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INTERNATIONALTRAININGINSTITUTE

FORTHE
SHEETMETALANDAIRCONDITIONINGINDUSTRY

EPASection608StudyGuide

TABLEOFCONTENTS
INTRODUCTION3
CORESECTION5
TYPEI24
TYPEII28
TYPEIII33
GLOSSARY38
Temperature/PressureChart44


IntroductiontotheSection608StudyGuide
ThisstudyguidewasputtogetherbytheInternationalTrainingInstitutetohelp
prepareindividualsfortheEPASection608certificationexam.Theinformationin
thisstudyguideisbasedonthemostcurrentinformationavailableatthetimeof
publishing.
Asareminder,itisthetechniciansresponsibilitytocomplywithanyfuture
changestheEPAmaymake.
ThisguidewillcontainwordsinBOLDtohelpyourememberkeyconceptsand
words.Attheendofeachsection(Core,TypeI,II,&III)therewillbeapractice
quiz.Ifyoucananswerthequestionsonthequiz,thenyoushouldbewell
preparedtotakethecertificationexam.

Certainpersonalinformationisrequiredontheexam.Techniciansshouldbe
preparedtopresent:
Pictureidentification
Socialsecuritynumber
Homeaddress
Atthebeginningoftheexam,youwillneedtofillinyourpersonalinformationand
alsocreateauniqueidentificationnumber.ThisnumberwillbeinSocialSecurity
numberformatxxxxxxxxxandwillbevisibleonthefrontofyourcertification
card.DONOTuseyourSocialSecuritynumberwhenfillinginthispart.

Duringtheexam,readeachtestquestionthoroughly.Payspecialattentionto
clarifyingwordslike:always,never,not,sometimes,minimum,maximum,least,
most,best,worstandsimilarwords.
Readeveryanswer,evenifyouthinkthefirstoneiscorrect.Manyquestionsare
missedbecausenotalltheansweroptionsareread.Andyoucanalwaysskipa
questionandcomebacktoit.

AbouttheSection608Exam
Thetestisdividedinto4sections:Core,TypeI,TypeII,andTypeIII
Type I: A Type I technician primarily works on small appliances such as
domestic refrigerators, window air conditioners, PTACs and vending
machines,etc...
TypeII:ATypeIItechnicianprimarilyworksonequipmentusingahigh
pressurerefrigerantsuchasHCFC22.Theequipmentincludesresidential
andlt.commercialairconditionersandheatpumps,rooftopunits,
supermarketrefrigerationandprocessrefrigeration.
Type III: A Type III technician primarily works on equipment using a low
pressure refrigerant such as HCFC123 or CFC11. These units are
primarilychillers.
Universal:AcandidatepassingallthreetypesiscertifiedasUniversal
Eachsectionhas25multiplechoicequestions.Atechnicianmustachievea
minimumscoreof70%(18outof25)topassthatsectionoftheexam.TheCore
sectionmustbepassedtoreceiveanyothercertification.
Forexample:AtechniciancouldpassCore,TypeIandTypeIIIandfailTypeII.In
thiscasethetechnicianwouldbecertifiedasaTypeI&TypeIIItechnician.Core
mustbepassedtoreceiveanycertification.Allsectionsmustbepassedinorderto
achieveUniversalTechnicianstatus.
AtechnicianmaychoosetotakeCoreplusanycombinationofTypeI,TypeIIor
TypeIII.Itisnotrequiredtotakeallfoursectionsontheexam.
Testsareclosedbooktests.Theonlyoutsidematerialsallowedarea
temperature/pressurechartandacalculator.Thetemperature/pressurechart
andcalculatorarebothavailableonscreen,ontheonlineversionoftheexam.
Otherwise,youmayremovethechartattheendofthisstudyguidefortheexam.

CORE
Inthissectionwewillcovergeneralknowledgesuchas:

Ozonedepletion

CleanAirActandtheMontrealProtocol

Section608regulations

Substituterefrigerantsandoils

Refrigeration

ThreeRs

Recoverytechniques

Dehydrationevacuation

Safety

Shipping

ManyconsidertheCoreSectiontobethemostimportantsectionasCoreis
requiredtoachieveanyothercertificationtype.Andalsobecausethe
informationfoundintheCoreSection,comesupagaininothersections.


OzoneDepletion:
Ozoneisanaturallyoccurringgasmoleculethatismadeupofthreeoxygen
atoms(O3).ThisgasoccursbothintheEarthsupperatmosphereandatground
level.Atgroundlevel,ozoneisconsideredbadandisapollutantthatcauses
significanthealthrisksaswellasdamagingvegetation.
Theozonethatoccursintheupperatmosphereorstratosphereisconsidered
goodozone.Thisgoodozoneinthestratosphereisalayerthatextends
about6to30milesaboveearthandcreatesaprotectiveshieldforEarthfrom
thesunsharmfulultraviolet(UV)rays.Depletionofozoneallowsmoreofthe
sunsharmfulUVraystoreachtheearthresultinginthefollowingproblems:

Increasedtemperatureoftheearth

Increasedcasesofskincancer

Increasednumbersofcataractsintheeyes

Increasedgroundlevelozone

Cropandvegetationloss

Reducedmarinelife

Whilethetotalamountofozoneinthestratospherevariesbylocation,timeand
season,theeffectofozonedepletionisaglobalproblem.
DestructionProcessofOzone
Ozonecanbedestroyedbychlorineandbromineatomsemittedintothe
atmosphere.Whenachlorineatommeetswithanozonemolecule,ittakesan
oxygenatomfromtheozonemolecule.Theozonemolecule(O3)changestoan
oxygenmolecule(O2),whilethechlorineatomchangestoacompoundcalled
chlorinemonoxide(ClO).

Whenchlorinemonoxidemeetsozone,itreleasesitsoxygenatomandforms
twoO2oxygenmolecules,leavingthechlorinemoleculefreetoattackanother
ozonemoleculeandrepeattheprocess.Itisestimatedthatasinglechlorineatom
candestroy100,000ozonemolecules.
TherehasbeenagreatdealofcontroversyoverthesubjectofOzonedepletion.
SomebelievethattheChlorinefoundinthestratospherecomesfromnatural
sourcessuchasvolcaniceruptions.However,airsamplestakenovererupting
volcanoesshowthatvolcanoescontributeonlyasmallquantityofChlorineas
comparedtoCFC's.
Inaddition,theriseintheamountofChlorinemeasuredinthestratosphereover
thepasttwodecadesmatchestheriseintheamountofFluorine,whichhas
differentnaturalsourcesthanChlorine,overthesameperiod.Also,theriseinthe
amountofChlorinemeasuredinthestratosphereoverthepasttwentyyears,
matchestheriseinCFCemissionsoverthesameperiod.

UnlikeotherChlorinecompoundsandnaturallyoccurringchlorine,thechlorine
inCFC'swillneitherdissolveinwaternorbreakdownintocompoundsthat
dissolveinwater,sotheydonotrainoutoftheatmosphere.

Despitebeingheavierthanair,CFCsreachthestratospherethroughwindmotions
thatcarrythemupwards.

Ozonedepletionpotential(ODP)isthemeasurementoftheabilityofCFCsand
HCFCstodestroytheozone.CFCshavethehighestODP,followedbyHCFCs.HFCs
donotcontainanychlorineandthereforedonothaveanODP

Gas
CFC
HCFC

Example
R11,R12,R500
R22,R123

Elements
Chlorine,Fluorine,Carbon
Hydrogen,Chlorine,Fluorine,Carbon

ODP
Higher
Lower

HFC

R134a

Hydrogen,Fluorine,Carbon

None

CLEAN AIR ACT:


TheUnitedStatesEnvironmentalProtectionAgency(EPA)regulatessection608

oftheFederalCleanAirAct.
Failuretocomplycouldcostyouandyourcompanyasmuchas$27,500*per
day,perviolationandthereisabountyofupto$10,000,tolureyourcompetitors,
customersandfellowworkerstoturnyouin.
ServicetechnicianswhoviolateCleanAirActprovisionsmaybefined,losetheir
certification,andmayberequiredtoappearinFederalcourt.
TheEPAmayrequiretechnicianstodemonstratetheabilitytoproperlyperform
refrigerantrecovery/recyclingprocedures.Failingtodemonstratetheseskillscan
resultinrevocationofcertification.
ItisaviolationofSection608to:
Falsifyorfailtokeeprequiredrecords;
Failtoreachrequiredevacuationratespriortoopeningordisposingof
appliances;
Knowinglyrelease(vent)CFC's,HCFC'sorHFCswhilerepairingappliances,
withtheexceptionofdeminimusreleases;
Service,maintain,ordisposeofappliancesdesignedtocontainrefrigerants
withoutbeingappropriatelycertifiedasofNovember14,1994.(Itisthe
responsibilityofthefinalpersoninthedisposalchaintoensurethat
refrigeranthasbeenremovedfromappliancesbeforescrapping.)
VentCFC'sorHCFC'ssinceJuly1,1992;
VentHFC'ssinceNovember15,1995;
FailtorecoverCFC's,HCFC'sorHFCsbeforeopeningordisposingofan
appliance;
FailtohaveanEPAapprovedrecoverydevice,equippedwithlowloss
fittings,andregisterthedevicewiththeEPA;
Addnitrogentoafullychargedsystem,forthepurposeofleakdetection,
andtherebycauseareleaseofthemixture;
Disposeofadisposablecylinderwithoutfirstrecoveringanyremaining
refrigerant(to0psig.)andthenrenderingthecylinderuseless,then
recyclingthemetal;

Inaddition,somestateandlocalgovernmentregulationsmaycontainregulations
thatareasstrictasorstricterthanSection608.


