records point only to the front-players. Such unfair investigation suffers justice and financial discipline and encourage financial institutions to connive in such frauds. Investigation of mega-economic crimes cannot be handled by all and sundry investigators. An essential feature for a investigator of economic crimes is leadership qualities. This leads to gratuitous waste of time. they must have basic knowledge and familiarity of the goings on in the financial world to help them understand the interpretations and the explanations of the experts in the team about the complexities and intricacies of the financial transactions of the crime. is unearthed. A corollary of this aspect is violation of Foreign Exchange Regulations. A megaeconomic crime spreads it tentacles over myraid financial enactments to involve independent investigations to the same crime by different agencies au reste the investigation by the police. An investigation into economic crimes is incomplete without a probe to this possibility. nor touch the government agencies and its key officers who willingly contributed to the fraud for gain by commissions and omissions. It is only a few daring players who venture into risky financial operation with honest intensions. inspire confidence. For one. The result is shallow and peicemeal investigations by several agencies leading nowhere. The fear of impinging on the limits of other agencies prevents free and concerted investigation. draw 194 . manpower and energy by duplication of works apart from creating problems of inter-agency coordination and inter-agency rivarly. Swiss banks are only a tip of the ice-berg. however deep be his cover. The real players remain at the background harmless even while the fraud comes to open. This is seld done in extant Indian investigation situation. thus FERA comes to picture. public contacts and media exposures are designed to play up the roles of the front-players. is brought to book and his gains. they required special attributes to lead that investigation to a successful end. Another aspect is the possibility of the grists made from the fraud being tucked away or invested in some far away foreign countries. No investigation into economic offences is complete without the impresario of the fraud. It is only the little or sometimes middle-sized fishes who act as the front for the main-players are caught. organised and executed megafraud. the investigators may appear like fishes out of water in the maze of financial transactions leading to the crime. It is a grave Achilles’ heel of the investigation of economic crimes in India.PRAVEEN KUMAR criminals and the guillible public with only a paid front-man sacrificed in requital to the gain of hundreds or thousands of crores of rupees. Offences under Income-tax provisions is another side of the crime. Only such a holistic investigation can delve deep into the roots of the crime and unearth the truth in its entirety as a means of deterring recurrence of mega-frauds. Apart from investigation skill. Rarely these investigations in Indian environment reach the depth. a splatter of knowledge of computer and software are helpful to manage control over the process of the investigation. wherever it be stacked. These datas being often encoded and computerised for safety by clever criminals. the big fish always remains inconnu.

records and papers per se is a tiresome and time-consuming labor. The role of theses institutions in the commission of the 195 . In the circumstances. Constitution of a team of investigators including experts from various financial institutions should be able to overcome the natural handicap of inordinate delays in the investigation of economic offences. the investigator should have immense inner strength to resist the lures and stick to his professional path. On the other side. are extremely exhausting and tiresome job. Early completion of investigation is vital for the cause of justice. if any. Here comes to picture the discreetness of the investigator in striking a deal with the criminals selon les regles without jeopardising the process of the investigation in any way. time is central to the investigation of economic crimes. placing in right perspective to the commission of the crime. The reason is mental fatigue. A need of common sense in investigation of economic crimes is the initiative of the investigator to make up the losses of the victims of the fraud to possible extent by luring the criminals to a deal. It naturally retards the pace of the investigation and the process taking years for completion is a common spectacle. Examination of loads of documents. Safeguarding the interests of the hapless victims is the cardinal need in the circumstances au reste bringing criminals to the book. attempts to lure the invesigator from the rightful path of investigation are a natural phenomenon. interpreting them. The tendency of soft-pedalling the role of financial institutions in the commission of economic crimes for whatever reason is a serious Achilles heel in the investigation of such crimes for the simple reason that lapses by these agencies create a framework for the crimes. No large scale frauds against the general public is possible without these agencies responsible for the financial discipline of the country willingly ignore violations of financial norms and regulations and offer favours against rules and laws of the financial discipline to the criminals engaged in the frauds. It is said that every person has a price . Huge money running to hundreds and thousands of crores of rupees is at the centre of the investigation of scams and criminals are those who are clever. the mental processes involved in sifting right and relevant documents from the heap of papers.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED cooperation and ability to coordinate the works of myraid agencies involved in the investigation to guide to the desired end. To crown it. influential and stacked with easy money. selection of right people as investigators becomes a key decision in the success or otherwise of the investigation. For the investigation to be successful. Money rapidly multiplies with time in form of profits of investments or interests on deposits. assessing its value in the overall process of the commission of the crime etc. A serious handicap of the investigation of economic offences is its slow process. Investigation per se does not bring any relief to the victims of the fraud as its value lies only as an instrument of deterrence. and meeting whatever price is no problem in the efforts to distract investigators of mega-economic crimes from their commitment. Commitment to lead the investigation to successful end and ability to work hard are other characteristics sine qua non for the investigator. Delay in investigation process helps criminals to multiply their res gestae several times with the passage of time.. ipso facto rendering them huge gainers in terms of monetary benefits that easily off-set the pains of trial and conviction in court. In the circumstances. Delay of investigation is in the interests of the criminals with this illgotten money.

The role of commercial banks infamous security scam is too well known to be repeated here.R. treats all these players of the conspiracy on equal footing. The exclusive attention of the investigation agency on the CRB chief and his close associates to the exclusion of other conspirators cannot be called en regle and bound to shake the confidence of the public in the investigation. The SEBI tolerated CRB managing scores of shady share issues and permitted to start a mutual fund and a share custodial service.C. CRB Capital Markets just could not befool and defraud thousands of investors to the extent it did. To top it all.PRAVEEN KUMAR crimes is as grave as that of the main –players and the impresarios of the fraud. the head of CRB capital Markets. For CRISIL. and struck gold. The responsibility of the main-player of a scam reduces to insignificance before the filures. An investigation true to its profession must give primus to fix these institutions for their irresponsible roles and connivance in the scam. The fact is forgotten in the investigation of economic crimes in India. Ignoring the part of financial institutions and other government agencies in mega-economic crimes is a sure way of ringing the death-knell of the financial discipline of the country. The auditors of the company ignored irregularities in the company’s operations in the audit report. Unless many agencies responsible for financial discipline helped the the commission of the fraud by the CRB capital markets by blatantly ignoring violations of norms and regulations by the latter and unlawful favours. the RBI turned blind eye to massive irregularities noticed during inspection and issued an in– principle banking licence as favour and even tolerated the company raising money for its bank after the licence was withdrawn. Their involvement gives an added dimension of conspiracy to the case. Corrupt colleagues flocking together to go on agitation to protect one of them while caught is becoming a popular strategy of scaring away the hands of law reaching them. CRB scam is an example. Law which provides for the investigation of the case.Bhansail. this was the second instance within the short duration of a year after similar failure regarding Mideast Shoes. The key figures in these financial institutions who helped CRB scam are as much responsible for the scam as was Mr. This is not an isolated case of financial institutions prevaricating from their raison d’ etre. lapses and impacts of the connivance of the players of these institutions on the financial market and public life of the country. No honest investigation can afford to leave the key figures of these institutions out of the field of investigation. Indian Bank scam is waiting on the side-wings to blow up to a major scam. The result is lopsided and unfair investigation which satisfies none let alone acting as a deterrent against recurrence of such frauds. In absence of the synergy by various financial institutions of the country. Distractions like strikes and protests by the colleagues of the offenders in the institutions as in the case of suspension of the officials of the Bombay Branch of the State Bank of India for complicity in CRB scam should not deter a professional investigator from his commitment. Credit Rating Agency and IDBI’s subsidiary CARE gifted the company’s fixed deposit programme. The SBI opened its banking services to the company to encash interest warrants and refund orders of the company from the public without adequate security. central customs and excise staff of Delhi international airport resorted to agitation to 196 . CRB caps a “A+” rating in spite of the full knowledge of the liquidity problems and deteriorating assest quality of the company after ICRA and CRISIL failed to oblige the company. the swindling of the public to that extent would not have been an easy feat. Another top credit rating agency of the country CRISIL failed to warn investors in advance about the poor showing of ITC Classic Finance on the eve of the issue of NCD and fixed deposit schemes of the company. A few years back.

Very recently. Professional and in depth investigation to these scams is sine qua non for the growth and stability of the economy of the country. A turly professional investigator should not be deterred by such extraneous developments in his resolve to unearth the truth. Crimes are committed either out of passion or for gain. the losses and grief come with it to the gullible public and the sense of the loss of credibility it brings to the financial market.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED protect a few corrupt colleagues from the CBI net. Economic crimes against the gullible public and the financial system of the country assume dangerous dimensions because of the magnitude of the crimes. if not by accident or negligence. Economic crimes constitute a major and important block of the crimes for gain. arrest of public servants in Bihar fodder scam was deferred by the CBI for the fear of creating law and order problems. air traffic control staff went on agitation while some inefficient of them were suspended from service for grave dereliction of duty. Recently. 197 . their impact on the financial discipline of the country. This is ore so in case of the investigation of economic crimes for the simple reason that the money involved in such crimes in capable of buying anything under the sun and creating any situation to the advantage of the criminals.

PRAVEEN KUMAR SOCIAL JUSTICE Professor B. of reactionaries and revolutionaries is the mark of a zoetic society. The social awakening which is possible through public education is sine qua non for social change which can only be formalised through legislation as a statutorily accepted social value to make its violation a criminal act. the student. It is here the state comes into the picture as the arbiter elegantium. The clash of interests and values steeped in an instinct for survival is the hall-mark of social change.R. there is the fear that the old social values are being repudiated and destroyed by the values of social justice and equality. sex etc. as a beacon to guide both the pace and path of social change through public education and legislation.D. Social inequality and social injustice as starting points of a vicious circle wherein they are perpetuated cannot be the situation a welfare state seeks to protect from the dynamics of positive change which as a natural force of unending frustration expresses by peaceful means in principo and by violence as dernier ressort if the state errs by protecting the vested interests of inequality and injustice and fails to discharge its responsibilities towards positive social change. and too fatalistic to rebel against their fate and violently wrest from the rulers their elementary human right-the right not only to survive but to improve their lot.Kuppuswamy in his book “ Social Change in India” apropos of ‘ Paradox of the Indian Situation Today’ writes. all kinds of conflict from anarchic protest to regional schism or even communist revolution could flourish. which pose a challenge to the past privileges based on caste. The government of democratic India responded 198 . “ The new awakening roused the esurient expectations of the longrepressed and infested segments of the gens de peu and fomented their neoteric hopes of being extricated from age. deliberate effort to change the social structure as a result of the assimilation of new social values. Because of the struggle for political freedom and the desire for economic reconstruction. aristocracy. This perennial conflict between privileged and nonprivileged.old repression. the factory worker. A good piece of legislation backed by effective enforcement works as catalytic agent in the process of social change. new social justice and equality of opportunity. SOCIAL AWAKENING IN INDIA The veteran journalist Shri. The state can be impervious to the ascensive zeal for social reform only at its own peril. falsifying the prophets who have averred that the Indian masses are too underfed. too lethargic.Mankelkar in his book titled “ A Revolution of Rising Frustrations” beautifully analyses the situation of ascensive social awakening in India. “ The fact is that the worm is at last turning. age. The farm labourer. SOCIAL CONFLICTS Peter Worsley in ‘ The Third World’ writes “ In those countries which fail to achieve the take-off and relapse into the hungry frustrations of stagnation or regression. On the other hand. and women are repudiating the authority which denied them social justice and equity”. “ On the one hand there is a conscious. A revolutionary leadership could easily replace those nationalist parties which have lost their social reforming zeal”.

indeed while it is institutional violence in society’s interests. can heal the wounds that it has inflicted”. by enacting legislations with the potential for far-reaching changes towards establishing social isonomy and justice. freedom from want. an African Psychologist in “ The Wretched of the Earth” calls violence intended to restore self-esteem and do away tyranny as ‘ Cleansing Force. though some isolated attempts were made here and there. CHALLENGES OF SOCIAL EQUALITY As French thinker Auguste Compte noted. This active aspect of social change manifests in intellectual assertions for deliberate social legislations and their effective enforcement. ipso facto acts of institutional violence are comme il faut if perpetrated by the state in the larger interests of the society as they fall beyond the ambit of the concept of violence. Social justice ex consequenti demands preferential treatment for the socially backward and repressed classes who are at a disadvantage in respect to others. Active responses to the extant gauntlets of social equality and social justice against the background of nonfeasance should be the foundation on which social legislation and its enforcement mechanism should be broadly based. non obstante the not-soinopinate resistance from the privileged lobbies. However as Jerome Skolnick preconsied. The challenges are often social and internal and every civilisation as a facet of the society can learn from the failings of quondam civilisations. violence is a louche muticous term whose meaning is established through political process. SOCIAL JUSTICE VS LEGAL JUSTICE Social justice is imprimis an informal social process rather than a formal legal procedure. It is the moral standard of a society to which its laws and actions conform. like Achilles’ lance. The injustices and legal disabilities against certain sections of the society enshrined in many rules of Indian society in bygone days are now a matter of the past. but by a positive moral desire and commitment in that direction. Experience in the field dictates that some thought should go to the modalities of the social legislation and their enforcement to make the whole process genuinely effective as a vehicle for faster growth towards social equality and social justice. a nouveau regime can emerge only if man assumes responsibility for his actions and makes his own society. equality. The changes in social institutions do not occur by themselves. Frantz Fanon. points out that a society can grow if it can constructively respond to challenges. However . It is only now that the need of liberty. security.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED favourable to the aspirations of the infaust segments of its populace. Jean-Paul Sartre confirms the idea when in Preface to Fanon’ he says. The theory of “ Challenge and response” as expounded by the great British historian Arold Toynbee. 199 . SOCIAL LAWS AS ‘CLEANSING FORCES’ Johan Galtung defines “ Structural violence” as “ The dominance of one group over the other with subsequent exploitative practices” in “Peace Thinking”. “ Violence. The pirlicue of this statement implies that preferential treatment by the state to certain segments of the society to superate its dominance by the others becomes at the outset an act of injustice and structural violence by the state. the zest in enacting the legislations is not amated by the political will to enforce them. fear and frustration as parameters of social justice are realised.

the Constitution recognised the inadequacy of legal eqality in meeting the exigencies of social justice when it recognised the necessity of special measures to uplift socially deprived segments and constates in sub-section (4) of Article 15 that the constitutional provisions do not prevent the states from making any special provision for the advancement of any socially and educationally backward classes of citizens or the scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. the albatross of orchestrating these thoughts to the mosaic of the laws of the land falls on the government. beliefs and value in addition to social control. sex. the awakening and metabasis to new values of social equality and social justice from the deep slumber of a millennium are not easy to come by. Social laws function as catalysts of social change in the Indian situation. However. SOCIAL LAWS Law is an instrument of both the continuity of social behaviour and of social change. Though isolated calls for certain changes are heard mostly from the self-made spokesmen of the oppressed classes because of the influences of liberal western thoughts. The barbarous praxis of untouchability was made punishable by enactment of the Untouchability (Offences) Act in the same year in conformity with Article 17 of the Indian constitution. creed. This exception in the constitution to legal isonomy is the cornucopia of most social legislations intended to misprise the crude ancien regime and usher in a dream world of social equality and social justice. The Dowry 200 . It has not only the function of social control but it has also to bring about social change by influencing behavior. form the bedrock of living for historical reasons and embedded in the Indian psyche as consuetudes and basic social rules more majorum. or equal protection of the law.PRAVEEN KUMAR SOCIAL JUSTICE IN INDIAN CONSTITUTION The Indian Constitution in its preamble preconises social justice and quality of status and opportunity to all the article 14 constates fundamental rights while it declares that the state shall not deny to any person equality before law.Kuppuswamy in his book “ Social Change in India” writes about two functions of the law according to this view is social control and the major problem of law is to design the legal sanctions to minimise deviances and to maintain social stability. The Article 15 interdicts any kind of discrimination on grounds of caste. In Indian society where social inequalities more suo. Professor B. “ Immemorial custom is transcendent law” Social consuetudes metamorphose into social laws in rerum natura and perpetuate social customs. The social laws of India are devised to bear the kiaugh of the dynamic function of bringing about social change by influencing behavious. Manu had said. SOCIAL CHANGES THROUGH LAWS IN INDIA Most of the important social laws were enacted in India in the face of plangent opposition from reactionaries inveterated in the terra firma of the past practices. law could be more dynamic. The Hindu adoption and Maintenance Act of 1956 straightened the position of women in regard to the right to adopt. The Hindu Succession Act of 1956 is a meith in bringing daughters on pariel with sons in a respect of property inheritance. beliefs and values”. According to the other view. The queasy practice of polygamy was made hors la loi and divorce was legalised by the Hindu Marriage Act of 1955. birth etc.

the Bonded Labour Abolition Act. The Sati prohibition Act 1829. the Special Marriage Act of 1872 providing for civil marriages and inter-caste marriages as amended in 1923. the Child Marriage Restraint Act of 1929 the Payment of Wages Act of 1939 providing for regular payment of wages. the Act of 1922 defining a child and preventing a child below 12 years for employment. the Trade Union Act of 1926 which legalised trade unions the Workmen’s Compensation Act of 1923 providing for compensation to workers for accidents. The Employment Exchange Act of 1959 provided for state help to unemployed citizens to get jobs. British India too saw much of the momentous legilsations conducive to change and social justice. the law as a device of legal sanction against deviations there-from. disablements and death on duty. The children Act of 1960 provided for special care of children. the Hindu Widow Remarriage Act of 1856. 201 . the Protection of Civil Right Enforcement Act of 1976 and amendments thereon. the law proves ill-equipped and falls into desuetude while it seeks to introduce intempestive social norms as a means of social justice for ‘ forced compliance’ as Festinger called it in An Analysis of Compliant Behaviour’. the 1983 amendments to the Dowry Prohibition Act are important instances of such a nisus. All these incipient legislations of independent India on social matters were enacted as vindicated by the directive principles of state policy in line with the fundamental rights enunciated in the Indian Constitution. The paradigm is the law regarding dowry and child marriage being not as effective as that pertaining to monogamy for lack of social force behind it. However. the Female Infanticide Prevention Act of 1870 . the Industrial Dispute Act of 1929 providing for settlement of disputes.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED Prohibition Act of 1961 tried to deliver nubile colleens from the menace of dowry. The trend to usher social change through new legislations or amendments to old ones is en train even in this neoteric age. Article 24 of the Constitution sui juris interdicted employment of children below 14 years of age in factories. The Factory Act of 1948 raised the minimum age of workers to 14 years and provided for annual medical examination of minor workers. SOCIAL NORMS AND SOCIAL LAWS Whenever the enactment of law is consectaneous to a change in social norms. the Act of 1931 and its 1946 amendment reducing hours to work a week are major keeks to social change via social laws. The Debt Relief Act of 1976. succeeds in legalising these neonate social norms.

concepts in social laws must be formulated with utmost caution. The enactment of social laws that are intended to accord primacy to social norms must be preceded by intensive fieldwork to introduce the newell and make them acceptable to the society and enactment should be resorted to only when the idea becomes ripe enough to be assimilated by the society because the symbiosis of social norms and social laws is inseparable. The subjectivity involved in understanding the law society. Social laws that are abstruse and unacceptable to the plebeian are destined to atrophy because they lack en arriere the inherent mechanism of compelling society to comply with their writ. It is in this sense. Haste brings definite waste in respect of the enactment of social laws. This need of the social laws being balked is the quiddity of the serious setbacks faced in making certain social laws like the Dowry Prohibition Act or the Child Marriage Act effective. They have relevance in a society only if they are unrevocably concinnous with everyday lives of its members. the persons comminated by the shallow social laws are simple innocent plebeians who are caught 202 . Another major hurdle in calling social change through law is the failure by the authors of the laws to clearly comprehend and indite in them the causes and mechanisms of the immane social evils they intended to contain through the laws themselves. from the society and for the society. though the process from the antipode can be inchoated if their assimilation by the society is assured through active propagation.in terms of their ken of the laws and its general acceptance. discrimination. It is an understandable glitch when commonsense concepts like dowry. weakening the credibility of the law itself. that social laws which are lex non scripta are indited with the stamp of approbation of the state by popular demand. Often. A kenspeckle feature noted in most social laws is the lack of perspicacity in definition of the concepts involved. the inchoate ambiguity continues to confound the issues in the popular mind.PRAVEEN KUMAR ENFORCEMENT OF SOCIAL JUSTICE Social laws can be social laws only if they are of the society. Though postliminary amendments to the law based on field experience and interpretations of the concepts by courts attempt to impale the concepts to a prim form. The effectiveness of social laws depends entirely on their assimilation by society and the strength of propagation and publicity that follows the enactment of the laws. It is for this reason. practice of untouchability. The louche spectrum of the impair interpretations of a concept can turn an offence to innocence and more perniciously. The abhorred social practices that manifest as social evils are only the external symptoms of serious malady inveterate in the psyche of the society. an innocent person into a criminal according to the predilection of the investigating officer. labour. compensation or even marriage makes the quandary of the commission or noncommission of an offence wafer-thin and often a matter of opinion based on interpretation of the concepts involved. Attempts to strike at these skin-deep symptoms prove infructuous in reaching the malady embedded in the vitals of the system.

It is not possible to arrive at a uniform definition of concepts like harassment. should be fittingly treated if the malady is to be deracinated with all traces of its existence. All social laws must have some postern features incorpsed to make them effective as vehicles of positive social change in view of the delicate ground the laws cover in their operation wherein people in their interpersonal relationships are often involved in the hide and seek game of everyday life. Only a springe mind with full grasp of the social problems in the circumstances of the existing situation can indagate and handle levers sine prole to set in motion the laws that can strike at the core of the social malady. should tackle au fond the social situations that breed such immane symptoms and the law to be kind and understanding in saving in innocent people caught in the social clamancy. The scope for corrective and remedial action and rehabilitation must form an integral part of social laws to avoid the impression about the social laws as indulging in supererogations to catch trivial slips of everyday life and ergo popularly abhorred. sine dubio. The laws warrant special accoutrements to counter the nonasuch quailings e re nata as discussed in the ensuing paragraphs. A person living in a closed society in a village has no alternative but to practice untouchability against his conscience to save himself from ostracism unless he is a zealous social reformer prepared to sacrifice his own interests for the cause. In a competitive business world involving child labour or meager wages. in such circumstances. The laws should provide the pollicitation of punishing the prime perpetrators of the social injustices rather than catching secondary or tertiary commis to the commission of the offences. non obstante the criminality of the act. no enactments of social laws are preceded by such vigorous exercises and the impotency of the laws to excoriate the social evils are inevitably consectaneous. Also. It is almost impossible to demarcate when an act in a given social situation is trivial and when it attains serious proportions. an attempt by an individual to stand out in compliance to laws against child labour and low wages is a sure way to close down his enterprise. The external symptoms. The state. cannot but accept dowry for his son to assure a reasonability contented married life for his daughters even at the risk of being immanacled as his conscience is clean about accepting the dowry. The social offences are both trivial and serious-trivial in the nature of the acts and serious in the nature of its consequences.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED unawares by the laws while they tread the path laid by their ancestors by wont or perform acts they consider essential in the existing social circumstances. Effectively orchestrated public education and concomitant vigorous social service programmes aimed at changing specific social situations that boost socially unjust practices must form an integral part of every social law. However. This requires advanced study of these immane practices and their social backgrounds involving psychological and anthropological analysis apart from adequate public discussion within the society. differences in norms and values and varying sensitivity and moods further complicate the issue. practice of untouchability or compensation as acceptable to all situations. A poor father of four girls and a boy in the circumstances of prevalent admissibility of dowry in the social psyche. The glisk of undesirable social practices leading to painful hurtling of laws often are the consequences of the existing social situations. such approaches are secondary to the concerted attack on the ingrained malady which forms the cornucopia of those symptoms. This exigency is generally balked in most social laws. 203 . Unfortunately.

also drives him to prevent those injustices in his group. is likely to lessen the ineluctable disabilities of the oppressed people. The possibility of summary trails for social offences also should be 204 . A provision and concomitant device in social laws to protect the interests of the witnesses en revanche to their ready cooperation helps investigation of the social offences. The social laws should abnegate the behoofs of the anticipatory bail unless the person against whom a prima facie case is made out satisfies the court about his innocence. The cabal of the versute gens de condition resorting to social evils necessitates some sui generis safeguards to be inherent in social laws to make up for the nether social position of the wronged person and checkmate the malengine and pravity of the powerful. In the circumstances. Each social law must provide ample opportunity for compromise on mutuus consensus with an in-built raisonne mechanism prescribed to ensure corrective and remedial measures in fit cases not involving serious guilt where such a compromise is certain to ameliorate the position of the wronged persons. leading to the weak and oppressed again submitting to the tyranny of the powerful for the sake of survival. The penal sections of the social laws inter alia must provide for huge fines and compensations with provisions to streamline the fines and compensations for rehabilitation of the victims or their dependants. Though such presumptions are extant to varying degrees now in some special laws.PRAVEEN KUMAR Social injustices are perforce committed by the pollent on weak and hapless people. The present queasy trend of prompt anticipatory bails to fugacious social offenders can be brought under control by this measure. In the present argument-oriented judicial system where mother justice takes sides on the basis of the kind of the lawyer being engaged on the strengths of money and power. reluctant witnesses for the fear of reprisals from the society though injustice done to one of them turns their clinamen against the guilty. Such criminal liability on the el patron while it checks him from encouraging or indirectly fomenting commission of such offences through his acolytes in the social group. with provisions to prove innocence laying with them. no social law can do justice to the weak and feckless gens de peu who are misdight and nonpareil to their adversaries for the juste rencontre except in rare obvious cases non obstante the state sponsored legal aid programmes. The special laws must provide for vicarious liability that suspends over the head of the social group concerned even though there is no evidence to ineatenate him with the offence. The social nature of the offences in social laws makes witnesses to the offence who are insiders of the society in most cases. from proving the wrong usually done at the convenience and terms of the powerful guilty person sans evidences in the social situation under his prise. Appropriate amendments to the Indian Evidence Act to incorpse provisions of sweeping presumptions in social laws against the accused persons on whom a prime-facie case is made out. independent of the malicho of the pollent guilty persons. It is strikingly so in social situations where the exigencies of survival and coexistence and future interests force the parties generally inter-related to apostatise and bury the past cicatrix. There should be mandatory minimum punishments prescribed in all social laws so that the laws become inherently mordant. each social law should prescribe time limits for the continuation of the investigation and trial. Such presumptions save the wronged persons. the presumptions must be made a toute force in all social laws. It is rightly said that justice delayed is justice denied.

that they are dealing with a wider social malady through the individual symptoms in their hands for solution and ergo there are no villains in real sense of the term. 205 . The police also requires periodical programmes of sensitisation for the cause of social justice with exhaustive theoretical inputs. a prominent lawyer. It should have the right ken of the social circumstances and their problems with a deep sense of commitment to social justice. the address and telephone number of the Authority being known in every village in the taluq is the clavis of perficient chevisance because then anybody wronged can readily lodge querimonies for redressal. The device can be made a reality by the constitution of Social Justice Authorities at taluq levels under a judicial magistrate with a police officer. The raison d’etre of social laws is the extirpation of social inequalities and the establishment of a just society. The Authority should be able to reach every village in the taluq at least once a month. These officers should be au fait in social legislations which are proliferating in geometrical proportion. The leitmotiv behind the set-up is to affect compromises and rehabilitate victims by levying fines and compensations if necessary. a representative of local women’s organisations and a representative of the legal aid board as members. The Authority must have an office with a multi-channel telephone working round the clock with a widely publicised number by dialing which anybody without giving identification can report socially unjust practices so that the Authority as a team reaches the destination within twenty-four hours and passes orders on-the-spot on hearing the concerned parties. These operators should be kind and devoid of the malfeasance of harsh police methods and should never forget that they are dealing with distinct problems which are the outcome of historical reasons and special social situations. The social police should have its parallel organisations at all levels as per specific needs with distinct recruitment. The administration of social laws is a specialised task requiring specialised skills in the police force handling the job. This exigency necessitates the constitution of a special police force to handle social laws which may be called ‘ Social Police’ distinct from the normal police in charge of regulatory and other police duties. that they are social doctors interests only excision of the cancerous growths from society. an officer of the social welfare department. The approach of the Authority in adjudication must be that of an adviser or well –wisher rather that that of a government organisation steeped in technicalities. preceding the invoking of penal sections in lost cases. training and sensitization facilities. In such a system. The Authority must exercise pernoctation over the process of the compliances to the orders and pass sentences in cases of default. The Authority must work as a team in the taluq to hear cases of socially unjust practices on the spot and adjudicate them then and there without resorting to judicial technicalities and adjournments. The social laws true to their intentions must seek a device by which every case of social wrong draws the attention of the authority for frack intervention and on-the–spot solutions which is statutorily binding on both the parties to avoid the crush of the penal sections. The force has to be understanding and circumspect in its approach though tenacious when circumstances warrant.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED probed into and employed as extensively as possible to ensure the galvanic trial of social offences. The telos can be better achieved if the laws are structured to effect compromises to rehabilitate a bon droit the wronged persons. This special decession from policing necessitates special care in recruitments to the job to draw people of appropriate mental makeup and impart specialised training to reinforce those special attribution.

A judiciary sensitized it de regueur if the cause of social justice is to be served in the trial stage. The same can be said about easy anticipatory bails and easy release of persons arrested for social offences and light sentences to convicted persons or failure to appreciate available evidences which leads to frequent acquittals.PRAVEEN KUMAR An extra-ordinary commitment to the social cause and out-of –the normal alacrity in tackling social problems should be the hallmarks of the social police. The specialisation also facilitates fast disposals while the sensitzation helps to see through the gravity of the offences so that unduly light sentences are not pronounced and persons arrested for social offences are not wantonly released on bail. Delayed trails of social offences are more a reality than an exception while promptitude is a virtue de rigueur for tackling social offences. a committed judiciary should be the bedrock of these courts where hand-picked magistrates or judges committed a fond to social justice and specially sensitized to the social causes preside. The courts. The establishments of social courts to try exclusively social offences of al hues is en regle in the circumstances and should prove efficacious. As distinct from conventional courts. Similarly. 206 . A case of social offence would be feracious in the hands of a prosecutor who is committed to social justice and specially sensitized for social causes. specially handpicked lawyers should be posted as prosecutors to the social courts. The inquietude of delays are often caused by lack of commitment to social causes. These prosecutors should be selected on the basis of their commitment to social justice and undergo a course in sensitization to social causes prior to their posting to handle social offences. owing to their specialisation in trying social offences would be in a better position to appreciate the special circumstances of the offences and therefore appreciate evidences in the right perspective and with sympathetic understanding. Such a predicament for social offences when they are treated on par with conventional cases in courts in natural because of the popular perception of the social offences as trivial social problems.

