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Dr. George Mann
SLIIT
Control Systems

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Dr. George Mann,

Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science

Memorial University of Newfoundland

Fall 2009

Dynamic modelling is an important part when designing control systems. The dynamic model

of a system is analyzed to understand how it can response under different input conditions. The

system behaviour of a dynamical system is essential in designing a control system. In general

a dynamic system can be described using differential equations. Generally those equations are

derived sing physical characteristics of the system. Most of systems we assume causality where

we assume the response of a system does not depend on any future inputs and only depends on

its past and current inputs.

In this section we will examine several types of dynamical systems and the objective is to

determine the transfer function of the system model.

Transfer function

The transfer function of a linear, time invariant differential equation system is defined as the

ratio of the Laplace transform of the output (response function) to the Laplace transform of

the input (driving function) under the assumption that all initial conditions are zero. Consider

following differential equation.

a0 y (n) + a1 y (n1) + + an1 y + an y = b0 x(m) + b1 (m 1) + + bm1 x + bm x

Transfer function

G(s) =

G(s) =

L [output]

L [input]

Y (s)

b0 sm + b1 sm1 + + bm1 s + bm

=

X(s)

a0 sn + a1 sn1 + + an1 s + an

As shown in Figure 1 consider a mass m is sliding along a frictional surface. The frictional force

is proportional to the speed and the free body diagram with the inertia force in is shown in the

figure. The external force is u. Using the force balance;

m

x + bx = u

Now we transform this into Laplace domain and assume zero initial conditions.

ms2 X(s) + bsX(s) = U (s)

We can show now;

X(s)

1

=

U (s)

ms2 + bs

The transfer function

G(s) =

1/m

s(s + b/m)

X(s) =

1/m

s(s + b/m)

The time response can be obtained by taking the inverse Laplace of the above equation. Therefore using Laplace tables, we can find the output time function. Choose 14 from the Laplace

Tables.

1

1/m

x(t) =

1 e(b/m)t =

1 e(b/m)t

b/m

b

As the friction and mass are constants and are positive (b > 0, m > 0) the response will be

stable. When

lim x(t) = 1/b

t

System Poles

Consider the system poles, i.e. the s values when denominator is zero. s(s + b/m) = 0 and

s = 0. Therefore when the system poles are real and negative or zero the system response

will be stable and has monotonically increasing output as shown in Figure below.

Oscillating Mass on a spring

As shown in Figure 3, the mass attached to the spring oscillates and consider the free body

diagram shown in the figure. The force balance will yield the following.

m

x + kx = u

Using Laplace transform and assuming zero initial conditions;

ms2 X(s) + kX(s) = U (s)

The transfer function is;

1

X(s)

=

2

U (s)

ms + k

Consider unit impulse input, then U (s) = 1 the system response will be;

X(s) =

1

1/m

= 2

+k

s + k/m

ms2

To find the inverse, consider #10 in the Laplace table. We can re-arrange the above as to;

#

"

p

( k/m)2

1

p

X(s) =

k s2 + ( k/m)2

Therefore

1

x(t) = sin

k

k

t

m

System poles

To find the system poles consider the denominator in the system transfer function and make

that to zero.

1/m

1/m

p

p

=

X(s) = 2

s + k/m

(s + j k/m)(s j k/m)

p

p

The system poles are at j k/m and j k/m as shown in the figure.

Consider the diagram shown in Figure 5 where an inverted pendulum is hinged on a cart which

can roll on a frictionless surface. The free-body diagram for the forces are also shown. By

consider the whole system resolve forces in horizontal direction.

m

x + M x + ml cos ml2 sin = u

m

x + M x + ml ml2 = u

Assuming small velocities, we can neglect the higher order terms and rewrite above as;

m

x + M x + ml = u

Take the moments for the pendulum about P.