MontrealProtocol:
TheMontrealProtocolisaninternationalagreement(Treaty)regulatingthe
productionanduseofCFCs,HCFCs,halons,methylchloroformandcarbon
tetrachlorideenteredintoforceinmid1989.
KnownasTheMontrealProtocol,thislandmarkagreementinitiallyrequireda
productionandconsumptionfreeze.
TheMontrealProtocolcalledforastepwisereductionandeventualproduction
phaseoutofvariousOzoneDepletingSubstancesindevelopedcountries.CFC's
werephasedoutofproductiononDecember31,1995.
HCFCrefrigerantsarescheduledofphaseoutinthefuture.Whenvirginsupplies
ofCFC'saredepleted,futuresupplieswillcomefromrecovered,recycled,or
reclaimedrefrigerants.

Venting:
SinceNovember15,1995,knowinglyventinganyrefrigerantisaviolationof
theCAA.ThisincludesCFC&HCFCs,and/orCFC&HCFCsrefrigerantsubstitutes,
suchas134Aor410A.
Onlythedeminimisreleaseisallowedduringservice,routinemaintenanceor
repair,whichreferstothesmallamountsofrefrigerantsemittedunintentionally
duringgoodfaitheffortstorecoverrefrigerants,duringthenormalcourseof
applianceoperationorduringtheconnection/disconnectiontochargeorservice
anappliance.
Nitrogenthatisusedforholdingchargesorasleaktestgasesmaybereleased;
however,nitrogenmaynotbeaddedtoafullychargedsystemforthepurpose
forleakdetectionandthenreleased.
AllCFCsandHCFCsmustberecoveredbeforeopeningasystemforserviceor
disposingofappliances.


Cylinder&ApplianceDisposal:
BeforedisposingofanyappliancecontainingaCFCorHCFCrefrigerant,the
refrigerantmustberecovered.Thepersonresponsibleforensuringthat
refrigerantshavebeenremovedfromhouseholdrefrigeratorsbeforetheyare
disposedofisthefinalpersoninthedisposalchain.
Allrefrigerantsindisposablecontainershavebeenrecovered(0psigorlower)

andrendereduselessbeforerecyclingthecylinder.

SALESRESTRICTION:

AsofNovember14,1994,thesaleofCFCandHCFCrefrigerantsisrestrictedto
certifiedtechnicians.OnlytechnicianscertifiedunderCleanAirActSection609
(MotorVehicleAirConditioning)areallowedtopurchaserefrigerantsin
containerssmallerthan20lbs.

RefrigerantOils:
Duetothechangeinrefrigerantuse,youmayencounternewrefrigerants,old
refrigerants,andblendsofolderrefrigerantsaswellasdifferentoilsinthefield.
Mineral,orpetroleum,oilsincludeparaffinbasedoils,napthenebasedoils,
andmixedoils(acombinationofnapthenebasedandparaffinbasedoils).
Syntheticoilsincludesilicateester,silicone,neopentylester,dibasicacidester,
polyglycolssuchaspolyalkylglycol(PAG),alkylbenzene(AB),andpolyolyester
(POE).Syntheticoilsmustbestoredinmetalcontainers.Theesteroilsare
generallyusedwithalternativerefrigerantsandaretypicallycompatiblewith
mineraloilsandexistingsystemcomponents.

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Refrigerantoilmustbemiscible(abletobemixed)atlowtemperatures;itmust
lubricateevenwhenitisdiluted;itmusthaveelectricalinsulatingproperties;it
mustmaintainitsstability;anditmustprovideapressureseal.

OilTypes:
OilType
MineralOil
Alkylbenzene
Polyolester
Polyalkylene
l l
Polyalphaolefin

Abbreviation
MO
AB
POE
PAG
PAO

Use
CFCrefrigerantsystems
R22andotherrefrigerantsystems
HFCrefrigerantsystems
R134aautomotivesystems
R717(ammonia)refrigerationsystems

OilProperties:
Allrefrigerantoilsarehygroscopic(meaningtheyattractmoisture).All
refrigerantoilshavecertainpropertiesincommon.Theviscosityofanoilrefersto
itsthickness,whilethedensityoftheoilreferstothecompositionoftheoilata
givenviscosity.Anoilsstabilityisitsabilitytolubricatewithoutchemical
breakdown;itssolubilityreferstoitsmiscibilitywithvariousrefrigerants.
(Solubilityofairreferstotheairandmoistureentrainmentcapacityofanoil.)
Miscibilityreferstotheabilityofanoiltobemixed;lowtemperaturemiscibility
referstotheoilsabilitytoremainmixed(inotherwords,notseparate)atalow
temperature
Foamingreferstothetendencyoftheoiltofoamwhenitissubjectedto
pressurechanges.Foamingwillreducetheoilsabilitytolubricate.The
dielectricstrengthofanoilisthethresholdatwhichtheoilconducts
electricity.Anoilsoxidationvalueisitsabilitytoresistsludgeaccumulation.Its
boundaryfilmformingabilityisitsabilitytoseparatehighpressureandlow
pressure.

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SubstituteRefrigerants
ThereisnodropinreplacementgasforR12systems;allreplacement
refrigerantsrequireadditionalretrofitprocedures.Inparticular,thenew
refrigerantsareincompatiblewiththeoilsandlubricantsusedinR12systems
andtherefore,oilsmustbecheckedandchangedoutaspartoftheretrofit
procedure.
R134A(alsocalledHFC134a)istheleadingreplacementoptionforretrofitting
R12systems.TheoilsusedinmostR134Asystemsareesterbasedoilsand
esterbasedoilsdonotmixwithotheroils.LeakcheckanR134Asystemusing
pressurizednitrogen.
Temperatureglideisthedifferenceintemperaturethatoccurswhena
refrigerantevaporatesorcondenses(changingfromvaportoliquidorliquidto
vapor)underconstantpressure.Thismeansthetemperatureintheevaporator
andthecondenserisnotconstant.
Temperatureglidecanalsobeunderstoodasthedifferencebetweenthedew
pointandthebubblepoint.Thedewpointoccurswhenthesaturation
temperatureintheevaporatorcausestherefrigeranttochangefromaliquidto
avapor.Thebubblepointoccurswhenthesaturationpointinthecondenser
changestherefrigerantfromavaportoaliquid.
Oneproblemwithblendedrefrigerantsisthatsincethedifferentrefrigerantsin
theblendhavedifferentvaporpressures,theyleakfromsystemsatunevenrates.
Chargingablendedrefrigerantshouldbedoneasaliquid.
Ternaryblendsarethreepartmixtures.Theyarecommontypesofrefrigerant
blendsthatcontainHCFCs.Ternaryblendsareusedwithasyntheticalkylbenzene
lubricant.Alkylbenzenelubricantishygroscopic,meaningthatitabsorbs(takes
on)moisture.