SENSITISATION AND SPECIAL SKILLS Administration of social laws is a specialised task requiring sensitisation to social issues and social justice and special skills sine qua non for handling socially sensitive cases. race. place of birth or any of them”. economic and political. sex. caste. Police is the tool. and Equality as of status and opportunity. diagnose and treat misease in the body of the society through the administration of laws and surgical operations. Economic and social equality are inter-knitted with the cause of social justice for the reason that economic status and opportunities more often than not decide the position of religions. ROLE OF POLICE Police are called social doctors. Their role as the ultimate enforcers of social laws brings them centrestage in the cause of social justice. The principle of equality enjoined by the Constitution gains significance vis a vis the long tradition of discriminations and exploitations in India on the basis of religion. Article 14 that speaks about equality before the law or the equal protection of the laws. Their fight against the evils of a long tradition and practices accepted by the society as legitimate by the stamp of time is a protracted and frustrating struggle against the convictions imbued deep into the psyche of the society. The Preamble of the Constitution identifies justice as social. Discriminations and exploitations are the deadly cancers that seize and disintegrate a society. race. These declarations of the Constitution provide the framework of social justice of the Sovereign Socialist Secular Democratic Republic of India. Indian Constitution also seeks to establish economic equality. These operators should be kind and devoid of the malfeasance of immane police methods. They examine. races. Indian Constitution seeks to bring a halt to the vide through the State Power. that they are dealing with a wider social malady through the specific symptoms in their hands for solution and ergo there are no villains in the real sense of the term in the extant 207 . Police handling these cases have to be understanding and circumspect though tenacious when circumstances warrant sans temulence of power and surquedry. Police are dutybound to keep these maladies under check. never forget that they are dealing with distinct issues which are the outcome of historical reasons and special social situations. Article 16 that speaks about the equality of opportunity in matters of public employment and Article 17 that speaks about abolition of untouchability are mere extensions and applications of the Article 15 (1). caste and sex. castes and sexes in society.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED ROLE OF POLICE IN THE CAUSE OF SOCIAL JUSTICE Article 15 (1) of the Constitution of India lays down that “ The State shall not discriminate against any citizen on grounds only of religion.

caste and sex are exploited most. 208 . Police are required to attend these problems with discreetness and circumspection in the best interests of the society and justice. This makes witnesses to crimes reluctant witnesses for the fear of reprisals. Power and strength make all the differences in this world. Those who have access to these powers and strengths come out successful irrespective of their race. political power and muscle power constitute real power and strength. Ability to handle situations with creative ingine is the core of the skill of handling socially sensitive cases. Discrimination against and exploitation of have-nots by the well-to-do is the elan of all discriminations of race. knowledge. each individually and in groups discriminating against the other. Weak and powerless sections of society in race. LOCUS STANDI OF ECONOMIC INEQUALITIES Discriminations and exploitations based on race and caste take myriad forms and shapes in India of a million races and castes. They have to be sensitive to human sufferings and committed to social justice. NEED OF CIRCUMSPECTION Social injustices of discrimination and exploitation are committed by the pollent on their weaker counterparts. The main strain of this discrimination is about 20% of the country’s population specified by the President as Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes under Articles 341 and 342 respectively of the Constitution being discriminated against and exploited by forward communities.PRAVEEN KUMAR issues. rehabilitation and compensation become important factors from the human side of the issue and the need of a fair settlement gains ground. caste and sex are discriminated against and exploited most. caste and sex. The natural resourcefulness of the police comes to the fore in handling such obstacles. In nonserious cases where possibility of exploitation in future is ruled out. However discreetness and circumspection are the calves here. The police also require periodical programmes to sensitise them to the cause of social equality and social justice. In a social situation where the exigencies of survival. Those who have access to these powers and strength. that they are social doctors interested only in excising cancerous growths from the society. commitment of the police to the goal of social justice plays a crucial role in bringing offenders to the book and absterging evils from the body of the society. mental ability. Money. Thesecharacteristics thought to be alien to police nature are not easy to come to police unless recruitment process takes special care to draw men of appropriate mental makeup to the force and their training process is programmed to reinforce the characteristics. arms and weapons are in position to give spine to the weak and powerless in discharge of duties towards social justice. coexistence and security force rival parties to bury the hatchet and the weaker of the two submit again to the tyranny of the pollent for the sake of survival. The police with their statutory powers. It is the weak and powerless irrespective of race. laws. Caste and sex practised in extant India.

kidnapping. abduction. 1995 and the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes ( Prevention of Atrocities) Act 1989 as amended from time to time and rules thereunder. Making enforcements of social laws a show-piece of deterrence also helps. Involvement and participation of the police with a sympathetic commitment to social justice is the clavis. They are duty-bound to trace the cases of misrepresentation of castes to knock off the benefits given by the government orders pertaining to reservations to these groups of the society. Police have responsibilities to give relief under rules and laws pertaining to bonded labour. The discrimination and exploitation accounts for about 50% of the population committing injustices against the other 50% and for this reason assumes serious dimensions as a social malady. The psychological aspect needs emphasis in policing against social evils. The immane approach of the rich and powerful to their weaker counterparts has to be countered with the strong arm methods of the state power through its tool of police. dowry harassments. Psyhological support implies carrying out above responsibilities with an added objective of creating a sense of confidence and well-being in the exploited sections of the society. unnatural offences. CIVIL RIGHTS ENFORCEMENT Civil Rights Directorates au reste the executive police bear the responsibility of protecting the interests of the exploited races and castes of the society. debt relief and land grants. most offences against women are punishable under the Indian Penal Code. Unlike offences against weaker races and castes. causing forcible miscarriage and forcing to prostitution are the most common outrages committed against women by the more powerful men. insulting the modesty under section 509 and forcible miscarriage under section 314. Police endeavour to guarantee strict enforcement of the provisions of The Protection of Civil Rights Act. The discreetness and circumspection needed to make this task of social justice possible cannot be indited in law and has to be exercised by the police by its own commitment to the cause of social justice. The responsibilities of the police is to ensure that really weak and helpless among these weaker sections get maximum benefits of the state protection and benevolence. marriage offences under sections from 493 to 498. abduction and kidnapping under sections from 364 to 369. eves teasing. Enforcing laws for its own sake does not help tackling social issues. outraging the modesty under section 354. au reste keeping pernoctation on violations of constitutional safeguards and protections to Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED CONFIDENCE BUILDING Police support to weaker sections can be physical and psychological. ATROCITIES AGAINST WOMEN Rape. strict enforcement of social laws and honest investigation to violations. outraging modesty. rape and unnatural offences come under sections from 375 to 377. marriage offences. Physical support covers aspects like providing protection. The Suppression 209 .

in-laws and their associates. Police must go pari passu with these developments and differentiate between justice and injustice selon les regles in force at the time. In this sense. The Dowry Prohibition Act. 1961 with its amendments of 1984 and 1986 and rules thereunder deal with dowry harassments and dowry deaths either by homicide or abetment to commit suicide caused against young girls by their husbands. The deciduous nature of social laws necessiates circumspect approach in their enforcement for the reason that mens rea in the sense it is used in conventional offences may be absent in these cases. 1956 and its amendment in 1986 with rules thereunder deal with offences relating to immoral traffic in women and girls. Each such case outrages the patience of thinking people and rouses passion and outcry against the perpetrators of the crime.PRAVEEN KUMAR of Immoral Traffic in Women and Girls Act.46/83) brought further safeguards to women during the investigation and trial of offences under immoral traffic and dowry prohibition Acts. Effective enforcement of social laws reinforces reigning social norms and values by giving them the teeth of law. The change of the face of social justice brings new social laws with it. Dowry death cases have become sensational topical issues these days with the public being highly sensitised to the menace of the crime which deliver an innocent girl at the death’s door. No age has a right to preconise its own norms and values as absolute and peremptory. The Criminal Law (Amendment) Act.1983 (No. Social justice is a glidder concept that changes its hues with time depending on prevailing social norms and social values. The police must give special importance to the prevention and investigation processes of these crimes.1983 (No. every social law is passe and peregrine beyond its immediate time frame.43/83) and The Criminal Law (2nd Amendment) Act. 210 . How it is done depends on the commitment of the police to the cause of social justice and equality.

women find themselves at the receiving end.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED STATUS OF WOMEN IN EMERGING INDIA Indian culture treats women with utmost reverence. Most of these offences are punishable under the Indian Penal Code: in sections from 375 to 377. by men. she is compared with the mother earth. The cardinal principle of the survival of the fittest applies to the weak natural attributes of woman which renders her less fit for survival than man. she is considered as the prikriti or the basic nature. Great epics of India like Ramayana and Mahabharata revolve around female characters like Sita and Draupadi. Nature created women different from men with a definite purpose. offences related to marriage being subjected to penal provisions in sections from 493 to 498. abduction and kidnapping girls for various purposes being punishable in sections from 364 to 369. This is only an illustration of the status of women in India. This part of woman is symbolised in tradition by calling her as the Mother Earth who bears all sufferings. The immane approach of the stronger world to its weaker counterparts has to be countered with strong arm methods of the state power. India too has several legislations that have become Acts to protect its women folk. However . outraging the modesty of a woman in section 354 and insulting the modesty 211 . She is considered as the moving force of life. In a country and culture where a sacrificial animal is treated as sacred and worshipped before slaughtered. Balance is stillness and stagnation. for rape and unnatural offences. for men. the importance given to them in the scheme of the history and affairs of human life. causing miscarriage without consent and prostitution. insulting the modesty. In a world where strength commands charity and weakness receives cruelty and humiliations. It is mother who gets precedence over all other principles of life including father and god in importance. the honour and reverence with which they are held from time immemorial. god resides there. women suffered all along the centuries with patience and in silence. conceptual realties remain far removed from ground realities and may even symbolise dangers ahead as ground realities. abduction and kidnapping for various purposes and outraging their modesty apart from minor acts like various marriage offences. Nobody can gainsay these factors in the scheme of Indian life. In the process. Woman is identified with Adi Shakti or the primordial energy. Indian scriptures state that where women are revered. They ended up as the weaker half of society by their very nature and are naturally handicapped in a world of men. It is particularly true about the status of women in India. In an enlightened age such as this. dowry and other harassments. Atrocities against women in India are mainly rape and unnatural offences. It is presumed that there is a woman behind every great event of the world. dowry deaths. Nature designed life and motion by means of the imbalance brought about in the traits of men and women. these are conceptual realities. people in public life are sufficiently sensitized to this issue and more and more legislations come up to stop stronger people from riding over the weak and meek. Woman’s avatar as mother is treated as the highest manifestation of human relationships. She must live with his atrocities unless and until society in an enlightened mood comes to her rescue. imbalance is motion and progress.

. The power. It became a fashion even in tiny villages of India to comfort while a female baby was born. Section 314 makes causing miscarriage without women’s consent. 1993 (No. Rise in female education as noticed in the first decades of the present century opened up the aboideau of the resistance to sexual discrimination. It made it patent that it is the power one weilds that makes the difference. It crumbled male chauvinism. the reservations towards recruiting or promoting women thinned and ultimately disappeared. a punishable act. status and influence generated from the jobs add to the solidification of the status of women in 212 . As a result. will remain as a meith in ameliorating the status of women in the annals of Indian history. and in turn. Economic strength generated by jobs has successfully boosted the self-Image of women in India. Nineteen. 1986 and rules framed by states u/s 23 of the Act deal with offences relating to immoral traffic in women and girls. Indira Gandhi was a product of the time.PRAVEEN KUMAR in section 509 being offences. it gradually picked up pace as decades passed by. sexual equality is a reality already. After Indira Gandhi. Indeed. Though India have innumerable valiant queens in its history who led huge armies against formidable armies and fought jusqu au bout. As a result. they were out-of-turn phenomena at their respective times and seldom touched the chords of the women among the commoners. 1956 with the Suppression of Immoral Traffic in Women and Girls (Amendment). sexual discrimination in jobs is a matter of past now. sine dubio. As far as jobs are concerned. The trend of women going for jobs and pursuing professions started far before the advent of Indira Gandhi at the centre-stage. Indira Gandhi in 1966 and the grit and strength displayed by her as the Prime Minister of India and as the only real woman among the parliamentarians of the time. Sensitization of the people and the government in the recent past to the ground-realities has brought sea-changes in the status of women. Her advent revolutionised the trend. as a phenomenon. more and more fields and higher and higher slots opened up for them. But. revolutionised the concept of womanhood in India. of the process of the awakening of the women. Economic liberation is the touch-stone of all other liberations. More and more people realise that is skill and other abilities that count in doing a job well and not the sex of the performer. these are subtle realisantions that shook the thoughts of the people though none said it in so many words to them. The historical cowerings of great leaders of India of the time before Mrs. women in jobs became more a rule than an exception and they looked for progressively higher slots and sought fields where never before women stepped into. the child may also become a Prime Minister or somebody big like her. not the sex of the person who weilds it. Rise of Mrs. As time passed by. she greatly contributed for the advancement of the process.43/83) provided for in camera trial of rape cases and also enlarged the scope of rape cases by placing the burden of proving innocence on the accused persons apart from making penal sections more mordant.Indira Gandhi exposed the halo of the male superiority as hollow.Act. The Suppression of Immoral Traffic in Women and Girls Act.seventies is a watermark in the process. particularly in cases of custodial rapes by public servants. The Criminal Law (Amendment) Act. The advent of Mrs. It humbled male pride. Indira Gandhi. Mrs. that who knows. The Indira Gandhi phenomenon helped to improve the status of women in India in another way. Though the process was very slow in principio .

woman is favoured in recruitments and promotions because of her natural sincerity. The equality of man and woman on the field certainly tilts the balance of advantage in favour of woman because of the favour with which she is accustomed to be seen. Being an evil. Percase. Given equal chances. They are in limine. It is only a matter of time before India is free from the prise of this shameful menace. It is culture. women are overtaking men. Such a historical process takes its own time. Evils like dowry are bound to be wiped out of the earth of India in the emerging atmosphere. Often the reality is distorted by man by his brutish physical strength as against the gentle mental and spiritual 213 . It is good for the future of the humanity. separate entities by themselves. Dowry is only one though primus interpares among various immane manifestations of adjustment problems to which the tender psyche of a young girl is exposed after her marriage. Dowry death cases have become sensational topical issues these days with the public being highly sensitised to the menace of the offences with the unfortunate swelchie of cruel practices and circumstances deliver an innocent girl at death’s door. press. woman has an edge over man. but also lightless and lifeless Not that woman and man are really equal. Humanity can survive only if women with their far superior attributes. If to be compared at all. The entire process of social legislations and their enforcement is only a distant link in the whole catena of luctation warranted to achieve this end. Nature meant them to be unequal for its own purposes and process. judiciary and police handle dowry death cases on a special footing. inveterate in Indian soil from millenniums. It is a happy development. the gentle and amenable caractere of the female breed expose hers to the natural selection for the purpose. a historical process like deracinating the assuetude of dowry cannot take place overnight. All institutions of society including the government. In this sense. Each such case outrages the patience of thinking people and rouses the passion and outcry against the perpetraters of the offence. The emerging sexual equality has another happy face vis a vis the conceptual reality of the reverence and importance given to women in India and Indian culture from times immemorial. lead men en face in addition to being driving forces en arriere. This tilt of balance is not a forced one on the man. honesty and devotion to work. Basically. who is selected for this difficile gauntlet of transformation in the process of familial socialising. An integrated approach to all these symptoms of adjustment problems to which a girl is suddenly exposed while her persona is yet unprepared to meet the gauntlets alone can bring deliverance to the fairer sex of the human genre. It is an irony of nature and social customs that it is the woman who is delicate in nature rather than the man. It is civilisation. And emerging India happily is on the road. The process is on. but one volunteered hors de combat because of the natural attributes of a woman’s characteristics . they are in-comparable quantums. it brings an entire metamorphosis in the form and contents of her life and in the process exposes her to inopinate adaptation problems.. Marriage is often called the second birth in a girl’s life. In the process death of the most unfortunate of them by felo de se or homicide because of the grind of the circumstances has become an unfortunate phenomenon. Man sans woman is not only incomplete. women’s organisations. This tilt is already in evidence.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED emerging India. The police too give special importance to the investigation of these cases and closely supervises the investigation process.

PRAVEEN KUMAR attributes of woman and he forcibly cornered all opportunities of growth. women as nature designed it for them. go ahead of men and lead them to a far better world then existing now. A cultured and civilized world must provide this natural opportunity to its women-folk for its own good. 214 . This is what is happening in emerging India. If women are opened up to their de jure opportunities.

is a secret known to all. dangers. coordination. prostitution. there is a crime. land grabbing. Powerful and the underworld complement each other for mutual benefits and the arrangements usually cover politicians in power. sui generis professional norms. adulteration of petroleum products. Silence and secrecy are the keys here. indulging in crimes like smuggling. running vice-dens of gambling. fear. silence. drug peddling. The combination is deadly and the result is powerful connections at right places doing right things at right times in their interests. those high-up in judiciary and enforcement agencies including the police. efficiency and wideranging infrastructures. Thus develops an axis between underworld and the powerful to the detriment of the country. loyalties. motivation. communication system. infrastructure. secrecy. Enormous ill-gotten wealth amassed by criminal methods bring powerful connections within the reach of crime syndicates to twist the arms of law. the all important ruthless efficiency. competent direction. right recruitments. This position places them in a pivotal role vis a vis crime syndicate survives without the active backing of the police. there is underworld indulged in making unlimited profits. data collection. Police being hand in glove with the underworld. Added to this are the ruthlessness and the enormous wealth of the crime world. Might is right there and only the fittest survive. values and norms of action render them worlds apart. bars. Though underworld and open world coexist on the surface of the Earth. They are the bridge between the open world and the underworld and form a protective sheath between the two. UNDERWORLD DYNAMICS Underworld indulges in extortions. They are antisocials and threats to the peace and security of the law-abiding society. Animal side of man is at its best in this business of organised crimes. behind every great crime. targets. HAND IN GLOVE Underworld is an independent world per se. Here various gangs coexist with deadly rivalry or alliance and partnership. POWERFUL CONNECTIONS Pollent organisation is both a strength and weakness of crime syndicates. There is no road in between. and with it. top bureaucrats.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED POLICE AND THE UNDERWORLD Behind every great fortune. protection money rackets. efficient execution. their objectives. outlaws. arms shipments. through planning. The police get a farthing share in the res gestae as the quid pro quo many times over their salary. Choice in the netherland is between success and imminent death. It is only the police from the open world keep avizefull eyes on the underworld. massage parlours etc. said Balzac. Organisation provides these gangs the benefits of a well-oiled management machinery: objectives. wealth. leadership and accountability. Gangs operate in violation of accepted social norms to make fast buck. cabret. hawala 215 . The support boosts their confidence and gives strength to their criminal activities. It is a world of crimes.

An epinosic outcome of mafioso operating from inimical foreign countries and joining hands with its governments is the misuse of the former’s criminal networks for subversive activities in the host country. disloyalty is met with immediate lynching. Dons guide operations from foreign countries inimical and having no extradition treaty with the host country a la Dawood Ibrahim holed up in Karachi with his many lieutenants operating from Gulf and Far-East countries. Reason lies in the enormous money the underworld generates and spends. The don continues to be at large. members of the underworld are liberally rewarded for their work and loyalty and their families are protected and looked after for life in case of the bread-winner being killed or jailed. It has the option of taking on the fighting the might of the state represented by the police or keeping it contented and in good humour. His various factions continue to operate in Bombay and other cities of India sans souce. their antinational and antisocial nature and their ability to generate huge money in a short duration. Heads of crime syndicates operate with remote control. As a result. The ISI of Pakistan used Dawood Ibrahim in the serial bomb blasts of 1993 in Bombay. The operations involve risks at every step. Police conducts prearranged raids under publicity blitz to straighten records once in a way. kidnappings for ransom and other tricks of making quick money in violation of the rules of the country. production and sale of apocryphal products. the underworld opts for cooperation in sharing a farthing fraction of its res gestae with enforcing agencies like the police. All cares are taken to cover anything that constitutes valid evidence to crimes committed. Three facts that keep underworld operations distinct are their secrecy. The underworld operates on the knowledge that mere knowledge does not constitute evidence in court of law. Contract killers are made use. forgeries in securities. Being clever and astute businessmen as they are and huge profits at stake. LUCRI CAUSA More often than not.PRAVEEN KUMAR transactions. These operations are large scale illegal enterprises run as a teamwork in secrecy and ergo the need to keep a band of loyal and committed followers. extra-judicial settlement of disputes under threats. who is who in the underworld and who is behind what is a public knowledge. Hi-tech communication systems come to them before it reaches police. Silence and secrecy is the method. In cases of genuine raids by greenhorns. This is while their subversive activities like the serial bomb blasts in Bombay resemble an undeclared war and seriously sabotaged the security and peace of the country! The factions continue to operate with great abandon in their traditional strongholds like Bombay and spread to other major cities like Bangalore sans a trace of remorse. UNDESIRABLE AXIS Though silence and secrecy are cardinal in underworld operations to help evade proofs and the arms of law. the activities at that scale can hardly go unnoticed by professionals like police. Similarly. This is only 216 . Cut-outs is the technique. Law enforcing agencies and rival organisations are heels to undermine their goals. underworld fautors are alerted in advance ab intra. Underworld knows it. The backing underworld receives from the police constitutes its spine in pursuing more and more daring and dangerous schemes. It is public knowledge that top politicians of the country from different political parties including a former central minister were investigated and tried for harbouring associates of Dawood Ibrahim. Here also cases fall through in silence as a rule in courts.

spread and ultimately take over that. GLAMOUR Plush money and wealth make underworld a fastuous world. It does everything to grow. Underworld has become a highly lucrative business in India. Plans of attacks on rivals were plotted in posh hotels and bars and murders were committed in daylight. Such a fredaine is not possible 217 . Members of the underworld are seen in finest dresses. It uses every trick in the book to win over an own following. film production of construction business. More so. In the ensuing publicity blitz. tend to fool the hoi polloi to remanticise the underworld. indulgences in sex and scandals. In a recent instance. Underworld takes care to keep key figures in police on the right side before forcing into a new region. Quid pro quo naturally follows. Their ostentatious and comfortable lifestyle. police come to picture after the commission of the crimes. EXPANSION Underworld tries to gain a foot –hold wherever there is enormous and instant easy money. guillible public forget that the underworld is a pack of hors la loi indulging in antinational and antisocial activities. outrageous adventures etc. It be hotel business. underworld steals a share either as protection money or returns of direct investment.The Arun Gawli phenomenon in Bombay as an instant political leader and the ascendancy of his Akhila Bharatiya Sena is an extreme manifestation of such a process. The underworld knows the utility of the sympathies of the public. Bangalore saw myriad gangwars and murders in recent past as a consequence .POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED iceberg. India has chief ministers having close links with the underworld. Police knew everything and noticed every move. Various factions of Dawood Ibrahim are creating havoc in Bombay. Recent series of murders in the filmworld in Bombay and Bangalore are results of the involvement of mafia in film business. a key mafioso arrested was taken to a district headquarters for further investigation. Indian filmworld in the taut prise of the easy funds from the underworld help the latter to manipulate the filmworld to its advantage. In spite of the knowledge of the plots and plans. frequenting best five star hotels and living in beautiful bungalows in best localities of the town. land deals. Series of popular films extolling the virtues and lives of mafia dons as heroes being churned out from Bollywood is a common knowledge. underworld turned to the film world in a big way with its easy funds at disposal for investments in the field. DANGEROUS GROWTH The most dangerous trend of recent underworld phenomenon in India is the rise of a supreme don and his unlimited powers posing threat to the peace and security of the country. The result was gangwars and murders. Bangalore underworld resisted Bombay underworld invading Bangalore. while he is holed up in an inimical foreign country and guiding operations in India by remote control. driving costliest cars. They are now looking outside to grow. The underworld itself uses masterly propaganda to boost its image in the public eyes. Many rose to powerful positions with the money and muscle of the underworld. The gangster disappeared from the toilet of a restaurant while police officers having his custody were sipping tea in the restaurant. When construction business dried of plush money. Police was vertically split ab intra between the two gangs.

underworld is bound to grow from strength to strength to eat up the vitals of the country and render it hollow democratically. police is its spine. friendly police officers from the spot of crime are taken into confidence and informed in advance about the impending plans by the underworld to keep ground ready in their favour. While gangsers are the visible body of the underworld. A senior member of the police team came directly to the car and informed the ganster to leave the place immediately as they had come to arrest him. The problem needs committed police doing professional policing that is nonexistent in extant India. Ergo. In most gangwars and murders. This is the crux of the problem of policing the underworld. entered the place where the gangster was hiding. The police team formally conducted search of the place and reported back that the gangster was not traced there. Though police has the responsibility to side with the law. Any attempt to handle the problem of the underworld must begin with the police.PRAVEEN KUMAR without the active backing and cooperation of the police. a police team sent from the state capital to apprehend a budding mafia don. The ganster immediately drove away from the place. Underworld cannot stand up without the backing of the police. This is the scenario of the axis between the police and the underworld. The gangster was waitiing for his friend in a car outside while the team arrived. The axis between the two is based on the money and muscle power of the underworld generated by massive illegalities. Underworld can be brought on knees only by breaking the axis between them and the police. 218 . it finds the money on the other side more attractive and desirable. This is species of what happens in most actions against mafioso and the underworld. the vicious axis between the police and the underworld. Underworld is flanked by the laws operating against it on one side and enormous money and muscle power working in its favour on the other. Until it is done. The country is caught in a 22-catch situation. In another instant in the same city.

Kidnapping itself as an end. SELECTION OF RIGHT TARGET Most cases of Kidnapping for ransom are never made public nor reported to police. but also efficacious of coughing up them in private to secure the safe release. Added to this is the fear of being forcibly led by the unenlightened police to commit insensitive acts that may endanger of safety and security of the kidnapped persons. the chance of kidnapped persons safely returning home is tout court a matter of rare accident in the ambience of present health of police competence in handling the cases. Lots of thought. Reasons are many. UP. Delhi and Assam. Kidnappers who are after big money and professionally operate. strategy and technique before acted 219 . UP and Delhi and to terrorist outfits of North-East. UNEQUAL POLICE In cases reported to police.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED KIDNAPPING FOR RANSOM Kidnapping per se is a crime. The means which was once confined to criminal gangs of Bihar. Kashmir and Punjab regions as means of meeting their respective criminal goals is now becoming an ambitious adventure of resourceful street-hoodlums of big cities of India of making quick easy money in oodles. Public perception in this matter is accurate. The trend needs to be arrested quick and fast a toute hasard. the strike is mostly against people stacked with unaccounted money. The world-wide rise in the incidence of kidnapping cases as a political tool in the international crime scenario in 1970s is an important meith in the evolution of kidnapping as a crime leverage. who therefore dare not public scrutiny of their ill-gotten riches and prefer private settlement. analyses and money go to the plans. The next decade saw use of this tool by mafioso and criminal gangs as a convenient means of extortion in India in states like Bihar. is a crime known to man from the inception of social living. The low credibility of the police in respect of its competence and commitment in handling such sensitive cases adds to the misease of the maledict victim. The criminal virus is now percolating to healthier parts of Indian. Kidnapping as a means of other crimes as in forcing governments to release prominent terrorist leaders in custody in exchange or for procuring other illegal benefits is a more heinous form of the crime and often led to cold-blooded murder of innocent people. conduct more than adequate research about their target to ensure that the target is not only capable of meeting their demands. Secondly. Public of present health of police competence in handling the cases. as in a child being kidnapped by either of the estranged parents of the child from the custody of the other or a minor beloved being kidnapped by a lover. The criminals are generally a highly qualified and efficient group of committed people operating on their own plans and convenience. Demands of the kidnappers are met posthaste and release of victims is obtained.

Ambitious and der-doing unemployed youths constitute the core of this group of criminals. The elaborate plans. unfulfilled besion. In 1977 on the charges of sedition inter alia for providing huge funds and other services to banned ULFA terrorist outfit threw light on the going on in Assam for years under the pall of the threat of kidnappings. These criminals with importable lure for easy money spread like wildfire in Indian crime scenario and pose threat to the fabric of safety and security of the country. Unlimited riches around. cinema 220 . own frustrations. Notorious forest brigand. the thrill of violence and the promise of belle vue offered by criminal life as seen in television. kidnapping for ransom and mega-fraud foot the bill as glamorous crimes in the extant high-money world and yield enormous grists unheard of in other crimes and make the criminals instant heroes. HBT. The arrest of top officials of Tata Tea Ltd. CRIMINAL OUTFITS Many criminals take to kidnapping for ransom as a means to sustain their criminal outfits engaged in other major criminal activities. On the other hand. ROMANTIC IMAGE In the age of high-money operation run through bank securities and other banking channels. huge cash in hand is a rarity. operating in forests bordering Karnataka and Tamilnadu used to extort money from the owners of granite mines in the areas of his operation. Veerappan. strategies and efficiency involved in the crime give an intellectual slant and bring the elements of adventure and thrill to the whole affair. Even in the rarest of the rare convictions. This added to the age-old stigma. robbery and dacoity lean and nonglamorous crimes. Hi-tech facilities are employed to the best use. This forced Karnataka Government to ban all mining operation in the area. endless investigation and trial generally end with equital in extant judicial system. The balance of advantage algate is patently is favour of taking risk. makes conventional property offences like theft. ULFA activities played the same trick in Assam with tea estates. The romantic combination prompts adventurous and ambitious unemployed youths in drones to take to the crime. crimes like bank robbery.PRAVEEN KUMAR upon. Any resistance was met with kidnappings for ransom. punishment awarded at a distant future nowhere amate to the promised fortunes of a successful kidnapping case for ransom. They kidnap rich persons from the surroundings to meet their monetary besoin. Even in a chance detection. LURE OF QUICK MONEY Other criminals take to kidnapping for ransom by the lure of the res gestae of the crime and the easy money involved. The success of police against these tremendous odds in the absence of an elaborate strategy is a matter of pure chance.

5 crore in a single sweep. The youths in the crime seek their targets far away from their home state to avoid detection and other embarrassments. This is the stage in which the scelerate ingenuity of the subdolous criminals is in excelsis while providing the real opening to the police to catch the criminals red-handed. Liberal spending in the stage of reconnoitre is the hallmark of criminals resorting to this crime. An investment of a few lakhs of rupees is more than worth in an operation that promises to yield Rs. The process helps the spread of the criminal virus of a crime-infested region to healthier regions of the country. hired a house in Bangalore as the centre for their operations at a rent of Rs. It allows for immense freedom of action and strategies depending on the mental calibre and material resources of the criminals.5 lakh a month for three months prior to their strike.5 crore.1. The albatross gives him delitescent strength and drive to move him forward with a 221 . They hire safe-houses at posh areas at exorbitant rents. Use of hi-tech communication.a climacteric. Medical and engineering colleges that offer seats to the sons of crime tainted and black-money-plush parents on the strength of donations help the spread of crime tendencies to other parts of the country. The criminals in Nirmal Jaipuria kidnap case of Bangalore of 1977 who made a ransom demand of Rs. His single faux pas in the glidder path of his manoeuvres may make life and death difference to many. Right strategies. This is how youths of Delhi. In the circumstances of de trop riches and plush targets capable of huge yields as res gastae of a kidnap effort around. An elaborate and hi-tech kidnapping operation for ransom involves huge money. wear rich dresses and move in luxurious cars while preparing for their strike. This is an inviting challenge to any resourceful and skeely criminal.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED and cheap literature together spur faex populi to make it big at a single sway by taking kidnapping for ransom. intelligent and enterprising criminals take it as a good investment. SCOPE FOR INGENUITY The crime provides ample scope for the bluette of ingenuity. This is how the crime culture of UP and Bihar is spreading to relatively crime-free areas. transport and weaponry system makes the crime a highly sophisticated operation. It is a live challenge to the police. SPREADING THE CRIMINAL VIRUS The crime as isolated adventures for quick money in unorganised sector poses the greatest thread to the peace and health of the country. The knowledge makes him nervous. His competence is openly on test while criminals negotiate ransom with the victims. Cases of kidnapping for ransom pose a tough gauntlet to the skill and ingenuity of a police professional. Punjab and UP are found operating in a southern city like Bangalore. efficient brasstacks and pernicketiness can make the crime a foolproof operation. The incertitude of the situation bring the true skill of the police to the acid-test.

222 . The thrill of real policing lies in such live moments and real joy in bringing relief to the people in real distress. This is the real moment of policing.PRAVEEN KUMAR resolution to succeed.