+ m

(ml)l

xl cos mg(l sin ) = 0

For small the above will simplify to;

l + x g = 0

Taking Laplace transform we get;

ms2 X(s) + M s2 X(s) + mls2 (s) = U (s)

ls2 (s) + s2 X(s) g(s) = 0

We can now eliminate X(s) and

s2 X(s) = (g ls2 )(s)

Also we know

(m + M )s2 X(s) + mls2 (s) = U (s)

Substituting;

(m + M )(g ls2 )(s)) + mls2 (s) = U (s)

(m + M )(g ls2 ) + mls2 (s) = U (s)

(m + M )g M ls2 (s) = U (s)

(s)

1

=

U (s)

(m + M )g M ls2

(s)

1

1

=

U (s)

M l (1 + m/M )g/l s2

(s)

1

1

p

p

=

U (s)

M l ( (1 + m/M )g/l s)( (1 + m/M )g/l + s)

p

The system poles are s = (1 + m/M )g/l and are real. There is a positive pole in the

s-plane and that will make this system unstable.

Second Order Problem

Consider the second order system shown in the diagram below. For the input force u the

displacement x can be shown as;

m

x + cx + kx = u

Using Laplace transformation we can show the transfer function as;

1

X(s)

=

2

U (s)

ms + cs + k

For a unit input, the response will be determined by the poles of the above transfer function. In

other words the roots of the function ms2 + cs + k will determine the response. Lets transform

the above in to a form as given below;

ms2

1

1

k/m

=

2

+ cs + k

k s + (c/m)s + (k/m)

X(s)

1

n2

=

U (s)

k s2 + 2n s + n2

The natural frequency

n =

p

k/m

= c/(2mn )

The term 1/k is the static deflection for unit force applied. Let For simplicity consider the

following general second order transfer function.

G(s) =

n2

s2 + 2n s + n2

Now consider unit step response where U (s) = 1/s. The output will be given by;

X(s) =

1

n2

2

2

s + 2n s + n s

X(s) =

n2

s(s2 + 2n s + n2 )

In this case the roots are complex. Using partial fractions it can be shown;

X(s) =

1

s + 2n

2

s s + 2n s + n2

s2 + 2n s + n2 = (s + n )2 + n2 (1 2 )

As < 1 the roots are complex and we can write above as;

(s + n )2 + n2 (1 2 ) = (s + n )2 + d2

where d2 = n2 (1 2 ) is the damped natural frequency. Therefore we can write the

transfer function in the form;

X(s) =

X(s) =

s + 2n

1

s (s + n )2 + d2

1

s + n

n

2

2

s (s + n ) + d (s + n )2 + d2

1

s + n

n

d

2

s (s + n )2 + d

d (s + n )2 + d2

p

Using the fact that d = n 1 2 Using inverse tables, we get;

X(s) =

x(t) = 1 en t cos d t p

1 2

en t sin d t

x(t) = 1 en t cos d t + p

sin d t

1 2

en t

x(t) = 1 p

sin (d t + )

1 2

where

1

= tan

p

1 2

Critically Damped Case = 1 In this case the transfer function will be simplified as

X(s) =

n2

s(s + n )2

The poles are real, negative and equal. Therefore the output should be monotonous. The

output using inverse Laplace is;

x(t) = 1 en t (1 + n t)

Overdamped Case > 1 In this case the poles are real, negative and distinct. Transfer

function can be modified to as follows.

X(s) =

X(s) =

n2

s[(s + n )2 n2 ( 2 1)]

n2

p

p

s(s + n + n 2 1)(s + n n 2 1)

To get the inverse Laplace, follow the Laplace transform given in 17, where

1

1

1

at

bt

L

1+

be ae

=

ab

ab

s(s + a)(s + b)

p

p

In this case a = p

n + n 2 1 and b = n n 2 1 ab = 2 n2 n2 ( 2 1) = n2

and a b = 2n 2 1 Therefore;

i

h

p

p

1

2

2

x(t) = 1 + p

( 2 1)e(+ 1)n t ( + 2 1)e( 1)n t

2 2 1

Note: Students are required to draw response curves for each case.

Liquid Level System

Consider the water level system shown in Figure 7. Consider the flow through a pipe and the

restriction or resistance is defined as;

R=

change in flow rate

C=

change in head

Also assume linear or laminar flow where Q h. Therefore the governing equations are;

Cdh = (qi qo )dt

qo =

h

R

RC

dh

+ h = Rqi

dt

RCsH(s) + H(s) = RQi (s)

R

H(s)

=

Qi (s)

RCs + 1

This is referred to as the first order system.