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Azeotropic(ornonazeotropic)refrigerantisablendofcomponentsthat
changetheircompositionandsaturationtemperaturesastheyevaporateor
condenseatconstantpressure.Inotherwords,theblendboilsoutatdifferent
temperatures(exhibitstemperatureglide)butatthesamepressure.Zeotropes
areblendsoftwoormorerefrigerantsthatretainthecharacteristicsofeach
refrigerant.Becausethecomponentshavedifferentboilingpoints,theycanleak
atanunevenrate.Zeotropicmixturesshouldbechargedasaliquid
Anazeotropicrefrigerantcontainsfluidsthatboiloutatthesametemperatures
(donotexhibittemperatureglide)andactasasinglerefrigerant.Azeotropesare
blendsoftwoormorecompoundsthatactlikeasinglecompound.Azeotropic
refrigerantscanbechargedasavapororaliquid
Ablendedrefrigerant,ornearazeotropicmixture(sometimesreferredtoas
NARM)containsrefrigerantswithdifferentboilingpoints,butthatactasone
substancewhentheyareineitheraliquidoravaporstate.Nearazeotropic
mixturesexhibittemperatureglidewhentheychangefromvaportoliquid,or
viceversa.However,thetemperatureglideislessthan10F.Nearazeotropic
mixturescanexhibitfractionation(whenthemixturescompositionchangesasa
resultofvaporcharging)andmayaffecttheleakratio.Nearazeotropicmixtures
shouldbechargedasaliquid.

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GaugeManifoldSet

GAUGEMANIFOLDSET:
OneofthemostimportanttoolstotheHVACRtechnicianisthegaugemanifold

set.Thecompoundgauge(blue)andthehighpressuregauge(red)areconnected
tothemanifold,andthemanifoldisthenconnectedbyhosestoaccessportsto
measuresystempressures.
Thecompoundgaugemeasureslowpressure(psig)andvacuum(inchesHg.).
Thehighpressuregaugemeasureshighside(discharge)pressure.
Themanifoldisalsoequippedwithacenterport,(usuallyayellowhose),thatcan
beconnectedtoarecoverydevice,evacuationvacuumpump,orchargingdevice.
EPAregulationsrequirethathosesbeequippedwithlowlossfittingsthatwill
minimizerefrigerantlosswhenhosesaredisconnected.

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TheRefrigerationCycle:

VAPOR/COMPRESSIONREFRIGERATIONCYCLE:

Inthevapor/compressionrefrigerationcycle,liquidrefrigerantatahigh
pressureisdeliveredtoameteringdevice,(11).Themeteringdevicecausesa
reductioninpressure,andthereforeareductioninsaturationtemperature.
Therefrigerantthentravelstotheevaporator,(1,2,3,4,5).Heatisabsorbedinthe
evaporatorandcausestherefrigeranttoboilfromliquidtovapor.
Attheoutletoftheevaporator,(6),therefrigerantisnowalowtemperature,low
pressurevapor.
Therefrigerantvaporthentravelstotheinletofthecompressor,(7).The
refrigerantvaporisthencompressedandmovestothecondenser,(8,9).The
refrigerantisnowahightemperature,highpressurevapor.
Astherefrigerantexpelsheat,therefrigerantcondensestoaliquid.Atthe
condenseroutlet,(10),therefrigerantisahighpressureliquid.Thehighpressure
liquidrefrigerantisdeliveredtothemeteringdevice,(11),andthesequence
beginsagain.

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Someaccessoriesthatarenotshowninthebasicdiagramarethereceiverand
accumulator.Useofthesecomponentsdependsonsystemdesignand/oronthe
typeofmeteringdeviceused.Asystemthatusesathermostatic
expansionvalveisusuallyequippedwithareceiver,whichwouldbelocatedinthe
liquidlinedirectlyfollowingthecondenser.Asystemthatusesacapillarytubeor
fixedboremeteringdeviceisusuallyequippedwithanaccumulator,whichwould
belocatedinthesuctionlinedirectlyfollowingtheevaporator.

ServiceandMaintenance:
Inordertolimitthepotentialofaccidentalrefrigerantemissions,itisimportantto
followproceduresandmakesuretherefrigerationsystemisingoodoperating
order.ThisincludesmakingsurethatequipmentusedisapprovedbytheEPA,
checkingforleaks,repairingleaksandmakingsurethatallfittingsaretightduring
serviceandrecovery.
Leakdetectioninarefrigerationsystemisimportanttokeepthesystemrunning
wellandtopreventrefrigerantescapingintotheatmosphere.Whencheckingfor
smallleaks,usingahalidetorchisthemosteffectivemethod.Youcanalso
evacuatethesystemandpullavacuumonit.Ifthesystemwillnotholdavacuum,
youhavealeak.Ifthesystemhascompletelylostitschargeandyouwanttotest
itforaleak,chargeitwithdrynitrogenfortestingandneveruserefrigerant
gases.Nitrogenisenvironmentallyfriendlyandissafetohandle.
Ifyoususpectamajorleakormajorcomponentfailure,anoilsampleshouldbe
taken.Iftherearecontaminantsintheoil,thesystemwillneedtobeflushed.
Intheeventofaburnoutofthecompressor:
1.
2.
3.

Tripleevacuatethesystem.
Installapermanentfilterdrier.
Conductadeepvacuumbeforerecharging

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TheThreeRs:
ThethreeRsofrefrigerationare:recover,recycle,andreclaim.
Recover:istoremoverefrigerantinanyconditionfromasystemandstoreitin
anexternalcontainerwithoutnecessarilytestingorprocessingitinanyway.
Recycle:istocleanrefrigerantforimmediatereusebyseparatingtheoilfrom
therefrigerantandremovingmoistureandacidityfromtherefrigerantbyuseof
productslikefilterdriers.
Reclaim:istoprocessrefrigeranttothelevelofnewproductspecificationsas
determinedbychemicalanalysis.Reclaimedrefrigerantmustmeetthestandard
setforthinARI700beforeitcanberesold
RECOVERYDEVICES:
RefrigerantRecoveryand/orRecyclingequipmentmanufacturedafterNovember
15,1993,mustbecertifiedandlabeledbyanEPAapprovedequipmenttesting
organizationtomeetEPAstandards.

Therearetwobasictypesofrecoverydevices.
1)Systemdependentwhichcapturesrefrigerantwiththeassistanceof
componentsintheappliancefromwhichrefrigerantisbeingrecovered.
2)"Selfcontainedwhichhasitsownmeanstodrawtherefrigerantoutofthe
appliance.

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RecoveryTechniques:
Allrefrigerantrecoveryand/orrecyclingequipmentnowmanufacturedmust
becertifiedandlabeledbyanEPAapprovedequipmenttestingorganization
tomeetEPAstandards.Thiscoversallairconditioningandrefrigeration
equipmentcontainingCFCandHCFCs.
Therearetwobasictypesofrecoverydevices.Systemdependentdevices
capturerefrigerantwiththeassistanceofthecompressorand/orthepressureof
therefrigerantintheappliancefromwhichrefrigerantisbeingrecovered.Self
containeddeviceshaveindependentmeanstodrawtherefrigerantoutofthe
appliance.
TheEPArequiresaserviceapertureorprocessstubonallappliancesthatusea
ClassIorClassIIrefrigerantinordertomakeiteasiertorecoverrefrigerant.
Schradervalves(whichlooklikebicycletireairvalves)arecommononboth
refrigerantsystemsandrecoveryequipment.WhenusingSchradervalves,itis
criticalto:
Checkthevalvecoreforbendsandcracks
ReplacedamagedSchradercorestopreventleaks
CaptheSchraderportswhennotbeingusedtopreventleaks
Duetotheincreasedchargesforrecoveringrefrigerants,consumershave
complainedaboutpayingfortheprocess.Inordertohandlethese
complaints,lettheconsumerknowthat:

Recoveryisthelaw.

Recoveryisnecessarytoprotecthumanhealthandtheenvironment.

Allprofessionalservicepersonnelaredutyboundtofollowthelawand
protecttheenvironment.

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Whenrecoveringrefrigerants,onlyputonetypeofarefrigerantinatankanddo
notmixdifferentrefrigeranttypesintoonetank.Mixedrefrigerantsinthesame
tankmaybeimpossibletoreclaim.Whenservicingasystemthatalreadyhasamix
oftwoormorerefrigerants,themixedrefrigerantsmustberecoveredintoa
separatetank.
Thelongerittakestorecovertherefrigerants,thehigherchanceofemissionsof
therefrigerantstotheatmosphere.Thefollowingfactorsaffectthetimeittakesto
recoverrefrigerant.

Sizeofrefrigerationsystemandrecoveryequipment.Thebiggerthe
system,thelongertherecoveryprocess.Thebiggercapacityofthe
recoveryequipment,thefastertherecovery.

Sizeofsuctionhose.Thelongerthesuctionhoseandthesmallerin
diameteritis,thehigherthepressuredropinthesystemandthelongerit
willtaketorecoverrefrigerants.

Temperatures.Thecoldertheambienttemperature,thelongerthe
recoveryprocess.Iftherefrigerantsystemiswarmerthantherecovery
cylinder,therecoveryprocesswillgofasterduetoahigherpressureinthe
refrigerantsystemandalowerpressureintherecoverycylinder.