Reality is not very different from this image. The change. expect them to handle rescue operations during natural accidental and man-made calamities. better equipped force. ruthlessness and derring-do. This wide use of the police in the vast spectrum of the statecraft rendered it jack of all and master of none. The police. Traffic and law and order police are more and more replayed to add grandeur and humour to private functions of the well-to-do and powerful. This means far more skilled policing than now. They cannot afford to adapt to challenges as and when they are posed as in vogue in government service. Reintepretation of life in the complex environment of technical advancements. This means better management of the police organisation. Their services are warranted to bring order wherever and whenever things go wrong at public as well as private events with unending number of acts. Security duties are increasingly encompassing ceremonial objectives. have to move pari passu with the time for perficient handling of the emerging situation. apart from improving the quality of policing. as the custodians and enforcers of the safety of life and property. defining the future challenges and deriving means to checkmate them in advance form the basic tenets of good policing and are sine qua non with the survival of the country and its peaceful life.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED INDIAN POLICE: WHAT COURSE TO PURSUE IN THE 21ST CENTURY? With the accrescent demands for limited resources of the Earth and concomitant concours for survival in the world of the survival of the fittest. maintenance of order and investigation of crimes. The piece de resistance of future policing has to be perficient performance with minimal visible presence. will bring respect to the job in addition to the present awe and fear. The police are now called to mediate and solve familial problems. rules and their amendments passed every year by the legislatures. Assessment of situations ahead. men of higher calibre and devotion to work and more contented people manning the police hierarchy. The transformation blunted the effectiveness of the police in handling its cardinal duties of providing security. systemic and structural changes in society and spurts in criminal activities is likely to provide the paramenters of the coming age and determine the quality of life in the coming century. The situation certainly does not do in the future complex societal network as the breeding ground for complicated criminal activities warranting skilled and intelligent policing. The Police of the 21st century have to be manned by highly intelligent and brainy species of men should it be feracious in meeting challenges and showing results. The presence of the police is becoming more a matter of prestige and social standing in society than an emergent need of protection. the advent of the new century is bound to herald ascensive economic bewilderments in the crucible of hotting up social complexities. 20th Century saw the expansion of the utility of the police to every conceivable field of human activity in social and national life. labour disputes and case and communal differences. People call them now to intervene in their differences with others. Policing is presently seen as an unintellectual exercise with a flare for brawn. the 223 . This means a far more professional organisation than now.

equality. Another task ahead to attend tout de suite is sewing the investigating responsibilities and the prosecution duties to a single whole. Inter-departmental co-operation though specious in theory on paper. The police with the need of prompt responses and quick decisions vis a vis the complex nature of emerging crimes cannot do for long with the 224 . Indian legislatures churn out new legislations and bring out amendments threeon in such numbers and festination that neither those legislatures nor the police who enforce them can afford to keep a track of the enactments and their provisions. The community Police require skills different from those in general policing owing to the special nature of the social legislations and special sensitivities of its enforcement. Policing methods and ideas remained stagnant throughout the century sans effective voice raised to infuse new spirit to the body of the police. What is required is a perspicacious definition of police duties and responsibilities and relegating the force to perform the duties under the avizefull eyes of the constitution without the distractions of interferences ab extra. The image of the police in the 20thcentury is that of a licensed criminal syndicate run by the government to checkmate unlicensed criminal activities. The police should have free hand to tackle and solve issues cropping up during the process of policing with concomitant responsibility for any failures squarely lying on its shoulders. weaponry and detection system. Police is seldom touched by the zeist geist.PRAVEEN KUMAR police inspire. A solution is creation of the Community Police as enforcers of the social legislations as distinct from the body police. The paramount need of the future police is a professional image tout au contraire to present image as a handmaid of rich and powerful. The growth of police in the 20th century is marked by its insulation from the intellectual explosions of the age. This Achilles’ heel in the law enforcement machinery will perforce disappear in years ahead. justice for all and basic rights. The huge share of the social legislations among new enactments and the gargantuan task of enforcing them is another justification for creating a separate community police wing out of the present police. The problem of human rights violations remained a major blot on the policing process throughout the century. Police can ignore this need only at its own peril. Use of third degree methods in interrogations sullied the image of the police in a century which brought revolutionary changes in the concepts of human dignity. Police cannot afford to lose ground to criminals in the field of hi-tech. Efficiency of policing is pro rata to competence to perform in a given situation in meeting challenges offered. it is exceptions in field in the Indian environment of interdepartmental jealousy and rivalry. Hi-tech policing is another imperative of the 21st century. communication. An overhaul of selection and training policies to infuse and buildup mental and intellectual strains in the manpower of the police should be the bedrock of the efforts to snod the organisation to meet the challenges of the future. The century saw no concrete and concerted efforts to bring crime investigation on modern lines. The measure will relieve the body police from lots of work-pressures and provide it spare time and energy to concentrate on vital issues of the general policing. The competence necessarily implies moving pari passu with the fast changing hi-tech environment in the fields of transport.

The thrust of the police administration of the next millennium will be directed to bettering the response time as speed will be the mainstay of crimes and criminals of the coming age. Outmoded communication and transport facilities in disrepair conditions most of the time have no relevance there and casual manpower is rather passe in that ambience. may go the pernicious misuse of the constabulary as household assistants. The key to the success of the police is its response time. demotivating factors. the speed with which it responds to the challenges of the crime. paternity and even bodily associations. Night-vision instruments will become an essential part of the investigation and security operations kits to be handled by every policeman. Helicopters and mini-aeroplanes will become common mode of transportation for carrying investigating teams. lack of accountability. top-heavy structure. “X-ray eyes’ aid viewing across walls or closed doors. Short response time implies improved communication and transport network and highly motivated human resources ever-ready to handle challenges. With it. deployment of security staff and airlifting armed forces to disturbed places as time becomes precious and criminals become ingenious in dodging the police. skilled and enlightened professionals as a result of the pampering ahead for the police in the administrative hierarchy. The structural deformity and oveweight caused by redundant posts. Police may see software devised to guide investigating officers in investigating every kind of crime at every level. Where time is a precious commodity and a difference of a couple of seconds make the difference of success and failure of a police operation. Computers will become an integral part of the routine as well as special police works and police stations. Single-point recruitment will come to vogue with linear promotions from the lowest to the 225 . The age will see the needs of investigation process expanding the horizons of science and technology rather than the other way round. Gene tests will become a strategic and commonly employed tool of investigation against crimes relating to bodily harm. undefined jobs. Constabulary will be spruced to striking forces and manual works without policing powers. The age may see police using eaves-dropping instruments to overhear unsuspecting people from distance. An important possibility of the next millennium is the police becoming an elite force with even its bottom levels being manned by highly qualified. The millennium will see the police force in the finest fettle in terms of orgtanisation. persistent efforts to shorten response time will get the highest priority. epinosic equation of rights and responsibilities. The 21st century police will be required to shed to idee fixe for the show of strength in lieu of efficient policing. Going hi-tech to match the gauntlets of the crime world is another possibility open for the police of the 21st century. Laser guns will come handy in handling violent law and order issues.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED extant system of the police and the prosecution pulling apart from opposite directions in the race for one-upmanship. erratic span of control. nonprofessional ambience and uninspiring leadership will become a matter of the past with the police going perforce competitive en face gargantuan challenges from criminals posing threat to the raison d’etre of the police and its relevance to the extant society. manpower and equipments and becoming a highly organised efficient limb of the state apparatus. The stress in future will be on lean and fit policing.

The change may bring a semblance of justice and fairplay to administration and ipso facto infuse a value system to Indian public life and bring the fear of god to force strict adherence to probity and the rule of law in public life. Pride of performance can be a reality only while lower physical. Motivation and commitment are derivatives of self-actualisation in the need hierarchy postualted by Maslow. The transformation is sine qua non with the new age. constituted for the purpose. it witnessed since independence. The police must find a respectable place in the hierarchy of state administration and shed away the extant obnoxious image of odd-job-man of the government as well as political leaders to inspire awe and respect in the hoi polloi. This means good living conditions. 226 . The 21st century will require every single policeman straining his best with a sense of motivation and commitment in the interests of superior policing. The extant diffident response of maximum mobilisation or raising of new units under every new challenge will give way to perficient strategies and tactics. A cost-efficient manpower policy in future police administration will bring motivation and commitment centre-stage.PRAVEEN KUMAR highest ranks on the basis of merit and actual performances in the field as assessed by a panel of distinguished public figures. This is possible only by the metamorphosis of the police to an independent body with goals and objectives perspicuously defined and laid down. The present tendency of doing minimum required in a given situation unless otherwise compelled by the situation amounts to criminal wastage of manpower. security and social needs cease to be issues. The new police have to be responsible only to the constitution through a suitable machinery of checks and counterchecks exercised by constitutional bodies manned by people of proven trackrecord in matters of integrity. job security and sound social status. Indian police planners have no alternatives to grooming the police manpower of the next century to this level of sans souci. India has no alternative to this metamorphosis should the country survive the moral crisis and degringolade of national spirit. bureaucratic and political fields as well as public life. competence and other mental attributes and chosen from academic. Creating a self-contained police machinery in place of the present mere nuts and bolts of the administration is cardinal need ahead. Insulating the police from the vice prise of ectogenetic pressures and influences needs to be a reality in the coming decades should the police have relevance in the governance of the country. The nasty political and bureaucratic interferences in professional policing have done no good to the country and its police in the last five decades.

Loyalty to a value or a just cause is always a great virtue. strong in that. which bounces from the springboard of freedom of thought and independent judgement.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED POLICE IN THE ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE Justice begotten at a cost is justice lost. Free and fair justice is the leges legum of human rights. present. Police play umpteen roles as grassroot executors. but a binding nevertheless. The proficiency of justice administration has to be assayed with this litmus test and the role of the police in the system has to be judged by its contributions to this goal of the justice administration system. It is a mortgage of the self. freedom of thought and independent judgement. Loyalty is a binding. It signifies a heightened mind bound to a heightened cause. They do perform duties with normal flair and loyalty while put in service of justice. The only loyalty to conscience. an emotional binding by volition. Justice is a natural right. They are basically performers. Objectivity and justness seldom give company to those who act to show results. Justice abstracted from its environment. actual doers in the field. The Achilles’ heel lies in loyalty basically being a faith. ipso facto subverting per se the very foundation of the cardinal principle of equality among individuals. Loyalty to justice is a noble cause. diverse issues. This presupposes a passion for objectivity and justness and above all. Passion in the normal trait of action. Ergo. The same cannot be said about loyalty to individuals of whatever importance. A police man with this loyalty can do exemplary job in service of the administration of justice. there is no independence in it. Justice in a social environment have to be as natural as sleep or oxygen to a living being. selflessness in the arbitrators of justice as well as in those who are in the service of the administration of justice. It is an inferior submission to a superior existence. Sans stirrings in the conscience. Justice in its basic sense necessitates an integral vision. Justice involves delving deep down to the heart of an issue and delivering justice in reference to all related issues and matters to the rightful entitlement of all. individual loyalty in the service of the administration of justice is self-defeating to the cause of justice. devotion to one. Justice in parts is no justice that lasts. 227 . Expecting selfless traits in a profession like police is waiting for rain drops from white clouds. future. a blind faith. This notion renders loyalty devoid of any sense of justice. The role of the police in the administration of justice comes to scrutiny in the context of their non a such part in the investigation of crimes and maintenance of law and order. Loyalty denotes polarisation of the self. dramatis personae and related events cannot be justice in the true sense of the word. It is the sine qua non and raison d’etre of social grouping. Loyalty by definition signifies loss of freewill and independence of thought. The tragedy is that the loyalty of the police prefers the interests of the rich and powerful to the abstract idea of justice they are put in service of. and thoughtless opposition to whoever stands up to the object of the devotion. The fact is lost sight of by the present administration of justice. past.

restrain. prohibit. As the task-masters of the statecraft. at some distant future. The fact brings the police centre-stage in the administration of justice. if deliver at all. too late to be meaningful.PRAVEEN KUMAR Police as the cutting–edge of the governance. Shallow policing is responsible for all the mishaps and turbulence of the first half century of independent India. confine or arrest erring people depending on time to time needs dictated by the circumstances. the need of keeping the police in tight leash regarding exercise of their sensitive powers has become conditio sine qua non for the administration of justice. deviant job culture etc inhibit police from performing at levels adequate for the importance of their responsibilities. fair exercise of their powers to ensure that no harm is done to the process of justice. Bringing lawbreakers and criminals to book is just a part of the gargantuan responsibilities on their shoulders. chargesheeted and harassed. Practically. two. fair exercise of their responsibilities in the interests of justice. They have a peek to all private as well as public activities of the citizenry. mechanical works en face policing crying for deep. Postliminary intereferences of courts are too little. What police do in the name of dispensing justice are material to the hoi polli. enjoy enormous powers. Consequence is shallow policing. they are invested with diverse rights and privileges. Police unequipped for the crucial role is the crux of the issue. check. The police. There is nothing tangible in their service to inspire commitment to noble causes. They use weapons to hurt and kill. police perform highly sensitive tasks capable of undermining the very process of the justice administration. Lack of sound mechanism of supervision and poor position of policeman in society. The relevance of the police in administration of justice is two fold. As dispensers of justice during investigation of crimes and maintenance of law. Their service lacks in facilities to enhance professional competence. or hors la loi would have been let free to do things in violation of the extant laws as quid pro quo. intellectual analyses of its relevance for establishment of a just society and national well-being. not what courts deliver. Police enjoy unrestricted freedom unbecoming to the sensitivity of their job. Innocent people would already have been arrested. Whatever courts to thereafter help only partial recovery from the damage. are often exempted from the process of justice by the law itself. there are no means to force them to comply with the needs of objectivity and fairplay in work save their own interpretations of laws and actions. The period saw police distracted to go berserk seeking parochial and selfish ends. one. criminals would have been willingly let off the noose. damage to the process of justice could have been irrevocably done. search and seize when need arises. Human nature being what it is. 228 . It denies them organisational pride. They can constrain people to perform specific tasks and forbid from doing others in the national and public interests. These extraordinary powers are tools of the police in serving the interests of justice. By the time an issue knocks at the doors of courts. decent people would have been dishonestly denied rightful dues in the name of maintenance of law. enter. The wide spectrum of powers impinging on the basic rights of the plebeian places the police on a pedestal different from that of the common man as far as the administration of justice is concerned. A force committed to parochial and selfish interests can hardly do any justice to the administration of justice. Weak economic position and easy opportunities for dishonest riches render them prone to corrupt practices. They can forcibly break open. Their job culture does not inspire them to delve deep into diverse nuances of their job. mediocre education. as the means of justice. regulate. Field orientations distract them from high human values. They prevent.

reasons and justifications. at what stage. Beginning from deciding whether a prima facie case is made out in a complaint and whether the case is to be investigated to whether it is to be chargesheeted. Policing being a specialised job with rare keeks inside by outsiders about measures and decisions taken in disparate circumstances. is not conducive to the administration of justice. misuses and corruption. Police excesses are justified by the top-brass per procurationem of the solidarity of the police force as though the concept is inimical to the interests of justice. The sensitivity is briller par son absence in the present police and policing system. Justice being what it is in the present age of prolate concours making threatening differences . Every criminal is just in his own assessment. every illegal arrest. every excess committed by police has its own police justifications. at what stage. with what all evidences. How an investigation proceeds. every human being. where. We have examples of police commissioners justifying gunning down of innocent citizens by subordinates in broad daylight in a busy street as a bonafide cause of mistaken identity. few outsiders comprehend that the job gives tremendous leeway for work and decisions. Remedial measures have to be found for the prevarications rather than blaming the police tout a fait. This is true of the police too. This is a dangerous liberty in the system of dispensing justices that warrant preciseness and smug exactitude in the sensitive business of balancing justice. Every person is right for himself. be it crime investigation or maintenance of law. with the police going berserk with their special powers to establish a just society. every lockup death. every third degree method. the direction of the investigation to be pursued and what turns to be 229 . on whom. You seld find police confessing to a wrong or an excess committed. It is irrelevant how the justifications. whom to release on bail and whom not to. We have any number of cases of senior police officers colluding with subordinates in destroying evidences of lock-up death cases. does has its own logic. This is an irony of the relevance of police in the administration of justice. Every act. Nobody ever is wrong to himself.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED Another relevance of the police in the administration of justice is exercise of their special powers without committing wrongs against justice. Lack of real supervision and control over the work ab extra is another face of the problem. The ambience. Their enormous powers presume special responsibilities on their shoulders to protect innocent people from rash exercise of powers. Use of third degree methods is excused as the bedrock of policing as if justice is as irrelevant concept as far as police are concerned. It is irrelevant how the justifications appear to outsiders. the leeway in policing process gives scope for favours. weak management and poor organisation turn the tamed rogues on rampage against the organisational goals instead of bringing of knees the ferae naturae. Punjab police revelled in hushing up cases of cold-blooded murders through false encounters. This is an infinitely more difficile responsibility considering what human nature is and how every man suffers from a blind spot about himself. Every encounter. deviant job culture and wrong leadership than in the concept of police. what to search and seize. Lack of direction. The cause of failure of the police lies more in the systems failure the character of its dramatise personae. at what speed. at what juncture of time. The police are committing wrongs against justice by the very means invested to them to protect the interests of the justice. Police in inappropriate milieu may turn into a Frankenstein. whom to arrest and whom not. It is like a herd of tamed elephants in a khedda operation. Police are dangerous fences with their extraordinary powers potential to uproot and destroy the crops they are put in charge. every decision is exclusive police decisions. every wrongful confinement.

The state terrorism against political rivals became a perfect art in 1970s with the use of intelligence agencies for surveillance and opening secret. The situation is conspicuous in police bending laws in favour of the people in power to let them out of the noose of laws or crush their enemies or keep Sophocles’ sword hanging on the crowns of their opponents to ease political manoeuvres. The party was subjected to various enquries by revenue enforcement agencies. Public interest litigations became popular.Rs.133 crore Urea scam and JMM bribery cases loomed large. Higher courts ventured into close scrutiny of investigations into cases against people in power. Close scrutiny of the investigations led to arrest. St. The tragedy of the awakening is that the so called judicial activism saw itself serving the interests of the political witch-hunt preceded it. supervision. partisan approach and contempt of court in investigations to cases against people in power. Though laws provide for courts to keep track of the process of investigation. The case took down its author and his party with his political rivals to the drains. it sine dubio. While the trend strengthened the position of the chief executive of the government. The situation is blatantly glidder in the field of maintenance of law sans the mechanism of courts keeping track of the issues unless the matter is filed. files. weakened the political fabric of the country. 230 .Kitts forgery case and Lakhubhai Pathak cheating case were re-enacted and manoeuvred to net-in strategic political rivals on filmsy evidences. The acts nailed the fate of the coalition government to prove that misuse of police often goes counter productive in political manoeuvrings as did in Tamilnad where erstwhile Chief Minister. with the willing cooperation of police leaders in the respective agencies. Bofors kickback case got a lease of life. Police have become willing tools in their hands in warping justice in barter of the crumbs they throw from the res gestae of their unjust deeds. A key leader was interrogated without sound grounds for possessing wealth disproportionate to known sources of income and later implicated in Tanwar murder case on suspicion.PRAVEEN KUMAR taken at what phase. The degringolade began during the emergency of 1975. It became public that there was no history of convictions of powerful politicians in independent India in criminal cases investigated by investigating agencies including the CBI and rarely such cases were investigated but on political compulsions. police decide on own without reference. The use of the CBI and revenue enforcement agencies to bring political rivals to submissions led to the fall of government in April 1997. it is rarely the case in the field. chargesheet and conviction of powerful political leaders. In comparison . so essential for a democratic process. before a court of law. The witch-hunt became a part of the policy of survival of United front government that followed. The premier investigation agency and its chief were subjected to strictures in open courts for nonperformance. This considerably reduced the impact of the elert courts on the national scene. saw a rising swing in 1980s and found in excelsis in the early 1990s with courts taking cognisance of the situation and convinced about the need of their intereference in the interests of the administration of justice. and in 1990s with the use of investigation agencies for manoeuvring investigations into criminal cases. The coalition government that followed used the same ropes to strike a wedge among the leaders of the party that supported it from outside by terrorising some through the CBI and revenue enforcement agencies and luring others with the crumbs of power. Jain-Hawala case caught the popular attention as nothing before. Ms.Jayalalitha. misuse of investigating agencies proved a deadlier assault on the political process of the country. guidance or control from outside. The Achilles’ heel is taken advantage of by the rich and the powerful.

POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED found a series of criminal cases stacked against her and her associates. Doing anything violative of its raison d’etre like sabotaging the course of justice will prove to be fatal to the relevance of the police for the society. but often protected to the hilt by the police. once she fell out of power and popular support. Justice and rule of law are the litmus tests available to achieve these ends. The fear the police inspire can not take it far in absence of credibility. The best bet for the police is to be professional and committed to their responsibilities towards the administration of justice. security and well-being remain a distant dream. bien chausse with political patronage or money power. their political patrons will discard them like used condoms. its constitution and the general public to whom the police as the guardians of justice are responsible. Police is an organisatioon of professionals committed to the safety. their goals of safety. Recent past saw executive heads of government opting for their own men in the police force to head the premier investigation agency of the country and political rivals being investigated and chargesheeted at politically opportune times on flimsiest grounds while cases of national significance on sound footing were dragged on for decades wantonly. In the process. Vice dens. It was a scene of every successor hurling criminal cases against his predecessor. Once police miss the bus of justice and the rule of law. Police would forget this need only at their own peril. It is a pity that the lee-way police enjoy in policing contributed to its loss of face and spine by its patent sequacious comportment and lack of passion to the case of justice. Personal ambitions of some in the organisation lead to partonages ectogenous to political manoeuvres in form of crosspolitical allegiances and subservience to rich and influential segments of the society. ambiguous entries in diaries to prove bribery and old photographs together in public functions to prove collaboration became conclusive evidence to proceed against inconvenient political leaders. It be raids on vice dens. In the maelstrom. The decisions and concomitant actions more often than not. suffer. It is not the hand-maid of politicians in or out of power. security and well-being of the country. This is how the police in the job of serving justice are stabbing it en arriere. decisions of police about whom. justice suffers. Opportunities of dispensing favours during maintenance of law are common and aplenty in policing. 231 . Police patronage to hors la loi is ephhemeral and changes colours with the change of guard in the government. Police act as conduits of partisan measures in favour of the powerful rather than as tools of administering justice to all. They lose the credibility and respect of the public. Power assumed higher importance to police than justice. criminals and rowdy gangs. Once the police lose their usefulness in political and power gameplans consequent to losing public credibility. or action on rowdy gangs. when and how. issue of licences. Police reduced to a tool of political revenge in this powergame. Police is not the odd-job boy of the government. and the nation. the police lost its credibility as a nonpartisan player and an invincible tool of establishing justice. so essential for effective and perficient policing. Often. are taken on political convenience rather than as measures of curbing lawlessness. respect and sympathy of the public. are not only allowed to run trouble-free. play important role in political gameplan.

Courts come to the scene only in far later stage for restricted number of cases.police have inherent potentiality to sabotage the interests of justice ab intra in umpteen kinds including blatant mendacity. Paralysed arms crumble the body of the administration of justice. Refusing to act against injustice is another kind of injustice to justice. Arms struck by struck by gangrene. police is the first and the only easy defence against injustices. A good police certainly symbolise effective administration of justice more than courts and prosecution department together do. enforcement of order. Police are the arms of the administration of justice. Inefficient and shallow policing add to the list. They enjoy a key position in the administration of justice. maintenance of law. Most cases of disputes never cross the thresholds of the police stations. Subjecting justice to the terms of quid pro quo is one more. For the hoi polloi. Bartering justice is another. They are the drive and thrust of the administration of justice. preventive measures and security duties. Police do act as arbitrators of justice in criminal as well as civil cases in exercise of the wide spectrum of responsibilities of crime investigations. 232 . Inordinate delays in the process of investigations is one.PRAVEEN KUMAR The relevance of the police lies in its usefulness to the administration of justice au reste safety and security. poison the whole system of the administration of justice. Making justice a costly affair gives another dimension to the issue. Delivering partial justice adds to the problem. investigations. Police are the first line of the means of dispensing justice. Effectiveness of police lies in its ability in making justice an easily and cheaply dispensable commodity. As a vital organ of the administration of justice. That is why a sound police system is conditio sine qua non for the health and progress of the country and its tenuous social fabric.

goings. they come to realise the power-game for supremacy among the contenders. Legilslature creates law. That is the thread that holds them together into a system and defines the latter’s ends and its means. A PAWN IN THE POWER-GAME Sine Dubio. Legislature let down the country by over-indulgence in petty politicking and Executive plunged itself in ineffciency and corruption to be any more relevant to the interests of the country. Executive and Judiciary have their own roles to play as demarcated by the Constitution. above the country and above its administration. the all powerful trinity of the Hindu mythology. The plebeian more and more understands that he played as a pawn in the power-game. Vishnu and Maheshwara. Any one of them taking advantage of the general breakdown by raising accusing fingers on the other and assuming on itself. This is what is happening to Indians after half a century of self-rule in the rumblings of the pro-active judiciary. as time wears off. Sans law. Difficulties surface while Brihma. law is above the people. Executive enforces it and judiciary adjudicates it. share the peise of protecting the interests of the rule of law. Legislature. defeat and let down. India is witnessing the farce in its democratic system on the eve of golden jubilee celebrations of its partition and independence. Article 142 (1) of the Constitution of India while dealing with the enforcement of Supreme Court orders perspicaciously lays down as. the role of the champion of public interest may not ported well to the democratic traditions of the country.Verma Former Chief Justice of India. This deepens his frustration and intensifies his sense of hurt. But. people do not remain people. Taken away the law. Such an eventuality does stir the hopes.on behind the veil of the threat of contempt proceedings in Judiciary is in no way really sobering. country and the administration as much as people. That is the adhesive that binds the people. The ultimate responsibility of protecting the law lies on the administration.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED WHERE PROACTIVE JUDICIARY LEADS INDIA? Be you ever so high. there just will be a jungle raj. Executive and judiciary as Brihma. The law of the country represents the aspirations of the people in running the country in a democracy. LIMITATIONS OF THE JUDICIARY Legislature. expectations and imagination of the frustrated and defeated hoi polloi. EXECUTIVE AND JUDICIARY Law protects people. ”The Supreme Court in the exercise 233 .S. Vishnu and Maheshware begin to encroach into other’s domain for supremacy by claiming themselves as the true arbitrators of the interests of the people. and each seeks to usurp the responsibilities of the other eo nomine. country and the administration protect the law. the country and its administration together. In this sense. LEGISLATURE. the law is above you’ said J. Similarly. country does not remain a country and administration does not remain administration.

The phrases make perspicuous two limitations on the Judiciary. The sickly developmetn violates the very raison d’etre of the Judiciary. Supercilious radicalism by the Judiciary prompted by procacity is like wild run of a bull in a chinashop. “ The Article provides a clue to the spirit of the Constitution in matters of the responsibilities and limitations of the Judiciary vis a vis overall governance. until provision in that behalf is so made. as may be prescribed by or under any law made by Parliament . in such manner as the President may by order prescribe. People cannot approach anybody for redressal when they are wronged by the Judiciary and the sword of contempt proceedings constantly hang over their heads lest they open their mouths in public. intentions alone do not constitute the right to act in anyway desired. LOSS OF CREDIBILITY Intentions of the Judiciary may be good. and that the operation of its decree or order is subject to the law made by Parliament or Presidential order. Jus naturale dictates that anybody encroaching upon the jurisdiction of the other for whatever reasons amounts to usurping the powers of the other by postern means. Facts and evidences are the basic tenets of modern judicial system and judiciary cannot overstep these needs in its entrainement of doing complete justice. When Judiciary fails to recognise its limitations ex mero motu. and any decree so passed or order so made shall be enforceable throughout the territory of India in such manner as may be prescribed by or under any law made by Parliament and. resorting to superrogatory means to meet a cause amounts to irrevocable breakdown of the Constitution and the rule of law and Executive en attendant finds itself nowhere to go for redressal against the injustice. Self restraint is the lex non scripta of a sound Judiciary. The limitation of jurisdiction and the need of matters being pending before it. that rings the death-knell of the democracy and leads the country to the ineluctable anarchy through constitutional breakdown. Judiciary as the ultimate machinery of providing justice. ‘ in any cause or matter pending before it’ and enforceable…. When Judiciary prevaricates from its rightful path. USURPING EXECUTIVE POWERS Judiciary indubitably is responsible for doing complete justice.PRAVEEN KUMAR of its jurisdiction may pass such decree or make such order as in necessary for doing complete justice in any cause or matter pending before it. There is nothing so fatal to the independence and democratic traditions of the country as the delubrum of the rule of law and justice with all its special powers and privileges growing to be a cimmerian monster. namely that it shall act only on matters pending before it in exercise of its jurisdiction for doing complete justice. Being the ultimate dispenser of justice. none is there to do it for it. Uberrima fides is basic to Judiciary.. But. together constitutes a serious limitation on the Judiciary to do anything ‘ for doing complete justice. Executive exercises the power of transferring investigating officers and other police personnel selon les regles. ‘ for doing complete justice. Indian Constitution does not provide for that even “ for doing 234 . The role of the extant pro-active Judiciary has to be discussed under the light of these limitations. weighs down the Judiciary with the need of being moderate circumspect and scrupulous in its means. The key phrases that prescribe the role of Judiciary here are “in the exercise of its jurisdiction”.

But. Judiciary acting on Public Interest petitions is certainly a step forward towards better judicial system. The parturition of the Judiciary to shift polluting industries from the heart of Delhi to the outskirts pro bono publico. 235 . Unless those at the helm in Indian Judiciary wake up from their somnolency and realise where indiscreetness in their part is leading the country to. Intentions of the court in such a course of action is definitely very `noble. The Executive Orders. Paroxysms of the Judiciary in Patna in Bihar Fodder Scam and later on the use of Article 356 in Bihar led to open protests in Parliament and outside.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED complete justice”. Indian Judiciary now ends to make are in violation of the spirit of the above constitutional provision. the future of Indian democracy is bound to be bleak and mired in incertitude and disaster. But means pursued to the end may not be in the best interests of the country and its constitutional machinery. Supreme Court of India on its verdict on 13 August laid guidelines to protect the interests of working women from sexual harassment and ruled that the guidelines would be in force till due legislations replace them. Indian Judiciary is certainly losing sight of the difference between pronouncing judgements and making Executive orders. The apostasy Indian Judiciary suffers by encroachment on the domains of the Executive and the loss of restraint in Judicial proceedings lead judiciary to the cul de sac of the loss of dignity and credibility. Judicial meddling in every state affair outside its jurisdiction may prove costly to both the Judiciary and the country. led to stirrings against the very well-meaning verdict. The latter part of the Article 142 (1) clearly dictates that the operation of the decree or order made by the court is subject to the law made by Parliament or Presidential Order.

is travesty of reasonableness. was limited to the simplistic job of equating the quantum of a wrong with the quantum of punishment. studied them in pro rata importance before pronouncing its judgements in all its variance. The reason that a wrong is committed by a person of honesty and integrity. is height of unbalanced appropinquation in public affairs. does not abate the incisiveness of the injustice to the wronged party. the message of the judiciary in the circumstances to the public at large. After all. the quantum of punishment to be awarded on its own 236 . it keeps in mind the gravity of the wrong. even in ancient India. mens rea. as for as it does not entail with the case under adjudication to surface the truth. dignity of the judiciary and the interests of the nation and its people. When judiciary. In the circumstances. Judicial function at no time. that the judiciary no more remains the cardinal dispensor of justice. particularly the highest seat of judiciary in the country. can not bother about a person’s history and other attributes as much as how his particular act wronged an aggrieved party. When so many aspects are in stake. wrong committed is wrong whether it is committed by a person of honesty and integrity or by a person sans the virtues.PRAVEEN KUMAR IN DEFENCE OF JUDICIARY Judiciary deals with and justice pertains to specifie cases and an individual’s past. Often. Taking judiciary to task in other circumstances on the basis of punishment awarded to an individual or a blessed section of the society for a proved wrong as the judiciary sees it or for the quantum of punishment awarded as the judiciary sees it in its wisdom as right vis a vis the injustices heaped upon the plebeian everyday in India by various government bodies and civil servants sans an easy recourse for justice and for that reason. in its present system. Judiciary. decides the quantum of punishment to be awarded for a wrong. sine dubio. suffering undergone by the petitioner. It is in fairness to presume that the judiciary which is posted of all aspects of a disputed issue for years. accepted in mute suffering. Anybody arguing against judicial pronouncement because of sympathy for a privileged individual or section may not be doing his public service in excelsis. always creative in its dispensation of justice and takes causes and effects and overall interests of the public in its administration of justice. just because the person enjoys a good reputation. just the dignity of a privileged individual or section f society cannot be a criterion for relaxing the quantum of punishment. Judiciary is a professional body to consider all these aspects before passing its judgement. Judging the judgement of the judiciary extra muros of this scope is a great disservice to the judiciary and the people whose right’s cardinal guardian is the judiciary. It is in the interest of the administration of justice and the system of government to leave the matter at it with liberty to the judiciary to compute more suo. judicial pronouncements are commented upon for using diverse yardsticks in awarding the quantum of punishment for the same wrong at different times. Such comments are based on wrong notion of judiciary as a linear punishing apparatus. present and repute have nothing to do with justice and judiciary. Such a faith in judiciary is sine qua non until myriad slip in part of the judiciary in major cases of national importance disturb the national conscience at all strata to prove. Indian judiciary was and in its western heritage of present days is. berating judiciary for punishing a person for committing a wrong.