Heating System

Consider the heating system shown in Figure 8. The heat input is qi and heat outflow to

surrounding is qo . The temperature measured inside Tin = To + where To is the temperature

of the surrounding. The thermal resistance at the walls is defined as;

R=

change in temperature

change heat flow

qo = R[(To + ) To ]

R

The heat capacity C = mc where c is the specific heat and m is the mass. The neat heat supply

is (qi qo ) and within dt time the temperature increase will be given by;

qo =

Cd = (qi qo )dt

10

Therefore

d

+ qo = qi

dt

d

RC + = Rqi

dt

C

RCs(s) + (s) = RQi (s)

The transfer function is therefore given by;

(s)

R

=

Qi (s)

RCs + 1

General First Order System

Both the liquid level control and temperature control problems can be modelled using a first

order system. Thus the general first order model can be described as;

k

Y (s)

=

U (s)

Ts + 1

Where k is the Steady state gain and T is the time constant. For a unit step input the output

is given by;

k 1

k

Y (s) =

=

Ts + 1 s

s(T s + 1)

To get the inverse Laplace we will modify this to as;

Y (s) = (k/T )

y(t) = (k/T )

1

s(s + 1/T )

1

1 et/T

1/T

y(t) = k 1 et/T

11

y(t)|t = k

Similarly when

y(t)|t=T = k(1 e1 ) = 0.632k

Hydraulic Servo System

Consider the hydraulic servo system shown in Figure 8. This represents a pilot-valve controlled

hydraulic power amplifier and actuator which is connected to a load of mass m sliding on a

frictional surface.

In this analysis we assume the fluid is incompressible. The flow is symmetrical and therefore

ps p1 = p2

or

p s = p1 + p2

Consider the pressure difference as;

p = p1 p2

The true plant model is nonlinear, however we linearized at the operating point. Under such

conditions the flow rate q will be proportional to the valve displacement. In addition increase of

q can be accomplished with a greater pressure gradient between ps and p1 . Thus the linearized

flow rate is given by;

q = K1 x K2 p

where K1 and K2 are constants and depends on the area of the flow opening in the valve and

fluid properties. Thus at the actuator

Ady = qdt

Or

12

dy

=q

dt

1

dy

p =

K1 x A

K2

dt

A

Thus

A

F = Ap =

K2

dy

K1 x A

dt

Assuming coulomb friction at the sliding surface this force will be the accelerating force for the

mass m. Therefore the force balance for mass will give;

F = m

y + by

Thus

A

m

y + by =

K2

dy

K1 x A

dt

A2

AK1

m

y+ b+

x

y =

K2

K2

The transfer function is therefore;

Y (s)

1

= h

X(s)

2

s mK

s+

AK1

bK2

AK1

A

K1

Y (s)

K

=

X(s)

s(T s + 1)

As an exercise determine the terms for K and T.

Quarter Car Model

Consider the quarter car model shown in the figure. The spring k1 represents a tyre and the

spring k2 and c represents the shock absorber. The mass of the quarter car is m2 and that of

tyre is m1 . Consider the input displacement as the road surface variation given by r. The free

body diagrams are shown in the figure. For mass m1 ;

m1 x c(y x)

k2 (y x) + k1 (x r) = 0

This can be simplified to as;

x +

x +

k2

k1

c

(x y)

+

(x y) +

(x r) = 0

m1

m1

m1

c

k2

k1

k1

(x y)

+

(x y) +

xr =

r

m1

m1

m1

m1

13

The Laplace transform is

s2 X(s) +

c

k2

k1

k1

(X(s) Y (s)) s +

(X(s) Y (s)) +

X(s) =

R(s)

m1

m1

m1

m1

m2 y + c(y x)

+ k2 (y x) = 0

m2 y +

c

k2

(y x)

+

(y x) = 0

m2

m2

s2 Y (s) +

k2

s

(Y (s) X(s)) s +

(Y (s) X(s)) = 0

m2

m2

X(s) Y (s) =

s2 Y (s)

cs

+ mk22

m2

c

k2

k1

k1

k1

2

s [X(s)Y (s)]+

[X(s) Y (s)]+

[X(s) Y (s)]+

[X(s) Y (s)]+ s +

Y (s) =

R(s)

m1

m1

m1

m1

m1

c

k2

k1

k1

k1

2

2

[X(s) Y (s)] s +

+

+

+ s +

Y (s) =

R(s)

m1 m1 m1

m1

m1

2

Substituting;