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RecoveryCylinders:
Recoverycylindersdifferinmanywaysfromdisposablecylinders.Disposable
cylindersareusedonlywithvirginrefrigerantandmayNEVERbeusedfor
recovery.
Recoverycylindersarespecificallydesignedtoberefilled.Recoverycylinders
have2ports,oneliquidandonevapor.
Caremustbetakennottooverfillorheatthesecylinders,therebycausingan
explosion.
TheEPArequiresthatarefillablerefrigerantcylinderMUSTNOTBEFILLED
ABOVE80%ofitscapacitybyweight,andthatthesafefillinglevelcanbe
controlledbyeithermechanicalfloatdevices,electronicshutoffdevices
(thermistors),orweight.
Refillablecylindersmustbehydrostaticallytestedanddatestampedevery5
years.
Refillablecylindersusedfortransportingrecoveredpressurizedrefrigerantmust
beDOT(DepartmentofTransportation)approved.
Approvedrefrigerantrecoverycylinderscaneasilybeidentifiedbytheircolors,
YELLOWTOPSANDGRAYBODIES.
AllrefrigerantrecoverycylindersshouldbeinspectedforRUST.Iftheyshowsigns
ofrustorappeartonotbesecuretheyshouldbereducedto0psiganddiscarded.

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Dehydration/Evacuation:
Thepurposeofdehydratingarefrigerationsystemistoremovewaterandwater
vapor.Thepresenceofmoistureinanoperatingrefrigerationsystemcancreate
highlycorrosiveandtoxicacids.Therecommendedmethodfordehydrationis
evacuation.Beforeevacuatingasystem,itisimportanttofirstrecoverall
refrigerantandattainthemandatedvacuumlevel.Thefactorsthataffectthe
speedandefficiencyofevacuationare:
Sizeofequipmentbeingevacuated.Thelargertheequipment,the
longeritwilltaketoevacuate.
Ambient temperature. The warmer the temperature, the faster it will
evacuate. You may heat the refrigeration system to decrease the
evacuationtime.
Amountofmoistureinthesystem.Themoremoistureinthesystem,
thelongeritwilltaketoevacuate.
Size(capacity)ofvacuumpumpandsuctionline.Thebiggerthe
capacityofthevacuumpump,theshorterthetime.
Thepipingconnectiontothepumpshouldbeasshortinlengthaspossible
andaswideindiameteraspossible.Vacuumlines(hoses)shouldbeequalto
orlargerthanthepumpintakeconnection.
Forthemostaccuratereadingsduringevacuation,thevacuumgauge(Micron
Gauge)shouldbelocatedasfaraspossiblefromthevacuumpump.Measuring
thevacuumofasystemshouldbedonewiththesystemisolatedandvacuum
pumpturnedoff.Ifthesystemwillnotholdavacuum,thenithasaleak.
Dehydrationisconsideredcompletewhenthevacuumgaugeshowsthathave
reachedandheldtherequiredfinishedvacuum.Itisnotpossibletooverevacuate
asystem.

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Safety:
TheEPAisnotonlyconcernedwiththepreventionofrefrigerantventing,butis
alsoconcernedwiththetechniciansoverallsafety.Whenhandlingandfilling
refrigerantcylinders,oroperatingrecoveryorrecyclingequipment,you
shouldwearsafetyglasses,protectivegloves,andfollowallequipment
manufacturerssafetyprecautions.
Whenpressurizingasystemwithnitrogen,youshouldalwayschargethrougha
pressureregulatorandinsertareliefvalveinthedownstreamlinefromthe
pressureregulator.ReliefvalvesMUSTNOTbeinstalledinseries.Ifcorrosion
buildupisfoundwithinthebodyofareliefvalve,thevalveMUSTbereplaced.
Whenleakcheckingasystem,NEVERpressurizethesystemwithoxygenor
compressedair.Whenmixedwithrefrigerants,oxygenorcompressedaircancause
anexplosion.Todeterminethesafepressureforleaktesting,checkthedataplate
forthelowsidetestpressurevalue.
WhenusingrecoverycylindersandequipmentwithSchradervalves,itiscriticalto
inspecttheSchradervalvecoreforleaks,bendsandbreakage.Replacedamaged
valvecorestopreventleakage,andalwayscapSchraderportstopreventaccidental
depressionofthevalvecore.NEVERheatarefrigerantcylinderwithanopenflame.
Donotcutorbrazerefrigerantlinesonachargedunit.
Intheeventofalargereleaseofrefrigerantinaconfinedarea,SelfContained
BreathingApparatus(SCBA)isrequired.
Ifalargeleakofrefrigerantoccursinanenclosedarea,andSCBAisnotavailable,
IMMEDIATELYVACATEANDVENTILATEthearea.Inlargequantities,refrigerantscan
causesuffocationbecausetheyareheavierthanairanddisplace
oxygen.Inhalingrefrigerantvaporsormistmaycauseheartirregularities,
unconsciousness,andoxygendeprivationleadingtodeath(asphyxia).
NEVERexposeR12orR22toopenflamesorglowinghotmetalsurfaces.Athigh
temperatures,R12andR22decomposetoformHydrochloricacid,Hydrofluoric
acid,andPhosgenegas.
Alwaysreviewthematerialsafetydatasheets,whenworkingwithanysolvents,
chemicals,orrefrigerants.

22

RefrigerantsafetyisaddressedinASHRAEStandard151994,SafetyCodefor
MechanicalRefrigeration.Thisstandardspecifiesanoxygensensorandalarmfor
A1refrigerants,andarefrigerantdetectorforallotherrefrigerants,aswellas
specifyingventilationrequirements,butmaynotpreventhazardous
accumulations.
Refrigerantsareclassifiedbyaletterandanumber;theletterindicatesitstoxicity
andthenumberindicatesitsflammability.RefrigerantsintheAcategoryhavea
lowertoxicity,whilerefrigerantsintheBcategoryhaveahighertoxicity.
Similarly,refrigerantsinthe1categoryhavenoflamepropagation(minimal
flammability),whilerefrigerantsinthe3categoryhavehighflammability.
Refrigerantmixturesareclassifiedbasedonworstcasefractionation.

ASHRAEClassification
HigherFlammability
LowerFlammability
NoFlamePropagation

Lower Toxicity
A3
A2
A1

HigherToxicity
B3
B2
B1

Shipping:
Beforeshippinganyusedrefrigerantcylinders,checkthatthecylindermeetsDOT
standards,completetheshippingpaperworkincludingthenumberofcylindersof
eachrefrigerant,andproperlylabelthecylinderwiththetypeandamountof
refrigerant.
Cylindersshouldbetransportedinanuprightposition.Eachcylindermustbe
markedwithaDOTclassificationtagindicatingitisa2.2nonflammablegas.
Somestatesmayrequirespecialshippingprocedurestobefollowedbasedontheir
classificationofusedrefrigerants.CheckwiththeDOTinyourstate.

23


TYPEI
RecoveryRequirements:
AccordingtotheEPA,asmallapplianceisonethatismanufactured,charged,and
hermeticallysealedinafactoryandcontainsfivepoundsorlessofrefrigerant.A
pressurizedterminalairconditioner(PTAC)isacommonexampleofahermetically
sealedairconditioningsystem.MVACormotorizedvehicleairconditioningsystems
donotfallunderthesmallapplianceandrequireqseparatecertification.
Techniciansthathandlerefrigerantduringservice,maintenance,orrepairofsmall
appliancesmusthaveaTypeIorUniversalcertification.ThesalesofCFCsandHCFCs
arerestrictedtocertifiedtechnicians.IftheEPAchangesregulationsafterthe
technicianiscertified,itistheresponsibilityofthetechniciantocomplywithany
futurechangesinthelaw.
RefrigerantRecoveryRequirementsforSmallAppliances

BeforeNov.15th 1993
AfterNov.15th1993
OperatingCompressor
NonOperatingCompressor
Fittings
Approvals

80%or4ofVacuum
80%or4ofVacuum
LowlossRequired
None

90%or4ofVacuum
80%or4ofVacuum
LowlossRequired
EPALabApproved

RecoveryequipmentmanufacturedbeforeNovember15,1993mustbecapableof
recovering80%oftherefrigerantwhetherornotthecompressorisoperatingor
achievea4inchvacuumunderconditionsofARI740
RecoveryequipmentmanufacturedafterNovember15,1993mustbecapableof
recovering80%oftherefrigerantwithoutthecompressoroperatingorachievea4
inchvacuumunderconditionsofARI740;becapableofrecovering90%ofthe
refrigerantwiththecompressoroperatingorachievea4inchvacuumunder
conditionsofARI740;andmustbeapprovedbyanEPAapprovedthirdparty
laboratory.
Recoveryequipmentfittingsmustbeequippedwithlowlossfittingswhichcanbe
manuallyorautomaticallyclosedwhendisconnectinghosesinordertoprevent
refrigerantloss
24

Allappliancesmusthaveaserviceaperturevalveforrecoveringandcharging
refrigerants.Forsmallappliances,theserviceaperturevalveistypicallyastraight
pieceoftubingthatisenteredwithapiercingaccessvalve.
Whenservicingasmallappliance,itisnotmandatorytoperformaleakrepair;
however,itshouldbedonewheneverpossible.