It chose a day and acted to show the gravity and seriousness of its judgements. In the circumstances. for such a change in the judiciary’s approach either yesterday or tomorrow can be posed with the same doubts. pronouncements of which could be easily ignored and ensuing contempt proceedings could be staved off by obtaining an innocuous warning. at last. It is the process of judiciary coming to its own. Any judicial proceeding involves a petition of wrong committed. A change in the thinking of Indian judiciary is patent these days. What we had was a dormant judiciary. Judiciary is blamed of activism. questioning the judiciary’s will on the basis of why today. It is the process of Indian judiciary abrading itself from its long gratuitous slumber. Another question strikes about the bourasque roused while judiciary punished somebody for committing wrong is why the same responses not raised about those punished persons while consciously ignored doing justice to wronged persons even on orders of the judiciary and tried to perpetuate the sufferings of the wronged persons. it is not activism. Judiciary proceedings of modern days are based on perspicaciously laid-down rules that give more than adequate scope for all the concerned parties to explain. persons who allegedly committed wrong and the judiciary to adjudicate the matter. Even the lowest of the low in government circles treated court orders with contempt. But.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED wisdom rather than shattering the public confidence on the judicial system with comments based on clouded thinking. judiciary was complacent about its dormancy and impervious to the sufferings of the wronged people. provide evidences and defend themselves before being judged by the judiciary as responsible for wrongs. suffered. In government circles. is rather preposterous. An awakened judiciary has to break a new path to show that what was happening to judicial pronouncements was not right. It started to see its responsibilities to the common man more clearly and started to assert selon les regles. judicial pronouncements had become a matter of choice. But. None should fault the judiciary for what it is doing. It has to choose a time-may be yesterday or today to tomorrow or someday to do this. Such disparities of approach to sufferings of people do not go asey bien with public interests. In the process hoi polloi whom the judiciary has to protect from injustices heaped upon them by the mighty. court judgements at all levels of legislature-executive combine are circumvented as a rule rather than as an exception and everybody knows that no justice can be expedited by any court of law. Once commission of a wrong is 237 . for. a situation has reached wherein it is generally accepted that pleading with judiciary for justice against injustices in service matters bring nothing more than waste of time and money. The nation should have celebrated this change for better rather than a few opinion leaders rousing public opinion against judiciary for punishing some who treated judicial pronouncements with scarce respect and ignored the commands of the rule of law to further suffer wronged parties in pursuit of the deplorable tradition of ignoring justices and fairness in administration. why not yesterday and why not tomorrow. In the process justice suffered. In government circles. And certainly judiciary cannot continue with its sedentary responses for contempt of its judgements for the fear of breaking the path of dormancy of old times even after being awakened to its footle. It is a good tide of events that the judiciary has awakened now.

If somebody fail to defend themselves to the satisfaction of the judiciary by parting relevant information at their possession. press and electronic media must support judiciary to shed its lethargy and come actively to perform its sacrosanct responsibility of reigning in pandemic injustice in Indian society. its judiciary and its system of government. Rather than advocating sticking to the old granny’s back. the people are doing so at their own peril and responsible for the consequences of the judiciary’s ultimate findings.PRAVEEN KUMAR a res judicata. The concerned parties are free to exercise their option either to own responsibility for the wrong under issue or to show to the judiciary. under what circumstances they were forced not to do full justice as judiciary thinks it had to. even after judiciary. 238 . judiciary may be called to judge who committed the wrong. Indian opinion leaders including intellectuals. its people. even after being called to do it. called them to do as judicial procedure lays down. judiciary cannot be blamed for passing orders against persons who fail to come clean before it. The judiciary cannot be held responsible for the glitches of the concerned parties at all. All the concerned parties are ad libitum to show before the judiciary how and why they are not responsible for the wrong indubitably committed. It is a wonder that Indians are in reverse gear while its judiciary rose to its constitutional responsibility. On the strength of the facts and figures provided to it by various parties. What is called as activism in judiciary has come as a blessing to India. even though such revelations put them and other concerned persons in difficulties. The process may more appropriately be called as creative judiciary and will certainly do a lot of good to India.

Policing in a democracy involves keeping eyes ears and even olfactory organs open with an argute faculty of conceptualization to understand the fast changing dynamics ’neath the frontal layers of the society and ability for fast responses to handle emergent situations. Police is a double-edged sword. No society is static. It turns to grave mess-up in absence of professionalism probity and genuine national interests. for policing the process of governance. every person is police for himself in a democracy. In this sense. Its front is national interests and safety and security of the national life. field realities necessitate an external agency per procurationem of the government to enforce rules and laws and police the national interests from the assaults of parochial and anti-social interests lurking in shadows of a democratic rule. This situation of policing in a democracy makes policing an infinitely more difficult task than otherwise by forcing police to make decisions and take sides. Policing under such a government hardly fulfill the needs of the national well-being. While in one. bind the police to police in a particular way. Public opinion is more an artificially created venal commodity than a natural phenomenon in a democracy. Popular rule implies mass involvement of people in the political process. However. the other. they do make significant difference in the actual process of policing. The key of policing in a democracy is sensitivity.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED THE ROLE OF POLICE IN A DEMOCRACY Democracy stands for popular rule. Police in a democracy are no more than a system driven by the pulls and counter pulls of the government and the public opinion in one hand and the laws in force and the safety and security of the national life on the other. It involves responsibility to the interests of the country and identifies self-interests with the national interest. In the other. the diverse contradictory pulls and pressures only multiply with the ascensive complexity of the national life. in the other. The kaleidoscope of changing faces of the society is best accounted by the media in diverse forms. Changes are repaid in a democratic atmosphere with group interests in constant conflict. police police the ruled from the side of the government. factors like inefficiency and corruption more often than not work against social vectors and lead against social sensibilities. The seed of democracy is self-discipline. An avizefull police can always comprehend the complexity of situation through media and judge the right course of action on its own wisdom. Here lies the relevance of police in a democracy. Mass involvement of people necessitates rules and laws and an agency to enforce it. This may be an opportunity for better service in the circumstances of true professional work. police police the rules from the side of the people as true power-wielders. sensitivity to the needs of the society and the nation. Though government is expected to be alert to the needs of the society. it is the will of the people as expressed through the public media. Media has become a hi-tech business in the age of power through elections. media in a democratic ambience is not infallible. This is the police of a democracy. For the infaust police. This being only an ideal situation. Its one edge accounts for policing of the people. Most tools of creating 239 . it is the will of the rulers that prevails in driving the police to police. Though the two functions towards the well being of the country appear intrenchant prima facie. In one.

“…is not the servant of anyone. Ergo. It is a serious problem. police find themselves in the precarious position of making a choice between the two as in national security decisions.PRAVEEN KUMAR and arousing public opinion are instruments of propaganda. The other side claims that the police are responsible only to the laws in force and for nothing else. No minister of the crown can tell him that the must or must not keep observation on this place or that. The contradictory pulls and pressures are the clamor of the public for professional and honest policing on the hand and the call of politicians and bureaucrats steeped in personal interests for work as their handmaids on the other. it may mislead police in its pursuit of justice and well-being of the country. In the famous Blackburn case in England. or that he must or must not 240 . The only limiting factor that works on it is pulls and counter pulls. Such a commitment by police is the foundation of the administration of justice. The need is a sensitive balance between the laws in force and the safety and security of the national life. Equally paramount is the safety and security of the national life. blindly relying on opinions artificially trumped-up by the media may not lead police anywhere. The situation leads to human rights violations and popular condemnation of police in some cases. They are enacted to meet the challenges of the society from time to time. The government appoints men and officers of the police force. laws and police form a holy trinity in a democracy and each is sine qua non for the other two in the system. The fact is that laws are mutable. Laws are collective responses of the legislators to a given situation. Here lies the dilemma of the police. save of the law itself. Police enjoy tremendous leeway in governance in a democracy. In the polluted atmosphere of criminalization of politics and the politicization of police. The pith of the issue is that what constitutes national interests and what not. When the two paramount objects refuse to go pari passu. and how far police to be trusted in deciding where they can be given leeway to break laws in the presumed interests of the safety and security of the national life. laws only speak what to do. Is it the convenience of the government or the public interests? People in government claim that the first loyalty of the police to government is en regle. Laws are sine dubio paramount. Rather. Policing is not exactly like a football game wherein rules of the game are paramount and goals are scored selon les regles. Even while laws provide for action. administration and superintendence of the government. Police is the ultimate weapon of the rule of law in a democracy. they are subject to conduct rules. Chances are that laws in force are not adequate to handle extant challenges in the field. This is the situation even in England from where India adopted the gestalt of its democratic system. it is left to police how to do and how much to do. neither the police nor the political leadership as the highest layer of governance in a democracy is worthy of a trust of such a magnitude. The cardinal issue is where the loyalty of police should lie in the exercise of leeway in pursuit of professional objectives in a democracy. Their argument is based on the position that police form a part of the government. Police have to bear the humiliation with dignity in the interests of their professional objectives. pronounced. police face. In the circumstances. Lord Denning in reference to police. Laws have to be broken in the larger interests of the country while national interests cannot wait for the enactment of requisite laws. perpetual pernoctation is the watchword of a democratic police while being sensitive to the needs of the government au reste the ripples of the public opinion with the national interests and its well-being as the litmus test. Government. Police in a democracy need to be perpetually alert to both the needs and find an aurea mediocritas to fine-tune its professional objectives.

Police are more hated. resources and expertise at its disposal towards that end. The responsibility for law enforcement lies on him. services of eligible citizens are enlisted for policing under diverse categories of schemes provided by police Acts like Special police Officers. Resistance is inherent and conflict is inevitable in the world of changes. Police has to paramount role in social transformation in a democracy. it is left to police to decide how to do and how much to do. The involvement can be either formal or informal.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED prosecute this man or that one. The services are normally voluntary. The skill of the police in enlisting the cooperation of respectable citizens plays an important role in making policing successful. Only a thinking police can handle the responsibility perficiently. The help the citizens render to police varies from being informers. A thinking police is a special need of a democracy. Nor real efforts are made to activate such voluntary schemes provided by the law. Nor can any police authority tell him so. Group dynamics make conflicts pronounced in a democracy.” The responsibility of the police in a democracy is multifaceted. The potentiality of the citizens to police themselves being fully exploited is an essential ingredient of a successful democracy. These duties are principal to the success of policing. Willing cooperation of the public in policing is a rarity. The result is poor policing for lack of involvement of the people. Not much is done in India in this area. Failure cripples the evolution of social system to social justice. The citizens so enlisted help the regular police in various police duties with special rights and privileges under the supervision and superintendence of the police force. when. It has to deal with a variety of situations of different points of time in enforcement of laws. The roles police play in social conflicts have a major say in determining the futuristic pattern of society. Traffic Wardens. In informal involvement. witnesses and signatories to various panchanamas in criminal cases to patrolling in groups in strife-stricken or dacoity-infested areas at nights. 241 . feared and distanced than respected and helped. The regular police force is just a skeleton for the true policing efforts of a democracy wherein every citizen is a policeman of his country. The informal involvement covers the use of citizens during the policing. The skill of the regular police lies in making the voluntary schemes attractive and popular and enlisting enthusiastic citizens to its fold in large numbers. A special feature of police in a democracy is involving people in policing. Additional Police. how and how much invokes what laws. This implies special care and protection to weaker sections en face exploitation from the powerful and involves contranatant stimuli. This is where the sphere of social laws comes to picture. It decides where. The result is that Indian police sweat out without a mass base in a maelstrom and bear impossible burdens on its weak frame to the point of breaking down. Laws only say what to do and what not to do. The importance necessitates police to be a thinker and a judge in addition to being a cutting-edge executor. People policing themselves are the leitmotiv of in involving people in policing in a democracy. No police organisation can succeed in a democracy without people being activity involved. Village Police or even Home Guards as provided by the Home Guards enactments. The regular police force is just a reticulation with necessary structure. He is answerable to the law and to the law alone. It must guarantee justice and safety to all strata of people and ensure equitable enforcement of law sine ira et studio. Stock witnesses are the order of the day. Not much attention is given to this skill in the present scheme of things in police.

smoking. In the circumstances of the corrupt society. The relevance of police in a democracy lies in the direct interaction between the people and their police. It is a welcome experiment in India in democratizing the police of a democracy. A good example is the case of 242 . Utility of police lies in its usefulness to the people and the country. This is a major step towards the relevance of police in a democracy. there is bound to be opposition to the provisions as an intrusion on their right of doing what they want and irresponsible and sensation. The auxiliary police force enjoys police powers and protections provided by law on par with the regular police. The interactions develop a sense of belonging between the two to the advantage of both the sides as an essential ingredient of good policing in a true democracy. urinating.mongering Indian media is bound to linger on the protests as an event of national significance. They are bound to be appreciated in an enlightened democracy as a measure of cleansing their cities and inculcating decent and healthy practices among them while in an unenlightened democracy like India. They find themselves in the precarious situation of neither taking a decision nor avoiding it. Policing in a true democracy can be extended to a wider scope of experiment a la the Goa Police Bill. Periodical meetings between the public and the police at various levels serve the purpose. 1995.play of powers. The bill modeled on Singapore police. Both sides are the part of the democratic interplay of a democracy. preserve public peace and prevent and detect crime within that area. The options before the police in a democracy are often a bundle of non. The exercise helps the public and the police know each other better and appreciate mutual limitations in right perspective.PRAVEEN KUMAR Involvement breeds a sense of belonging. It boosts mutual confidence to the benefits of both the sides and makes policing cost-effective and efficient. provided every act of the auxiliary police force is subjected to effective control. A two-way channel between the people and the police makes a democracy really democratic. provides for creation of auxiliary police force by owners of private establishments to safeguard life and property in specified areas apart from being empowered to maintain law and order. Informal contacts between the police and the public at different levels also help the process. It brings police and the public closer. the vigil of the regular police as the symbol of the state power is absolutely necessary to make the auxiliary police force behave within the parameters of the law. People from all walks of life of a specific area interact with the police officers of the area in formal meetings held periodically on policing issues. The same thing can be said about provisions in the Bill to punish uncivilized conduct like spitting. It is a balanced exercise of power wherein all people co-exist irrespective of whether they are weak or powerful. Giving them policing powers to police themselves is in line with the highest traditions of the democracy. Democracy is not a free. The sense of participation in policing helps to appreciate the problems of the police and policing. It is like being caught between the devil and the deep sea. throwing garbage etc in public places. Democracy let loose contradictory forces to pounce on police from all sides. supervision and superintendence of the regular police force to avoid misuse of powers. It makes better cooperation between the public and the police possible.options. A police not steeped in professional resolve gets seized in the melee and exposes itself to grievous errors. It enthuses citizens to partake in nation building and boosts patriotism. The idea of people policing the people should not degenerate to a situation where bigger fishes gorge the smaller ones or the fittest only survive.

Even the state police chief gave evasive answers to the media about action against the offenders named by Shivani. Then Mumbai police under Shiva Sena government realized that Arun Gawli and his criminal activities are security threat to the nation and he was arrested and detained under NSA for a couple of extortion cases and harboring criminals. political parties like congress tried to woo him and his muscle of labour organizations to their fold. Police just cannot do justice to justice under the extant democratic pulls and pressures. People. Democracy dictates respect to the feelings and sensitivities of all sections of the society. Nagapur Bench of Mumbai High Court declared the arrest and detention under NSA as illegal. He become a respected figure to Mumbai police under Shiva Sena Chief Minister. This is the quantum of political pressure on policing. Even public protests and agitations by women’s groups and the interest of the media in the case failed to deter the state police from its inaction against the actual offenders. A flexible police is the centre of all these malaises. The episode explains all the maladies of policing in a democracy in the ambience of criminalization of politics. 1997 was attacked with acid.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED dreaded underworld don Arun Gawli of Mumbai. the state police turned impervious to the statement of the victim recorded by them and her letter addressed to the Jaipur Superintendent of Police about the involvement of the minister’s son in the offence. Shivani Jadeja on way to school from her residence on April 12. politicization of police. constricting group dynamics and the ability of criminal elements to take advantage of the Achilles’ heel of a system. the task of police weaving through these groups to police them and bring wrong. It was only after two representations from socially conscious organisations being treated as Public Interest Litigations that Rajastan High Court directed the state government to withdraw the case from the state police and get the investigation done by the CBI. a 17 yearold girl. Mumbai police obviously was helpless in containing his criminal activities. lax judicial system. allegedly by the son of the transport minister of the state and his friends. Any move against the interests of this group is bound to create serious problems to police. Shiva Sena supreme.doers to book pro bono publico is an unenviable task demanding tact. 243 . Police are caught in the web of the dynamics of a democracy. This is the extent of the credibility of the police under political pressure. once he established his Akhila Bharatiya Sena (ABS) at Mumbai and other places of Maharastra. The world knows that he is a dangerous criminal with scores of criminal cases pending against him. Mumbai and Maharastra idolized and supported the criminal. In a situation where government and power depend upon the vote banks of groups. A police officer with a commitment to crush crime syndicates and their criminal activities on coming to power meets with dramatic rise in crimes and law and order problems in his area to the extent that he soon realize that he has no alternative to keep the underworld on right side were he to save his professional reputation. Bal Thackeray and his party called him as their answer to dreaded underworld don Dawood Ibrahim and tried to promote him and his gangsters. Police by the very nature of their work cannot please every side and therefore bound to work in an atmosphere of hatred and inimical feelings. justice and propriety make little sense. Even criminals form a pollent group of considerable political maneuverability and strength in a democracy. law. their group interests and concomitant conflicts are centre stage in a democracy. In group dynamics of Indian kind. When he fell foul with Shiva Sena and its supremo. Large sections of the people in Dagdi Chawi. In the notorious Shivani acid attack case of Jaipur. Every interest group in a democracy is powerful with scores of followers.

use of investigating agencies to keep political rivals in check etc are just the signs on the surface of this tragic malady. It is an instrument of containment in the ambience of narrow interests trespassing on each other’s interest. housebreaking and dacoity and law and order disturbances. A weakened and ineffective police is a sure sign of crumbling democracy. so much good for the country. Cooperation of the powerful criminal groups is conditio sine qua non for smooth policing a democracy. operate as executors of the will of the rulers in non-democracies. Mass transfer of police officers at all levels with the change of government. Police derive strength by adhering to law and justice. for. A few fools. get thrown out of their post and avoid any responsible job thereafter on the charge of being incapable of controlling crimes and maintaining law and order. its conditio sine qua non. who fail to read the writings on the wall. especially while people are yet to realize their democratic responsibilities. A democracy just cannot stand up without the spine of the police. The next Police Commissioner of the city was after stopping the menace of cabaret. extortion. gang war. He is forced to compromise his convictions to retain his position. The recent example is a state capital in India. The result was a relatively crime-free tenure for him in the city. But. Once off the track to aggrace political masters. Police is a democracy’s spine. The political pressures the underworld wields au reste the warning shots are capable of bringing a practical police officer to his senses. kidnapping. The beginning of the collision of politicians and the police in a democracy is always for mutual benefits. Strengthening the police is the foremost need of firming up democratic traditions. Indian police these days with its deep politicization is gradually approximating to the sad state. The slant is not in the interests of democracy. live bands and night clubs and containing organized crimes in the city. Its new Police Commissioner adopted a soft approach to powerful mafia gangs of the city and shut eyes to the flourishing business of cabaret. How soon India realizes this. live bands and nightclubs. the strength of democracy is pro rata to the professional resolve of the police. This is how police is under seize in a democracy. Success of a democracy entirely depends on the effectiveness of the police there. It is unlike other forms of government. he had to bear an unfavorable media throughout. It is the only instrument available to bring people to their senses and to the needs of the laws. The immediate response to the new Police Commissioner was inordinate rise in crimes like chain snatching. 244 .PRAVEEN KUMAR his new position and peace in his area. Thus develops a vicious circle that leads police to be perpetually under the beck and call of the politicians in power. he rubbed the media on the wrong side on the first day of his taking charge in the city. Private armies in whatever name sans the leash of law. use of intelligence units for political maneuverings. wherein other forms are created to bring the people to submission to the will of the rulers. It was the crime syndicates sending signals to come to terms with their existence and activities. As a consequence.

Synergy among them may lead even to venal deals in human organs at the expense of the health of the ignorant people. The ineluctable hierarchical order as the spine of policing and the concomitant interferences from above bring a measure of incertitude and render honest and professional policing nonpossumus by depriving field officers their freedom in handling cases on dictates of the conscience.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED POLICE AS SOCIAL SURGEONS Police deal with social ills as physicians and surgeons deal with physical ills. The difference lies in the medical profession mostly maintaining its pristine purity as a profession while police as a splinter of bureaucracy being illaqueated by formalities and procedures inherent in government functions at the cost of forthright involvement and commitment immanent to a profession. The hapless position spawns a sense of disillusion in people and they even resign to the situation as helpless subjects. policing is a highly responsible function and ergo needs to be bound by moral ethos as lex non scripta to avoid misuse of special rights involved in discharge of duties. The society has to depend for surgery upon an epinosic organisation. The whole process is based on trust on the surgeons and their honesty. A surgeon incises parts of the body to set right wrongs and remove dangerous growths from the system to save a person while a police do the same for the society. The harm done to the patient to meet the greed of the surgeons would be pro rata to the latter’s immoral propensities. Indian society witness the deterioration of its health de mal en pis each passing year. while the people have no alternative to offering themselves for surgery to their hands in times of need. It is the reason why in spite of sound presence of the social surgeons. Their contempt for professional skills and negligent work may tremendously harm the safety of the patients. Imagine the situation when the lot of surgeons is greedy and sans scruples. The situation in the field is certain to wreck the trust of the people on the surgeons. The predicament forces them to rely on the contabescent setup foute de mieux. The society. TRUST OF THE PEOPLE Physicians and surgeons have as much potentiality and opportunity to damage as to save health. mismanaged. for its well-being. Both professions involve independent decisions in handling each case and exercise of infrangible conscience in doing justice to it. undependable. None can be sure what would happen to an unconscious patient on the operation table in the hands of such surgeons behind the closed doors of the operation theatre. Because of their expertise and credibility. Police job like the works of a surgeon involves administration of bitter potions. This exactly is the situation of the social surgery by the police in India. prescription of restrictions and incisions to lay foundation for a sturdy system. This perforce adversely affects the effectiveness of policing and ipso facto. has to fall on an organisation with which it tends to keep 245 . enrivon with quandaries. which is inefficient. Like medical profession. The whole situation becomes hopeless when the whole setup is run by similarly profligate surgeons and the precept that birds of the same feather flock together operates to hold them in syndesis at the expense of any relief by appeals or complaints. enfested with scandals and above all. surgeons have umpteen opportunities to use their tools and instruments on people on the claim of restoring health. the health of the society.

The result sees motivation becoming a casualty in the bedlamish system. part in quiddity is the result of wrong people and wrong concepts coming to the centrestage in Indian police from a long time. But. The sadistic pleasure finds expression in severity down the hierarchical ladder at the cost of dignity and self. On the one hand. No scruple is shown in measures meant to bring a subordinate to knees or an accused to confess to the offence. Though third degree methods are universal in application in police investigations. The mode of approach of the police to man management proves this. it has to fall on the police for all of its social evils. Though part of the bad image of the police is sheer myth. The difference between a surgeon and a police is that while a surgeon outside the operation theatre is a gentleman every farden. It is the predicament of the Indian society. there are vital differences in their use in advanced and countries like India. It is a free-for-all field. RELEVANCE OF CRUELTY The similarly of surgeons and police basically is their hard means to achieve the desired end.PRAVEEN KUMAR distance and thinks it indignity to associate. While utmost care and discreetness are employed in englightened police forces of advanced countries in deciding whether a particular individual has to be subjected to serve interrogations.surgical methods involving incisive tools to cut and remove unwanted growths. The hard methods in police extend even to its policy of human resources management at the cost of neoteric principles of man management. This is why the image of the police is very low. The rule of thumb continues to be the bedrock of handling human resources. This invidious stria is hardly the desirable attribute to which any decent society wants to submit itself for any treatment. he had not committed. Third degree methods in interrogations is a too familiar issue to discuss here. LACK OF COMMITMENT 246 . Human dignity is an unknown concept in the police. of an evil. the hard approach renders a police apocryphal at the cost of civil living and basic human nature. The problems of malfeasance are common in the police. unaffected by the ambience. Ruthlessness and cruelty are the ropes Indian police find commodious with. It is en regle as far as surgeries and concerned. The police seem to think that end justifies the means. where imminence of the concerned person being an offender is a prime criterion and the methods are used as the dernier ressort. SADISTIC PLEASURE The endless affairs with legal matters perhaps insensitise the police to the problems of legality. It cannot be gainsaid that there is a streak of sadistic pleasure in Indian police. its womenfolk consider as an insult on their womanhood to approach and its children see it as an image of fear and silenced by invoking its name to gallow. the popular image of the police in Indian psyche is that of a devil. Basic values like mutual respect and courtesies are rare in Indian police. Indian police like their counterparts in backward countries adopt third degree methods in investigation as their staple right over innocent citizens and fall to it in the first available instant like wolves on their preys. The tragedy of the police lies in de trop extension of the hard means unlike surgeons to other aspects of life. This is evident in their hors la loi approach to various issues. Ruthlessness and cruelty are its principal weapons in bringing subordinates and the public to submission.respect of others down the ladder. They think that third degree methods are de rigueur in crime investigation.

If the organisation and the people in it cannot rise to the high levels expected of it and prove their raison d’etre. deputed from the police department in a southern state of India. The key for this change lies in creation of right professional ambience in the police system. know it. the protector of and tool in the hands of rich and powerful. but of a social-wrecker. in the type of people enter the service. Police work only when there is gratification and while people with muscles of money and power need help. The circumstances of the case normally warrant departmental actions like suspension of the officials. police suffer from alexia and fail to read the elevated position in which they are held while recognised as social surgeons. the police who were investigating the case were surreptitiously advised by the DGP to go slow with the case till the people involved in the case easily retire. no departmental enquiries. In this case. their values and convictions and the professional atmosphere created by the service. and ipso facto lays sublime responsibilities on the rough and tough little shoulders of the police. The preposterous trend has to stop in the interests of the police as an organisation and a profession. they are misprised and distanced for the apostasy. the country and the humanity. The society whose well-being is the responsibility of the police. Sadly Indian police is becoming that in oodles. Advice from well-meaning officers in the department to the DGP in 1996 to take the affairs to their logical ends by initiating essential departmental actions as an apotropaic measure fell on dunny ears. The secret of creating right atmosphere lies in right leadership and the burden of right leadership lies on right convictions about the 247 . The cause of the degringolade certainly lies in the police itself.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED A ken of the extent to which the Indian social surgeons are committed to their work and goals can be had from the fact that in a small department headed by a Director General of Police. the concept of social surgeon is pregnant with highest ideals human mind can conceive. Even the criminal case was just a front to save the skin of the people at the helm of the was just a front to save the skin of the people at the helm of the organisation. It is seld or never found in present Indian police. they are no more loved and respected as social surgeons should be. Indeed the fear of police is there because of the weapons and the muscle of power they weild. The consequence is that while the police is yet seen and called as social surgeons foute de mieux. even the rear is glidder after the pelbeian has learnt the lesson that money can do any tricks with the police. It is sad to see how the sacred responsibilities are not only frittered away. In some parts of the country. This certainly is not characteristic of a social surgeon. the department washed off its hands after launching the criminal case as if it had nothing to do about the fraud and forgery in its own organisation. no recovery processes. The society is left to itself to mend its problems. but abused at will to the chagrin of the hoi polloi. the society. The police know it. On the other hand. In addition. the reason lies in its ephemeral self-interests ectogenous to the professional values and ideals. It is position in which they are held while recognised as social surgeons. their calibre. This much about the zeal of Indian police as social surgeons in tackling evils. No suspensions. “Surgeon” is an abracadabra. departmental enquiries and measures to recover the loss to follow the launching of the criminal case. The application of this concept to recognise the duties of the police is the highest honour the society has invested the police with. they suffer from their avowed path. a criminal case of fraud and forgery involving a huge amount was launched against some staff members of the department in a police station after the misdeeds were unearthed during an audit. Police as social surgeons perforce require single-minded commitment to the cause of well-being of the society. Unfortunately.

The wolves within are more dangerous than outside. Such hawks in higher echelons of the career-ladder succeeded in their schemes and the result is the Indian police in its present wretched state. The result is that all types of wolves ab intra et ab extra falling on the system to tear it from all sides and eating it. 248 . to make the system acceptable to the society as its protector and ‘ social surgeons’ true to the abracadabra. The salvation of Indian police lies in breaking the vice prise of these arriviste and laying it in the safe hands of the professionals steeped in the foundations of professional pride and uprightness.PRAVEEN KUMAR importance of police and policing as a profession. The ensure that no upright resistance breed ab intra to the detriment of their esurient appetite and no professional pride raises its head to topple their schemes of self-promotion The only response of their greed is wrecking uprightness and professional pride wherever they are traced. The malaise of Indian police lies in lack of right convictions about the importance of policing as a profession.

most politicians obviously presume. Jain Hawala case. the police are not required always to deal with politics and crimes separately. But. anti-sikh riots of 1984 and investigation of cases against godman Chandraswamy. holds good to their profession as well. apocryphal or de jure. The gravity of political crimes and their threat to the national interests subject them to the scrutiny and handling by a district of distinct security apparatus attached to the intelligence setup in addition to the usual purview of the uniformed police. The police can ably deal with politicians and criminals separately in discharge of their professional duties with their obedience and subordination side furbished for political masters and tough and ruthless side reserved for criminals. The cardinal goal of survival and 249 .Kitts’ affairs. There is no sin or wrong worse than a defeat. Unfortunately. being suicidal is not a virtue. Politics imprimis being a powergame and an art of possible. Shakespeare’s characterisation of love and war where everything is fair. there is no point why the axiom that everything is fair in politics should not be honoured while fairness of war in all its shapes and forms is sacrosanct. CRIME AS A TOOL OF POWERGAME Vohra Committee report on the nexus of politicians and criminals perspicaciously indicated Indian political culture for its close links with the underworld and provided a compte rendu on the havoc created by the criminalisation of politics and the politicisation of crime. the technique of handling political crimes in India is yet to be perfected. To further flummox the issue. to ensure that they win and survive. The scope of political crimes range from petty crimes committed by political activists to serious crimes including white-collar crimes committed in the colour of performing political duties to grave crimes against national interests committed for political reasons from within or outside the country. the politicians are convinced that they are justified in seeking any means. The result is proliferation of political crimes in India and fear of a parallel rule by the crime world coming into existence under political patronage. History has shown how success can absterge even the sin of mass murder of innocent people by dropping atom bombs. War and politics being two facets of the same powergame. They are more and more required to handle a special category of crimes by the name. the prominence of personalities involved and the magnitude of interests. the political crimes rate the highest in the scale of importance of various crimes on the basis of national interests at stake. it is success that decides what is right and wrong. one external and one internal. As politics being a powergame in extremis like war and decides the degringolade or steep rise of those involuted in it. St. the crimes arouse in the country and outside.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED POLITICAL CRIMES AND SECURITY The importance of political crimes for the police lies in politics and crimes being two fields ex utraque parte of policing with the police depending on political leaders for sustenance while acting on criminals to justify its raison d’etre. nor faulting the art of possible bring any credit in public life. The present technique is yet a patch work and the police especially at the top are psychologically ill-equipped to handle political crimes as seen by poor performance of the Indian police in handling of such important political crimes as Bofors Gun deal. political crimes where their masters and subjects join hands to their chagrin. Afterall. Ultimately.

as an outcome of the suspected “balkanisation of India” policy adopted by some foreign countries. Depending upon the success or failure of the mission in hand. The realisation that political ends can be easily met by the malengine of the kidnap-drama opened up an aboideau to the terrorists who were acharne to meet their political telos. perchance. but also dealt as a criminal. rule of law is paramount and one who moves extra muros is not only debarred from the game. he is seen to be eliminated. many politicians refuse to accept constraints on their political powerplay and continue to indulge in links with criminal world to have immediate need of winning power fulfilled. where everything goes by emotion and passion. too serious for comfort. The increase in terrorist activities in India. BOOTH CAPTURING A candidate for an election may even resort to booth capturing through his criminal aides to facilitate his victory. The situation has been 250 . by providing him political support and protection. The inexperience of Indian political leaders in tackling the problem complicated the matter. However . This operation requires through planning and training of the men involved. POLITICAL KIDNAPPING Political kidnapping is an international phenomenon that comminated the world of diplomacy in excelsis in the 1970’s. So goes the thinking of politicians maintaining close links with underworld. The terrorists of Kashmir and Punjab set the tone in India which was picked up by the People’s War Group and the ULFAs in the 1990s. in yielding to demands as a quid pro quo in releasing large number of dangerous terrorists. He does the work through his faithful underworld henchmen whom he keeps in good humour always for being available for such a need. he keeps the police at his side. While most countries around the world explicated a policy of stubborn refusal to yield to kidnappers’ demands under straints. No career politician wants to stain his name with a murder case and get his name registered as a criminal in police station. This is easily done by intervening in police postings and helping to get early promitons for favoured ones. apart from the willing cooperation of the police. An attempt at booth–capturing can succeed only with the intrenchant nexus between politicians. In a democratic party system.. The Menace trickled onto the Indian scene though slowly. POLITICIAL MURDERS Political murders are common features these days in India. where procedures are shaped to make the rule of the majority a scientific reality in form of constitutional provisions. criminals and the police for synergy. The crux of the problem of Indian politics lies in this with certain categories of crimes in delicius of Indian political field loosening the very terra firma of the Indian democratic system. When a political adversary grows to be an irritant. made political kidnapping an ubiquitious reality on the Indian political scene from the latter half of the 1980’s. The only gaffe in their perception of politics is their failure understand politics in a civilised system like democracy as a powergame selon les regles unlike emotional games of love and war. the Indian leaders goofed by displaying their weaknesses while people close to them were abducted. decisively in the 1980’s.PRAVEEN KUMAR success is the first priority and the means to achieve it takes care of itself. who were arrested at huge cost and loss of lives. For this.