"

s2 Y (s)

cs

+ mk22

m2

#

c

k2

k1

k1

k1

2

s +

+

+

+ s +

Y (s) =

R(s)

m1 m1 m1

m1

m1

2

14

cs

k2

k1

k1

cs

k2

k1

cs

k2 R(s)

2

2

2

+

+

+ s +

+

=

+

s s +

m1 m1 m1

m1

m2 m2

m1 m2 m2 X(s)

Thus

Y (s)

=

X(s)

s4 + mc1 +

k1 c

m1 m2

c

m2

s3 +

k2

m1

s+

k1

m1

k2

c

k2

m2

s2 +

k1 c

s

m1 m2

k1 k2

m1 m2

Rotating Systems

Consider a motor turning a load with a flexible shaft. The viscous damping at the two ends are

Bm and BL . The motor and load inertia are Jm and JL respectively. The shaft stiffness is K.

We assume there is no other resistance is applied at the load end except the inertia load. The

torque applied by the motor is Tm . While considering equilibrium of two sections, (free body

diagrams) we can write the following two underline equations.

Tm = Jm m + Bm m + K(m L )

Using the Laplace transform we will get;

Tm (s) = Jm s2 m (s) + Bm sm (s) + K(m (s) L (s))

Tm (s) = (Jm s2 + Bm s + K)m (s) KL (s)

For the load

0 = JL L + BL L + K(L m )

Using Laplace transform;

0 = JL s2 L (s) + BL sL (s) + K(L (s) m (s))

15

Therefore

L (s) =

Km (s)

(JL s2 + BL s + K)

Tm (s) = (Jm s2 + Bm s + K)m (s)

K 2 m (s)

(JL s2 + BL s + K)

Therefore;

m (s)

(JL s2 + BL s + K)

=

Tm (s)

Jm JL s4 + (Jm BL + Bm JL )s3 + (KJm + KJL + Bm BL )s2 + K(Bm + BL )s

We can easily show;

K

L (s)

=

4

3

Tm (s)

Jm JL s + (Jm BL + Bm JL )s + (KJm + KJL + Bm BL )s2 + K(Bm + BL )s

Rotating Gear Arrangement

Consider a simple gear arrangement shown in Figure 12. The input torque is T1 ; input angle

1 , total moment of inertia of the rotating elements in the first shaft J1 ; the viscous damping

at the first shaft is b1 . The second shaft rotates freely with no disturbance, thus the output

angle 2 , total moment of inertia of the rotating elements in the second shaft is J2 , the viscous

damping at the second shaft is b2 . The gear wheels have teeth N1 and N2 . Thus from basic

fundamentals

r2

1

N1

1

1

=

=

=

=

r1

2

N2

2

2

where r1 and r2 are the pitch circle radii of the two gear wheels.

As shown in the diagram assume the tangential force at the contact surface of the gear teeth is

16

F . Using the freebody diagrams we can write torque balances for the two shafts.

For the first shaft;

T1 = J1 1 (t) + b1 1 (t) + F r1

For the second shaft;

F r2 = J2 2 (t) + b2 2 (t)

Therefore

1

F = J2 2 (t) + b2 2 (t)

r2

r

1

T1 = J1 1 (t) + b1 1 (t) + J2 2 (t) + b2 2 (t)

r2

Then using the gear teeth ratio equation we can express the above reference to shaft 1;

N1

N1

N

1

+ b2 1 (t)

N2

N2

N2

While collecting the terms

T1 =

J1 + J2

N1

N2

2 !

1 (t) +

b1 + b2

N1

N2

2 !