RecoveryTechniques:
Beforebeginningtherefrigerantrecoveryprocess,youshouldalwaysknowthe
typeoftherefrigerantinthesystemfirst.Onewaytoidentifytherefrigerantisby
usingthetemperature/pressurechart(seebackpage).Nevermixrefrigerantsin
arecoverycylinder.Ifareclamationfacilityreceivesatankofmixedrefrigerants,
theymayeitherrefusetoprocesstherefrigerantandreturnitattheowners
expenseortheymaydestroytherefrigerant,butchargeasubstantialfee.
Forsmallappliances,thetechnicianmayuseeitheraselfcontainedrecovery
deviceoruseasystemdependentrecoverysystem.
Selfcontained(active)recoveryequipmentusesitsownpowertorecoverthe
refrigerantfromsystemsandiscapableofreachingtherequiredrecoveryrateswith
orwithoutthecompressoroperating.
Therecoveredrefrigerantinaselfcontainedsystemisstoredinapressurized
recoverytank
Beforeoperatingaselfcontainedrecoverydevice,makesurethetankinletvalveis
openandthatthetankdoesnotcontainexcessiveairornoncondensables.Not
openingthetankinletvalveorhavingexcessairwillcausehigherdischarge
pressures

Checkingforairornoncondensablescanbedonebycheckingthepressure
insidetherecoverytank.Referencestothepressure/temperaturechartareonly
validifthetemperatureisknown;therefore,whencheckingfornon
25

condensablesinsidearecoverycylinder,allowthetemperatureofthecylinderto
stabilizetoroomtemperaturebeforetakingapressurereading.
Refertotherecoveryequipmentinstructionsinordertopurgeairandnon
condensables.Allrefrigerantrecoveryequipmentshouldbecheckedforoil
levelandrefrigerantleaksonadailybasis.
Asystemdependent(passive)recoveryprocesscapturesrefrigerantintoa
nonpressurizedcontainer.Thesystemdependentequipmentusesthesystems
compressor,anexternalheatsource,oravacuumpumptorecoverthe
refrigerant.Avacuumpumpcanonlybeusedasarecoverydevicein
combinationwithanonpressurizedcontainerandcannotbeusedwithself
containedrecoveryequipment(pressurizedcontainer).
Whenusingasystemdependentrecoveryprocesswithanoperating
compressor,runthecompressorandrecoverfromthehighsideofthesystem.
Normally,oneaccessfittingonthehighsidewillbeenoughtoreachtherequired
recoveryrateasthecompressorshouldbeabletopushtherefrigeranttothe
highside.
Whenusingasystemdependentrecoveryprocesswithanonoperating
compressor,itmaybenecessarytoaccessboththelowandhighsideofthe
systemtoachievetherequiredrecoverylevelanditwillspeedtherecovery.In
ordertoreleasethetrappedrefrigerantfromthecompressoroil,itwillbe
necessarytoheatandtapthecompressorwithamalletseveraltimesand/or
useavacuumpump.
Iftheappliancehasadefrostheaterascommonlyfoundindomesticrefrigerators,
operatingthedefrostheaterwillhelptovaporizeanytrappedliquidrefrigerantand
willspeedtherecoveryprocess

Whenfillingagraduatedchargingcylinder,refrigerantthatisventedoffthetopof
thecylindermustberecoveredifitisaregulatedrefrigerant.

26

Wheninstallinganaccessfittingontoasealedsystem,thefittingshouldbeleak

testedbeforeproceedingwithrecovery.Itisgenerallyrecommendedthat
solderlesspiercingtypevalvesonlybeusedoncopperoraluminumtubing.These
fittingstendtoleakovertimeandshouldnotbeleftonappliancesasapermanent
servicefixture.Afterinstallinganaccessfitting,ifthesystempressureis0psig,do
notstarttherecoveryprocess
Smallappliancesusedincampersorotherrecreationalvehiclesmayuse

refrigerantsnotcoveredinSection608,suchasammonia,hydrogenorwaterand
therefore,shouldnotberecoveredusingcurrentEPAapprovedrecoverydevices.
Similarly,systemsbuiltbefore1950mayhavemethylformate,methylchloride,or
sulfurdioxideasrefrigerantsandrequirespecialrecoveryequipmentandtraining.

27

TYPEII
Techniciansmaintaining,servicing,repairingordisposingofhighpressureorvery
highpressureappliancessuchasrooftopunits,residentialsplitsystems,etc,
exceptsmallappliancesandmotorvehicleairconditioningsystems(MVAC),must
becertifiedasaTypeIITechnicianoraUniversalTechnician.

LEAKDETECTION:

Aftertheinstallationofanytypeofsystem,theunitshouldfirstbepressurized
withnitrogen(aninertgas)andleakchecked.Inordertodeterminethegeneral
areaofaleakuseanelectronicorultrasonicleakdetector.Oncethegeneral
areaoftheleakislocatedtheuseofsoapbubbleswillpinpointtheleak.

Arefrigerationunitusinganopencompressorthathasnotbeenusedinseveral
monthsislikelytoleakfromtherotatingshaftseal.Duringavisualinspectionofany
typeofsystem,tracesofoilareanindicatorofarefrigerantleak.Excessive
superheat,causedbyalowrefrigerantcharge,isalsoanindicationofaleakina
highpressuresystem.

LEAKREPAIRREQUIREMENTS:

EPAregulationsrequirethatallcomfortcoolingappliancescontainingmorethan
50lbs.ofrefrigerantMUSTberepairedwhentheannualleakrateexceeds15%.
EPAregulationsrequirethatallCommercialandIndustrialProcessRefrigeration
containingmorethan50lbs.ofrefrigerantMUSTberepairedwhentheannualleak
rateexceeds35%.

28


RECOVERYTECHNIQUES:

Properrecoverytechniquesbeginwiththeuseofappropriaterecoveryequipment
thathasbeencertifiedbyanEPAapprovedlaboratory(ULorETL)tomeetorexceed
ARIstandards.
Recoveredrefrigerantsmaycontainacids,moisture,andoil.Itistherefore
necessarytofrequentlycheckandchangeboththeoilandfilteronarecycling
machine.Bothrecyclingandrecoveryequipmentusinghermeticcompressors
havethepotentialtooverheatwhendrawingadeepvacuumbecausetheunitrelies
ontheflowofrefrigerantthroughthecompressorforcooling.Beforeusinga
recoveryunityoushouldalwayschecktheservicevalvepositions,theoil
leveloftherecoveryunit,andevacuateandrecoveranyremainingrefrigerantfrom
theunitsreceiver.

Techniciansworkingwithmultiplerefrigerants,beforerecoveringand/orrecycling
adifferentrefrigerant,mustpurgetherecover/recycleequipmentbyrecoveringas
muchofthefirstrefrigerantaspossible,changethefilter,andevacuate.
TheonlyexceptiontothisruleisfortechniciansworkingwithR134awhomust
provideaspecialsetofhoses,gauges,vacuumpump,recoveryorrecovery/recycling
machine,andoilcontainerstobeusedwithR134aonly.
Althoughrecoveringrefrigerantinthevaporphasewillminimizethelossofoil,
recoveringasmuchaspossibleintheliquidphasecanreducerecoverytime.The
technicianmaychoosetospeeduptherecoveryprocessbypackingtherecovery
cylinderiniceand/orapplyingheattotheappliance.Afterrecoveringliquid
refrigerant,anyremainingvaporiscondensedbytherecoverysystem.

Whenperformingrefrigerantsystemserviceonaunitthathasareceiver/storage
tank,refrigerantshouldbeplacedin
thereceiver.Refrigerantshouldberemovedfromthecondenseroutletifthe
condenserisbelowthereceiver.Inabuildingthathasanaircooledcondenseron
theroofandanevaporatoronthefirstfloor,recoveryshouldbeginfrom
theliquidlineenteringtheevaporator.