The reclame attached to the kidnap-drama and the arousal of the public interest in the developments that follow is another dimension of the political kidnapping that brings an identification and gives an image to a terrorist outfit as nothing else can. It has become a fashion to initiate a terrorist outfit with a kidnapping operation. The accrescent dependence of terrorists and professional criminals on each adds to the complexity. The considerable fall in the incidences for political kidnapping on the international scene of late is an indication of the increasing realisation of this fact. The peoples’ War Group in Andhra Pradesh is going progressively active in kidnapping government officials to bring the state government on its knees. It is obviously sending a mauvais depeche to the would-beterrorists that the closer the proximity of the kidnapped to a political leader. R. The finesse displayed in executing the operation to a successful end decides the futue of the organisation. a junior diplomat in the Birmingham consulate in the first week of February. High thinking by enlightened people functions as a catchpole to check the criminal tendencies from being perpetuated. Interestingly.Mhatre. Crime scarcely survives in the situations of haute politique like diplomacy and relations between nations. 1984 by JKLF militants. POLITICAL KIDNAPPING VERSUS DISPLOMACY Political kidnapping and murder is tout court the most heinuous crime that often involves cold-blooded murder of absolutely innocent people for political ends. in the way the murders committed by a recruit decides his place in the mafia. PROFESSIONAL CRIMINALS IN KIDNAP DRAMA A disturbing tread in political kidnapping is the possibility of professional criminals like smugglers and drug peddlers resorting to political kidnappings at the hest of their illegal profession in the guise of political kidnappers. the first experiment of political kidnapping in the Indian scene was conducted in a foreign country in the form of the egregious abduction and killing of Mr. The government of Andhra Pradesh is yet to take the gauntlet by the horns. The kidnap dramas 251 . The chevisance in the inchoate drama proves the strength and resourcefulness of the new outfit and its locus standi among such other outfits. This unhealthy situation is already true in India as it is in many other countries.H. a part form the advantages of the ransom money and the release of compatriots. The mental agony and postliminary destruction involved to the maledict hostages and their near and dear ones because of the misguided entrainement of a handful of greenhorns go waste and make kidnapping an infructuous political tool at the end. POLITICAL KIDNAPPINGS IN INDIAN SCENE The operation Rhino against the ULFA activities is a direct off-shoot of a series of kidnappings of Indian and foreign nationals and killing of some of them by the ULFA militants in Assam. Political kidnapping in the Indian scene is also bound to be a temporal phenomenon as seen otherwhere in the world. the bigger is the chance of meeting their political ends.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED further complicated by adopting a policy of double standards in sacrificing the lives of lesser mortals in some other cases.

industrialists or their relatives and children being kidnapped for ransom appear in newspapers in Bihar. Except for the sense of national unity there is nothing common among these units to approach the gauntlets with a common cause. The political kidnappings are further complicating the welter created in the Indian and international scene by the rise of kidnappings by misadventurous individuals or groups lucri causa. This is necessary in the interests of the country and its policing in the future. The police in the state is devised as an independent unit. Some of the functions discharged at these levels have concurrent jurisdiction with some special units at state and national levels. maintenance of crime records etc. India must consider devising a pollent unitary police administration at the centre with full control over subordinate state and union terrotory police setups. politicians and the police to a war of nerves and those who have steelnerves in them. Delhi. UNITY OF PURPOSE IN INDIAN POLICE The political crimes of gargantuan proportion can be successfully tackled only by pollent police organisation with its all resources and resolves pooled together. emerge successful in the end. In a vast country like India. policing being shared between scores of independent units with no perspicaciously defined mechanism of cooperation. In the current system of policing in India. A fragmented police cannot turn out work in full-stream owing to the waste by leakage in the process of co-ordination between the fragmented parts. The relevance of the police comes into the picture in their ingine to check these pernicious developments. police stations and district police units form basic units of the administration. Ascensive anfractuosity of egregious mafia gangs in these operations is a pollent possibility. the problem occurs of coordination and units of purpose in tackling challenges that cover more than one of these unity.PRAVEEN KUMAR excoriate criminals. Calcutta. Crime investigation in special circumstances can be taken over from the district police administration by the state CID or the CBI at the national level. This would avoid coordination problems and help policing to be more purposeful in tackling challenges from the national perspective . Punjab. Assam. There are too many challenges such as these in the increasingly complex society of India. 252 . it is with the intelligence collection. Bombay and even smaller places. Even the common Indian Police Service is unable to bring about a unit of purpose to policing throughout India. security operations. It also makes available larger resources from the national level for policing apart from strengthening the sense of belonging to one police. Uttar Pradesh. The loopholes in the criminal law have to be plugged imprimis if crime administration has to be effective in India and command a semblance of respect and confidence of the public. So. CRIMINAL LAWS A few glaring anomalies and some erroneous provisions in the extant criminal laws of India contribute to be easy escapades of criminals from the clutches of law in many cases and harassment of innocent persons by the police in some other cases. The kidnappings becoming the piece de reistance of organised crime as a means of making a fast buck is already evident on the Indian scene as more and more reports of businessmen. the raising of armed police forces. This gives an impression of fragmentation in the Indian police. The triste reality is that the Indian police has failed to rise to the occasion till now.

It must undertake the study of the need of changes in criminal laws from time to time. Also. The board. Though subjecting police to the scrutiny of an outside setup may appear a retrograde measure. have the queer propensity of arousing issues of violation of human rights to crumble the credibility of the law-enforcers in the eyes of the public. Various intelligence outfits of India are often found functioning at cross purposes even in protecting VVIPs and other sensitive targets from political crimes. police and prosecution departments. Institution of human rights cells in each district and metropolitan city as advisory conseil to the police of the region with local human rights champions as its members to draw attention to specific instances of inhuman conduct by subordinate officers would meet the needs to keep the police on pernoctation against political crimes credible vis a vis likely false hue and cry by affected political leaderships. it may help the assuefaction of the policing methods to human comports in rerum natura and save the establishment from the charges of violation of human rights in controlling political crimes a la Kashmir. Punjab and elsewhere in the country. may have seniormost officers of the central government from home and law ministries. distinguished humanists and senior advocates of the Supreme Court as members with the union home minister as its chairman. The human rights cells should be a dynamic part of the police administration in the regions and its observations should set in motion a process of verification and peremptory action. HUMAN RIGHTS CELLS Political crimes whether it be of the stature of national politics or international politics.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED The police or judicial officer under whose custody a person is kept under detention should be made responsible by name for the latter’s timely release with a provision that if detention exceeds the period provided by law. CRIMINAL LAW BOARD India requires the constitution of a statutory Criminal Law Board as an advisory body to liaise between the police setup and the union law ministry regarding criminal laws to facilitate glib policing. as a permanent body. INTELLIGENCE OUTFITS Collection and analysis of intelligene and special operations from the building blocks of all nuances of the police operations. it will make the concerned officer liable for proceedings for unlawful detention without the privilege of exemptions for actions performed in official colour. Such outre measures may bring an end to shocking criminal acts committed eo nomine policing in some quarters and save the Indian police from the embarrassment of serve public resentment. Indian intelligence system is yet to stand up to the enormous challenges thrown to it in detecting and controlling political crimes and can nowhere be compared with its counterparts in developed and even a few developing countries. India should 253 . The board may meet every quarter or a year and discuss extant criminal laws and their shortcomings in the light of representations received from officers in the field from the police and prosecution departments and make proposals for requisite changes in criminal laws e ra nata. available under the extant laws. all cases of violence and physical outrages committed in police custody should be made punishable with exemplary penalties by special legislations.

external. static guards. Model internal security scheme.PRAVEEN KUMAR reorganise and strengthen its intelligence outfit if it is to survive the challenges and stand up to the threats of political crimes to the integrity. the security operations form the crown of policing activities. external and internal attacks verification. official secrets. top-secret papers. Also each state police unit may have a small commando force to meet threats during emergencies like hijacking. INADEQUATE SECURITY PLANNING The present perception of internal security in India revolves round a few catchwords like prohibited areas. intelligence collection. counter. containing jugglery of these words are available in all district police offices. protected areas. security and law and order of the country. security information. The authority must affect a synergy of intelligence operations through its various wings of internal. unobtrusive watch. The need of commando groups in the state police forces will be increasingly felt in future as the menace of terrorism and sabotage grows uninhibited with the future possibility of violent methods being accepted as legitimate ways of expressing political dissent. perimeter protection. leakage of information etc. mobile patrols. it has to be involved in continuous commando training of the highest order. VVIP security under difficult circumstances. Sufficient attention has to be given to infuse entrain to the intelligence system of India and modernise its methods to raise it to a few degrees closer to the international standards. The commando units of the central government must train the state commando forces. SECURITY OPERATIONS India needs specially trained battalions of security operators in every state to take charge of the security of vital installations and VIPs. Otherwise. Either it is intelligence collection or crime investigation or maintenance of law and order. mechanical breakdown. all roads leads to this single aspiration. The commandos have to be well-equipped with the wherewithal of commando operations of the latest order. The ultimate purpose of all police functions is public security. infiltration. This special group has to be brought into operation only under exceptionally difficult circumstances. armed pickets. UNIFIED INTELLIGENCE AUTHORITY The Indian intelligence system may develop unity of purpose and operation to control political crimes ab intra and ab extra by working under the umbrella of an unified intelligence authority with the chiefs of all intelligence organisation as members. complicated operations against terrorists etc. military and security intelligence. The plans in the schemes do not touch even the fringes of the present security 254 . Only select officers may be recruited to the group with extra emoluments to make the job really elite. striking forces. sensitive installation. Therefore. without which all other police operations prove futile exercises. internal watch. The interferences of offficialdom need to be minimised and a sense of commitment and dedication to be infused by making intelligence operations a lifelong career.

But. communal riots. like evacuation of lunatics. the place and other circumstances of the challenge. salient features of the risks involved and precautions to be attended to alternative courses of action and assessment of the chances of success for each course under different circumstances etc. unfortunately. It is too simplistic to imagine that a common formula. Secondly. This renders them irrelevant to a given phase of time. The reason for this is that the format of the schemes was conceived decades back when challenges of internal security were simpler and on expected lines. student unrest. For all practical purposes. Thirdly. available methods of approach for each class of challenge. Yet. Any police official with a sound field knowledge can improve on them according to specific instances by relying on his own savvy. political compulsions helped to update them as more and more dignitaries fell to the bullets of exremists. The only advantage the schemes provide is that all obvious measures are listed in a raisonne nutshell for easy reference. The model security schemes enumerate in terrorem the likely sources of threats to the country’s internal security. They are simple suggestions based on common sense.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED needs. preventive measures and protective measures. the blue book too needs a complete overhauling on the basis of the new realities of security challenges and new perceptions and conceptions about meeting such challenges. They have only historical interests in the neoteric scheme of things. The blue book and model internal security schemes must lay down broad guidelines and the spirit with which security challenges. CHALLENGES OF INTERNAL SECURITY What the new blue book and new model internal securiy schemes need are guidelines on how to approach a security challenge and not what peripheral matters should be attended to. they in no way. however exhaustive it be. the model schemes are based on outdated facts and statistics which have become irrelevant in postliminary periods. The security guidelines must name the nature of security threats under various situations and list out likely targets of sabotage 255 . natural calamities etc. violent labour problems. The position though is similar in respect of the blue book which deals with aspects of security for dignitaries. can tackle all internal security challenges of the present day. extremist activities. help in tackling complex internal security challenges of the present day. Though these model schemes are expected to be updated from time to time. The schemes distinguish between peacetime threats and wartime threats and deal with each period with various stages of approach like precautionary stage. there is nothing really instructive in these schemes for a security officer of good field experience and sound common sense. What are striking in these schemes are the details of work to be attended to. No serious thought was given to overhauling the format of the scheme since then. sabotage and subversive activities. as said before. seldom are they touched. But. the security guidelines in the model schemes can in no way make a claim to expertise. The updating of the blue book is one of the plus points of the subservience of the police to political masters. these model internal security schemes have become passe and impair. such as aggression by an alien power. albeit the measures listed out are exhaustive as routine jobs to be performed in such disturbances. mobilisation of NCC and volunteer organisation etc. Each security challenge of the present day is sui generis and needs a specific approach depending upon the time. police-public relations peace committees.

256 . This works an a panpharmacon to the under-utilisation of precious security tools by unintelligent routine deployment. Such an approach to security relieves pressure on prototypal security and shifts stress to creative security and saves manpower and other resources from being wasted on unproductive quotidian mobilisation. these are the job hazards and police must learn to live with it. They must be able to forewarn about potential sources of threats and suggest ways and means of overcoming them and invent short and long-range plans to meet likely serious challenges. Such crimes are often of national importance and draws the glare of pubic attention with all hues of judgements passed by all kinds of people. There would be pulls and counterpulls by influential people from different sides at all levels of policing to handle them in a particular rendering objective appropinquation to such crimes non possumus. unless concerned police officer dares to endanger his own career prospects and even his life to achieve the object of objectivity. But.PRAVEEN KUMAR under all imaginable circumstances. Only special skills save police from such a terrible fixe. Political crimes call for special skills in police in handling them as the crimes involute political leaders and ergo. The skills are hard to come and very taxing on the police. sensitive in nature.

The police is the enforcer of the rules and laws of the land and safeguards its compliance by all. administration is mostly police functions and nothing in state administration holds its attention as much as what the police does. which once in pre-independent days was basically a force to keep the freedom fighters at bay and maintain law and order. It is the backbone of the state administration. The development is obvious in post-independent era for the simple reason that the propensity to paper the police saw abnormal rise after the country’s reign came to people’s hands and politicking and political cabals became the rule of the game. 257 . While friendly police became valuable assets to politicians in the chess-board of the country’s politics. State administration would be edentate sans the police with none to keep people on the right sides of the rules and laws of the administration and make the state administration more than mere paper-work. The significance of the police lies in the lowest nature of the work it does in contrast to the highest degree of awe and weight it commands among politicians. Take away the police. For this reason. by its striking uniform and prim mien in addition to its availability as the dernier ressort of the state administration. The police. The very fact that no folds and rumples of the state administration are excluded from the field of the police reveals that the range and scope of the policing is as wide as the administration itself and often exceeds it. worked only to the detriment of the police organisation. administrators and the general public.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED POLICE AND ADMINISTRATION The police basically is a backup force of the state administration. however. The explains the range of influence peddling and prolate pressures on police transfers and keen concours among politicians and others to befriend the police. The propinquity to pamper the police while helped the growth and expansion of the organisation. Even for the hoi polloi. The sine qua non of the police in the statecraft is a widely recognised fact among the scholars as well as the plebeian. it certainly spoiled the police setup and crumbled its professional value system. the state administration crumbles and collapses like a messy mass without backbone. The inevitability of the police in the statecraft also renders it the most abused setup in the spectrum of the tools of governance. Its primary functions are en arriere. The police is the most visible and the most obvious state functionary for them. the police both precedes and succeeds the law enforcement process and ipso facto encompasses the whole gamut of the state legal system. The police functions as both the enforcer of the country’s laws and as the investigator of the crimes. the police can be rightly called as the guardian of the state administration. Control over the levers of running the police organisation is considered to be a significant privilege in the realm of state administration. became the alter ego of the governance sinsyne. it became the mainstay of the administration with the gradual fall in the skill and acumen of running the administration. The police forms the cutting-edge of the statecraft. Ergo. The esteem.

potential of bringing destruction including 258 . antilogous to being ever-ready professionally to proceed against to put them in the gaol. The police have forgotten that the civilian control over the police is in step with well established principles of administration and functions as a safeguard to the hoi polloi against the dangerous overstepping or overzealous use of police powers. complete insulation of the police from the civilian control may not be a healthy development per se in a democratic rule. The argument of the police is that the denial of the magisterial powers which are exercised by officers as low as Tahsildars in the civil administration is a preposterous step sans any rational basis and suggests lack of trust in the police organisation. The denial of the magisterial powers to the police has nothing to do with trust or lack of it a la audit control over accounts function does not suggest lack of trust in accounts. But.PRAVEEN KUMAR THE POLICE AND THE CIVILIAN AUTHORITY The root of the problem lies in the civilian control of the police. This is the backdrop of magisterial powers being denied to the police except where police commissionerates are organised. It is only the watchdog of the administration. The police au fond is arms and muscle of the administration. this impossibly contrarious functions are expected from the police The problem is overcome by advanced countries like the United Kingdom by strict adherence to the chain of command with the head of the organisation responsible to the laws of the country while civilian authority has to be contented with the administrative control of the police. this control renders the police liable to function at the pleasure of the civilian authorities against whom also the police are required to proceed as required by its professional ethics relentlessly in case of commission of criminal acts. The matter continues to be a contentious issue between the police and the civil administration and a major source of dissatisfaction in the police force. Here. This locus standi of the police imprimis denies it any job. The civil administration is resisting a toute force any attempts to do away the magisterial powers from its hand in favour of the police. The police is there to obey the orders of the administrative machinery above it to exercise control over it. The demand of the police to invest it with the magisterial powers is a corpus of the ongoing dispute. A watchdog perforce indicates a master to rein in. the need of check over a function through the bifurcation of operation and control processes in related job a la the bifurcation of accounts and audit functions in accounts department come to the fore. related with administrative decisions and assessments. This is an impossible position for the police and against the tenets of the human nature. This is a strange position in a disciplined organisation in which absolute obedience to masters in the most sanctimonious obligation. Thus the police finds itself in an unenviable position of being absolutely obedient to its political and civil masters. This nature of the police functions necessitates administrative control over it in the use of force and other enforcement activities. it be in promulgating preventive orders or issuing search warrants or conducting inquest proceedings or initiating externment proceedings or initiating preventive proceedings or ordering the use of force. to name only a few. it basically is an operational wing of the administration. THE POLICE AND THE MAGISTERIAL POWERS However. The safeguard is yet to seep into the police system of democratic Indian.

PROFESSIONAL POLICING In professional terms. Yet. when policing operations demand professional decisions. the magisterial control over the police. However. Nothing more. The police commissionerates are special organisations for special circumstances requiring intensive policing under the closer scrutiny of the government in charge of civil authorities. It is a professional requirement in sound administration rather than an issue of who is more trustworthy. if it so desires and have adequate resources to do it. The other is the disinclination of the judiciary to interfere with the executive functions of the police unless circumstances compel it to do so to discharge its cardinal responsibility of upholding the rule of law and justice in the country. JUDICIARY AND THE POLICE The position of the police as the enforcer of the laws of the country gives it an important place in the judicial system of the country in enforcement of laws. The symbion should stop here. Neither the magisterial control over the police functions nor the administrative control of the police force by the civil authorities come under the meaning of this concept. The resistance of the civil administration to the demands of the police for the magisterial powers is justified to that extent. has a tendency to exceed the limits of requirement and the plebeian has to be protected from such possibilities. insulation of the police only implies insulation from the political control of the police functions. Ergo. One is the concept of judicial restraint. The symbion between the magisterial control and the policing functions in one hand and between and administrative control and the organisational buildup on the other hand is essential for a healthy police setup. it should perspicaciously be professional police decisions sans outside interferences in any form. preventive measures and investigation of crimes and provides it a strategic relationship with the dispenser of laws namely the judiciary. 259 . it. When it comes to policing by the police per se. both magisterial powers and the police powers being invested in the same hand requiries lots of explanation to be a convincing administrative arrangement. The police organisation has to be built up as a system to achieve this essential goal to make policing a professional. this may not be the case in practice for several reasons. convincing and creditable job wherein there would be no scope for any outside interferences in policing with the highest authority in the setup being responsible only to the rules and laws framed for the purpose a la the policing system in Britain.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED death. can have absolute control over the police functions as the police au fond is the enforcer of laws and the judiciary is the interpreter and dispenser of the laws and the synergy between the two functions perforce implies absolute subordination of the police functions to the judicial review. Another is the constraints within which the judiciary functions. Use of force by whomever it be. Though the judiciary has absolutely no say in the organisational matters of the police force.

PRAVEEN KUMAR In the spectrum of the state administration. its subordination to the judiciary and responsibility towards the law of the country raise it above the scope of the executive functions. It is the working muscle of the government. What is required is the realisation of this sui generis position of the police and preparing itself mentally to discharge these cardinal responsibilities in compatibility with the professional requirements. of the synergy of various organs of the state governance. the executive and the judiciary in establishing the rule of law. Its bonds with the executive and the judiciary are equally strong and act as a powerful link between the two powerful sings of the government. While it is part of the executive. It. spreads its role above the scope of the judiciary. The police organisation on the other hand is the best example of the unity of state administration. The police as a government agency represents the driving force of the executive and the controlling device of the judiciary. share a lever with all the pockets of the statecraft and acts as the spinal chord of the government by coordinating the functions of the legislature. executive and judiciary in the machinery of the state governance or the compatibility between the constitutional rights invested with the importance enjoyed by a government organisation in the state administration. The police is a government agency that performs functions both within and above the scope of the executive and judiciary as well as the legislature. as an enforcer of laws. the police enjoys or suffers a rather polemic position defying many principles of the statecraft like the insulation of legislature. While it is part of the judiciary. This explains the sine qua non of the police in state administration while denying it a ranking place as a governing body sui juris like many other organs of the state administration. The police is part of all these wings of the government and subordinate of each to them while outgrow each of them in professional discharge of its responsibilities. It represents the law of the country and therefore ultimately responsible to the laws of the country. Ergo. the police is a government agency that performs functions both within and above the scope of the executive and judiciary as well as the legislature. It is a string that binds disparate wings and organs of the government together and give it a sense of oneness and belonging while itself remains en arriere. 260 . investigator of crimes and an apparatus of state security. its position as a handmaid of the executive.

mutual respect. apoliticism. and traditional Indian values like simplicity. Every state in India has a set of such police officers who are generally meek and very popular with politicians of any colour and succeed in getting favourable postings which ever party comes to power. The incompetence of the then police impresarios. commitment. It was a force that met the needs of the time. They laid mendacious praxis to those lower by bending laws and conscience to aggrate men in power with the myopic object of promoting ain career and personal interests.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED RAT-RACE AT TOP AFFECTS POLICING The British were the forefathers of the unified Indian police. every police officer ascensively obtempers and goes sequacious to political masters as he comes nearer to the coveted selection post. The distinguishing traits of the Indian police of the British vintage like objectivity. Two distinct types can be marked in this approach. honest. committed and disciplined in such an atrophy and how can it uphold the rule of law and justice in line with its professional edict in such a circumstance? A fixation towards political masters at the cost of professional uprightness is the most obvious manifestation of this organisational character of the police setup. discipline. Except in rarest of the rare cases. nothing remains quiescent. design and objects of the Indian police underwent a basic metamorphosis with the transfer of government to native hands. In one. apolitical. The police became a lithe tool in the hands of the power-brokers of free India. How can the police be objective. encraty and human qualities were distanced as Indian to the police culture. make themselves subject to the dictates of all political leaders. and as a policy. created by the resignations of their senior British officers in the ancien regime on the eve of independence. officers take to subordination to political leaders as a convenient policy from the very beginning of their career. They find the germ of professional rectitude in meeting needs of political masters and other political leaders. quality and high standards were discarded as peregrine and irrelevant in the changed circumstances. Any talk of professionalism in the police ectogenesis to political relevance does not make sense to them. parochial approach and self-interests spawned the wrong type of police culture. The very concept of politics is sacrosanct to them and anybody in it deserves their absolute obeisance. The scope. wisdom. 261 . In an age of rapid changes due to the opening up of new vistas and dimensions to life by inventions and discoveries in science and technology. They created the reticulation of the police force for India with their own designs and objects in sight. It is not an accident that these officers often become intelligence chiefs and in most cases succeed to retire as the chiefs of the concerned police organisations because of their easy proximity to politicians and willing readiness to stoop to any level at the behests of their political masters. The cabal was struck by the Indian police officers who rapidly rose in their career overnight to fill the void. The process spawned a synod wherein undemanding aspects of both the worlds survived to create a new police culture. The convenient factors of the old and new worlds were chosen to warp a new world of police culture while demands on policing were at the crucial stage in the creant years of national independence. their greed. The demand for creating a new work relationship with native political leaders was a historical opportunity to carve a new police culture in free India. The symptoms are deeper at higher ranks and reach their saturation at the rank of the chiefs where political selections are crucial in appointments to the levels. charity.

there is nothing to the political leadership to choose from. It is convinced that most in the police are loyal to one or the other political groups of the country and its leaders and these factious loyalties within the police setup do make substantial differences to its political fortunes. The officer next in seniority to the chief. In an annual conference of police officers in a state police chief lambasted his Chief Minister and Home Minister in his speech en face for denying him free hand in posting of officers in professional interests. Changes in key position of the police department following changes in political rule are a common feature in most states. When the police play their priorities well by perspicuously defining their loyalties in favour of professional objectives of the police rather than myopically prevaricating to the mire of personal loyalties against professional dignity. 262 . which is marked with erratic rises and falls on political whims. whose selection as the next police chief was to be decided soon rose to the occasion and against the decorum of a professional meet. While the police en semble are committed to their professional objectives. contradicted his chief to state that it was the prerogative of the ministers to post officers at their will. The culprit here is the perverted loyalties of the police. Political leadership believes that all those in police are venal commodities. This reflects how the political leadership of the country sees the professional loyalties of its police.PRAVEEN KUMAR Politicians in power need such officers in jobs where lawless operations like tapping of telephones and illegal operations are part of the game. the mad rush to place favourite police officers at key positions tout de suite of taking over the administration. But changes appear in them as they approach the D-day of their career and they become the best friends of political heads to corner selection posts with the zeal of a new convert. What is termed as political interferences in placements of police department is patently the making of the police by their gratuitous personal loyalties and any blame on the political leadership on this count is assez bien uncalled and due to parablepsis. no more the political leadership finds it feasible to keep its avizefull pernoctation over the police to play one against the other. This credibility of the professional loyalty of the present Indian police is incredulously low even among the public. It is natural for any to respond to the state of affair and make hay while the sun shines. who can be win over by throwing loaves and fishes. Ergo. These officers are generally known as strict officers and hailed for their professional uprightness and competence from the beginning of their career. Fractured loyalties of those in the police setup are responsible for this triste affaire. His apostasy astounded the police officers attending the conference who trusted him to up hold the values of his profession till the end. While political leaders play some police officers in deliciis and not others. There is another set of officers who turn soft to politicians as they reach the stage of being subjected to political scrutiny for being selected to coveted posts like the chief of the concerned police set up. they are only exploiting the Achilles’ heel of the organisation offered to them on a platter and sharing the res gestae. This shocked the assembled officers as he did that while he was known as a through professional and strict adherent to professional values and ethics. The public mark them as ideal professionals. It is a common practice in some states of India to change key officers of the police department when a new dispensation takes over the rule.

This was a laughing matter in official circles some years back. Though the loyalty of these police officers to their political masters foot the bill for any encomium. led a huge contingent of intelligent officer and camped in Delhi for several days to help his political masters manoeuvre for the Prime Ministership during the turbulent weeks of unstability after the general election of 1996. the issue is cannot they 263 . But. The tragedy of such a perverted loyalty is the devaluation of the professional qualities of the policing apart from financial implications of such operations and the block they create in legitimate government works. How low police officials at higher ranks stoop to be in good books of political masters can be seen in some states by the concours among the two important pillers of the state police setup namely the state intelligence chief and the Police Commissioner of the State Headquarters in front of the state Chief Minister’s residence early every morning to have the first private audience of the Chief Minister to themselves. But this is inconsequential to these police officers. lllegalities and unethical practices like telephone tapping and shadowing political rivals of the ruling party leaders are only minor prevarications these loyal police officers indulge in to keep themselves on the right side of their political masters. Where loyalty to right ideals is a basic tenet of the policing. Assessment of political trends and suitability of various candidates in different constituents during elections and reporting of political and other activities of politicians within and outside and ruling party are now wrongly seen as legitimate functions of intelligence units in Indian police. Intelligence units as a consuetude are seen as the political handmaid of the ruling parties and their leaders. Though the hard work of these high profile police officers to rise everyday early in the morning to pay their obeisance and report to the chief executive of the state and their sedulity to their work in hand have to be respected and appreciated. Intelligence officers have a responsibility to their organisational objectives and they ought to be loyal to it and work towards meeting the objectives. Political leaders make best use of this Achilles’ heel in the police setup.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED DEVALUATION OF PROFESSIONAL QUALITIES The intelligence unit is the most abused section and its chief is the most willing loyal subservient policeman available to political masters in most of the police forces of India. loyalty becomes a venal commodity to these police officers. The intelligence chief of a particular state who was a favourite of the chief minister of the state and retained his position as the chief of the intelligence in additional charge even after promotion and posting to a higher slot. it sadly goes against all professional tenets of any police organisation worth the name. Professional interests lose all significance to them vis a vis loyalty to powerful per procurationem self-promotions. intelligence chiefs are accrescently becoming the prime advisers of the chief executive head and shoulder above even the chief secretaries in states and the cabinet secretary in the centre. This is a fine example of sacrificing public interests at the altar of self-promotion of few individuals. The usefulness of the intelligence units as political tools is so pronounced in India that the units are ascensively brought under the direct control of the chief executive of the government from its traditional field of the Home Department and as a consectary. The zeal of police officers to prove personal loyalty to the ruling political party and its leaders often lead them even further. misplaced loyalties overturn the scope of intelligence units everywhere in present Indian police. The out-of-turn importance is a quid pro quo to the lengths to which these officers go and risk their personal and career safety and honour in indulging in all types of illegalities to oblige the political masters.

pulled down its no-nonsense tough image and reduced it to its present cadaverous existence. they have a responsibility towards keeping the pride and dignity of their ranks and profession. They corrupted the police atmosphere. if not of their individuality. SALVAGING OPERATION The situation can be salvaged by clearing the cobwebs from the entrails of the Indian police.PRAVEEN KUMAR discharge these duties sans breaching the pride and dignity of their ranks and posts and without so obviously expressing their sequacious tendencies? After all. Only really capable impresarios can pull the Indian police out from its present fix. There is a catena of self-motivated officers in key positions in the police who unknowingly brought about the degringolade of the Indian police in the post-democratic era. encouraged self-indulgence. 264 . set wrong precedences. These elements should be side-lined to absorb men of probity to refurbish and rebuild the police setup.

POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED NEED OF COMPETENT BRASS IN POLICE Police is one of the most vital instruments of the public administration and works as a link between the executive arm and judiciary. To what results precedence and practice mould the job culture decide the success or otherwise of the organisation. the same courtesy does not extend to the more unfortunate ranks at lower levels including the constabulary. Promotion to higher rank serves no purpose unless the higher rank provides a really higher challenges and job content and a suitable man is perforce selected to meet the increased challenges. professional ethics and the degree of commitment to the aspirations of the organisation. While vacancies at the topmost level are filled up by promotions strictly overnight. How deeply the police is self-centred even within its own organisation and what care and concern the police leaders show to evolve a perficient and planned police organisation can be assessed by the trend of evolution of the police organisation as an increscently top heavy setup and the speed with which promotions are effected at different levels. In a democratic age of selfseeking. work knowledge and human qualities of a person. there are now nearly 30 officers of and above the rank of Inspector General of Police. A job culture involutes basic beliefs and objects of the organisation. promotions at intermediary levels are effected in weeks or 265 . A headless organisation is better than one headed by a degenerate weakling. thereby the last 20 years account for 100% expansion in the lower levels against 1500% expansion at higher levels. for say 80. eyes and limbs of the government. This is why the policy of selection and promotion at high levels plays a vital role in the growth of the organisation. honesty. It is the ears. It is unfortunate that none in the police administration realises that it is not the rank but the real human stuff inside that decides the height. excellence. to the detriment of the growth and functioning of the organisation. The decisions and conduct of those at the helm as the point d’ appui of police circles substruct the life-lines of the organisation.000 men and officers. All those committed to the cause of police and effective policing must break the trend and endeavour to provide a fresh lease of life for effective policing. as laid down by precedence and practice. short term political leadership. where sycophancy is the sole criterion for ascending the career ladder. Most of these jobs are without any job content and responsibility and often are places to relax from the pressures of family life. What these people at the top do for policing apart from being a drain on the state revenue and a strain to officers down the levels with conflicting instructions of dubious merit? Almost nothing. No government with a failing police system can survive whatever be its other assets. the policy of selection and promotion is misdight at best and motivatedly in the reverse gear at the worst. In states where there were only two officers of the rank of Inspector General of Police. Any complacency at this stage about the existing police system may prove too costly for the unity and well-being of the country and the health of its governance. integrity responsibility. for say forty thousand men and officers about 20 years back. merit. However. It is important that only right people reach the top. It is against this background that the glitches bedevilling the present Indian police should be viewed. intelligence. This is not the case in present police promotions where sinecures are created to facilitate promotions to satisfy in-group instincts.

its police and the rule of law. There are any number of instances of men in the constabulary retiring without promotion non obstante their eligibility and seniority for the existing vacancies. The first and foremost job to be done is to free the police from the unhealthy influence of all hues by making it responsible to an independent authority with absolute power to take decisions on matters pertaining to policing and police organisation. DYNAMICS OF CORRUPTION A fall-out of corruption in the police is build. The authority should be a professional body with men of proven probity and quality as members. harms the interests of the country. who have reached a stage from where they need not sacrifice their convictions to appease those in power. Creation of a high core group of people who are adept in assessing men and character within the aforesaid police authority may help to create a feeling of confidence and job security and prod them into discharging their official duties fearlessly.up a dynamics which promotes the interests of corrupt in the system at the cost of those who retained the pristine value of professionalism. The flexible elements who can be menoeuvred to required moulds through the juste milieu of pelf and position are useful assets to people in key position to save their kith and kins’ interests as and when they get involved in criminal proceedings. A history of bending backward on nonprofessional considerations always becomes a qualification in obtaining preference to more sensitive jobs in important police organisations. depending on the rank in the police hierarchy. Policing is a job performed mostly at lower levels with decreasing involvement upto the level of Superintendent of Police. There are cases where vacancies of Head Constables and Assistant SubInspectors or Sub-Inspectors are not filled up for several years. Such characters in police are always cultivated and posted to key positions so that striking compromises when situation warrants becomes easy. Beyond that. In the situation. Police officers known for professional approach are spurned and distanced as inconvenient elements. The responsibilities of officers in assessing the work of their subordinates which forms the major embarrassment of the present Indian police must be 266 . A working arrangement is to be devised by which the authority is responsible directly to the legislature and functions as an independent authority like the judiciary. integrity and professional commitment play negative roles. Unfortunately. competence plays no role in preferences while honesty. Police officers of plastic conscience are preferred to upright professionals to key posts even in national level police agencies like the Central Bureau of Investigation and the Intelligence Bureau. It is years in the case of the constabulary. This group which oversees the work of police personnel from a distance should be made ultimately responsible for all career decisions. which are not filled up from many years. the Indian police is doing just that and there is none to put it back on the right track. The dynamics while helps influential individuals to evade the long arm of law.PRAVEEN KUMAR fortnights or months. it is tout court a supervisory task and in a police force with no supervision to speak of. This strategy ends up in honest police officers being sidelined and it promotes corruption. Comptroller and Auditor General or Election Commissioner. higher ranks are just de trop. Any move to expand these ranks and any undue haste to promote to these levels cannot be called honest decisions in the functional or public interest. depriving the constabulary of their de jure promotions.

work assessment. after being promoted as the first Director General of Police of the state to meet the political and personal ends of the new Chief Minister of the state in new dispensation that came to power in the state in elections. political needs overshadow all such facts in selection to the posts of Police Chief. The new police Chief who was arranged to retire as IGP of the State Vigilance Commission before being awarded the coveted post of the state police chief was known to attend office in inebriated condition and while away time in offence. the expert core group processes the opinion by its own research. recruitment and management of human resources. The group must be made responsible for development planning of the police. This is a dangerous trend. However. This is a must in the interests of the country. indiscipline and discontent in the state police force and dangerous union activities by the police personnel. expertise and discretion and takes responsible decisions on its own. rise in incident of crimes. Institution of such a core group to oversee the career development of police personnel without personal bias may bring revolutionary changes by committing the police to its workethics and professional ends with due single mindedness.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED limited to giving their opinion about performance to the core group. doing nothing. The extant system of selecting the police chief is erratic at best and motivatedly amoral in that it meets political ends of the rulers at worst. A conspicuous example is from a southern state of India where a police officer who was sidelined in his career as an inefficient person and degenerate habitual drunkard was given a fresh leash of lefe in career a I’improviste and posted as the chief of the state police in July 1980. Attempts of the Supreme Court of India in its recent order to formulate a system for the selection of the chiefs of important police forces of the country like the CBI is a welcome measure at least in its intent and must spur steps to formulate procedures of the selection of all key police posts to insulate the process from amoral and very dangerous extraneous considerations. 267 . the state found itself engulfed in law and order problems. job analysis. Soon.

Its tools are directed towards attitudinal change. It is the tool that really manages the country on the tapestry of the adopted policy by exercising all the wherewithal of a management tool-box like planning. An orientation of the right kind to lift them in the direction of the larger interests of the largest part of the population is the raison d’etre of any government service.PRAVEEN KUMAR RIGHT ORIENTATION IN GOVERNMENT SERVICE Government service in a democracy is the service of the people by the people for the people within the reticulation of the rules and procedures in force. The tools are too weak for the immanent changes warranted even if presumed that right training. People of all kinds join the service and indulge in all kinds of loots and sins. The reasons for that are as diverse as wrong orientation and wrong people in the service. It is this higher direction that ideally differentiates those in government service from the hoi polloi. corruption and lack of positive approach for any perficient performance even in responsibilities of far lesser magnitude. Combined with the fact that lesser mortals are now joining the fray of the government service courtesy selection institutions nonpareil to the job. Right orientation is sine qua non for the self-management through own representatives under the political leadership in the government. Right tools are becoming ascensively far afar to find in the extant power-hungry milieu of the present government service. OPTIONS The choice is bifocal to redeem the situation: either select only the people of right orientation of larger interests in heart or inculcate the right orientation by right training. right practices and right job culture on those who are selected. The prise of the power-orientation in preference to service-orientation is accrescently going tenacious in government service. People accustomed to long colonial rule are taking umbrage under the Karmic Law as the misdeeds in name of governance by their own people are found to be the ineluctable reality of life. We are taught to be patriotic and committed to the country and the government which sins against us. The Indian institutions constituted for the purpose are too ill-equipped for the job and too steeped in inefficiency. Reality is different in the field. The second option at best is a weak shadow of the first. The process of selecting the people of right orientation to the behemoth of government service of Indian dimension is easier said than done. India has no alternative but to go for the latter option of inculcating the right orientation. the situation can only be imagined. organizing. We are perorated with such inutile plangent phrases as ours is the 268 . execution and control by its ubiquitous presence. People au naturel are unifocal in self-interests au fond. They take epinosic satisfaction by the facts that the situation is worse in neighbouring and African countries. The legacy of the colonial rule in power-centric governance continues even after more than five decades of the independence. Human nature is too complex for such an easy metabasis. right practices and right job culture to bring about the new avatar exist at all. It is the core service of the governance and implements the will of the people expressed through the collective political leadership.

Only right orientation in government service can save the country from the entoilment and spread a new entrainement in the people. WRONG MODEL A Mathematics lecturer from a college joined government service four decades back.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED biggest democracy in the world and we are a nuclear power ad manum to be a super power of the world that signify nothing to most Indians weighed down with misrule. An enquiry by the Home Secretary arraigned the officer for serious lapses. the standards existing in the extant Indian government service is far from satisfactory and horrific tout court by any standards. An example illustrates assez bien the degringolade of the government service and those who man it. The wrong orientations received during the training make inveterate and lasting impact that cannot be easily deracinated. His stewardship there witnessed an unprecedented mafia gang war within the four walls of a prison resulting in murder of an egregious inmate in 1995. It is just perversion drunk by the temulence of power. It is insulsity at best and perversion at the worst. The officer was denied decent postings promotion after promotion. He was sent on deputation to head a middle sized state undertaking. India has become free perchance to let its government service to have a dissolute culture of its own choice sans interference ab extra. Later. Hundreds of young recruits passed out as officers in the next three years from the institute with its head as a model binged in them. Even after presuming the exiguity of such noble qualities in the ambience around. His fastus from the sudden rise perforce cost him his seniority in preference to a junior during the training. Wrong models unwanted other-where heading training institutions is the first symptom of a grave malady the government service is suffering with. It is erratic to say the least. His unpopularity among the public got him an entry as “immature” in ACR. Larger interests imply a sense of right and wrong. Later. He got an important posting on promotion where he betrayed gratuitous harshness that cost him the post in less than a year to be posted to head a training institute. It is twisting rules and procedures to meet self-interests al piu. sensitivity to others’ sufferings and a genuine love for the human kind. A training institute is the first point of tryst of a recruit with his future service and its head his true model to become. 269 . LARGER INTERESTS The raison d’etre of the government service is its orientation towards larger interests en face the extant tournure of the narrow interests critical to human nature. This seems the ground reality of the last five decades of the Indian independence. he was deputed to head the state prisons department. His misconduct there led to a state-wide agitation of its staff in 1985. many a precious careers withered under the peise of the wrong model. This is where the crunch of running the government service comes to the fore and exposes itself in puris naturalibus. What is striking is the fact that it has become the culture of the governance of free India.

This speaks volumes about present administration. The justification of the chief for his queer and perverted conduct oblivious of the sufferings and agony caused was that he was doing all those things as a motivation specialist to help the subordinate in his career! His preposterous motivation skills ens rationis was really a cloak to his native sadism that cost the enfested subordinate his faculty of trusting anybody. The edifice of the right governance stands on the terra firma of the right orientation. That is why the manning of the government service warrants utmost care and expertise in running the government. SERVICE The core of right orientation in government service is an understanding of the sufferings of others and willingness to mitigate it through the accepted means of rules. It is the models and the precedents that determine and festinate the orientation of the future. This is a case of pure schadenfreude en pure perte. There is no place for fastus. schadenfreude and playing with the lives of others in the scheme. In absence of appropriate tools to trace inborn orientations with certitude. His appointment to the post was opposed by some on the grounds of merit. laws and procedures. unreasonably acted on some others assuming the role of a soi disant motivation specialist and brought gratuitous sufferings to them. A naïve officer with complete fide et fiducia on the new chief sought transfer back to the state capital to any of the umpteen vacant posts existing. This gave rise to two groups in his favour and against in the department. Any government manned by the people without these essential ingredients is bound to be a heath of tyranny and face the wrath of the plebeian in rerum natura. show of power. only the process of acquiring the right orientations can be depended upon. Power is only the subsidiary of the process and comes to play as a tool in aid of making service to the people possible. drunk in the fulgour of his new status. Models in right places have tremendous impacts in enracing right orientations in the body of the government service. This is another post where the fonctionnaire serves as a model to the subordinates. It is humility and a gemutlich sense of service to others that is fundamental to it. Head of an institution that trains recruits exercises powerful 270 . The governance is just nonexistent or leads to a welter of tyranny of the people in the skein of wrong orientations. Thereafter. The subordinate au desespoir approached the State Chief Secretary only to find that the latter was advised by the chief not to meet the subordinate. The new chief promised an immediate posting and consented for the subordinate going on leave pending the transfer.PRAVEEN KUMAR MISCONCEPTION The officer headed his department for five months before retirement. the chief went on delaying the transfer by encouraging the pianissimo subordinate to extend the leave for the next four months until himself retired. The new chief in excelsis in his career acted avec acharnement against those belonging to the opposite camp by sending them to insignificant posts in godforsaken corners of the state. The Chief Secretary did just that. The achilles’ heel lies in the mediocrity and the inability of those in higher levels of the government service in this star-stricken land to comprehend what really constitute administration and misconceive it as a show of ruthlessness and cruelty. Right models have tremendous impact on the process as do wrong models. RIGHT PLACES The right orientation can be either inborn or acquired. He.

any government service erected on the pillars of power cannot be anything but corrupt. So also the head of the department. Right orientation in government service can be made a reality by manning these key posts with right persons. If not a pas de geant. rewards to the right people a natura rei act as a stimulant to create the right job culture. The accrescent falsidical sense in government service now is that they are meant to implement the wishes of the political leadership without any commitment to the ordinary people.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED influence on the recruits. but retracting the course back is difficile and almost impossible. The country can be saved from the avernus and a stage for the risorgimento can be set only by giving right orientation to its government service. Another tool towards this end is encouraging right orientation by the reguerdon of good postings. also. It has become an idée fixe. The power-orientation of the government service is the seed of all ills of the country. 271 . the space will be free for the inculcation of service-orientation within the limits of the policy and the rules and procedures in force. Those in government service need not even pretend to that as they have a secure tenure of service and go impervious to the plebeian. Even the pretence is left to the care of the political leadership that must depend on the hoi polloi for survival. Once the cobweb is removed. The falsetto must be replaced with a sense of service to the people. There is no deliverance to the country without it. The path of corruption is easy. Relief from the temulence of power cries for the priority attention. the problem has to be approached in farthing-steps. Right placement of the right models is crucial to the process. A corrupt government corrupts the country and a country under seize and caught in the tourbillon of corruption cannot be anything but tyrannic. That brings the apollyon of the government service to heels to ultimately wipe out of the system and dawn a new era of a healthy government service in the country. The objective is bifarious: it inspires the adoption of the right course. So. the exercise of power for the sake of power. This is the maelstrom India finds itself with now. It is a gargantuan task. But it is a job that has to be attended to on priority in national interests. It is the reason why government service now is not what it should be in a democracy. POWER The nature of the government service now is power-oriented. Such a stimulant is briller par son absence in Indian ambience. There is not even a tinge of service orientation in the extant government service. that is. Power corrupts.

The perception of a given value varies with the variae lectiones of the amoebic milieu. This is the ineluctable fact of life to which human activities have devolved themselves. A person’s locus standi in the affairs of his life is subject to his position in the mélange of these often contrarious values at diverse ambiences. An illustration suffices to make the point clear. 272 . Adamantine commitment to a value has no place here. The dependence of the value structure on milieu is the source of all the corrida de toros of the human world. That is why people with a strong conscience find themselves in cul-de-sac in government service unless they adapt personal value structures to the needs of the bureaucracy that is mediocre at the best and criminal at the worst.PRAVEEN KUMAR VALUE SYSTEM IN INDIAN BUREAUCRACY The word ‘value’ from the French root valoir suggests a sense of worth as rising from the innards of the conscience. the extant formula of flexibility for success is nothing but refutation of the concept of values per se. He was a terror to wrong-doers in 1970s as a district level executive officer and proved very successful in his work. decides the success in life. If value is understood by its true definition. This basically is the source of all human conflicts. His unimpeachable integrity as also no-nonsense mien rendered him unpopular among both subordinates and superiors. CONTRARIOUS VALUES The value system in bureaucracy is bifarious: inherent values and survival-oriented values. unfortunately. This is more so in the present age of accrescent entoilment of human activities. A young officer in 1960s began his career in a South Indian state with commitment to the high values of public service laced with strictness and discipline of very high order au naturel to his age and the nascent stage of his career. The two facets of the same value system further metagrobolise the complexity of the value system of the bureaucracy ab intra. the field is ready for all the dramas of this world. He was removed from his district posting in less than a year on the pressures of the vested interests and never found a responsible posting sinsyne with a profile in official records as immature inter alia. Add apocryphal elements in the garb of values natural to the Indian bureaucracy to the broth. the conflict of value systems is found as obvious as in the behemoth of the Indian bureaucracy. His failure lay in his individual value system not being attuned to what the bureaucracy expected of him. Skeely manoeuvring of positions from time to time. The value system of an individual and an organization of which he consciously or by compulsion is a part are rarely identical. Nowhere in the extant world.

POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED SURVIVAL INSTINCT Being enervated by the developments and angst-ridden. Good jobs are difficult to come. Though flexibility paid. His efforts to undermine the chances of a senior backfired as the latter after retirement as the head of the department filed cases against the former succeeding him as the departmental chief. He went out of his way to please everybody and made it his habit. With the ablet. Everybody cannot be a saint. As the popular perception continued to be against him as a candidate for the coveted post. He did everything to reconcile his traits and nature to the imperatives of the bureaucratic values. 273 . his nature saw the affret of enthusiasm to please the political leadership of the state a toute force as he approached the benchmark of the selection to the post of the head of the department. His integrity became a disaster in the process. convictions and innate values. the choice for a principled officer is between an unsuccessful career for adhering to one’s own values and convictions or quitting. The point is that the officer succeeded in heading the department as the altaltissimo of his career though for a short period by the surgery he performed on his persona. Therefore. He was also suspected of wrong-doings in purchase of hundreds of cars by the Tourist Development Corporation to run as tourist cars. His predecessor is another example of the same process but for that that after finding failures of the new values to provide the aex triplex he needed. because the bureaucracy as it is has no value for anything extra muros. CRISIS OF VALUES The tragedy of the officer was that the process of the changes found him shedding away truly noble values innate to him. It clearly is a case of honest besoin to adapt to the imperatives of the bureaucracy for survival going awry. This turned him so much inward that he became proficient in psychology and soon got doctorate in the subject. he realized that he has no future in the career with his own convictions and values. one wonders whether the quid pro quo was worth the surgery and could not he be a person more in harmony with himself if he had continued with his pristine value system avec acharnement. Thus the need to adapt own values to the bureaucratic imperatives is ineluctable until Indian bureaucracy grows to be mature enough to accept and absorb higher values ab extra. It recognizes only its values and remains adamantine to anything ectogenesis. His name as the Managing Director of the state’s Tourist Development Corporation in 1980s was linked to his young PA after he was noticed spending long hours with her under locked doors and irregularly elevating her to officer’s rank to the consternation of the entire staff that went on state-wide strike against the Managing Director. ordinary mortal’s survival instincts lead to sacrifice his values and principles to adapt to the requirements of the bureaucracy at any cost to the self and its convictions. he took recourse back to his innate values and won court battles to head the department. Ergo. The changes found favour with none with the aura popularis yet defying him and he went on losing mainstream postings as rose in rank and even remained without posting for nearly a year in 1990s at a very high rank on the suspicion of gross negligence in discharge of duties leading to a serious disaster as a consequence of his newly acquired traits of casualness. The attempts are justifiable on the grounds of the survival instinct basic to human nature. the energumen began to play the caste card with the political leadership a corps perdu.

That naturally renders the rank in bureaucracy the highest virtue and age. A junior who became distinguished as a poet and as a writer decided to release his book through the Governor of the state. This reduced the definition of the public administration to mean use of rules and procedures to delay or obstruct decisions or actions just for the purpose of proving existence. The senior in the bureaucracy out of sheer jealousy spread canards and exercised his personal weight to ensure that the function was cancelled just twenty-four hours before the release of the book by the Governor of the state. an inert and unenlightened bureaucracy is a handy tool to bear the burdens of all failures. POLITICAL LEADERSHIP The cardinal question is why the Indian political leadership tolerated such an obstructionist bureaucracy for all these years. The reason is that the political leadership finds itself comfortable with the ossified and unenlightened bureaucracy. Nothing fresh can leak-in to such a bureaucracy a huis clos. This is Indian bureaucracy after independence in puris naturalibus. merit. understanding and a sense of public service. power is the supreme deity that absterges all sins. The mindset evolved to a pernoctation against any fresh breeze ab extra and a tendency to deracinate any move to that end in the bud itself. There was a Sanskrit scholar with moderate successes as a writer in a provincial language holding a very senior post in the bureaucracy of a South Indian state. And you find what virtually is hell on the Earth without these factors to back you. The three factors that exercise true prise on Indian bureaucracy beyond the limits are caste affiliations. You can buy practically anything from the present Indian bureaucracy with them en arriere. The bureaucracy found itself as fish out of water when its leading guides returned to Britain after independence. political patronage and money power. reasons and feelings. An ineffectual bureaucracy naturally brings higher stature to the political leadership in public perception. character and human dignity eat dust in the milieu.PRAVEEN KUMAR XENOPHOBIA A process of ossification has set-in in Indian bureaucracy in absence of real growth and evolution after independence. Such a bureaucracy is a perfect ground for the growth of all types of evils and human weaknesses. There is no danger of an enlightened bureaucracy overshadowing it and taking all the limelight for positive performances. The result is the extant bureaucracy of India devoid of creativity. The bureaucracy of India in the last five decades has become a law to itself with an opus musivum of a ribald culture spreading tentacles of a reticulation of rights and wrongs beyond the reach of any known precepts of decent human conduct. Here. On the other hand. BUREAUCRATIC CULTURE The indifference is limited to the values ectogenesis to the home-grown value system. The political leadership find the development to its advantage. Those who handled the higher bureaucracy sinsyne followed from where the British left with their own mediocre interpretations of an ideal bureaucratic setup. He held huge functions for the release of his books by dignitaries including the state Chief Minister. They have become pollent values inter se. It has become a fashion in India to blame the 274 . initiative. The new setup developed a queer xenophobia towards deviations from the set patterns as a threat to the very existence of the bureaucracy.

An individual perforce reconciles his personal values with that of an organization when he chooses to be its part.” Such a situation is common while organizational objectives and values take precedence over individual objectives and values. “An Irish Airman Foresees His Death” when the airman sings. must lay on the threshold of the crippled bureaucracy and its blotched value system. Unfortunately. it is the political leadership that navigated India through diverse innovative phases like NAM. Indian political leadership now is more enlightened than its bureaucracy. While the bureaucracy rarely looks beyond the edges of its desk and never outside the window. The predicament is perficiently brought out by William Butler Yeats in two lines of the poem. mixed economy. An enlightened bureaucracy with a noble value structure is a great blessing to any country.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED political leadership for all evils of the country. Indian bureaucracy at all levels flourish on the ruses like falling on each other to lick the boots of the rich and powerful and bending double over to please the political leadership or play the caste card. The conundrum of such a reconciliation lies in resorting to the adaptations while the organization as in Indian bureaucracy suffered degringolade in its value structure en face the higher value structure of the individual. The reason is that the political leadership kept its doors open for fresh air and updated its value system from time to time unlike the bureaucracy. socialistic pattern of society. These ruses always payed a natura rei in the ambience of the Indian bureaucracy after independence courtesy the tendency of the political leadership to play the bureaucratic minions against each other. Even the recent Agra Summit to bring peace to the South-Asia region is a fine example of an innovative political leadership. Those that I guard I do not love. “ Those that I fight I do not hate. He is required to sacrifice his own convictions and values in the service of the larger interests of the organization. The edge of the bureaucracy seen in pre-independent era is no more evident now. The ambience necessitates the individual lower himself to the lower world to fit-in for survival with the full knowledge that he is becoming a lesser human being in the process. That is the true challenge on the fresh recruits to the government service in India who enter the services with starry eyes and true commitment to the public service inspired ab imo pectore and soon end-up perforce in the quagmire of conflicting values. 275 . The true blame for the maelstrom the country finds itself with. Sine dubio. This prevented the evolution of higher value system in Indian bureaucracy. Every setup strictly has its own culture and value system. social control and now economic reforms.

Those holding and attending the rudder decide the destiny of the country. levels and fields that really hold the rudder of the governance to steer the country in whatever course their composite character and competence permit. Karunanidhi as CM heaping corruption cases against and putting former CM Jayalalitha behind bars and Jayalalitha reciprocating by the same coin when she comes to power or Bofors gun case of the Congress and Tehelka tape case of the NDA in the centre are all dramas of gratuitous media hype of little significance to the future of the country until the character of the administrative rung remains unchanged. It is they who by their conduct and attributes decide the nature of the governance in the country and constitute the mainstay of the government irrespective of what party comes to power and who control the reigns of power. CIVIL SERVANTS They are professionals in the field of governance unlike the political leaders who handle governance ens per accidens. It is unrealistic and too simplistic to presume that the political leadership provides 276 . TWO TIERS Governance in a democracy is a bifarious exercise with the political rung controlling the policy and decision-making apparatus while the administrative rung handling the decision and action apparatus of the governance. Any expectations and manipulations about the will of the people are undemocratic au fond and unconstitutional even.PRAVEEN KUMAR REQUISITES OF GOOD GOVERNANCE Governance is steering and guiding the country in its course by right policies. A government may have different gestalts. The case is tout a fait different with the administrative rung which functions as an interface between the policies and its implementation and between the political rulers and the hoi polloi in the matter of governance. colours and priorities depending on the needs and circumstances of the country at the time. The political face can make really little change to the country. People get the politicians they deserve. They are career administrators and specialists eo nomine by choice all their lives and constitute more than 99% of the manpower in the field of governance. It makes little difference to Bihar who heads the government until the civil servants there change their character and mindset. attitudes and competence determine the tournure of the future of the country and its people. The political and administrative faces are the two sides of the same coin of the governance. Their character. decisions and actions and the apparatus invested with the responsibility is government. The true governance depends on their abilities and attitudes. Steering the rudder in proper direction through all weathers constitutes the core of the governance. It is these civil servants at diverse ranks. While political leadership is ephemeral VVIP guestcomponent in the arena. The political rung represents the will and aspirations of the people. the civil servants are the abiding framework of rules and procedures within which the minutiae of the governance are conceived and built brick by brick.

Wrong people in wrong jobs is a serious malady enervating the public administration of the day. Inscience knows no boundaries. INSENSITIVITY The evils of governance need not always be directed only against outsiders. Political heads are wrongly blamed for the havoc. The bureaucracy in India really enjoys a commanding position in the governance of the country. This has deprived the elements of heart and compassion from the body of the bureaucracy. Politicians as they are. The political leaders who come to power have no alternative but go d’ accord with the demands of the bureaucracy or perish. This has deprived the elements of brain and intellect from the corpus of the public administrative system. WRONG ATTITUDES The tragedy of India is that their position and importance is not amated by requisite qualities. novel ideas and creative pursuits are seen as the antithesis of the governance.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED model to the administration down the line. HUMAN ELEMENTS The extant bureaucracy ensemble is marked by lack of human concerns and empathy for the fellow men. The reality is the other way round. It was assessed by the inscient bureaucracy that his outstanding attributes might prevent him from becoming popular among the seniors and 277 . It is the bureaucracy for its own parochial ends at the cost of the bureaucratic integrity and ideals that invite the trouble and guide the political leadership in the evil path. The Indian bureaucracy is seized with wrong attitudes and evils that waste it away ab intra. do adapt to their survival instincts and barter their visions for possible quid pro quo in power. Bureaucratic measures have become synonymous in popular parlance and perception in India with foolhardy decisions and actions far removed from reality. Competence has become a disaster. The result is a deadweight-bureaucracy weighing down on the live India and sucking it dry with evils and misuse of the powers invested on it for governing and steering the country ahead. The bureaucracy of India is too hardboiled a unit for such a quick change of colours. merit. Lack of accountability is the leitmotiv of governance in India. This is a malengine consciously evolved ab intra to safeguard selfinterests. Even those within may become cruel victims of its grossly unrealistic and farcical decisions as in the case of a highly talented and multifaceted genius who joined government service in 1978. Being as rigid as rules and procedures of which those in the bureaucracy are custodians of is wrongly accepted as en regle for those in the bureaucracy. The root cause of this grave malady is India’s corrupt governance pregnant with inefficiency. passion and commitment for effective and good governance. indifference and gross temulence of power devoid of human elements. INTEGRITY India is an egregious forerunner in the world among countries most corrupt in public life. Soon the recognition itself turned a noose on his neck. He was soon recognized for sheer brilliance and purity of character as a diamond that can fit anywhere and as a peacock among the fowls. Power sans accountability rendered governance in India an evil per se. Initiatives.

PUBLIC CAUSE The case is an eye-opener to how merit. the process got caught in a skein as the infaust officer refused to come down from his immanent and really superior qualities even after two decades of immanity and sufferings while the bureaucracy refused to yield and give up its illegal and unconstitutional stance until the officer condescends to the mediocre levels. The refusal of the officer to approach judiciary against the ill treatment for redressal and his resolve to depend solely on his talents and character helped the establishment to persist with the preposterous process a corps perdu. Jealousy is common. He aequo animo sought refuge in other fields and won nonpareil accolades from everybody by sheer talents.PRAVEEN KUMAR prevent him from reaching higher levels. 278 . Once the job is accomplished. His tormentors tout de suite followed him there too. The major achilles’ heel of the governance in India is its inability to understand others’ predicaments. sufferings and humiliations eo nomine noble intensions en pure perte. However. talent and character of very high order meted out by the mediocrity of the governance in the Indian milieu. He was to be roughed-up and denied promotions to rub-off his superior qualities and the intimidating aura till the detrition by the sufferings forces him down to the ordinary level. The publishers who already had published half a score books of the officer returned a contre coeur two manuscripts of the officer in sheer desperation a natura rei expressing helplessness en face the police interferences. These are the springboards of good governance. ATROCITIES He was denied promotions following the meretricious career plan year after year till his junior colleagues became senior to him by two ranks. No governance worth the name can render meaningful public service sans the spirit of building bridges to the hoi polloi in whose service it draws sustenance and what constitutes its raison d’ etre. Anybody junior receiving limelight is seen with resentment and suspicion. Good governance must be built on the terra firma of human concerns and sensitivity to others’ predicaments. Lack of transparency makes such etourdi atrocities possible and permits its practice for decades en pantoufles as in the case study. Governance in quiddity is safeguarding national interests and the welfare of the people. TRANSPARENCY Fanciful premises bordering madness tout court leading to irresponsible and eristic career plans of that dimensions are possible only in governance utterly lacking in accountability and only a sacred country like India can produce such gross grief. his lost seniority was to be restored a few years before retirement. A two-pronged strategy was devised. He was posted to most humiliating posts and harassed endlessly. These factors perforce involve empathy with the people and sensitivity to their interests. The head of the State Intelligence who himself a small-time writer and published a few books in a regional language used esoteric threats in 2000 on the publishers of the accurst officer to discourage them from publishing his books. His morale remained en bon point and high throughout non obstante serious humiliations and endless grief.