1 (t)

T1 = Jeq 1 (t) + beq 1 (t)

and

Jeq = J1 + J2

N1

N2

2

and

N1

N2

2

N2

N1

2

beq = b1 + b2

n=

N2

N2

J2

b2

and

beq = b1 + 2

2

n

n

If we refer the torque equation to shaft 2 then this becomes,

Jeq = J1 +

0

T10 = Jeq

2 (t) + b0eq 2 (t)

where

0

Jeq

= J2 + J1

N2

N1

2

and

b0eq

N2

0

T1 = T1

N1

= b2 + b1

17

Electrical Systems

LRC circuit

The LRC circuit shown in the figure has an inductance L (henry), a resistance R (ohm), and

capacitance C (farad). Applying basic Kirchhoffs law we obtain the following.

Z

1

di

idt = = ei

L + Ri +

dt

C

Z

1

idt = = eo

C

Using Laplace transforms,

LsI(s) + RI(s) +

11

I(s) = = Ei (s)

Cs

11

I(s) = = Eo (s)

Cs

We can remove I(s) using I(s) = CsEo (s). Then we will get the following.

1

Ls + R = +

CsEo (s) == Ei (s)

Cs

Then

Eo (s)

1

=

2

Ei (s)

LCs + RCs + 1

Complex Impedances

With Laplace transform the same circuit can be conveniently analyzed in the complex domain.

The currents, voltages and impedances can be drawn in the complex form as shown in the figure

below. Here ZR = R, ZL = Ls, and ZC = 1/Cs and the current and voltages are indicated in

the complex s domain. Thus

(ZR + ZL + ZC )I(s) = = Ei (s)

ZC I(s) = = Eo (s)

18

Substituting;

(ZR + ZL + ZC )

Eo (s)

= Ei (s)

ZC

Eo (s)

ZC

=

Ei (s)

ZR + ZL + ZC

Substituting for complex impedances;

1/Cs

Eo (s)

=

Ei (s)

R + Ls + 1/Cs

Eo (s)

1

=

2

Ei (s)

LCs + RCs + 1

Exercise Find the transfer function of the cascade circuit shown below. Now consider complex

impedance and re-draw the above circuit as shown below. In this case Z1 = R1 , Z2 = 1/C1 s,

19

I = I1 + I2

Z2 I1 = (Z3 + Z4 )I2

This means;

Z2 I1 = (Z3 + Z4 )(I I1 )

Therefore

Z3 + Z4

I

Z2 + Z3 + Z4

Z3 + Z4

I2 = I I1 = I

I

Z2 + Z3 + Z4

I1 =

Thus;

I2 =

Z2

I

Z2 + Z3 + Z4

Z2 (Z3 + Z4 )

Ei (s) = Z1 I + Z2 I1 = Z1 +

I

Z2 + Z3 + Z4

Z1 (Z2 + Z3 + Z4 ) + Z2 (Z3 + Z4 )

Ei (s) =

I

Z2 + Z3 + Z4

For the output;

Eo (s) = Z4 I2 =

Z2 Z4

I

Z2 + Z3 + Z4

Eo (s)

Z2 Z4

=

Ei (s)

Z1 (Z2 + Z3 + Z4 ) + Z2 (Z3 + Z4 )

Substituting for complex impedances, we get; Dividing the above;

Eo (s)

=

Ei (s)

R1 C11 s + R2 +

1

1

C1 s C2 s

1

C2 s

1

C1 s

R2 +

1

C2 s

1

Eo (s)

=

2

Ei (s)

R1 C1 R2 C2 s + (R1 C1 + R2 C2 + R1 C2 )s + 1

Operational Amplifiers

Operational amplifiers, or op amps are commonly use in devising analog control systems and

also to amplify and condition signals from sensors. We can write the output as;

20

eo = K(e2 e1 ) = K(e1 e2 )

Generally for DC inputs the amplifier gain is in the order of 102 106 . The arrangement shown

in above is not stable and to make it stable feedback is employed as shown in Figure 11.