29

Afterrecovery,refrigerantmaybereturnedtotheappliancefromwhichitwas
removedortoanotherapplianceownedbythesamepersonwithoutbeingrecycled
orreclaimed,unlesstheapplianceisanMVAC(MotorVehicleAir
Conditioner)likeappliance.
Thetechnicianshouldalwaysevacuateanemptyrecoverycylinderbefore
transferringrefrigeranttothecylinder.Quickcouplers,selfsealinghoses,orhand
valvesshouldbeused(aslowlossfittings)tominimizerefrigerantreleasewhen
hosesareconnectedanddisconnected.

RECOVERYREQUIREMENTS:

RefrigerantRecoveryand/orRecyclingequipmentmanufacturedafterNovember
15,1993,mustbecertifiedandlabeledbyanEPAapprovedtestingorganization.
Thefollowingisalistoftherequiredrecoverylevels(ininchesofmercury)forType
IIappliances:

RequiredLevelofEvacuation(ExceptforSmallAppliances&MVAC)
Manufactured
before11/15/93
TypeofAppliance

Manufacturedafter
11/15/93

HCHF22appliance<200lbs.refrigerant
HCFC22appliance>200lbs.refrigerant
Otherhighpressureappliance*<200lbs.refrigerant
Otherhighpressureappliances*>200lbs.refrigerant
Veryhighpressureappliance

0
4
4
4
0

InchesHg
0
10
10
15
0

Lowpressureapplianceorisolatedcomponent

25

25

30

Appliancescanbeevacuatedtoatmosphericpressure(Opsig)ifleaksmake
evacuationtotheprescribedlevelunattainable.Thetechnicianmustisolatea
parallelcompressorsysteminordertorecoverrefrigerant.Failuretoisolatea
parallelcompressorsystemwillcauseanopenequalizationconnectionthatwill
preventrefrigerantrecovery.Systemdependentrecoveryequipmentcannotbe
usedonappliancescontainingmorethan15poundsofrefrigerant.
UnderEPAregulations,amajorrepairmeansanymaintenance,serviceorrepair
involvingtheremovalofanyorallofthefollowingcomponents:thecompressor,
thecondenser,theevaporatororanauxiliaryheatexchanger
coil.

REFRIGERATIONNOTES:

(Reviewvapor/compressionsysteminCoreSection)
Formanyyears,themostcommonrefrigerantusedinresidentialsplitair
conditioningsystemswasR22,butwiththecurrentchangesintheindustry,read
thenameplatetodeterminethetypeofrefrigerantused.
Filterdrierswillremovemoisturefromtherefrigerantinasystem,butthereisa
limittotheircapacity.Somesystemsareequippedwithamoistureindicatingsight
glass.Whenthesightglasschangescolor,thesystemcontains
excessivemoistureandwillneedtobeevacuated.Thefilterdriershouldbe
replacedanytimeasystemisopenedforservicing.Ifastrongodorisdetected
duringtherecoveryprocess,acompressorburnoutmayhaveoccurred.When
recoveringrefrigerantfromasystemthatexperiencedacompressorburnout,
watchforsignsofcontaminationintheoil.

Acrankcaseheaterisoftenusedtopreventrefrigerantfrommigratingtotheoil
duringperiodsoflowambienttemperature.
Refrigerantintheoilwillcauseoilfoaminginthecompressoratstartup.
Whenevacuatingavaporcompressionsystem,thevacuumpumpshouldbe
capableofpulling500microns(29.90hg.)ofvacuum.Themoreaccurateand
preferredmethodofmeasuringadeepvacuumisinmicrons.
Warning:Ahermeticcompressor'smotorwindingcouldbedamagedifenergized
whenunderadeepvacuum.

31

Theuseofalargevacuumpumpcouldcausetrappedwatertofreeze.During
evacuationofsystemswithlargeamountsofwater,itmaybenecessarytoincrease
pressurebyintroducingnitrogentocounteractfreezing.

Thesourceofmostnoncondensablesisair.Noncondensableswillcausehigher
dischargepressures.
Wherethereisariskoffreezing,chargingofanR12refrigerationsystemshould
beginwithvaporfromavacuumleveltoapressureofapproximately33psig.
followedbyaliquidchargethroughtheliquidlineservicevalve.Thisisalsothe
propermethodtochargeasystemthatcontainsalargequantityofrefrigerant.

SAFETY:(AdditionalSafetyandshippinginformationiscoveredinthecoresection
ofthismanual.)
ASHRAEstandard15requiresarefrigerantsensorthatwillsoundanalarmand
automaticallystartaventilationsysteminoccupiedequipmentroomswhere
refrigerantfromaleakwillconcentrate.
RefrigerantsCFC12,CFC11,andHFC134aarecategorizedasA1.
Allrefrigerationsystemsmustbeprotectedbyapressurereliefvalve(s)(mustnot
beinstalledinseries).

NEVERenergizeareciprocatingcompressorifthedischargeservicevalveis
closed.

32


TYPEIII
Techniciansmaintaining,servicing,repairingordisposingoflowpressure
appliancesmustbecertifiedasaTypeIIITechnicianoraUniversalTechnician.

AsofNovember14,1994,thesaleofCFCandHCFCrefrigerantsisrestrictedto
certifiedtechnicians.
NOTE:IfEPAregulationschangeafterthetechnicianiscertified,itwillbethe
technician'sresponsibilitytocomplywithanyfuturechanges.

LEAKDETECTION:

Becausealowpressuresystemoperatesbelowatmosphericpressure(ina
vacuum),leaksinthegasketsorfittingswillcauseairandmoisturetoenterthe
system.
Themostefficientmethodofleakcheckingachargedlowpressurerefrigeration
unitistopressurizethesystembytheuseofcontrolledhotwaterorheater
blankets.Whencontrolledhotwaterorheaterblanketsarenotfeasible,use
nitrogentoincreasesystempressure.
Whenpressurizingasystem,donotexceed10psig.Exceeding10psigcancause
therupturedisctofail.
Whenleaktestingawaterbox,becertainthewaterhasbeenremovedbefore
placingtheleakdetectorprobethroughthedrainvalve.Toleaktestatube,usea
hydrostatictubetestkit.Systemswithopendrivecompressorsarepronetoleaksat
theshaftseal.
Controlledhotwatercanbeusedtopressurizeasystemforthepurposeof
openingthesystemforanonmajorrepair.
UnderEPAregulations,amajorrepairmeansanymaintenance,serviceorrepair
involvingtheremovalofanyorallofthefollowingcomponents:thecompressor,
thecondenser,theevaporatororanyauxiliaryheatexchangercoil.

33

LEAKREPAIRREQUIREMENTS:

EPAregulationsrequirethatallcomfortcoolingappliancescontainingmorethan
50lbs.ofrefrigerantberepairedwhentheannualleakrateexceeds15%.

EPAregulationsrequirethatallcommercialandindustrialprocessrefrigeration
containingmorethan50lbs.ofrefrigerantberepairedwhentheannualleakrate
exceeds35%.
(SeeTypeIIfordefinitionofcommercialandindustrialappliances.)

RECOVERYTECHNIQUES:

Arecoveryunit'shighpressurecutoutissetfor10psigwhenevacuatingthe
refrigerantfromalowpressurechillerandarupturedisconalowpressure
recoveryvesselrelievesat15psig.
RefrigerantrecoveryfromasystemusingR11orR123startswithliquidremoval
andisfollowedbyvaporrecovery.
Asubstantialamountofvaporwillremainintheapplianceafterallliquidis
removed.Forinstance,anaverage350tonR11chillerat0psigstillcontains100
lbs.ofvaporafteralltheliquidhasbeenremoved.

Watermustbecirculatedthroughthetubeswhenevacuatingrefrigerantinorder
topreventfreezingthewater.Mostlowpressurerecoverymachinesutilizeawater
cooledcondenserthatisconnectedtothemunicipalwatersupply.
Whenrecoveringrefrigerant,thesystemwaterpumps,therecoverycompressor,
andtherecoverycondenserwatershouldallbeon.
Ifachillerissuspectedoftubeleaks,thewatersidesoftheevaporatorand
condensershouldbedrainedpriortorecoveringtherefrigerant.
TheASHRAEGuideline31996statesthatifthepressureinasystemrisesfrom1
mmHgtoalevelabove2.5mmHgduringvacuumtesting,thesystemshouldbe
leakchecked.
Atemperatureof130Fshouldbeattainedwhenremovingoilfromalowpressure
system.Lessrefrigerantiscontainedintheoilatthishighertemperature.