Governance sans accountability has the tendency of hijacking the country to the pit of evils that power breeds. It gives sanctity to power and makes it meaningful and relevant in the scheme of governance. Accountability gives it sophistication and purpose. objectivity is an inner faculty either inborn or acquired as the fond of good governance. The successes boldened them to the derring-does of larger dimensions. this commitment is sine qua non for good governance. ipso facto bringing in the elements of responsibility to the field of governance. Power is a raw energy. Another factor core to good governance is a balance of powers and responsibilities propped up with transparency in state affairs. temptations and threats. The governance as public administration is inevitably circumvented by pulls and counter-pulls of diverse kinds to influence decisions and actions. It is easier said than done. The recent US-64 debacle is the point. It can neither be fair nor earn the trust of the people. OPEN MIND No governance is worth the salt without a passion for developmental and welfare activities in national interests. While accountability is an apparatus to protect the governance from the indulgences of the fonctionnaire ab intra like greed. A passion pure and clear for the welfare and development of the nation and its people by any 279 . This ensures smooth governance d’ accord with the principles of democracy. the former mastered the art of evading accountability and responsibility. Responsibilities sans powers end up with failures in performance and powers non compris responsibilities breed undue morgue and lead to harassment of the public.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED ACCOUNTABILITY Another requisite of good governance is accountability. While accountability must evolve as an external mechanism ingrained in the body of the governance. This requires tremendous inner strength and singular commitment to the public cause. OBJECTIVITY A cardinal principle of good governance is objectivity and fair play. irresponsibility and love for easy life. India can ill-afford repeat performances of that dimension and must save from such disasters in future through an uneluctable parameter of accountability that alone can dawn an era of responsible governance in the country. The compulsions for yielding to either side are enormous and it reduce the governance to a mere play or dynamics of lobbyists and influence-pedlars. the shield of objectivity protects it from the ectogenous onslaughts of pressures. The passion widens the horizons of the mind as against that circummured by isms of theoretical hang that can never provide a good and open governance. Governance sans transparency is at the root of all evils and goes tout au contraire to the very rationale of the democracy. A good governance must stand up to the pressures. However. In the ambience of civil servants functioning in the shadow of the political leadership. IMBALANCES Good governance should have its powers and responsibilities amated and evenly distributed in the fabric of the governance. Checks and counterchecks serve the purpose of good governance by rendering itself to the litmus test of accountability.

has worked as the crucible of various experiments in governance. Otherwise. proportions and dimensions and survived through them. The old concept of a prosperous India is based on the vision of “Rama Rajya”. India in its long history saw governance of all kinds. like other old civilizations of the world. Visions carve paths to the future and prod the governance to navigate along the course. It saw the worst and the best in its 2500 years of recorded history. The besoin of the extant India is the evolution of a collective will to have a good governance. Once a vision of that dimension is en arriere to back. This is potential of evolving the governance to greater heights to herald an era of successes and prosperity.PRAVEEN KUMAR means is a prerequisite for good governance. It gives a grandeur and a proportion to the process. It is the collective will for good governance that is lacking in India. The governance in India now is based on this long experience. It at best is a random erection. People must pool their energies to force a good governance for the country. VISION The most basic requirement of any good governance is a vision. But. Only that keeps mind open for all developments worldwide and absorb really the best for the country. No governance can be good and complete without a vision to steer ahead and a true governance can be built only on the terra firma of a vision. The new concept of India coming of age is based on the vision of a world power or a regional power in Asia. this cannot be a reason to leave the matter of this dimension unattended as the fate of one billion people depends on this development. Vision gives direction and purpose to the governance. Only such a collective will can devolve truly good governance for the country. 280 . it is easy to put the pluses and minuses to conceive a strategy towards the end. Indeed the job is not easy and the resistance from those in charge of the governance whose interests lie in the status quo is bound to be hard. Governance sans vision is like building an edifice a tatons without a plan or blueprint. governance is nothing more than mechanical motions. an ability to look ahead to the future of the country with great expectations and endless possibilities in sidelines. The consequence is that the hoi polloi suffer and the country fails to reach the height it is potential of. It. It provides a break from the quotidian plod in preference to innovative strides to fulfil the vision.

alas. But. A major advantage of the All India Services is its all India nature. belated remedy is better than no remedy at all. Another advantage inhere in the concept is the belief that the best minds chosen from all over the country are entrusted with the prime function of the nation-building through the structure of the All India Services. The rapid degringolade of values and passion for excellence and efficiency in India of the postindependent vintage was to progressively obliterate all the advantages of the sound judgement of the whilom leaders. Every system is bifacial. Perhaps the greatest among the legacies of the British rule that caught with free-India was its steelframe of the All India Services. It is distressing to note that the same advantages turned to acute disadvantages in the last five decades in our own hands proving what Churchill said about natives ruling India. les grands remedes. external structure and internal character d’accord constitute a true system. The deterioration was to be complete in the next five decades and we now stand exactly in that compita. The situation calls for les grands remedes. Dispensability The fall was ominous. the Indian political leaders of that vintage in their best wisdom in an age of honesty. humility. The advantages of the gestalt of the All India Services of the British vintage was to be bientot frittered away by the falling values and rising material aspirations of India of the sixties and sinsyne. integrity and other higher values decided to continue with the All India Services legacy of the British with minor adaptations in spite of the inchoate mad rave to indigenise everything and obliterate all traces of the foreign rule. deviant values and aspirations of its members thus selected and recruited and mismanagement of the All India Services in governmental realms because of its obvious dispensability in terms of excellence and strength of character – all badly contributed for the extant triste state of affairs in the realms of the All India Services. Kudos to the leaders for their wisdom in keeping an efficient tool of administration intact.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED INDIA AND ALL INDIA SERVICES Aux grands maux. administration. Fortunate to India. Timely remedy is best. The All India Services of the postindependent vintage dearly lost in the battle for internal character. Negative selections and recruitment. Pristine 281 . But. the euphoria proved to be ephemeral. the albatross can be found squarely fitting in on the lap of the fast disappearance of the ancien regime of pristine values and the accrescently valid concept of the survival of the fittest gaining ground at all levels in the last half century. Survival of the Fittest If a single reason for the steep fall is to be accounted. professions and even social service. its members as a plexus from all over India carrying out administrative functions at senior levels throughout the length and breadth of the country give it a sense of oneness and belonging. it be in politics. They are commendable concepts indeed and worked to perfection during the British era and perhaps for a decade thereafter.

The tragedy is that the agency charged with the sacred responsibility of identifying such talents and selecting. None can contend that a vast country like India does not have people of right fortitude. it is to the credit of the Indian politicians that they did job extraordinaire in taking full advantage of the pusillanimous All India Services of the post-independent vintage in the last half century to promote the interests of their own. strength of character and creative talent who can withstand the lure of survival instinct at the cost of their conscience. efficiency and excellence in running the country and the rare virtues do prove the aex triplex of the services. The situation only can add to the parochial and regional sentiments in the country and boost divisive tendencies rather than working as a unifying factor. their political parties and the political field in general though at mammoth cost to the interests of the country. integrity and competence are concerned and in that further helped the politicians to corner the whilom superior services. it be in the members of the All India Services or the selecting and recruiting agency for the services or the governments that manage the services. The situation has spawned a vicious circle to the advantage of the political masters wherein the All India Services are seized with a crisis of confidence in the popular mind as far as its superior merit. humility. 282 . alas. fairness and humane approach are increasingly at a premium. Sadly. Right people are not in right positions. No state or union territory now needs them.PRAVEEN KUMAR values of grace. Crisis of Material The primacy of the katabasis necessarily goes to the crisis of material. however bad be the milieu around. India does have people of such calibre in its fold even now as it was always. Reaching top by any means is the motto. is failing the country by doing just the opposite by filtering such talents away as incompatible with the present political dynamics and thereby perpetuating the rotten state of affairs in the country. But. No sane political leader can ignore the need of such rare talents helping in running the country. Vicious Circle Politics being the art of possible. there is undoubtedly wild demand for superior merit. The gestalt of the All India Services was conceived and designed to overcome exactly this milieu. What India needs at this juncture are men and women who can stand for their conscience nec cupias nec metuas. it proved no match to the sweeping sleight of the Indian talent. in the deviant intelligence of its equally mediocre human material that lacks creative depth. integrity. They prefer local talents. its public morale and its people. Those forced on them by the Central government are sidelined to insignificant jobs unless there are special reasons involving quid pro quo. integrity. the All India Services not to be that in free India. The All India Services are fast losing the sheen of their all India nature because of the inadequacies of the agency that makes selections to the services.

the extant All India Services lack both. The situation needs strength of character kat’ exochem to stand up and cleanse the system and can be met only by diligent selections and support by men of true calibre. There is no other choice. Political leaders have no option but to fit in to the frame. It is these that made the All India Services of the British vintage the steelframe of India. This is why once the All India Services was called the steelframe of India. It is left to the senior civil servants at the All India Services rank as a group to create right atmosphere as a model of the public service. It is left to us to infuse right character to the system before it is too late. There is nothing like a steep fall. is a normal affair and treated as a legitimate cut. They are in majority and call themselves practical. If anything. Excellence and strength of character once around. are nothing if not chameleonic to the milieu around as a professional compulsion. How the situation can be saved and the tide reversed? The only way out is restoring the All India Services to its whilom glory of excellence and strength of character.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED Strength of Character Excellence and courage to stand up to conscience go together. They must double bend to the dictates of criminal nuances of their political masters for survival or face sidelining. Either you bribe and connive in criminal activities with those who count or waste your entire career in insignificant posts. It is virtus post numnos. This involves right selection. None know it better now than the members of the All India Services. It would be followed with other cuts down the line. naturally rally efficiency and integrity around and perforce compel political bosses to see reason and follow the rule of law. Most in the extant All India Services willingly oblige and see the glory of their career. what really they are. Indian constitution makers did provide a right gestalt for that. Political leaders as zoon politikon. There is no third choice. Virtus post Numnos Situation is extremely bad in public administration even in best of the states of India. Sadly India is dearly lacking in this department. Either you connive in the crime or perish. Most condescend and rise to glory while a handful resist and perish. 283 . it be for developmental works or a special law and order programme. Any resistance is invitation to be shunted out and sidelined as an inconvenient and problematic candidate. It is the case with plump postings also. practical at what cost? The trend grievously belies the very raison d’etre of the All India Services. A cut of 10% to the concerned minister from every fund released. But.

Indian national leaders by 1947 had come to appreciate the advantages of having a highly qualified and institutionalized administration in place a la the elite Indian Civil Service and allied services of the colonial British Raj especially at a time when social tensions threatened national unity and public order. some of the characteristics of the patrimonial state still pervade the country and to that extent its civil service system. Corruption has become a growing problem as civil servants have become subject to intense political pressures. initiative. empathy. It should be lean and mean and feracious. So also are civil services. It has to be purposive and focused and deliver goods efficiently without proving a burden to the structure. Although the elite public services continue to command great prestige. cooperation. constitutional responsiveness. Public opinion of civil servants has also been lowered by popular perceptions that bureaucrats are unresponsive to public needs and corrupt.PRAVEEN KUMAR NEED OF LEAN AND MEAN CIVIL SERVICES Civil services are the pillars on which the gestalt of a nation stands and structure is built. The public perceives the Indian civil service system as the no-change agents. Civil service is a mammoth plexus of complex interfaces spliced together to facilitate the governance of the country pro bono publico. He opined therein that loyalty and sincerity should be the main 284 . and drive for change. the Indian civil service system has a majority-party responsiveness. It lacks innovativeness. The Fifth Pay Commission in its report submitted in January 1997 had suggested a 30% downsizing of the civil service across the board. The Government of India and its 25 provincial governments spend about 3. It is not a decorative piece of the public administration. Indian Constitution established the Indian Administrative Service and other civil services to replace the colonial Indian Civil Service and allied services and ensure uniform and impartial standards of administration and promote effective coordination in social and economic development. The Indian civil service system has followed the classical Weberian model and tends to be conformist in the process of cooperating with the politicians.5% of the GDP on its civil servants. The sense of mission held by it is a mixed bag of compliance. According to the Ferrel Heady configuration. and guidance. policy-responsiveness. which is 50% of the employment provided in the organised sector. They employ about eight million in the civil service. Pillars need strength and height to make an edifice stable and meaningful. Though the configuration of Philip Morgan identifies the Indian civil service system as the principal agent of the state. their social status declined in the decades after independence. Inefficient and bloated civil service only tends to be furacious. Vishnugupta of the Mauryan period authored a treatise known as Kautilya's Arthashastra around 313 BC wherein he laid down the qualifications of the civil servants for appointment to the court. India's crème de la crème are increasingly attracted to private-sector employment where salaries are substantially higher.

combating inflation. “…an efficient. a continuous watch on their performances and quotidian performance report to the king on each key civil servant. The ethos of the civil services changed to development-orientation in 1950s and to a facilitator's role in the 1990s to meet the challenges of the democratic needs of the teeming millions.P. the Great had welfare and a regulatory-orientation. While civil servants acted as personal servants of rulers in ancient India. The service must be above party and we should ensure that political considerations either in its recruitment or in its discipline and control are reduced to the minimum. Jagdish Chander Jetli in Supreme Court in 1988 observed inter alia. elimination of social inequity inter alia. The civil service contrived by Akbar. In his letter dated October 15. regulation of the private sector. The onset of economic planning in India in 1951 with the First Five-Year Plan enjoined on the Indian civil services the role of development administration covering the administration of public enterprises.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED qualifications in a person to be appointed as a civil servant and recommended a system of checks and balances in the appointment of civil servants covering clearance by the vigilance department. Vallabhbhai Patel.” These are truly prophetic words relevant to the present India that penetrate the conundrums of its civil service issues. reduction of gender gap. development of rural areas. Justice M. if not eliminated altogether. they became state servants in the medieval age and acquired the complexion of public servants in the British India. “The appointment of the Secretary to Government of India is not on the basis of a competitive examination where a candidate who secures 99 per cent of marks has to be appointed. The point here is that the civil services is and has to be a nebulous body sans its own agenda. How can Government of India appoint any person as Secretary 285 . elimination of poverty. 1948 to the Constituent Assembly. Welfare of the people and the internal peace and security became the prime tasks of the civil services. The British government set up the Indian civil service in 1911 to strengthen the British administration and its colonial base in India. That is the democracy India consciously opted for and obliged to follow. formulation of socioeconomic and political policies. the then Prime Minister opined. effective monetary management. The emphasis is on an efficient and neutral civil service. Even when a person appoints a cook or a watchman. However. disciplined and contented service assured of its prospects as a result of diligent and honest work is a sine qua non of sound administration under a democratic regime even more than under an authoritarian rule. The recommendations hold relevance even today after 23 centuries in a democratic setup. They had least interest in the transformation of the Indian society. the problem here is the undue extension of the concept to conceive two power-centers between political policy-makers and civil service executives. commitments and ideologies in a democracy and function subordinate to the national needs and policy prioritized by the political leaders. Indian civil services of the British vintage worked so and the civil services of the democratic vintage nolens volens must follow tout de suite. he looks for a person in whom he has faith. The British model of the civil service in the earlier stage were far away from the common people and never tried to mix with and impress upon the people. The independence of the country posed new challenges to the civil servants.Thakkar while hearing a Special Leave Petition of a senior civil servant. India encountered severe resource crunch in early 1980s that further deepened by the end of the decade leading to a new economic policy in 1991 that saw a rollback of the economic activities to liberalisation and privatisation at macro and micro levels in the changed global environment.

Going for dignity and right values ignoring survival factors is not everybody’s staple. The guiding principle here is maximum yield out of maximal talent. Secondly.PRAVEEN KUMAR in whom it has no faith?” and the SLP was dismissed by the Supreme Court. field or age group sans extraneous obligations like reservations in this nonesuch Service. Its selection and recruitment must be a multi-polar strategy devised with a passion to enroll the best from whatever source. A conventional assessment is that an efficient and hardworking workforce of 10% of the present size in India should conveniently be able to handle the affairs of the country better and more effectively at a farthing of the present administrative overhead. Such a top-brass guiding administration by personal example at the helm provides a new job culture down the stream and helps trimming the civil services as a body to be a lean and mean force. It must maintain its integrity and independence. A civil service sans that cadeau crumbles to be the handmaid of the political leadership for survival and sycophancy reaches new heights every passing day to the level of suspending an acolyte from service for spelling wrongly the name of the daughter of the materfamilias of the party in power while sending an invitation. running the administration of the country. and responsibilities en revanche of extraordinary benefits in service and outside. A specially constituted board of professionals and experts free from political obligations must handle selection and the management of the new Service. industry. The two contrarious observations sum up the ground realities and the predicament of the civil services of India in a democratic milieu. ipso facto drastically cutting down administrative and establishment expenditures on account of the lean workforce while tremendously increasing its efficiency and perficient output. a perficient. This calls for a tact and skill kat exochem. These powerful pillars perforce must be limited in number to avoid degradation by mass mélange and absorption of anyone of some pull and money power and safeguard standards in excelsis. What India needs now is a lean and mean civil services imbued with industry. commitment. A beginning can be made in creation of a new lean and mean superior service above the present Indian Administrative Service with liberal perks and service benefits even after retirement to attract the crème de la crème. It is this rara avis that must constitute the pillars on which the plexus of the civil services must rest. Indeed the best does not come for peanuts. Struggle between survival and dignity is as old as human history is. Whatever goes for is far more worth of it. honesty and commitment extraordinaire to its responsibilities. It is this rare calibre that is the indigence of the extant civil services of India. A plexus of civil services built on this bedrock can do wonders to the country. This is what India needs now. talent. again well compensated. resourceful and workaholic lean civil services replacing extant sedent and inefficient bulk of workforce certainly provide a solution to the evils of the administrative overhead apportioning the major part of the public expenditures of the Government. Making its members free from all major needs of life once they joined the service would be the cheapest strategy open to achieve this telos. integrity. It takes tremendous inner strength and resolve. Efficient and small is always effective. The lean civil services instituted for the country should be made a highly contented and respected entity while its job and responsibilities are made equally challenging and trying. Right selection and steadfast upkeep of high standards are easier while size is small. Insulation of the civil services from the temptations of money and power is a major challenge. This is a give and take policy with 286 . and en attendant earn acceptability and faith of the political leadership.

The suggestions made here are easier said than done. Yet. For the other. A major need of such a civil services is absolutely professional recruitment and management of the services at all levels under the close purview of a professional body responsible to the Chief Justice of the country. 287 .POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED provisions for ruthless extraction of those who fail to stand up to the challenges in hand. it needs amendments to the Constitution. A clear bifurcation of the responsibilities of the political and administrative wings of the Government as policy and decision makers and as advisors and executives is sine qua non for the advent of such a refrain in running the Government. politics being the art of possible. Any attempt at overstepping the other should be viewed as a serious violation of the code of Governmental procedures. this is the besoin India now cries avec acharnement for. For one. the political leadership would never compromise with any effort to make away flaccid civil services that has come to its prise from a hard struggle that is half-a-century long. Even indirect political pull even from the highest levels in recruitment or management perforce pollutes the civil services tout a fait.

The voluntary nature of Home Guards services renders the internal orientation more basic to Home Guards Training rather than the other way round. ranging from five days to a month to avoid long absences of the volunteers from their homes. professional attitude and creation of a truly committed persona. The ephemeral nature and uncertain tenure of the Home Guards service necessiate a strong foundation of the internal orientation to sustain interest in the service. Human nature being what it is. Rather than resorting to repetitions of what is already known and codified in Home Guards Manuals. I venture here to touch upon the place of a holistic training programme in Home Guards setup. The backdrop of the voluntary nature and uncertain tenure of service in the Home Guards necessiates its training programmes to be capsuled in short-term courses. The absence renders the need of internal orientation all the more important in Home Guards organisation. EXTERNAL ORIENTATION Present Home Guards braining basically is external orientation programmes. Home Guards service is hollow. there is no adhesive of financial guarantee and perks. A holistic training scheme needs to be programmed to these short-term courses. External Orientation is constituted. once ignited. and Home Guards service sans internal orientation is directionless. of Knowledge Orientation and skill orientation. needs to be consistently stoked and sustained to harness the maximum out of it. and job security in Home Guards service to bind the volunteers irrevocably to the Home Guards Service. Its absence manifests in low turnout of volunteers when called for service and poor performance. Home Guards can ignore the need only at its own peril. which in final analysis. Home Guards Training.PRAVEEN KUMAR HOME GUARDS TRAINING I am asked to write this article on a specific subject. The two facts of a holistic training programme are internal and external orientations. This shortfall has arrested the growth of Home Guards movement in India. The fact is that extant Home Guards training programmes nowhere in India have internal orientation incorporated in its agenda. complement each other to creat a complete training programme. INTERNAL ORIENTATION Internal Orientation is the most neglected facet of a training programme in the present world. and restrict myself to the scope of the training programmes to make it holistic and complete. This need can be met only by liberal dose of internal orientation in the training programme. the spark of voluntary service. Unlike career services. The basic configuration of internal orientation is founded on right motivation. Present training programmes identify knowledge orientation with indoor classes and skill orientation with 288 . The need of internal!sat ion of Maslow’s need hierarchy comes to play here as the internal orientation spurs the need of internal!sat ion. The short-term nature of the training underlines the need of repeated training courses in Home Guards as a device of a stratified and stepped-up training plan. I do not go here to the brasstacks of a training programme in Home Guards for obvious reasons. Sans internal orientation.

289 .Further. Home Guards being an organisation of voluntary service. Strategic skills useful in Home Guards operations. removed from each other. the skill oriented training programme in Home Guards can be either physical or strategic in nature. The need of updating training contents is largely forgotten. driving. its objectives and case studies add to motivation towards Home Guards service.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED outdoor classes. communication transportation and control that are central to Home Guards operations whij^e operational skill comes to force and useful during actual operations. as the skill is meant to save lives and bring order. It is training that differentiates a Home Guard from who is not. there is a need of making its training programme a pleasure-event to attract more and more volunteers to partake in the programme. Therefore. INTERLINKED The two facets of Home Guards Training. They are interlinked and constitute a holistic training programme. its organizational structures. Acquiring stratigic skills contribute to strengthen right professional attitude and motivation. Here also training contents in both programmes in extant Home Guards training are rather passe and do not meet the operational needs in the field. basics of electric wirings in addition to present topics. the success of Home Guard setup depends on the success-story of its training programmes. namely internal and external orientations are not distinct and independent entities. methods of identififation and defusing of sophisticated bombs. case studies of model operations. The managerial skill is required to address organisational matters including planning. I round off this discussion with the observation that the knowledge orientation programmes in a purposeful training plan should include topics like history of Home Guards. The skill oriented training programme must create real skills unlike being an eye-wash as at present. are addressed by outdoor demonstrations and rehearsals. Similarly. An external orientation like physical skill harnessed in the parade ground positively contributes to reinforce the internal orientation of a professional attitude like discipline. basics of inter-person relationship and courteous conduct in addition to what is already there. The strategic skills can be either managerial or operational in nature. the knowledge of Home Guards history. And skill orientation programme in a utility based training plan should cover latest researches and tools of rescue operations including medical aid. handling of computers and information technology gadgets. principles of time and space management. Physical skill needs are addressed by parade and physical training.

The will of the people of a region in the vast tapestry of the nation is just irrelevant even in a democracy as far as deciding the nationhood is concerned as otherwise every village in a country will turn to an independent nation and sink the human race in a maelstrom of disorganisation. Further. religion being a factor of politics goes e contrario to the extant international spirit and rationale. It is so also about Kashmir. The history does not support either the claim of India or of Pakistan on Kashmir or the claim of some for the independence of Kashmir. Pakistan was carved out of India as a political compulsion. The concept has no root in history. KASHMIR AND THE PAST India as a nation is a new concept. Constitutional provisions are temporal and subject to amendments. 290 . Islam being the raison d’etre of Pakistan is its own albatross and does not give it any special claim on regions anywhere in the world eo nomine. IRRELEVANT ISSUES The reality is that neither the history nor the religion nor the constitutional provisions nor the will of the majority constitute a right to a region to be a part of this or that country in politics either now or at any time in the past in any part of the world.PRAVEEN KUMAR CORE ISSUE AND THE CORE OF INDIA’S NATIONHOOD The achilles’ heel of the present day politics is its unwillingness to comprehend reality in full force and devise strategies ex consequenti. RELIGION IS PASSE India as a secular country is d’accord with the zeitgeist of the present enlightened world with the people of all religions in symbiosis here. Kashmir was part of the empires and of smaller kingdoms under Punjab rulers at different times. Neither it can be now for obvious reasons. Gupta and Moghal emperors inter alios ruled vast parts of the present India and regions outstretching up to Central Asia and present day Iran at various times before the advent of the British. It is what happened about Kashmir in the last fiftyfive years and continues to happen now. Religion never gained currency anywhere in the world as a factor of nationhood. Maurya. History is a matter of flux en train. In either case. the dimensions of an issue further entoil to an issue of higher complexities. Seeing any issue through the glass of religion is tout au contraire to the very spirit India stands for. It is more so in the present enlightened world where religion as a factional entity is démodé in public life. It may often be an intentional demarche en face an impossible situation to defer impending disasters or etourderie tout court in comprehending the intricacies of the reality. No point of time can be selected as a reference point in the continuum of the sempiternal timeframe to decide the future of that significance.

The instrumentation of annexation or plebiscite or UNO resolution has relevance in real polity only until they serve national objectives. It is a fait accompli in real polity until it is forced away from the Indian Union. There is no way these factors ectogenous to the national interests have any say in determining the future of Kashmir. THE GLITCHES GALORE The cause of the failure of India in Kashmir non obstante the annexation lies in its glitches galore en suite in the last fifty five years en face the commitment of Pakistan and its immaculate works to the cause beyond its abilities and resources that brought it almost on par with India as far as Kashmir and military might are concerned. India’s glitches galore begin with the greed of its aging political leaders agreeing in hurry to divide the country on communal basis lest they may lose the opportunity of ruling the country in their lifetime. REALITY OF KASHMIR It is an established fact that India was not really interested about Kashmir in the initial stages. The ceasefire in Kashmir on the call of the UNO while the Indian army was on a winning spree 291 . Recorded history shows how India a travers its iron man and the then Union Home Minister Sardar Vallabhai Patel offered to Pakistan bartering Kashmir for Hyderabad. India basing its claims on Kashmir on its constitutional provisions is misleading. Ergo. On the other hand. the only reality in the process is that Kashmir had become a part of India and the only factor acceptable to the real polity that can reverse the process is use of force. Such a will has no sanctity in a nationhood. In real polity stripped of all clichés and polished phrases. India ignored Kashmir altogether until the Maharaja of Kashmir signed the instrumentation of annexation with India and Kashmir became an integral part of India. It is true of both India and Pakistan. India thought that Kashmir was expendable to its interests. plebiscite or no plebiscite.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED NATIONHOOD Nor Kashmir being incorporated in Indian constitution as a part of India gives India any special claim on Kashmir for the simple reason that any constitution is the product of the nationhood and not vice versa. They truly are meant to serve only as tools to score points in official talks en pure perte and as propaganda means. it is neither the cover of the constitutional provisions nor the ruse of the will of the people that provide the justification for the claims on Kashmir with certitude. Idealism goes idle en face national interests. neither India nor Pakistan nor any other country in the world survive as a nation for long. Real polity nowhere in the world understands any other language even in a civilised world. NATIONAL INTERESTS There are myriad talks about the Maharaja of Kashmir signing the instrumentation of annexation with India with a provision for plebiscite while invaded by the Pakistan army a la derobee as tribals in 1947 and India under Jawaharlal Nehru referring Kashmir dispute to the UNO and the consectaneous UNO resolution going against the interests of India. Real polity has no place for idealism. The process of annexation alone made India’s claim on Kashmir absolute and res judicata. if the will of the people of a region is given liberty in deciding the nationality.

It will be nothing short of the surrender of Pakistan in Bangladesh war. Its prime intelligence behemoth. India knows it. Even its Afghan policy was Kashmir and India-centric. what latitude can there be for any rapprochement between the two warring neighbours? All the talks of settlements and summits are mere diplomatic platitudes meant to satisfy the inner and outer constituencies of the respective countries. Pakistan knows it. It left nothing to chance and succeeded in breeding and feeding anti-India campaign in the valley of Kashmir. The single target of the Pakistan military build-up including nuclear arsenal and missile technology is India. In the circumstances. India’s response to Pakistan’s challenges in Kashmir throughout sinsyne was casual and disorganised and diplomatic a fond unlike Pakistan’s concerted efforts beyond its means covering all strategic needs required to stand up to India about Kashmir. It is how Pakistan prepared itself for the cause of Kashmir. The extent of the penetration of the ISI in India is yet to be matched by the RAW in Pakistan. In this sense. Kashmir has become the core of India’s nationhood while it certainly is a core issue to Pakistan. was created basically to counter India. The only solution to a problem of the nature of Kashmir’s in real polity is the use of force. its Kashmir adventures are unlikely to abate. CORE OF NATIONHOOD Pakistan believes that the agenda of the birth of its nationhood is incomplete without Kashmir. Pakistan by no stretch of imagination will settle for anything less than Kashmir tout a fait at its control as it has become a matter of national pride to the country en face India’s superior prowess. It perforce will continue with the strategy unless it is mortally brought to its knees and good senses. India in its part condescend to anything less than as of now only at its own peril as yielding to Pakistan in anyway about Kashmir now is nothing short of surrender in real polity. Pakistan is trying its luck by appealing to the religious sentiments of the Kashmiris to lure them away from India in one hand and resorting to terrorism in Kashmir by supporting jehadi groups on the other hand in the hope that one day Kashmir perchance may fall on its lap. CAUGHT IN A LOGJAM With the ultimate positions of both India and Pakistan being defined with perspicacity and certitude. commitment or sheer performance. Pakistan also knows that it can never subdue India 292 . The commitment and spirit of the Pakistan army against India is in no way amated by the fighting spirit of the Indian army. Both the countries know fully well that nothing other than the present situation is possible except for minor adjustments along the line of control as in Siachin glacier and such strategic points. Kargil intrusion of 1999 is a clear indicator of the strengths and efficiency of the ISI. the ISI with its committed cadres. Its military forces are fully en arriere of the cause. Unless Pakistan’s military might is brought to the knees a toute force. This is how Pakistan prepared itself against India in the last fifty-five years for the cause of Kashmir. India’s response to the ISI in form of the RAW with much larger resources at disposal is yet to stand up to its counterpart in Pakistan either in efficiency. The repeated military takeovers in Pakistan represent the passion of the Pakistan army to stall any compromise by its political leadership with India on the Kashmir issue.PRAVEEN KUMAR patently betrays the inexperience and lack of toughness in our political leadership of the time and all of India’s troubles in Kashmir can be traced to this single bevue.

POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED militarily. No talks and summits can really make any difference to the issue in the circumstances. This is the hard truth. It is true until Pakistan learns by hard way to recognise the reality that Kashmir is an Indian territory and it can do nothing about it until the unlikely event of it outgrowing India in military might and physically snatching Kashmir out of India. India has to choose between tolerating its mischief in Kashmir and inducing mortal fear of India pro rata to its size and resources a tout prix. India knows that a nuclear Pakistan is a dangerous adversary and it is now too late to bring the country to its knees. 293 . India can’t afford the luxury of the wishful thinking that it can fool Pakistan from its stance and bring it around to the fact that Kashmir from the day of its annexation to India is the core of its nationhood or economic and other compulsions ab intra or foreign pressures force Pakistan to shy away from its commitment to the Kashmir issue. There is no third option open. This is the single most damaging factor in the life of Pakistan. The army and fundamentalists are too pollent a force in Pakistan to let sensible voices surface.

in A Bridging of Faiths. opine that about 1979 things began to change and religion took on a new political importance. and Karen Straight. politics is the art of the possible. It was politics at its best at deception that created Israel and politics at its horrid at destruction that is devastating en revanche peace and security of the Middle East in the last six decades. Worldwide Phenomenon Jay Demerath. Politics seeks power and excitement while religion seeks peace and salvation. co-authored by them in 1992 (Princeton University Press). Poles Apart According to Otto Von Bismarck. His contempt for the former is obvious. they can certainly complement each other as the two faces of basic human activities and enrich human life. and the introduction of politics into religion is the prostitution of true religion. He sees the latter face of the religion having ethical and spiritual nuances a la religion of Emperor Ashoka in the state affairs as inexorably blended to a healthy politics. They are poles apart in their means and ends and therefore can not bodily blend. worldwide.PRAVEEN KUMAR RELIGION IN POLITICS “The introduction of religious passion into politics is the end of honest politics. For. Israel like Pakistan came to existence from the emotional shemozzle of the religion. Since then. Deception and destruction are the two trusted hands of the body of the politics all along its long history. It imprimis is opportunism and deception. Amherst. religion as politics in disguise per contra religion at heart in politics. Religion Divides The machtpolitik between the Western world represented by the USA and Britain and the Muslim world epitomized by the Afghan war and the aggression on Iraq in 2003 deep 294 . he also said in another occasion. However. doing research there. He clearly contrasts here two facets of the religion. I however wear the guise of a politician but am at heart a religious man”. the volatile-and often violentcombination of a religious state with religious politics is on the rise. The period in India saw the rise of violent Sikh nationalist sentiments and later Hindu fundamentalism. for in politics there is no honour. in politics nothing is contemptible. It is in this context Mahatma Gandhi said that religion and politics are inextricably blended and their separation tantamounts to the separation of blood and body and called politics without religion a dirty game. “Most religious men I’ve met are politicians in disguise. Politics is selfish au fond while religion is love and sacrifice. professor of sociology at University of Massachusetts. It is hic et nunc and ergo ephemeral unlike religion which seeks divinity and eternity through the principles of Rhadamanthine sittlichkeit and truth. According to Benjamin Disraeli there is no act of treachery or meanness of which a political party is not capable.” said Lord Quintin McGarel Hogg Hallsham.

religion accepted its limitations in the temporal world of power and deceptions and yielded the field to politics while retaining its divine supremacy in human affairs and activities. It reflects their maturity and true religiosity. Islam inherently is a fiery and aggressive religion with a political agenda imbued in its soul. Religion as Politics in India Religion as politics in India began to take shape in a big way during the Muslim rule with Jazia and other religious taxes. India has political parties wedded to the cause of important religions of the country. Muslim countries are deeply divided world over on lines of their Sunni and Shia affiliations. Emperor Asoka was a rara avis of another kind who brought the soul of religion to the governance. The Maratha and Vijayanagar empires are considered as the Hindu reactions to the persecutions. The demand for a homeland in Ireland was based on the rift between Protestants and Catholics in the Christianity. Religion as politics is a world phenomenon these days. Serious political disturbances in Kashmir have religious emotions working en arriere. The concept of Rama Rajya of Mahatma Gandhi is an extension of what Emperor Asoka brought to bear on the administration. Buddhism is deeply rooted in the politics of Sri Lanka. it is to the credit of the top Christian religious leaders world over that they refused to involve themselves in the political conflict and went to the extent of condemning the American brutality and initiatives.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED down symbolizes the clash of Christian and Islam civilizations. Both Gouthama Buddha and Mahavir are rare cases of political personalities from the royal family finding their solace in religion d’accord with the spiritual disposition of India. However. Iraq is only an accidental mactation in the process. It is an abnormal conflict wherein the political leaders of the West took on the extremist religious elements of the Islam. Muslim zealots like Aurangzeb made his rule a religious cause. Religion in India The love and hate relationship between religion and politics is not new to India. Portuguese in Goa followed the suit. Ultimately. There is nothing wrong in that and the Indian Constitution no way bars them from politicking. forcible conversions and other types of persecutions of nonMuslims under the state patronage. 295 . Vedas and Puranas have references to the corso in oodles. The mythological references to the conflict between Brahmanism and Kshatriyas as symbolized by the annihilation of the Kshatriyas by Parasurama indubitably throw light on the age long struggle for supremacy between religion represented by the Brahmanism and politics represented by the Kshatriyas of the ancient India. The concept of Raja Guru and Raja Rshis and the respect they commanded from the king and the royalty spawned from this ausgleich. What is reprehensible is the misuse of religion and religious passions to political ends and the misuse of politics and political deceptions for selfish and nonreligious ends of the religion. So were whilom Punjab and the Operation Bluestar that led to the killing of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi.

Pseudo-secularism is anther shape of the misuse of religion in politics to gain power from the other extremity. Both do well to limit to their own realms and contribute to each other’s enrichment . Unfortunately this is not the case anywhere. 1796 said.politics wedded to the moral and spiritual views of the religion and religion wedded to give emotional support to politics in its rightful process. it only means preventing the use of religious passions to political ends and preventing the use of political deceptions to misuse the institutions of the religion. Swami Vivekananda considered religion as the core of politics. But. that face should be the blood of the body of the politics. George Washington in his Farewell Address of September 17. This wisdom compelled the First Amendment of The Constitution of the United States of America to lay down. Healthy politics should keep both forms at arms-length. ideally. The moral and spiritual face of the religion has nothing to do with the division. as Mahatma Gandhi said. “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion. Separating religion from politics and state affairs is not tantamount to going anti-religious. And religion should keep its sanctity by keeping away from the unholy politics. The religion and politics relationship poses no threat to a country’s polity as long as politics does not use religion and vice versa. 296 . Ignoring the soul of a religion to protect its criminal elements for political ends is tantamount to violating and annihilating the religion. Indeed. or prohibiting the free exercise thereof”. God by whatever name belongs to all and His abode in whatever form is sacred to all. but religion not as politics in disguise. American President. Dividing people and bloodletting in the name of religion is the worst form of anti-religious politicking. “reason and experience both forbid us to expect that national morality can prevail in exclusion of religious principle”.PRAVEEN KUMAR Anti-religious Politicking Protection of one’s religion and culture is a sacred duty and a serious need of the hour. for it terminally poisons both the body of the politics and the blood of the religion.

Leadership is adjectives to the language of the democracy. science and research and similar professions. none can swear on the quality of the democracy India has grown in its backyard. Though sittlichkeit. Political leadership is its only one dimension though most important one and in that statutorily incorporated to the body of a democratic institution. it is true about the success stories of democracy in European countries and it is true about India. 297 . It decides the nature and the quality of the democracy. The problem lies in the quality of its leadership. It is true about the USA. An organised evolution of a written constitution leading to the establishment of a democratic institution under the very nose of the royalty can take place only in a European country like Britain. patriotism and intellectual calibre of the people do have a bearing on such matters. USA showed it. Leadership basically functions as creators of the public opinion and ideally expected to lead from the front. However. it is the leadership culture that mostly decides the nature of the leadership that emerges. cricket. Leadership of a country s’orienter distinct from its people and perforce creates the leadership culture. major European countries lived it. None can doubt the success of the experiment of democracy in India. and popular. intellectual and administrative fields in that order of effectiveness. Multidimensional Leadership Leadership in a social milieu is necessarily multitudinous and multidimensional. Their will makes little difference in a preordained setup and given system. right leadership is the soul of right democracy. An egregious Watergate scandal pulling down the flamboyant presidency of Richard Nixon can happen only in the USA. media. industries. other sports. Leadership Culture It is rather facile to contend that people in a democracy get the leadership they deserve. but need not be necessarily true. It is specious in theory. Popular segment covers miscellaneous fields including films. These segments in a healthy democracy spawn a mechanism of checks and counter-balances. These are examples of right leadership evolving right democracy.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED CRISIS OF RIGHT LEADERSHIP IN INDIA If leadership is the soul of democracy. nongovernmental organisations. There can be right or wrong democracy depending on the nature and content of the leadership to carry the democracy forward. People are just prisoners of this pernicious limitation. India sadly lost in this vital department while building the edifice of its democracy. Six most important leadership segments of a democratic milieu come from political.

Those who had the sinew and mental sturdiness to exploit jumped to the wagon in streams and created a new set of leadership for India at the cost of the ancien regime inspired by lofty ideals and guided by the motto of service. The quality of a leader is reflected in the standards he sets for himself. Greed and pressures both worked in the process. Leadership in India appeared like an endless foison of opportunities to rob and grab. This is rarely to be a case in the Indian leadership in whatever field. power and the luxuries of serving the people and the endless possibilities its diverse permutations and combinations provide. popular figures or administrators. Crime paid. Corrupt and ruthless to the core. Leadership in the milieu became nothing more than a daring massive investment for multifold returns. “Integrity is the most valuable and respected quality of leadership” says Brian Tracey. intellectuals. This is important. Leadership in Independent India Independence made Indian leadership taste money. Though sparks of freedom and true leadership surfaced from time to time in all these fields in the last six decades. power and muscle gained in the process. popular fields. The reason is that the fall in the political leadership perforce percolated into lesser fields and binged their leaderships with similar mesquinerie and base pursuits. nongovernmental organisations. accepted the reality to the extent that they now think twice before accepting anybody without the merit of a criminal past as their leader. Nothing is like a mammoth lure and nothing is like a gargantuan greed. either for greed. However. It was the combined thrust of the Indian leadership in different segments like political.PRAVEEN KUMAR India of the first half of the 20th century too showed right leadership in liberating the country from the foreign rule. Criminals constitute the spine of the political leadership in states like Bihar and Uttara Pradesh. the new leadership easily cornered the scrupulous old order in opportunistic political games of money. or poor leadership material going for sensationalism in selfish or commercial pursuit. “The prime role of a leader is to offer an example of courage and sacrifice” says Regis Debray. local media. or more accurately both reinforcing each other as models from one generation to the other. a pure commercial venture. It is true of media. That is why leadership became a dirty word in India. That is how Phoolan Devi or Pappu Yadav succeed as leaders and Veerappans dream their glory in political leadership. This gives the hope of regeneration in the future. It is more so in the leader of the leaders segment of the politics. true attempts at right leadership do exist here and there in all fields and they are succeeding. And Indians as they are. The fallacy lies in apostasy. intellectuals and patriotic elements in the administration working in tandem made independence to India possible earlier than otherwise. non-governmental bodies. they are far in-between to a country of India’s size and diversity and mere isolated initiatives like fishes out of water and soon died down literally and figuratively. Deception and flamboyancy became sine qua non for leadership. 298 .

” Right leadership is integrity.Auden says. It is a travesty of leadership. Leadership qualities flourish in right values. “A leader is best when people barely know he exists. Ca ira. Lao Tzu opines. It is sin to let them down to seek own ends.” Extant variety of Indian leadership has neither a past nor a future and only has a greedy present. It is neither right leadership nor is it even leadership. goes the way and shows the way. and keep the promise to prosperity. Concern to those below is its main mantra. Sensationalism.Maxwell. keep step with the present. worse when they despise him”. Indian leadership has degenerated to that at all fronts.John C. Self-seekers and criminals have no place in its scheme. Leadership is service au fond and exposure comes only as a derivative. sacrifice. He is the guide and philosopher to those below him. conviction. India eagerly awaits to prepon. It is making fun of leadership. right decisions and right actions. Leaders are models to others. not so good when people obey and acclaim him. Right leadership is ability to guide and lead people in right path. The celebrated Chinese Philosopher of the 6th century BC. commitment to people and values. “A leader is a dealer in hope” said Napoleon Bonaparte. “Leaders are the ones who keep faith with the past. a leader is one who knows the way. He is their hope and future. A leader is the personification of trust to his followers. No aberrations last in perpetuum. W.H. Commercial angle has nothing to do with it.Seymour for a true leader when he says. and ability to blend with their dreams. further boost upwards and attainment of selfish ends. It no way fit in to the frame laid down by Harold J. “No person can be a great leader unless he takes genuine joy in the success of those under him. self-aggrandizement. claptrap and partisan approach never feed leadership qualities.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED Right Leadership According to Dr. All these key factors of the right leadership are thrown to winds in India after independence. It is just the opposite in the extant Indian leadership where service is a front and tool for exposures. 299 .

It was a triste trade-off. Rich and powerful became its heartthrobs. The hallmark of India is its confidence in itself and its values and it sustained it through all the travails of its long history. The second half of the 20th century saw the caduac of gross commercialization of the Indian mindset and consectaneous degringolade of its ingenerate higher values. A pusillanimous India at the aurora of its independence like fish out of water lost its soul in pursuit of the material carrion that was inebriating the world in the midst of the prolate commercialization. India always stood for the cardinal values of truth. But at what cost and for what end? A dead India was too occupied with the glorification of its carcass to think of it. Multi-nationals and stock exchanges became its peremptory saviors. It was a distressing relegation of higher values and inner strength to oblivion. Jana Sangh and its later avatar that came to existence to preserve Indian values and culture turned the most visible icon of the Indian values and the leitmotiv of its spiritual lumiere. They forgot their legacy and its strengths that sustained them through all the convolutions of the history.PRAVEEN KUMAR RECONSTRUCTION OF INDIA India is the land of spirituality. media. Mahavir. India began to see the dream of becoming a world power. into a most hated name by its inhuman and unprincipled political misadventures. Developed countries became its ideal. It algate stood on its own feet and proved the strengths of 300 . simplicity and a value based system of life and always absorbed the zeitgeist within these parameters to enrich itself. Wealth and power became its Gods. The contabescence is so endemic in its spread that all walks and strata of life in the country saw the sweeping metabasis and the concomitant atrophy. The depth gained by this commands other nations of the world to see India with awe and respect even in the extant commercial ambience of the present world. The fall was ominous. literature. This foundation gives India a unique character and inner strength unseen in the community of nations of the world and makes it a world leader in spiritual life. It was their ideals and their values. Japan and USA became its models. bureaucracy. This was true upto the first half of the 20th century. The Indian National Congress that held high the spiritual flambeau of the nation for nearly a century turned a corrupt and power-hungry body and swept away principles that sustained it till then under the carpet of political expediency. business. and you name the field. Shree Rama. Love and pursuit of knowledge and higher values are the essence of its nature. India could spawn such gems because the mien of life here supported them and their ideals. Ashoka and Mohandas Gandhi are unique gifts of India to the world of sublime thoughts in practice. Its great sons like Gauthama Buddha. It was of the people and their spirit. It was their attitude and the focus of life. They lost the pristine adaptability that saw them move pari passu with the changing time while retaining the core of their higher values. intellectuals. that saw the fall. Nothing is wrong in that per se. It never lost its soul and never found the need to blindly mimic the specious coups of the world around. professions. What followed was an apostasy from the radicate path. art and cultural movements. Indian politics.

honest and healthy practices. The environment is poisoned. muscle power and garish display of strength pay in the process. The tragedy of the present India is that it continued the process of the adoption sans the ingredient of the adaptation to its rich heritage of spiritual and enduring values and practices. patience. From politics to familial relationships. all added to the mux. grace and dignity are relegated as impotent to the dustbin of the history. Who could not rise to the levels became misfits. It is a soulless process in the body of a democratic form. And India prepared a poisonous broth in which it boils jusqu au bout unless it reverses the process by sheer deux ex machina. The trend corroded confidence in higher nuances of the value system. and governance became subservient to this end. self-seeking media. They require inner strengths as their spine to stand erect to stand out in the world. Everything is forgotten in the pursuit of power. This with the concomitant degringolade of the leadership qualities of the democratic vintage spawned a dangerous broth of fawn. pride. Corruption. The claves of the changed attitude are shortcuts and reaching desired end by any means. It is true of all modes of corruption and decay of standards. Respect lost its halo. that in the people was not far away. India always went for sound practices with both material and spiritual dimensions to it. Instinct for survival preceded everything else. Money and power built a mutually serving vicious circle and became inviolable ends and means of any meaningful life. The pristine values like excellence. All higher values are thrown to winds in pursuit of specious material bonanza and the life has become a no-holds-barred utter trade-off. a feudal rule bought over by money. It has 301 . Its manifestation in the fall of higher values in governance of India of the democratic vintage shook the very foundation of the highly developed value system of the country existing till then.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED its fundamentals even in worst scenarios. With the fall in the ideals of the governance and the Government system. Extant India looks far from that proud and confident India. its footprints are deeply etched to emaciate the country ab intra. deceit and muscle power. from bureaucratic attitudes to intellectual manoeuvres and from commercial world to cultural fields. Crime paid. and isolated struggles to inhere to time-tested pristine values are stifled to evanescence in midst of the reign of mesquinerie. protests and violence gained currency as the only tools of success. India is deluding itself by calling itself as a great democracy of the world and dreaming to be a world power. demoralized bureaucracy and hapless hoi polloi. Quantity overtook quality. The malady is prolate. muscle and deceit. Hero worship and opportunism became the ticket to clamber the ladder of the self-promotion in the mien of the undermined merit. Both ruling party and opposition parties found their salvation in winning the next election non obstante means and found money. Greedy politicians. Present India lacks that little potion that in the past was India’s essence passim. or better. ‘Grab and rob’ became the mantra of survival. Compages do not make vibrating structures inter se. Indian public life restructured itself to these needs sinsyne. Indian culture is a sublime edifice of the best absorbed from all sources it came in contact with and built on the foundation of the pollent values of simple. Ex-Prime Minister Charan Singh as the Chief Executive of the country once rightly claimed that corruption imbues from above. This is extant India. Present India’s democracy is a misnomer.

Apotheosis of political figures for self-promotion is the order of the day. A striking instance is India’s version of the democracy where deception and criminal record constitute the provenance of political leadership en face that practiced in the USA and other western countries where merit and personal probity constitute the bedrock of the successful public life. Indian democracy as practised today is an antithesis a toute force of this cardinal need. Indian intellectuals and Indian media lead the field stripped of independent and original thinking. That is why protests and violence have become the order of the day. Indian democracy just is not that. Rather than leading the country from the front in the restricted couloir of right thinking and higher values. The need of appeal to deeper realms like reason and insight is tout a fait forgotten. Violence truly pays in Indian democracy. Those in politics and bureaucracy in India sit so high in their ivory towers of insensitive power and exclusiveness that nothing reach and move 302 . mere compages are gone for without as much as thoughts for its inherent soul or underlying foundation. Personalities gained currency over values and principles and personality-cult gained tremendous boost. This trend expresses itself in sprouting of myriad statues of political leaders often of dubious repute at public places a grands frais. Fall of individual pride ironically is another depravity of the Indian version of the democracy and its political stirrings. High character and true merit have become grossly irrelevant. fairness. Often. Compare extant democratic India with the present China or the resilience shown by Japan and Germany after the Second World War or the progress seen in countries like Singapore. This again is an expression of the prevailing contumely to excellence and creative originality apart from the prevailing commercialization of the intellectual and media fields. It is absurd to expect high public sittlichkeit or high ideals from such a provenance. law or gentle persuasion has no place here. Accrescently Indian media now relies on sexual appeal on its pages to catch readership or viewership. Lack of true commitment or pride for the own ab intra is another serious Achilles’ heel. Honesty and true sincerity in the political leadership is the only allee that leads to the true bonanza of a nation. Often. Nothing that is not honest and truly sincere ever succeeds. Those with money and power have become virtual Gods even for intellectuals and media in this whilom land of spirituality. popular catchwords like socialism and economic reforms or nationalism and globalisation become claves of attitudes without as much as going to the depths of the social dynamics and relevance to India.PRAVEEN KUMAR become just a copycat of whatever appeals to its senses and fancy. Sycophancy and glorification of dynastic rule are its inevitable offshoots. It is this sheer perversion of the democratic ideals and the concomitant deception and criminality that India calls as the greatest democratic experiment in the world. they fish in popular trends and perceptions to boost their commercial gains. Character and merit are relegated to oblivion in this mad rush. People cannot be blamed for that. honesty. Recent event is attempts to protect a religious leader from criminal charges at the cost of the values of a sacred religious seat he holds. Contrast this with the USA where key Government posts go to those from the academic field and even a minor strain on character or private life is enough to bar a candidate from winning the Presidential election. Reasons. Another striking manifestation of present India is its narrow vision.

Everything of the public domain in present maledict India is acted only on political compulsions or lobbying of the rich and powerful. A half century is too short a period in the life of a country to resile to its pristine soul and India may need to boil in its own ephemeral materialistic broth before it begins de noueveau in right course. Every country has its own tournure along the corso of its life.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED them unless a message is packed with blood and violence to comminate their secure power base. Contrast this with the USA Government’s mammoth response in creating a new Homeland Security Department after the 11/9/2001 militant attack on its land and its concern for the security of its citizens. India did see umpteen ups and downs along the course of its long history and algate resiled to its pristine soul amain. India sine dubio finds itself at its cafard in its post-independent days. 303 . The present one perhaps is one of such an aberration and has no encheason to be different from that. This is democracy for India. Otherwise their responses to the plight of the nation and the common man is Neronian or lukewarm al piu.

FAILED HOPE India valiantly fought against foreign rule for more than a century with the hope of bringing deliverance to the country and eutaxy for its people. Our victory was our defeat. and the immemorial feud Of rich and poor. The situation can be described in following two stanzas of the poem. EXPLOITERS The only difference India saw in democracy is the shift in exploiters from the foreign rulers to the rich and powerful among the natives. While the foreign exploiters were circumspect and scrupulous in their exploitations for the fear of the world opinion and their native moral scruples. “To A Conscript Of 1940” by Herbert Read: We think we gave in vain. There was hope in the homestead and anger in the streets But the old world was restored and we returned To the dreary field and workshop.PRAVEEN KUMAR DEMOCRACY FOR WHOM? Democracy in puris naturalibus is the rule of the powerful. by the powerful. They know how their side of the bread can be buttered and why there is nothing on the face of the Earth including votes and status that they can’t purchase with their money and power. the powerful of the West are found pushing through the agenda of popularising the concept a toute force as a state policy all over the world for their own advantages. The second chapter of the democracy namely liberalisation is another instance of a noble concept based on the sound principle of free dynamics of human forces going awry as a policy of the powerful. They have neither the moral scruples nor the fear of the world opinion. The half-century of the democracy sinsyne proved the mendacity of the hope and enthusiasm. 304 . Again. by the powerful. Power was retained where power had been misused And youth was left to sweep away The ashes that the fire had strewn beneath our feet. the native exploiters threw their conscia mens recti to the wind and turned ruthless in their greed and heartless in their exploitations of the poor and unenlightened mass of the co-patriots. The world was not renewed. The result is that the world is increasingly becoming a haven for the rich and powerful at the cost of the hoi polloi. for the powerful. That was the doom of India’s democracy and its people. For. for the powerful. They learnt the tricks of the trade assez bien early. It is a concept popularised by the powerful of the West for their own advantages all over the world though the concept as a a priori theory as the rule by the people is based on sound principles and noble intentions. Nor the supremacy of the hoi polloi in a democracy fluster them. their native intelligence is too pollent to be caught by such foolish concepts.

UNFAIR JUDGEMENT Elders who lived in both the era and independent and sagacious enough not to be clouded by pseudo-idealism and concepts of foreign origin swear that the British really ruled India well non obstante tremendous odds of the freedom struggle and the alien nature of their rule. It will lead to a situation where only strong become stronger and perforce weak. There was no violence around except for the oragious political struggle. Thus. Not every thing was venal as of now. Such an unfair reclame goes against the spirit of a balanced view and betrays our flair for tilted judgements. Merit always counted. The public life was clean. cultural and administrative spheres courtesy the initiatives and the active encouragement of the British rulers. AN EVIL PROP The degringolade of India subsequent to its democracy is often blamed on its population explosion in geometric progression and the accrescent complexity of the life pattern of the present world. The progress India saw during the period was immense and the country could move pari passu with the world in the matter of progress and modernity. weaker. Life always moved on expected lines and people could plan their life and future. Disparaging the measures as moves of administrative convenience or as moves to strengthen their prise over the country is a malengine tout court on the plebeian and a mal-propaganda natural to our native evil ingine to cover up our mal-administration in the democratic ambience. There was no tourbillion of corruption as it is now. The air was pregnant with a sense of morality and respect for higher values. They found their opportunity in an extension of democracy namely liberalisation which is vigorously marketed these days by the Western powers to meet their own interests. Life was easy and quiet. the powers of the West and the powerful of the country are now joining hands to further undermine the interests of the poor. The priorities of the British administrators certainly were more objective and accountable in administration en face what we encounter by our own rulers now around: selfish to the core a fond. Yet. It is partially true. A major move like introduction of the railways in India in the 19th century was misprised as a move to help British entrepreneurs in India. Those who lived in both the ages speak una voce and hold testimonies for the irrefutable fact as far as common man is concerned.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED BRITISH RULE India under the British was not worse than the present India if not better. The complete truth lies in the plurisie of the evils of the democracy that contributed to the descent as an evil prop to the rich and powerful. weak and the ordinary. There was a feeling of security everywhere. Administrative convenience begetting precedence in the unending schedule of priorities is a common administrative practice anywhere in the world. they are not satisfied with the opportunities a la main. India saw large-scale developments during the period in all fields including social. Democracy 305 . DEMOCRATIC INDIA India under democracy has become a playground of the rich and powerful and a field of their unethical manoeuvres and consectaneous mega scams.

FEUDAL NATURE Democracy made India a feudal nation with innumerable political parties swearing against each other for the sake of political power. powerful and powerless. competent. It removed all the hurdles from their path to become richer. Democratic practices undermined the foundation of peace. REAL TRAGEDY Democracy in India brought real changes to the rich. able and hopeful few. weak and strong. In the process. Status and social position have become the custodies of the rich and the powerful. able and unable. harmony and unity of the nation and weakened the fabric of the moral values and ethical practices in the public life of the nation. The crème de la crème of the country opted out of the endless strife for power and position and politics became the dernier ressort of scoundrels in India as popular saying goes. Election as a democratic apparatus being moneycentric rendered money the centre for power. It is the rule of the people comprising rich and poor. Violence and intrigues have become the accepted means of ascendancy. It is not democracy at all in true sense of the noble concept. Merit lost its primus. hopeful and hopeless and the ordinary people. Personal competence has become secondary or tertiary to money and power in its ability to boost fortunes. strong. powerful. What can be the character and merits of the rule provided by such people at the helm? It is where democracy brought India to. They maintained certain minimal values in public life that ensured some degree of equal opportunity in all fields depending on merit. more powerful and establish political dynasties. DEMOCRATIC RULERS India of the democratic vintage has its rich and powerful either indulging in criminal acts or being in nexus with criminals to further promote their personal agenda of becoming richer and more powerful. Democracy removed the hurdle for the native rich and powerful and they found their deliverance in 306 . Democracy in its extant gestalt and liberalisation by its very concept promote the interests of only the rich. a daily matter. Hatred and opposition have become the leitmotiv of the public life. This brought money and power closer. competent and incompetent. Can these rulers who perforce break their own laws provide honest governance to the country? How can the country and its people depend on such democratic rulers for their security and welfare? India is facing such a conundrum now. powerful and the political class at the cost of its infima species.PRAVEEN KUMAR is not just freedom. This made life in the country unsafe and violence. It made the country a divided house with each faction going for the blood of the others and turning the country ensemble to a huge factious village. This led to a strange situation of lawmakers leading the gang of law-breakers to ensure power and position in the next election. British were too moral conscious to allow such things to happen during their rule. Big money being less than a dream sans resorting to illegal activities in the circumstances of extant rules and laws rendered criminality prolate and commonplace in India and an ineluctable ladder to gain power and position in the democratic government. criminals are becoming real power-centres and criminality is gaining in respectability in the country.

The benefits meant for the people seldom reached them thanks to inefficiency. poor and weak. The wealth so extracted was frittered away by inefficiency. A CONSCIOUS POLICY An ideal rule in quiddity is a rule pro bono publico that protects the interests of all sections of the people including rich. Because. Here. That is the tragedy of the democracy for the weak and the ordinary of the country. This is Indian democracy. DEMOCRATIC FOCUS Liberalisation per se is not bad as is democracy. for the people where poor and weak constitute more than 95% of the people. Competition among the unequal in a nation where nearly half of the population lives below the poverty line and less than 1% can be credited to be rich and powerful is nothing more than a mockery of the principle of an equitable society as well as of the vaulting intentions of democratic principles like the rule of the common man and welfare of all. Competition is the clavis of the concept of liberalisation. This can’t happen in a true rule of the people. Liberalisation as a policy is discussed in India for more than a decade now in the ambience of protecting the interests of the lesser rich of the country from the competition of the more rich of the world. by the people. UNEQUAL COMPETITION More and more prop of liberalisation is provided to democracy these days to make the latter further pro-rich and powerful. the rich and powerful rule the roost and the state policy au mieux is directed to their protection as a conscious policy while the poor and powerless are left to their own fate to meet both the ends. The toil of the people was looted as taxes to provide for the security and luxuries of the soi disant aristocracy of the democratic vtntage who assumed special premium for their own lives. 307 . SPECIAL PREMIUM The advent of democracy is marked by accrescent tax burden on the people in the name of developmental and welfare activities. But the policy initiatives for the purposes have to be pro rata to the numerical strengths of the respective sections. corruption and the pestilent middlemen who act as the conduits of democracy. Scams of the dimension of US-64 in the UTI are possible only in such an ambience. It is not the case in India’s democratic environment. corruption or sheer wastage. It is its concept of suum cuique as opposed to the concept of social responsibility and the unjust practices that poison the atmosphere.POLICING THE POLICE 2 ED symbiosis and synergy. That provides the upper strata of the society more elbowspace for manoeuvres and deceptions to put their money and power to better use and renders the poor and weak hors concours. it is the rich and powerful who count in the democratic schemes of the country to keep power while the hapless poor and the weak can wait endlessly in the state priorities. The plebeian has no place in the scheme of things of a policy of that dimension. It is a matter of focus of the democratic leadership at the helm of the governance.

This is not the case in India. The teams together structure the new teams ex mero motu once every three years after each replacement of the 25% of the teams. Present Indian rulers are not a rebours to this nature nor those others manning the peripherals of a democratic institution in India like the media and the intellectuals as opinion makers of the country. is an ideal concept. Africa and South America apart from democracy that does not behove to the diversities of their populations? What is the besoin of these nations is a system of government wherein around forty select people of sound attributes of heart and head as a team rule the country a la present day cabinet and general assembly in one with another team of around forty responsible people functioning as an accountability team to keep pernoctation over the governance with the present institution of the President mutatis mutandis responsible for both the teams. That is why an evil like unrestrained liberalisation is accepted as a deliverance by them una voce. Is there no deliverance to a poor nation like India and other nations of its ilk in Asia.PRAVEEN KUMAR HUMAN NATURE The achilles’ heel lies in the human nature of seeking power. performance and ethical standing in public life. integrity and character. Winston Churchill once said that democracy is a bad form of government. The effort is worth a try in the interests of a billion Indians. They are proved more prone to be affected by concerted propaganda and twisted rationale than the ordinary man. the failure. wealth and opportunities and those who possess it. It is their power and status ex consequenti that count over the merits of great performers who are relegated to the inconspicuous corners of the pages. the faire bonne mine should be taken with a pinch of salt. The clavis of the new gestalt is selection of the right people of proven attributes of heart and head ex professo. Coming from a politician of the democratic dispensation. Both teams function as permanent bodies with 25% of the teams retiring once in every three years without an opportunity for reappointment and together on their own wisdom decide the replacements ex quocunque capite for both the teams from the people of proven abilities. that is why political leaders in India are glorified in magazines and newspapers as great heroes sans consideration to their values. but it is the best among the available. The common man himself gives precedence to power and mammon over merit at his own cost. the ebauche needs myriad details of immense intricacies to be efficacious. The teams together can remove a member of the either team ex concessis when proved indign for the position and task. Equality among the majority of the population leading to equal opportunities en principe is centric to the concept. That is the prise of money and power on the human kind tout a fait. Ergo. Indeed. The concept presupposes certain elementary needs essential for the success of the concept in practice. They save some exceptions tend to be sensational-centric and prefer to move with the lee tide in lieu of going to the stark truths. 308 . ELEMENTARY NEEDS Democracy. merit. sine dubio.

Priorities in Infrastructure Women in villages in India die during delivery for lack of motorable roads to take them in time to taluq hospitals and women here walk miles for a pot of water. A Government is meant to go for general infrastructures required for all sectors and ensure on priority benefits for maximum numbers. uninterrupted power supply. Industry is commerce au fond. Slogan oriented Indian media and pneumatic Indian economists are devoted tout a fait to its shallow cause. mining and steel plants. decent health and education system and so on. Infrastructure is process relevant. Industrial Sector in deliciis Democracy is feudal in reality involving stiff competitions between diverse sectors and interest groups to gobble the res gestae available from the State. Basic needs and amenities of the plebeian should be its priority. A country has no right to waste its exiguous fund on exclusive prodigal schemes to benefit a narrow sector like the industry under the fig leaf of the economic growth. Any benefit