Inverting amplifier

In the inverting amplifier the current draws in to the amplifier from the input is negligible. This

is due to high impedance of the amplifier. Thus current passing in the R1 resistor is almost

same as the current passing through R2 resistor. Thus we can show for an inverting amplifier;

R2

eo

=

ei

R1

In the laplace domain the above equation can be considered while replacing the resistors by

complex impedances. Therefore

Eo (s)

Z2

=

Ei (s)

Z1

Noninverting amplifier

In this case the R1 resistor is grounded and due to negligible current through the amplifier, the

voltage at the negative input can be computed considering a voltage divider. Thus we can show

for noninverting amplifier;

R2

eo

= 1+

ei

R1

Similarly with complex impedances,

Eo (s)

=

Ei (s)

Z2

1+

Z1

Example

Consider the diagram shown in the following figure. Considering the complex impedance circuit

we can write the transfer function as;

Eo (s)

Z0

=

Ei (s)

Z1

21

In this case; Z1 = R1 , Z2 = R2 and Z3 = 1/Cs. Thus

1

1

1

=

+

0

Z

Z2 Z3

And

Z0 =

Z2 Z3

Z2 + Z3

Therefore substituting;

Z2 Z3

Eo (s)

=

Ei (s)

Z1 (Z2 + Z3 )

Therefore;

1

R2 ( Cs

)

Eo (s)

=

1

Ei (s)

R1 (R2 + Cs

)

R2

Eo (s)

=

Ei (s)

R1 (R2 Cs + 1)

Lead or Lag Network

The circuit shown in Figure 13 is called the lead or lag circuit. The complex impedances are

22

given by;

Z1 =

Therefore

R1

,

R1 C1 s + 1

Z2 =

R2

R2 C2 s + 1

E(s)

Z2

R2 R1 C1 s + 1

=

=

Ei (s)

Z1

R1 R2 C2 s + 1

R4

Eo (s)

=

E(s)

R3

Therefore,

Eo (s)

Eo (s) E(s)

=

Ei (s)

E(s) Ei (s)

Eo (s)

R2 R4 R1 C1 s + 1

=

Ei (s)

R1 R3 R2 C2 s + 1

"

#

1

R4 C1 s + R1 C1

Eo (s)

=

Ei (s)

R3 C2 s + R21C2

This also can be written as;

s + T1

Eo (s)

= Kc

1

Ei (s)

s + T

Eo (s)

Ts + 1

= Kc

Ei (s)

T s + 1

where, T = R1 C1 , = R2 C2 /R1 C1 and Kc = R4 C1 /R3 C2

LAG NETWORK if < 1 or R1 C1 < R2 C2

LEAD NETWORK if > 1 or R1 C1 > R2 C2

Electronic PID Controller

An electronic PID controller is shown below. Obtain the transfer function for Eo (s)/Ei (s) and

PID gains. Considering the complex impedances, we can write;

23

Z2

E(s)

=

Ei (s)

Z1

Where

1

1

1

=

+

Z1

R1 1/C1 s

Z2 = R2 + 1/C2 s

Therefore

Z1 =

R1

,

R1 C1 s + 1

Z2 =

R2 C2 s + 1

C2 s

Thus,

R C s+1

2 2

E(s)

= CR21s

Ei (s)

R1 C1 s+1

E(s)

R2 C2 s + 1

R1 C1 s + 1

=

Ei (s)

C2 s

R1

As,

Eo (s)

R4

=

E(s)

R3

Eo (s) E(s)

Eo (s)

=

Ei (s)

E(s) Ei (s)

R4 R2 C2 s + 1

R1 C1 s + 1

Eo (s)

=

Ei (s)

R3

C2 s

R1

R4

Eo (s)

=

(R2 C2 s + 1) (R1 C1 s + 1)

Ei (s)

R3 R1 C2 s

Expanding;

R4

Eo (s)

=

R1 R2 C1 C2 s2 + (R1 C1 + R2 C2 )s + 1

Ei (s)

R3 R1 C2 s

Further expanding;

Eo (s)

R4 R2 C1

R4 (R1 C1 + R2 C2 )

R4

+

=

s+

Ei (s)

R3

R3 R1 C2

R3 R1 C2 s

This can be rearranged as;

Eo (s)

R4 (R1 C1 + R2 C2 )

R4 1 R4 R2 C1

=

+

+

s

Ei (s)

R3 R1 C2

R3 R1 C2 s

R3

When the PID controller is expressed as;

Eo (s)

Ki

= Kp +

+ Kd s

Ei (s)

s

PROPORTIONAL GAIN

Kp =

R4 (R1 C1 + R2 C2 )

R3 R1 C2

INTEGRAL GAIN

Ki =

R4

R3 R1 C2

Kd =

R4 R2 C1

R3

DERIVATIVE GAIN

24

Modelling of a DC motor

A motor is a electromechanical device used to provide rotational output for a voltage input.