RECHARGINGTECHNIQUES:

34

Refrigerantisaddedthroughthelowestaccesspointonthesystem,the
evaporatorchargingvalve.However,introducingliquidrefrigerantintoadeep
vacuumwillcausetherefrigeranttoboilandmaylowertemperaturesenoughto
freezewaterinthetubes.Therefore,initialchargingisinthevaporphase.Before
chargingwithliquid,anR11refrigerationsystemrequiresavaporpressureof16.9
hg.vacuum,orasaturationtemperatureof36F.

RECOVERYREQUIREMENTS:

RefrigerantRecoveryand/orRecyclingequipmentmanufacturedafterNovember
15,1993,mustbecertifiedandlabeledbyanEPAapprovedequipmenttesting
organizationtomeetEPAstandards.Allequipmentmusthavelowloss
fittingstominimizerefrigerantlosswhenhosesaredisconnected.
ThefollowingisalistoftherequiredlevelsofevacuationforLowPressure
appliances:

UsingrecoveryorrecyclingequipmentmanufacturedorimportedbeforeNov.15,
1993
25inchesHg

UsingrecoveryorrecyclingequipmentmanufacturedorimportedonorafterNov.
15,1993
25mmHgabsolute

Oncetherequiredvacuumhasbeenachieved,thetechnicianshouldwaitforafew
minutesandmonitorthesystempressure.
Ifthepressurerises,indicatingthatthereisrefrigerantremaininginthesystem,
recoverymustberepeated.Whenleaksinanappliancemakeevacuationtothe
prescribedlevelunattainable,theapplianceshouldbeevacuatedtothe
lowestattainablelevelpriortoamajorrepair.

35


REFRIGERATIONNOTES:(Reviewvapor/compressionsysteminCoreSection)

Theuseofalargevacuumpumpcouldcausetrappedwatertofreeze.During
evacuationofsystemswithlargeamountsofwater,itmaybenecessarytoincrease
pressurebyintroducingnitrogentocounteractfreezing.

Ifastrongodorisdetectedduringtherecoveryprocess,acompressorburnout
mayhaveoccurred.
Whenrecoveringrefrigerantfromasystemthatexperiencedacompressorburn
out,watchforsignsofcontaminationintheoil.

BecausechillersusingrefrigerantssuchasCFC11andHCFC123operatebelow
atmosphericpressure,theyrequireapurgeunit.Theprimarypurposeofapurge
unitistoremovenoncondensablesfromthesystem.
Acentrifugalchiller'spurgecondensingunittakesitssuctionfromthetopofthe
condenser,removesairandothernoncondensablesfromthesystem,andreturns
refrigeranttotheevaporator.

Althoughahighefficiencypurgeunitdischargesalowpercentageofrefrigerant
withtheairtheyremove,frequentpurgingandsubsequentrefrigerantlosscan
indicatethataleakisallowingairintothesystem.Highdischargepressureisalsoan
indicationofairinthesystem.

Excessivemoisturecollectioninthepurgeunitcanindicatetubeleakage.
Toprotectthesystemfromoverpressurization,lowpressurechillerstypicallyusea
rupturediscmountedontheevaporatorhousing.Thetypicaldesignburstpressure
forarupturediscis15psig.

36

SAFETY:(AdditionalSafetyandshippinginformationiscoveredinthecoresection
ofthismanual.)

ASHRAEstandard15requiresarefrigerantmonitorthatwillsoundanalarmand
automaticallystartaventilationsysteminequipmentroomsbeforetherefrigerant
concentrationreachestheTLVTWA,(thresholdlimitvaluetime
weightedaverage).
ArefrigerantmonitorisrequiredforallASHRAErefrigerantsafetygroups.
CFC12,CFC11,andHFC134aarecodegroupedasA1.R123iscodegroupedasB
1.
Allrefrigerationsystemsmustbeprotectedbyapressurereliefvalve(s)(mustnot
beinstalledinseries).
AdditionalSafetyandshippinginformationiscoveredinthecoresectionofthis
manual.

37

Glossary
ASHRAE(AmericanSocietyofHeating,Refrigerating,andAirConditioningEngineers):An
internationalorganizationthatadvancesheating,ventilation,airconditioningand
refrigeration;amongotherthings,theydevelopedastandardforclassifyingthesafetyof
refrigerants.
Blendedrefrigerant:Alsocalledanearazeotropicmixture(sometimesreferredtoasNARM),a
blendedrefrigerantcontainsrefrigerantswithdifferentboilingpoints,butthatactasone
substancewhentheyareineitheraliquidoravaporstate.Nearazeotropicmixturesexhibit
temperatureglidewhentheychangefromvaportoliquid,orviceversa.However,the
temperatureglideislessthan10F.Nearazeotropicmixturescanexhibitfractionation(when
themixturescompositionchangesasaresultofvaporcharging)andmayaffecttheleakratio.
Nearazeotropicmixturesshouldbechargedasaliquid.
Azeotrope:Ablendoftwoormorecomponentswhoseequilibriumvaporphaseandliquid
phasecompositionsarethesameatagivenpressure.Theserefrigerantsaregivena500
seriesASHRAEdesignationandbehavelikeasinglerefrigerant.Theycanbechargedasa
liquidorvapor.
Disposal:Theprocessleadingtoandincludinganyofthefollowing:
Thedischarging,depositing,dumping,orplacingofanydiscardedapplianceintooron

anylandorwater.
Thedisassemblyofanyappliancefordischarging,depositing,dumping,orplacingofits

discardedcomponentpartsintooronanylandorwater.
Thedisassemblyofanyapplianceforreuseofitscomponentparts.

(Refrigerantadded/Totalcharge)x(365days/year/D)x100%whereD=theshorterof:#days
sincerefrigerantlastaddedor365days
FilterDrier:Anaccessorythatfilterstherefrigerantandprotectsitfromdirtandmoisture,as
wellasacids.
38

Fractionation:Theseparationofaliquidmixtureintoseparatepartsbythepreferential
evaporationofthemorevolatilecomponent
Halocarbon:Ahalogenatedhydrocarboncontainingoneormoreofthethreehalogens:
fluorine,chlorine,andbromine.Hydrogenmayormaynotbepresent.
HighPressureAppliance:(priortoMarch12,2004,referredtobytheEPAashigher
pressureappliance)Anappliancethatusesarefrigerantwithaliquidphasesaturation
pressurebetween170psiaand355psiaat104F.Thisdefinitionincludesbutisnotlimited
toappliancesusingR410A,R22,R401B,R402A/B,R404A,R407A/B/C,R408,R409,R
411A/B,R502andR507A.
Hydrocarbon:Acompoundcontainingonlytheelementshydrogenandcarbon.
LeakRate:Therateatwhichanapplianceislosingrefrigerant,measuredbetween
refrigerantchargesorover12months,whicheverisshorter.Theleakrateisexpressedin
termsofthepercentageoftheappliancesfullchargethatwouldbelostovera12month
periodifthecurrentrateoflossweretocontinue.Therateiscalculatedusingthefollowing
formula:
LowLossFitting:Anydevicethatisintendedtoestablishaconnectionbetweenhoses,
appliances,orrecovery/recyclingmachines,andthatisdesignedtocloseautomaticallyor
tobeclosedmanuallywhendisconnectedtominimizethereleaseofrefrigerantfrom
hoses,appliances,andrecoveryorrecyclingmachines.
LowPressureAppliance:(definitionunchangedbytheEPAsMarch12,2004rulechange):
Anappliancethatusesarefrigerantwithaliquidphasesaturationpressurebelow45psia
at104F.Evacuationrequirementsforthelowpressurecategoryapplytothese
appliances.ThisdefinitionincludesbutisnotlimitedtoappliancesusingR11,R113,and
R123.
MSDS(MaterialSafetyDataSheet):Amaterialsafetydatasheet(MSDS)isaformwithdata
regardingthepropertiesofaparticularsubstance.AnMSDSprovidesworkerswithphysical
dataandinformationabouthandlingthatsubstanceinasafemanner.

39

MajorRepair:Maintenance,service,orrepairthatinvolvesremovaloftheserviceor
repairappliancecompressor,condenser,evaporator,orauxiliaryheatexchangercoil.
MediumPressureAppliance:(priortoMarch12,2004,referredtobytheEPAashighpressure
appliance)Anappliancethatusesarefrigerantwithaliquidphasesaturationpressurebetween
45psiaand170psiaat104F.R114appliancesareatthelowpressureendsincethe
saturationpressureofR114at104Fisslightlyabove45psia.Thisdefinitionincludesbutisnot
limitedtoappliancesusingR12.R114,R124,R134A,R401C,R406AandR500
Mixture:Ablendoftwoormorecomponentsthatdonothaveafixedproportiontoone
anotherandthatnomatterhowwellblended,stillretainaseparateexistence(oiland
water,forexample).
MotorVehicleAirConditioner(MVAC):Mechanicalvaporcompressionrefrigeration
equipmentusedtocoolthedriverorpassengercompartmentsofanymotorvehicle.This
definitionisNOTintendedtoencompassthehermeticallysealedrefrigerationsystemused
onmotorvehiclesforrefrigeratedcargoortheairconditioningsystemsonpassengerbuses.
Section609certificationisrequiredforworkingonMVACsystems,whileeitherSection608
TypeIIorSection609certificationisrequiredforMVAClikeA/Csystems(e.g.farm
equipmentandothernonroadsvehicles).Section608certificationisrequiredforworking
onhermeticallysealedrefrigerationsystemsusedonmotorvehiclesforrefrigeratedcargo
ortheairconditioningsystemsonpassengerbuses.
NonAzeotropicRefrigerant:Asynonymforzeotropic,thelatterbeingthepreferred,
thoughlesscommonlyusedterm.Zeotropic:blendwithmultiplecomponentsofdifferent
volatilitiesthat,whenusedinrefrigerationcycles,changevolumetriccompositionand
saturationtemperatures(exhibittemperatureglide)astheyevaporate(boil)orcondense
atconstantpressure.Theserefrigerantsaregivena400seriesASHRAEdesignation.
NormalCharge:Thequantityofrefrigerantwithintheapplianceorappliancecomponent
whentheapplianceisoperatingwithafullchargeofrefrigerant.
Person:Anyindividualorlegalentity,includinganindividualcorporation,partnership,
association,state,municipality,politicalsubdivisionofastate,Indiantribe,andanyagency,
department,orinstrumentalityoftheUnitedStatesandanyofficer,agent,oremployee
thereof.
40

ProcessStub:Alengthoftubingthatprovidesaccesstotherefrigerantinsideasmall
applianceorroomairconditionerthatcanberesealedattheconclusionofrepairorservice.
psia:Theabsolutepressureinpoundspersquareinch,where0psiacorrespondsto29.9inches
ofmercuryvacuumand14.7psiacorrespondsto0psig(poundspersquareinchgauge).
psig:Thegaugepressureinpoundspersquareinch,where0psigcorrespondstoatmospheric
pressure(14.7psia).Apositivepsigvalueindicatesthepressureinpoundspersquareinch
abovetheambientpressure.
Reclaim:ToreprocessrefrigeranttoatleastthepurityspecifiedintheARIStandard700,
SpecificationsforFluorocarbonRefrigerants,andtoverifythispurityusingtheanalytical
testproceduresdescribedintheStandard.
RecoveryEfficiency:Thepercentageofrefrigerantinanappliancethatisrecoveredbyaunit
ofrecyclingorrecoveryequipment.
Recover:Toremoverefrigerantinanyconditionfromanapplianceandtostoreitinan
externalcontainerwithoutnecessarilytestingorprocessingitinanyway.
Recycle:Toextractrefrigerantfromanapplianceandtocleanrefrigerantforreusewithout
meetingalloftherequirementsforreclamation.Ingeneral,recycledrefrigerantis
refrigerantthatiscleanedusingoilseparationandsingleormultiplepassesthroughdevices
suchasreplaceablecorefilterdryers,whichreducemoisture,acidity,andparticulate
matter.
Refrigerant:Thesubstanceusedforheattransferinarefrigerationsystem.Arefrigerant
absorbsheatduringevaporationatlowtemperatureandpressure,andreleasesheatduring
condensationatahighertemperatureandpressure.

41

Refrigerant:AnyclassIorclassIIsubstanceusedforheattransferpurposes,orany
substanceusedasasubstituteforsuchaclassIorclassIIsubstancebyanyuserinagiven
enduse,exceptforthefollowingsubstitutesinthefollowingenduses:

Ammoniaincommercialorindustrialprocessrefrigerationorinabsorptionunits.

Hydrocarbonsinindustrialprocessrefrigeration(processingofhydrocarbons).

Chlorineinindustrialprocessrefrigeration(processingofchlorineand
chlorinecompounds).

Carbondioxideinanyapplication.

Nitrogeninanyapplication

Waterinanyapplication

SelfContainedRecovery:Recoveryorrecyclingequipmentthatiscapableofremoving
refrigerantfromanappliancewithouttheassistanceofcomponentscontainedintheappliance
SmallAppliance:Anyofthefollowingproductsthatarefullymanufactured,charged,and
hermeticallysealedinafactorywithfivepoundsorlessofrefrigerant:refrigeratorsand
freezersdesignedforhomeuse,roomairconditioners(includingwindowairconditioners
andpackagedterminalairconditioners),packagedterminalheatpumps,dehumidifiers,
underthecountericemakers,vendingmachines,anddrinkingwatercoolers.
Substitute:Anychemicalorproductsubstitute,whetherexistingornew,thatisusedby
anypersonasareplacementforaclassIorIIcompoundinagivenenduse.
SystemDependentRecoveryEquipment:Recoveryequipmentthatreliesuponthe
compressorintheapplianceand/orthepressureoftherefrigerantintheappliance.
SystemDependent:Recoveryequipmentthatrequirestheassistanceofrecovery
componentscontainedinanappliancetoremovetherefrigerantfromtheappliance.

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Technician:Anypersonwhoperformsmaintenance,service,orrepairthatcouldreasonably
beexpectedtoreleaseClassI(CFC)orClassII(HCFC)substancesintotheatmosphere,
includingbutnotlimitedtoinstallers,contractoremployees,inhouseservicepersonnel,and
insomecases,owners.Technicianalsomeansanypersondisposingofappliancesexceptfor
smallappliances.
VeryHighPressureAppliance:(definitionunchangedbytheEPAsMarch12,2004rulechange)
Anappliancethatusesrefrigerantswithacriticaltemperaturebelow104Forwithaliquid
phasesaturationpressureabove355psiaat104F.Thiscategoryincludesbutisnotlimitedto
appliancesusingR13,R23,R503.

43


RefrigerantTemperature/PressureChart
Bringthischarttothetestwithyou.
PressurePSI

Temperature
(F)

Rednumbers=inchesHg

Blacknumbers=psig

100
90
80
70

R11
29.8
29.7
29.6
29.4

R12
27.0
25.7
24.1
21.8

R22
25.0
23.0
20.2
16.6

R123
29.9
29.8
29.7
29.6

R134A
27.8
26.9
25.6
23.8

R500
26.4
24.9
22.9
20.3

R502
25.3
20.6
17.2
12.8

60
50
40
30
20

29.2
28.9
28.4
27.8
27.0

12.0
6.2
0.5
4.9

26.0
24.7
23.1
21.1
18.6

17.0
12.8
7.6
1.2
3.2
7.8
13.3
19.7

15.3
22.6
31.1
41.0

40
50
60
70
80

15.6
12.0
7.8
2.8
1.5

21.0
28.4
37.0
46.7
57.7

43.0
54.9
68.5
84.0
101.3

21.5
18.5
14.7
9.8
3.8
1.8
6.3
11.6
18.0
25.6

7.2
0.2
4.1
9.2

10.2
16.4
24.0
32.8

29.5
29.2
28.9
28.5
27.8

10
0
10
20
30

19.0
15.4
11.0
5.4
0.6
4.4
9.2
14.6

27.2
36.0
46.0
57.5
70.6

52.4
65.6
80.5
97.4
116.4

90
100
110
120
130

4.9
8.8
13.1
18.3
24.0

70.2
84.2
99.8
117.2
136.4

137.6
161.2
187.4
216.2
247.9

140
150

27.0
26.0
24.7
23.0
20.8

34.5
44.9
56.9
70.7
86.4

121.4
143.6
168.4
195.9
226.4

18.2
15.0
11.2
6.6
1.1
2.6
6.3
10.5

104.2
124.3
146.3

85.3
101.9
120.4
141.1
164.0

157.7
181.0

259.9
296.8

15.4
21.0

171.9
199.4

189.2
217.0

282.7
320.8

30.4

206.6

337.2

27.3

230.5

247.4

362.6

37.7

234.4

381.5

34.5

264.4

280.7

408.4

REDindicatesavacuum.

44