The most common motor in many of electromechanical systems is the armature-controlled dc

servomotor. The motor schematic is shown below. In the permanent magnet dc motor a magnetic field is developed by stationary magnets in the stator. If the magnets (or electromagnets)

are same, it will produce a constant magnetic field and is called fixed field. The rotating circuit

is called the armature through which current ia (t) flows.

Since the current carrying armature is rotating in a magnetic field, its voltage is proportional

to the speed of rotation. This voltage vb (t) is called the back electromotive force (or back emf)

and the relation is

dm (t)

vb (t) = Kb

dt

where Kb is the back emf constant and m (t) is the angle of rotation of the motor. Using the

Laplace transform we can write above as;

Vb (s) = Kb sm (s)

The relationship between the armature current, ia (t), the applied armature voltage (or input

voltage) ea (t) and the back emf vb (t) can be written as;

Ra ia (t) + La

dia (t)

+ vb (t) = ea (t)

dt

Where Ra and La are the armature resistance and reluctance respectively. Using Laplace transform we get

Ra Ia (s) + La sIa (s) + Vb (s) = Ea (s)

25

The torque developed by the motor is proportional to the armature current; thus

Tm (t) = Kt ia (t)

and using Laplace transform

Tm (s) = Kt Ia (s)

where Kt is called the motor torque constant. Using the above equation we can replace the

current

1

Tm (s)

Ia (s) =

Kt

And replacing

Tm (s)

(Ra + La s)

+ Kb sm (s) = Ea (s)

Kt

Assume the motor is attached to a mechanical rotating system with Jm equivalent inertia and

having bm equivalent viscous damping, then we can write

Tm (t) = Jm m (t) + bm m (t)

Thus

Tm (s) = Jm s2 (s) + bm s(s)

Substituting

1

m (s) + Kb sm (s) = Ea (s)

Kt

Simplifying the above we can write the overall transfer function as;

(Ra + La s) Jm s2 + bm s

Kt

m (s)

=

Ea (s)

s [(La s + Ra )(Jm s + bm ) + Kb Kt ]

In case of speed control problem we need to find the transfer function between angular speed

and voltage input. Thus

dm (t)

m (t) =

dt

m (s) = sm (s)

Thus

m (s)

m (s)

=s

Ea (s)

Ea (s)

Therefore

m (s)

Kt

=

Ea (s)

[(La s + Ra )(Jm s + bm ) + Kb Kt ]

If we assume the armature inductance, La , is small compared to the armature resistance Ra ,

which is usual in a dc motor, then La << Ra the above transfer function becomes;

m (s)

Kt

=

Ea (s)

[Ra (Jm s + bm ) + Kb Kt ]

m (s)

Kt /(Ra Jm )

i

=h

Ea (s)

b

s + J1m (bm + KRt K

)

a

The above is a first-roder equation. Therefore a speed control of a DC motor can be approximately modelled using a first-order model.

26

A first-order system is given by;

k

X(s)

=

U (s)

Ts + 1

where T is the time constant and k is the steady state gain. In other words at steady state the

input will be amplified by gain k. The unit-step response is given by;

X(s) =

k 1

Ts + 1 s

x(t) = k(1 et/T )

for t 0. The response curve assuming k = 1 is shown below. The steady state output is given

by;

xss = lim x(t) = k

t

x(T ) = k(1 e1 ) = 0.632k

In other words time constant is the time taken for the output to reach 63.2% of its final value.

Smaller the time constant faster the response.

27

Consider the second order system shown in the diagram below. For the input force u the

displacement x can be shown as;

m

x + cx + kx = u

Using Laplace transformation we can show the transfer function as;

1

X(s)

=

2

U (s)

ms + cs + k

For a unit input, the response will be determined by the poles of the above transfer function. In

other words the roots of the function ms2 + cs + k will determine the response. Lets transform

the above in to a form as given below;

ms2

1

k/m

1

=

2

+ cs + k

k s + (c/m)s + (k/m)

1

X(s)

n2

=

U (s)

k s2 + 2n s + n2

The natural frequency

n =

p

k/m

= c/(2mn )

The term 1/k is the static deflection for unit force applied. Let For simplicity consider the

following general second order transfer function.

G(s) =

n2

s2 + 2n s + n2

Now consider unit step response where U (s) = 1/s. The output will be given by;

X(s) =

1

n2

2

2

s + 2n s + n s

The inverse Laplace will provide the solution as;

en t

x(t) = 1 p

sin (d t + )

1 2

1 2

1

2

where d = n 1 xi and = tan

The error signal is the difference between

e(t) = r(t) x(t)

28

en t

sin (d t + )

e(t) = p

1 2

Or this can be expressed as;

n t

e(t) = e

cos d t + p

sin d t

1 2

This error signal exhibits a damped sinusoidal oscillation. At steady state t = , the

error e(t) = 0. When the damping is zero; i.e. = 0,

e(t) = cos n t

for t 0

Referring to the under damped response shown in Figure 1, we can derive some transient

response characteristics such as rise time, peak overshoot, settling time etc.

Rise Time tr : Referring to the diagram, we obtain rise time by letting, x(t) = 1; As

en tr 6= 0

sin d tr = 0

cos d tr + p

1 2

or

p

1 2

tan d tr =

1

tr =

tan1

d

!

p

1 2

By looking at the system poles as shown in Figure 2, this can also be written as;

1

d

1

tr =

tan

=

d

d

It is clear from the diagram that lower damping results higher value for which results

faster rise time.

Peak Time tp :Referring to the diagram again we can find the peak time tp corresponding

to when

dx(t)

=0

dt

That is;

!

!

dx(t)

d

= n en t cos d t + p

sin d t en t d sin d t + p

cos d t

2

dt

1

1 2

While know d = n

29

p

1 2 ; at t = tp ;

dx(t)

n

en tp = 0

= (sin d tp ) p

2

dt t=tp

1

sin d tp = 0

or when

d tp = 0, , 2, 3, . . .

Since peak time corresponding first peak overshoot;

tp =

= p

d

n 1 2

Substituting to above we will get;

Mp = x(tp ) 1

Mp = en (/d )

Mp = exp

p

1 2

Settling timepts : Referring to the diagram we can see the enveloping curve is given by,

1 (en t / 1 2 ). The time constant of this enveloping curve is 1/n or

1

T =p

1 2

Therefore we take

4

n

3

ts = 3T =

n

ts = 4T =

(2% Criterion)

(5% Criterion)

The poles of the system will have real parts and X(s) can be written as;

X(s) =

2

1

n

p

p

s + n + n 2 1 s + n + n 2 1 s

#

"

1

1

1

2

2

p

p

x(t) = 1 + p

e(+ 1)n t

e( 1)n t

2

2

2

2 1 + 1

1

30

The above also can be view in terms of system poles. Let the poles be s1 and s2 , where

p

s1 = ( + n 1 1)n

p

s2 = ( n 1 1)n

Then

es1 t es2 t

x(t) = 1 + p

s2

2 2 1 s1

n

The two real negative poles adds two decaying functions to the output. If s1 s2 then

the decay dye to the pole s1 will be much faster as compared to the one with s2 . In other

words es1 t es2 t . The system can be approximated to a first-order system.

Critically Damped Case In this case = 1

The system will constitute identical two poles, s1 = s2 = n Output X(s) can be expressed

as;

n2

X(s) =

(s + n )2 s

The inverse Laplace will give;

x(t) = 1 en t (1 + n t)

Example 1

For a second order system = 0.6 and n = 5 rad/s. Then we can obtain;

p

d = n 1 2 = 4, = n = 3

Rise time: tr is

tr =

where

= tan1

The rise time is;

3.14

=

d

4

d

4

= tan1 = 0.93 rad

tr =

3.14 0.93

= 0.55 sec

4

tp =

3.14

=

= 0.785 sec

d

4

Peak time tp : is

Maximum overshoot Mp ;

Mp = e(/d ) = e(3/4)3.14 = 0.095

Therefore the overshoot is 9.5%.

Settling time ts ; For 2% criterion;

ts =

4

4

= = 1.33 sec

31

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